R.Mikesh, A.Shorzoe
Japanese Aircraft, 1910-1941

R.Mikesh, A.Shorzoe - Japanese Aircraft, 1910-1941 /Putnam/

Navy Avro 504 Trainer

   In 1921 The Master of Sempill's British Aviation Mission took thirty Avro 504 primary trainers to Japan for use by the Japanese Navy. These consisted of twenty Avro 504K landplane trainers (now called 504L), and ten seaplane trainers (504S), both types being outstanding in their class. The Japanese Navy decided to adopt these as its standard primary trainer and put them into production.
   To prepare for production, the Navy sent several of its officers to Avro to study the process. Among them were Capt (Ordnance) Ryuzo Tanaka, Capt (Ordnance) Tomasu Koyama, Lieut Kishichi Umakoshi, Lieut Misao Wada, and Engineer Katsusuke Hashimoto. The Navy purchased the manufacturing rights from A V Roe, and supplied both Nakajima and Aichi with actual sample aircraft and manufacturing drawings for their production when placing its orders. The Avro trainer for the Navy was in Nakajima production from 1922 to 1924 during which time the company built 250 in various versions.
   Aichi built thirty 504s fitted as twin-float seaplane trainers. The land-version was generally referred to simply as the Avro L and the seaplane model was the Avro S; however, the official Navy designation was Avro Land-based Trainer and Avro Seaplane Trainer.
   After the introduction of this aircraft by the Sempill Aviation Mission, it had a long life as the Japanese Navy's typical primary trainer. The later model, the 504N, developed into the Navy Type 3 Primary Trainer. Around 1927-28, a number of these Avro-designed trainers were released for civil use and were highly regarded. They had good stability and control, and were good aerobatic aircraft. A few were still flying as late as 1937 and were the last of the rotary-powered aircraft in regular flying operations.

   Single-engine land- and seaplane trainer biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Student and instructor in open cockpits.
   120hp-130hp Le Rhone nine-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine, driving a two- or four-bladed wooden propeller.
   One dorsal flexible 7. 7mm machinegun, (optional).
   Span 10.98m (36ft); length 8.57m (28ft 1 1/2in); height 3.03m (9ft 11 1/4in); wing area 30.7sq m (330.462sq ft).
   Empty weight 557kg (1,228Ib); loaded weight 830kg (1,830Ib); wing loading 27kg sq m(5.5Ib sq ft); power loading 6.9kg hp (15.2Ib/hp).
   Maximum speed 78kt (90mph); cruising speed 64kt (73.6mph); landing speed 30kt (34.5mph); climb to 3,000m (9,843ft) in 23min; service ceiling 4,340m (14,238ft); endurance 3hr; range 185nm (213sm).
   250 built by Nakajima 1922 to 1924 (wheel and float versions), thirty by Aichi from 1922 (float version).
Japanese Navy Avro 504L Land-based Trainer.
Nakajima Navy Avro 504 Trainer.
Navy Avro 504S Seaplane Trainer.
Hirosho (Hiro Naval Arsenal) (Hiro Kaigun Kosho)

   The Hiro Arsenal was established on 1 August, 1920, under the name of the Aircraft Department, Hiro Branch Arsenal, Kure Naval Arsenal, as the Navy's first real aircraft repair and manufacturing factory. At that time, two Naval aircraft factories were operating at Yokosuka and Sasebo, but space was very limited. To increase production capability for the Navy, the Kure NavaI Arsenal expanded by establishing the Hiro Branch Arsenal three miles southeast of Kure on flat ground between the mouths of two rivers, the Hiro Ohkawa on the west and the Misakaiji-gawa on the cast. This new factory, known by its acronym Hirosho, was completed in October 1921, and licence-production of the F.5 Flying-boats was begun. On 1 April, 1923, the Hiro Branch Arsenal was upgraded to the Hiro Naval Arsenal to which the Aircraft Department belonged.

Navy F.5 Flying-boat

   As a result of the British Aviation Mission that helped train the japanese Naval air force during 1921 and 1922, approximately ten types of British aircraft were taken to Japan by sea for instruction purposes. Among these was the Felixstowe F.5 built by Short Brothers, the aeroplane reputed to be the best of the large flying-boats. At that time, the Navy intended to build these aircraft for its own use, and had invited to Japan twenty-one engineers from Short Brothers for that purpose. This group, led by Shorts' engineer Dodds who arrived in Japan in April 1921, began work at the Ordnance Department of the Yokosuka Arsenal where the flyingboats were to be built. The japanese contingent under British leadership were Capt (Ordnance) Ryuzo Tanaka, Capt (Ordnance) Tomasu Koyama, Lieut Kishichi Umakoshi, Lieut Misao Wada, Engineer Masasuke Hashimoto and others. The manufacture of the F.5 was the start of many years of large flying-boat construction in Japan.
   In addition to the licensed manufacturing rights, Short Brothers supplied partially built assemblies to complete the first six of the F.5, in addition to assembly tooling and instruction in the manufacturing process. These F.5s were assembled at Yokosuka Arsenal, with the first one completed in April 1921. Since the F.5 was already renowned throughout the world as an excellent twin-engined all-wood flying-boat, it was no surprise that those assembled in Japan had excellent performance. When the first of them visited Tokyo, with a fly past in October 1921, there was impressed public reaction to their, then, enormous size.
   Following these imported and japanese-assembled aircraft, the flying-boat was put into full production at the Aircraft Department of the Hiro Naval Arsenal in the Kure area, beginning in October 1921. An additional forty F.5s were built by Aichi up until 1929.
   The engines initially used in these aeroplanes were the imported Rolls-Royce Eagle, which developed 360hp. As work developed, the Engine Factory of the Hiro Arsenal manufactured their first licence-built 400hp Lorraine engines in August 1924. In 1925, the Hiro Arsenal experimentally installed these new engines in one of the flying-boats and designated it the F.1. As the power rating of the Lorraine was increased to 450hp, another flying-boat was equipped with them, to become the F.2. Although the Hiro Arsenal expected that both the F.1 and F.2 would be adopted as standard equipment, the prototype aircraft were never put into production because the design of the airframe was already considered obsolete as it was based on First World War construction concepts. In addition to the prototypes, there were modifications of others, primarily in engine configurations, one version being powered by two 360hp Eagle direct-drive engines with faired nacelles, two-bladed propellers and Lamblin-type radiators.
   Only the F.5 version was taken into Japanese Naval air service. They were used as long-range patrol aircraft from 1922 to 1930, from bases at Yokosuka and Sasebo. They gave impressive service during their operational life, and numerous newspaper accounts covered their long-range over-water flights; but also during this time there were numerous accidents with deaths and injuries, the result of engine problems, improper maintenance, and bad weather. Nevertheless, the F.5 made its mark in Japanese aviation history.

   Twin-engined biplane flying-boat. All wooden construction with ply covered hull and fabric-covered wings, tail and control surfaces. Originally crewed by four; two pilots, observer/bow gunner and flight engineer/rear gunner. Later crewed by six, adding navigator and radio operator.
   Two 360hp Rolls-Royce Eagle twelve-cylinder vee water-cooled engines, driving four-bladed wooden propellers.
   Two flexible 7.7mm machine-guns.

   Aircraft Technical Order Japanese Navy Data
Span 31.59m (103ft 8in) 31.59m (103ft 8in)
Length 15.03m (49ft 4in) 15.16m (49ft 8 3/4in)
Height 5.75m (18ft 10 1/4in) 5.75m (18ft 10 1/4in)
Wing area 131.3sq m (1,413.347sq ft)
Empty weight 3,720kg (8,201lb) 3,784kg (8,342Ib)
Loaded weight 5,627kg (12,405Ib) 5,800kg (12,786lb)
Wing loading 42 7kg/sq m 44.1kg/sq m
   (8.7Ib/sq ft) (9Ib/sq ft)
Power loading 8.04kg/hp (17. 7Ib/hp) 8.05kg/hp (17.7Ib/hp)
Maximum speed 89kt (102mph) 78kt (90mph)
Climb to 2,000m (6,562ft) 1,000m (3,280ft)
   16min 06sec 15min
Service ceiling 3,550m (11,646ft)
Range 620nm (712sm)
Endurance 7hr 8hr

   Ten built by Yokosuka Arsenal (including six imported unassembled, ten (approx) by Hiro Arsenal, forty by Aichi.
Hiro Navy F.5 Flying-boat.
Navy Short Reconnaissance Seaplane (Short 225 Seaplane, Type S.184)

   Recognizing the capability of the Royal Navy's Short 184 seaplane, the japanese Navy dispatched Capt Shiro Yamauchi to England to purchase one, as well as a Sopwith fighter seaplane. The Short arrived in Japan in November 1916 and was referred to as the Short Reconnaissance Seaplane, even though the British used it as a torpedo bomber from 1915 to the end of the First World War.
   The japanese Navy used the aeroplane extensively for testing various engines such as the 230hp Salmson A9, 220hp Renault V8, 225hp Sunbeam V 12, and the 200hp Peugeot V8. As an experiment, the Aeroplane Factory, Department of Ordnance, Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, built a few of these aeroplanes with various engine installations but it was not put into quantity production.

   Single-engine twin-float reconnaissance three-bay biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Auxiliary floats beneath wingtips and tail. Rearward folding wings for stowage. Crew of two in open cockpits.
   One dorsal flexible 7.7mm machinegun. Bomb load: Maximum 235kg (518Ib), or one 14in torpedo.
   Various engines driving two-bladed wooden propellers. The data here are for the 230hp Salmson powered aircraft.
   Span 19.50m (63ft 11 3/4in); length 12.735m (41ft 9 1/4in); heIght 3.76m (12ft 4in); wing area 63.9sq m(687.836 sq ft).
   Empty weight 1,472kg (3,245Ib); loaded weight 1,976kg (4,356Ib).
   Maximum speed 63kt (72.5mph); climb to 1,000m (3,280ft) in 11 min 20sec.
   Three built.
Yokosho Navy Short Reconnaisance Seaplane.

   Takehiko Sonoda was one of the early civilian aviators who were typical in coming from distinguished and affluent Japanese families. He was born in London when his father, Kokichi Sonoda, was with the Japanese consulate in England. After he returned to Japan where he finished his secondary school education, he went back to Britain and later graduated from the Glasgow Polytechnic in mechanical engineering. He accepted several jobs in various factories and a shipyard, all the while developing an interest in aviation. Eventually he was employed by the Handley Page Aircraft Co.

Sonoda Aeroplane

   The British pioneer Frederick Handley Page was always interested in new design ideas for his aeroplanes. As an employee in the summer of 1912, Takehiko Sonoda influenced Handley Page's aeroplanes with a significantly improved approach in aircraft design.
   Sonoda had designed an advanced two-seat biplane and wanted Handley Page to build it. Apart from providing useful paid work for Handley Page, Sonoda's design was of great interest because he had incorporated ailerons in the upper wing in place of the Handley Page practice of using wing warping for lateral control. Handley Page was so impressed by their advantages that after exhibiting his own Yellow Peril monoplane at the 1913 Olympia show, he fitted it with wide-chord ailerons which gave it much improved handling qualities.
   The Sonoda Aeroplane was a wood and fabric two-bay unequal-span biplane with marked stagger. The covered fuselage was mounted on short struts above the lower wing and in its nose was the 60hp Green water-cooled inline engine which Sonoda had bought with his father's financial assistance. The fuel tank was above the upper wing centre section, and there was a large radiator on each side of the fuselage near the centre of gravity. The undercarriage was conventional and had a central skid to prevent nosing-over. A deep tailskid held the Sonoda at about flying attitude while on the ground.
   The aeroplane was finished in duck-egg blue, had the name Sonoda on the fuselage in large capital letters and the Japanese rising-sun flag was painted on the rudder.
   The Sonoda biplane was built at Barking in Essex and taken to the London Aerodrome at Hendon for assembly. It was apparently rolled-out on 7 July and is reported as being first flown on 7 September, 1912, by Handley Page's pilot Cyril W. Meredith. The aeroplane was included in a line-up of types on the Naval and Military Aviation Day at Hendon on 28 September and soon after that was badly damaged in a forced landing following engine failure. Unfortunately no technical data are known to have survived.
   Thus Sonoda's flying experience ended and he returned to Japan, keeping the promise that by having his father's financing of the engine, that this would be his only aeroplane and that he would not become an aviator. This engine was later installed in Einosuke Shirato's Asahi-go for flying demonstrations at various locations around Japan. Baron Takehiko Sonoda later became a member of the House of Peers.
Navy Ha-go Small Seaplane (Sopwith Schneider Fighter Seaplane)

   Capt Shiro Yamauchi acquired a Sopwith Schneider fighter floatplane while on his aviation inspection tour in England in August 1915. As a direct descendant of the famous Schneider Trophy winner it became known as the Schneider and bore a close resemblance to its predecessor, the Tabloid, which could also be float equipped. Also known as a Sopwith Baby, the aeroplane arrived in Japan by ship in May 1916 and became the japanese Navy's first fighter seaplane.
   Originally this aeroplane was powered by a 100hp Gnome engine, but those manufactured by Aichi under the Naval designation Ha-go Small Seaplane were powered by the 110hp Le Rhone engine. Training for aerial combat with this aeroplane was begun in March 1918 by Sub-Lieut Shirase, and the first loop by a japanese Naval officer was made by Lieut Torao Kuwahara with one of these aeroplanes.

   Single-engine twin-float fighter biplane. Three-float undercarriage. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
   100hp Gnome nine-cylinder aircooled rotary engine, or one 110hp Le Rhone eleven-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   One nose-mounted fixed 7.7mm machine-gun.
   Span 7.223m (23ft 8 1/4in); length 6.634m (21 ft 9in); height 3m (9ft 10in); wing area 22 .3sq m (240sq ft).
   Empty weight 528kg (1,164Ib); loaded weight 697kg (1,536Ib).
   Maximum speed 78kt (90mph) at sea level; climb to 1,500m (4,92Ift) in 13min; endurance 2 1/2hr.
   Ten built beginning 1921.
   Weights and performance with Gnome engine.
Yokosho Navy Ha-go Small Seaplane.
Navy Type Hansa Reconnaissance Seaplane

   After the First World War, the Japanese Navy received from Germany a Hansa-Brandenburg W 33 reconnaissance seaplane as part of war reparations. By 1922, the Navy decided to adopt this aeroplane as standard equipment and placed orders for their production with Nakajima and Aichi. The original Hansa seaplane, designed by Dr Ernst Heinkel, was considered to be very advanced structurally and have excellent performance. To make it better suited to Japanese needs, modifications were made in the Nakajima production model.
   The Type Hansa was adopted to replace the Navy Type Yokosho Ro-go Ko-gata Reconnaissance Seaplane. This was the Navy's first low-wing ship-based monoplane. They were easily identifiable by their unusual tail configuration, having the vertical surfaces below the tail plane. Pilots who flew these aeroplanes disliked their water-handling because of poor directional control and inadequate downward visibility. They also had other shortcomings.
   These were the first reconnaissance seaplanes to be carried on the battleship Nagato, beginning in 1926. Many remained in Navy service until around 1927 and 1928 when they were replaced with the Yokosho and Nakajima-built Type 14 and Type 15 Reconnaissance Seaplanes.
   When the Hansas became surplus the Ando Aeroplane Research Studio and Japan Air Transport Research Association converted some of them into cabin passenger aircraft with three to five seats.

   Single-engine twin-float low-wing monoplane. Wooden structure with fabric covered wing and tail, with ply-covered fuselage. Crew of two in open cockpits.
   170-210hp Mitsubishi Type Hi twelve-cylinder water-cooled vee engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   One dorsal flexible 7.7mm machinegun.
Span 13.57m (44ft 6 1/4in); length 9.287m (30ft 5 1/2in); height 2.996m (9ft 10in); wing area 31.3sq m (336.921 sq ft).
   Empty weight 1,470kg (3,240Ib); loaded weight 2,100kg (4,629Ib); wing loading 67.1kg/sq m (13.7Ib/sq ft); power loading 10.5kg/hp (23.1lb/hp).
   Maximum speed 91 kt (104. 7mph); climb to 3,000m (9,843ft) in 23min; service ceiling 4,500m (14,763ft).
   Approximately 310 built with 160 by Nakajima 1922-25 and 150 by Aichi.
Navy Type Hansa Reconnaissance Seaplane.
Isobe Rumpler Taube Aeroplane

   After resigning from the Navy, Onokichi Isobe was one of the principals in the establishment of the lmperial Flying Association formed on 23 April, 1913. The Association sponsored his travel to Germany to receive flying instruction, and to buy two Rumpler Taubes through Mitsui & Co.
   When Japan became involved in the First World War, the Army purchased these two aeroplanes from the Association in October 1914 and sent them with an Army contingent to the Tsingtao campaign and Isobe was engaged by the Army to accompany the two aeroplanes and serve as an instructor. One Taube was damaged when flown by 2-Lt Jiro Takeda while still in Japan during flying training, and the other, to be flown by Isobe, arrived at Tsingtao too late to
participate in the battle.
   Now that the Association was without its aeroplanes, it purchased a 90hp Austro Daimler six-cylinder inline water-cooled engine from Britain for use in a japanese-version of the Rumpler Taube they built in the Imperial Flying Association's hangar at Tokorozawa. Taking charge of design, Isobe made modifications to modernize the structure to some degree. Instead of having the flexible dove-like wings with negative incidence at the wingtips for control, Isobe incorporated hinged-ailerons. The empennage had hinged flying control surfaces instead of the larger flexible bamboo structure of the original Taube. The forward half of the two-seat fuselage structure was made of welded-steel tubing, the rear section having a wooden framework. The sides of the cockpit and part of the wing root where the pilot's position was located were covered with celluloid sheeting to provide a downward view.
   This aeroplane, completed on 5 April, 1915, was commonly called the Kaizo (meaning modified) Rumpler Taube, and used mostly by Isobe and Toriumi in their engineering work with the Association. Later it was used as a trainer by students Yukiteru Ozaki and Takeji Senno. (see Ozaki Aeroplane) On 30 May, 1915, while Isobe was flying solo at Tokorozawa, a gust of wind caused the port wing of the Taube to strike the ground, causing heavy damage to the aircraft. Only the front part of the fuselage and its engine could be salvaged. The parts were stored for a while and later used in the Ozaki Soga-go Aeroplane. Following the loss of its aeroplanes the Imperial Flying Association was soon re-equipped with Type Mo 1913 and Type Mo-4 aircraft through the assistance of the Army.
   One month after his accident with the Kaizo Rumpler Taube, Onokichi Isobe resigned from the Imperial Flying Association and joined the French Army. He entered the Premier Regiment Etranger before being assigned as a pilot with SPA 57. Flying Nieuport 11 Bebes with this unit, (Flight) Lieutenant Isobe was severely wounded on 6 March, 1917, while on patrol. For his service, he was awarded the Legion d'Honneur and Croix de Guerre with citations that described him in part as being ' ... as a foreigner fighting for the cause of France, he showed exemplary military qualities in the Squadron by demonstrating his aggressiveness in combat.' He resigned from the French Army in December 1917 and withdrew from aviation, but became involved again in Japan by establishing the Nippon Glider Club (later Nippon Glider Association) in April 1929 as an active promoter of sailplane activities. He died on 14 February, 1957, at the age of 80.
Isobe Rumpler Taube Aeroplane
Navy Type Ka Seaplane (Curtiss 1912 Seaplane)

   Having been ordered to return early from a flying school in the United States, Lieut Sankichi Kohno was only halfway through his training at the time. Along with a Farman Seaplane, the Curtiss Seaplane which Kohno brought with him was to be demonstrated during a naval review on 12 November, 1912, to give official recognition to aviation as part of the japanese Navy. Hastily assembled, the Curtiss was first flown by Kohno on 2 November, but a few flights later, while he was gaining experience and carrying a passenger, the aeroplane overturned when struck by a wave and had to be hastily dismantled and repaired.
   Recognizing that the water around Oppama was too rough for his limited experience, Kohno decided to leave for the Naval demonstration from the calmer waters around Yokohama. The British trading firm, Sale & Frazar Ltd, co-operated by providing a building for the reassembly of the aeroplane and a ramp for its launching. As a result the demonstration flight over the japanese fleet by Lieut Kohno was made without incident, marking the first of the official Navy flights, with the Farman flown by Lieut Kaneko. The flights covered 17 nautical miles and lasted 35 minutes.
   In addition to the two Curtiss 1912 Seaplanes imported from the United States, other aircraft of the type were built at the Department of Ordnance, Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, under the designation Type Ka Seaplane, later re-designated I-go Otsu-gata Seaplane. Their service life was short, being phased out of the Navy inventory by mid-1915.

   Single-engine pusher biplane seaplane. Wooden structure with fabric covered wings and tail. Pilot and one passenger in open seats.
   75hp Curtiss O eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 11.348m (37ft 2 3/4in); length 8.458m (27ft 9in); height 2.496m (8ft 2in); wing area 33sq m (355.22sq ft).
   Empty weight 535kg (1,180lb); loaded weight 745kg (1,642Ib).
   Maximum speed 43kt (50mph); endurance 3hr.
   Several built.
Yokosho Navy Type Ka Seaplane.
Oguri-Curtiss Jenny Trainer

   Oguri contracted with the Akabane Aeroplane Manufacturing Works at Kishi Airfield, to build him an aeroplane from parts of the Curtiss JN-4 Jenny, presumably a Canadian-built Canuck, he had acquired in the United States. When completed, it was flown at the Susaki reclaimed ground in Tokyo on 26 December, 1919. It performed well, demonstrating its aerobatic qualities, including loops.
   With this aeroplane, Oguri established the Oguri Flying School at Susaki in June 1920. To distinguish his aeroplane from other competing fliers, he painted on it a black-cat insignia, basing it on one he had seen on aeroplanes in the United States. In Japan, he was often referred to as 'the American-minded pilot.' He made his flying activities as visible as possible by practices such as special crosscountry flights including Tokyo to Shizuoka, 100 miles to the southwest, and generally catering to female passengers. He lost his aeroplane, however, in a crash in which he was injured, while giving a flight to a geisha. While seated in the pupil's cockpit she became frightened, clung to the control column and caused Oguri to lose control of the aeroplane.

   Single-engine biplane trainer. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pupil and instructor in open cockpits.
   90hp Curtiss OX-5 eight-cylinder water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span, upper 14.55m (47ft 9in), lower 11.32m (37ft 1 3/4in); length 8.11 m (26ft 7 1/4in); height 3.31m (10ft 10 1/4in).
   Empty weight 711kg (1,567lb); loaded weight 975kg (2, 149Ib).
   Maximum speed 65kt (75mph); landing speed 39kt (45mph); service ceiling 3,300m (10,826ft).
   One built in December 1919.
Oguri-Curtiss Jenny Trainer with a Japanese flag on an outer wing strut.
Standard H-3 Trainer

   In search of proven trainer aircraft, the PMBRA purchased two Standard H-3 Trainers from the US Army in May 1917. The H-3 was a two-bay biplane with large gap and 10-degree sweep back to the wings, and powered by 125hp Hall-Scott A-5 engines. Only nine were built, and the type had been carried over from the former Sloan Aircraft Co Inc that became the Standard Aero Corporation.
   Three more of these aeroplanes were built in Japan, with the higher powered 150hp Hall-Scott engine. Production was limited because the aeroplane was considered dangerous. They were used for flying training from May 1917 to March 1918, beginning at Tokorozawa and later at the newly opened Kagamigahara Airfield. Fifteen pilot officers received training in them.

   Single-engine tractor biplane trainer. All-wooden construction with fabric covering. Pupil and instructor in open cockpit.
   150hp Hall-Scott L-4 six-cylinder inline water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 12.25m (40ft 1in); length 8.22m (27ft).
   Loaded weight 1,225kg (2,700Ib).
   Maximum speed 71 kt (82mph); endurance 6hr.
   Three or more built.
The Standard H-3 Trainer was a Japanese-built copy of a United States Army trainer.
The first flight of an aeroplane in Japan took place on 19 December, 1910, piloted by Capt Yoshitoshi Tokugawa. The aeroplane was an imported Henri Farman biplane.
Army Type Mo (Maurice Farman Type) 1913 Aeroplane

   Army Lt Kenjiro Nagasawa and Lt Shigeru Sawada were sent to France to study aviation during the period july 1912 to Februry 1913. At the end of their stay in Europe, they bought a Maurice Farman 1912 aeroplane which arrived in Japan by ship in May 1913. This new aeroplane proved superior to all other imported aeroplanes and japanese-made Kaishiki types in stability, control and reliability. This prompted the purchase of four more of this type, which by then, a year later, had been improved and were referred to as the Maurice Farman 1913 models.
   When these disassembled parts arrived they were studied by the PMBRA with the idea of manufacturing them in Japan. Under the guidance of Nagasawa and Sawada of the PMBRA, the Tokyo Army Artillery Arsenal in Koishigawa, Tokyo, built the airframes and the 70hp Renault rotary engines under the supervision of Army Capt Haruhiko Uemura of the Arsenal. Aeroplane number five in this Type Mo 1913 series was completed in September 1913. Eight additional aircraft were built in 1914, and beginning with No.7, steel spring heels were attached to the rear of the undercarriage skids. These could be made to dig-in and reduce the landing run. Also quite noticeable with the Type Mo 1913 was the raised seat behind the student, giving the instructor better visibility. When required, a third person could sit on the fuel tank behind the instructor. These became the first production aircraft in Japan.
   In response to Japan's participation in the First World War with action against the Germans in Tsingtao, China, the Provisional Air Corps was organized and used the Mo Type 1913 aircraft as its primary equipment. Of the five aeroplanes sent to the Tsingtao campaign in September and October 1914, four were of this type, the other being a Nieuport NG. Of these four, three were imported, and the fourth japanese-built. During this campaign, these aircraft undertook reconnaissance and bombing missions, dropping 15kg (33lb) from six bomb racks, and occasionally their crews firing pistols against rifle fire from a German Taube in air-to-air combat. This experience brought later improvements to what then became the Type Mo 1913 Armed Aeroplane with one automatic rifle and provision for six 10kg (22lb) bombs. By having a 'wireless' communication system on board one of the aerocraft, in july 1913 they effectively directed artillery fire from the air for evaluation purposes.
   These Type Mo aeroplanes were continually used for distance records, connecting major cities on flights punctuated with frequent emergency landings along the way, and experiencing other delays due to weather. But they held the spotlight in news coverage and were popular topics of conversation. In March 1915, the most distinguished combat aircraft of the Tsingtao campaign, the third Type Mo 1913, was put on display in the Yushukan Military Museum in Kudan, Tokyo, perhaps the world's first exhibit of an aeroplane with a combat record.

   Single-engine pusher sesquiplane trainer with crew nacelle. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Elevators at nose and tail. Skid-type undercarriage with dual wheels. Crew of two in open cockpit.
   70-80hp Renault eight-cylinder vee air-cooled engine, driving a Chauviere two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 15.54m (50ft 11 3/4in); length 11.28m (37ft); height 3.45m (11ft 3 3/4in); wing area 53.8sq m (589.117sq ft)
   Empty weight 580.6kg (1,280lb); loaded weight 855kg (1,885Ib); wing loading 15.9kg/sqm 3.25Ib/sq ft); power loading 12.21kg/hp (26.91lb/hp).
   Maximum speed 51 kt (59mph); cruising speed 38kt (44mph); service ceiling 3,000m (9,843ft); endurance 4hr.
   Four imported, twenty-two built by Army Arsenal and four built by PMBRA and others.

Converted Type Mo (Maurice Farman Type) Aeroplane

   When originally built as the seventh aeroplane in May 1914 in the hangar of Tokorozawa Airfield this aeroplane was like all the other Type Mo 1913 aircraft. Flown by 2-Lt Jiro Takeda in the newsworthy flight to Tokyo on 22 May, 1914, it also established an altitude record of 2,200m on 9 june flown by 2-Lt Morikichi Sakamoto. It was then exhibited to the Crown Prince (later Emperor Showa) after landing at the Komazawa Parade Grounds. At the time Lt Sawada converted this aeroplane he had felt that it was a very lucky aeroplane, and since it was the seventh of the Type Mo, again the auspicious number, he painted number 7 on the tail.
   However, on 26 July, 1914, the aeroplane ran out of luck, for it crashed and was badly damaged at Tokorozawa Airfield while being flown by Capt Tokugawa, and for a while, its remains sat idle in a hangar. At a time when much of the military strength at Tokorozawa was participating in the Tsingtao campaign in September 1914, Lt Sawada remained behind and was put in charge of pilot training and aircraft maintenance. Taking the initiative, he reassembled what he called the lucky aeroplane from its unbroken parts and replaced many others, only this time eliminating the front elevator. When completed on 19 January, 1915,this 7th Type Mo 1913 became known as the Sawada Type No.7, or more officially because of this radical modification, Kaishiki the 3rd Year Model. This change demonstrated improvements in reconnaissance capability, an increase in stability, improved maneouvrability and higher speed. By placing a machine-gun in the front-seat location no longer restricted by the front elevator, this became the first Japanese Army aircraft to be so armed.
   This aeroplane was used extensively at Tokorozawaa for flight testing, until 26 May, 1915, when, being flown by Capt Naranosuke Oka, it crashed in a wheat field at Kitada, Tomioka Village, 4km north of the airfield, and the aeroplane was destroyed. However, because of the proven success of Sawada's modifications it introduced radical design changes in future Japanese aeroplanes.

   Single-engined pusher sesquiplane trainer with crew nacelle. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Rear elevator only. Skid-type undercarriage with dual wheels. Crew of two in open cockpit.
   70-80hp Renault eight-cylinder vee air-cooled engine, driving a Chauviere two-bladed wooden propeller.
   One nose-mounted flexible machinegun.
   Span 15.50m (50ft 10 1/4in); length 9.35m (30ft 8in); height 3.66m (12ft); wing area 60sq m (645.85sq ft).
   Empty weight 485kg (1,069Ib); loaded weight 765kg (1,686lb); wing loading 12.7kg/sq m (2.6Ib/sq ft); power loading 9.45kg/hp (20.8Ib/hp).
   Maximum speed 58kt (67mph); endurance 4hr.
   One conversion in January 1915.

Akabane Aeroplane Manufacturing Works (Akabane Hikoki Seisakusho) (Kishi)

   This company was founded by Doctor Kazuta Kishi, MD, an extraordinary man with numerous diverse interests which included aviation. In 1914, he served as the director of the ear hospital (ENT) at Akashi-cho, Tsukiji, Tokyo, and was in addition known for his interests as an inventor of various machines, and an enthusiast for automobiles and swords. Achieving success in discovering a molybdenum vein in Tsurugigadake (Sword Mountain), Toyama Prefecture, he managed a refinery and undertook the manufacturing of the 70hp Renault engine using his molybdenum steel alloy. Assisting him in the technical aspects of these major undertakings were Aijiro Hara BSc and Rikichi Sasaki BSc, both graduates of Tokyo Imperial University, Department of Engineering.
   At about this time, Tsunejiro Obata, the oldest son of Iwajiro Obata, a noted civil contractor of Fushimi, Kyoto, built the airframe of a Maurice Farman 1913, financed by his father. The aircraft needed an engine, and a Kishi-Renault engine was soon mated to it. In December 1915, the aeroplane was successfully flown by Army Lt (Reserve) Takesaburo Inoue at Okinohara, Yokaichi City, near Lake Biwa. In March 1916, flown by Ieyasu Nakazawa, it was used in japan's first motion picture in which an aeroplane was part of the plot. With this, the success of the aeroplane, although punctuated by the unreliability of the Kishi-built engine, was confirmed.

Kishi No.1 Tsurugi-go Aeroplane

   Involving himself more deeply in aviation, Doctor Kishi established an aeroplane manufacturing shop in his hospital grounds, and hired Etsutaro Munesato to be in charge. The shop produced a Maurice Farman 1913 in May 1916 and Kishi named it the Tsurugi-go, later to be known as the No.1 Tsurugigo, meaning Sword-type. Taking the finished aeroplane to the Susaki reclaimed ground in eastern Tokyo, the aeroplane, piloted by Lt Inoue, flew for 1hr and 12min on 2 july of that year. With its success proven, it was taken on an exhibition tour of parts of northern central Honshu, Kyushu and Shikoku to promote aviation knowledge and to demonstrate the reliability of the Kishi-Renault engine.
Kishi No.1 Tsurugi-go Aeroplane.
Army Type Mo (Maurice Farman Type) 1913 Aeroplane.
Converted Type Mo (Maurice Farman Type) Aeroplane.
Army Henri Farman Type Model 4 Aeroplane (Army Type Mo-4 Aeroplane)

   The introduction of this aeroplane into Japanese military service, was the zenith of the Farman pusher biplanes in Japan. Earlier Farman types were already established, but one Henri Farman 1914 aeroplane which the Association imported from France in November 1914 would develop as a noteworthy type. The PMBRA decided to develop the aircraft further by making a new aeroplane using many of the changes perfected on the earlier converted Type Mo and Kaishiki No.7. Although Lt Shigeru Sawada was killed in the earlier Kaishiki No.7 Small Aeroplane, many development projects were being undertaken simultaneously, and Lt Sawada was in charge of this new design which used many of his earlier innovations. Noticeable differences with his redesign included the raising of the fuselage nacelle above the lower wing and providing a small triangular rudder and shorter undercarriage skids. It was completed in November 1915 three months after beginning the design. It was later discovered that similar conversions were being made in France without the knowledge of either user.
   The Association called the new design the Sawada Type B 7, but it was officially designated Kaishiki 4th Year Model. These Association-built aircraft had a Japanese-made 70hp Renault engine installed which gave more power than the French-built aeroplane.
   Participating in the military review held by the Emperor on 2 December, 1915, Lt Morikichi Sakamoto of the Association flew one of these new aeroplanes over the Komazawa Parade Grounds in winds gusting up to 45mph. Stability and performance were easily apparent when comparing the difficulties being experienced by the older Type Mo 1913s, and as a result the Type Mo 4th Year Model was regarded as revolutionary. Meeting with strong approval, the type was put into production at the Association's factory at Tokorozawa, as well as the Tokyo Army Artillery Arsenal and the Atsuta Army Weapon Manufacturing Works of Nagoya Army Ordnance Arsenal.
   The aeroplane had a number of designation changes, beginning as the Type Mo 1914, followed by the Type Mo 4th Year Model, and after 1918 becoming the Type Mo4. They were used first as trainers at Tokorozawa for navigation, scouting and bombing, later to replace the Type Mo 1913s of the balloon company (squadron equivalent) and flight company that had been formed at Tokorozawa in December 1915 as part of an air battalion. When the Japanese Army deployed its 12th Division to Siberia in 1918, several air units were organized, one of which was sent to northern Manchuria, then to Siberia for patrol duties using eight Type Mo-4s, six Mo-6s and nine Sopwith 1A2 reconnaissance aircraft imported from England.
   In time, a number of the Type Mo-4 aircraft passed into civil hands and were used as trainers with the Imperial Flying Association and Kishi Aeroplane Manufacturing Works (later Akabane Aeroplane Manufacturing Works). The former modified a Type Mo-4 with an additional fuel tank in the second crew position making it a single-seat aircraft. Called the No.2 Mie-go, it made a nonstop record flight between Tokyo and Osaka. Piloted by Masao Goto, it left
Tokorozawa and landed at the Osaka Joto Parade Grounds, in 6hr 28min, on 1 April, 1918, a remarkable record for duration and distance in Japan for that period. The Type Mo-4s remained popular from when they were first manufactured in the autumn of 1915, and were put into production again in 1919 and 1920.

   Single-engine pusher sesquiplane reconnaissance aircraft with crew nacelle. Wooden strucrure with fabric covering. Tail elevator only. Skid-type undercarriage with dual wheels. Crew of two in open cockpit.
   70-80hp Renault eight-cylinder vee air-cooled engine, driving a Chauviere two-bladed wooden propeller.
   One machine-gun when necessary.
   Span 15.50m (50ft 10 1/4in); length 9.14m (29ft 11 3/4in); height 3.18m (10ft 51 1/4in); wing area 58sq m(624.327sq ft).
   Empty weight 563kg (1,241lb); loaded weight 778kg (1,715lb); wing loading 13.4kg/sq m (2.7Ib/sq ft); power loading 9.73kg/hp (21.4lb/hp).
   Maximum speed 49kt (56mph); climb to 2,000m (6,562ft) in 25min; service ceiling 3,000m (9,843ft); endurance 4hr.
   Eighty-four built: nine PMBRA, Fifty-one Army Arsenals (Tokyo and Nagoya), twenty Tokorozawa Branch, Supply Dept, three Imperial Flying Association (civil use), one Kishi Aeroplane (civil use).

Army Maurice Farman Type Model 6 Aeroplane (Army Type Mo-6 Aeroplane)

   Another stage of development came from advanced aero engines of 100hp or more, products of the First World War. To take advantage of these, Japan imported several liquid-cooled engines including the 90hp Curtiss OX-5 and the 100hp Daimler, each of which was tested by installing them in a Type Mo-4 Aeroplane. Impressed by the Daimler engine, the Army Artillery Arsenal began its manufacture in 1916, completing the first in the spring of 1917.
   This Daimler-type engine was installed in an aeroplane that was newly designed for it. Since the aeroplane powered by this engine had had its start in May 1916, the PMBRA designated it the Type Mo6-Year Model, but later the Army's official designation became the Type Mo 6th Year Model for the year of Taisho. In 1918 it was redesignated as the Type Mo Model 6, or the Type Mo-6 in short.
   Outwardly, the Type Mo-6 was almost identical to the Type Mo-4, but was slightly larger and heavier and had coolant radiators on each side of the engine. Production models had shorter front skids and the front supporting diagonal strut to the skid was eliminated. On the production model there was an increase in fuel-tank capacity which made the loaded weight higher than that of the Mo-4, but the Mo-6 had a marked increase in speed from 49kt to 60kt. Production began in the autumn of 1917 at which time Mo-4 production was terminated. The Mo-6 became the Army's first Japanese-designed reconnaissance/trainer to be produced in quantity.
   The new Army aeroplane made a good start when the first of the series, No.101, set a two-seat altitude record of 2,800m (9,186ft) on 25 May, 1917, while being flown by Lt Morikichi Sakamoto and Army Engineer Shuhei Iwamoto.
   All did not continue well, however, for this new aeroplane. During the November 1917 Army Special Manoeuvres on the Ohmi Plain near Lake Biwa, of the fourteen newly built Type Mo-6 aircraft participating, twelve crashed or made emergency landings because of engine malfunctions among other things. As a result, the Army Department of Aviation organized an investigating committee of twenty-five officers and specialist engineers with twenty-four pilot officers. Many problems became evident, among them the need to improve engine research and development, use of better materials, improve training for engineers, and better communications between PMBRA and the operational flying units. Many of the problems were corrected, thus extending the aircraft's operational life long past their practicality as combat aircraft.
   However during their service life, these Type Mo-6 Aeroplanes became the Army's last biplane pusher aircraft. When the 2nd Army Air Battalion was being organized, in December 1917, Type Mo-6s from Tokorozawa became its initial equipment. This unit was formed at the Army's newly activated airfield at Kagamigahara in Gifu Prefecture, better known after the Pacific War as Gifu Air Base, north of Nagoya. Air battalions at Tokorozawa and Kagamigahara used their Type Mo-6s for reconnaissance and training until around 1923. When the Army sent units to Siberia and northern Manchuria in August 1918, four of the twelve aeroplanes of the 2nd Army Air Battalion were Type Mo-6s. However, because of the severe cold of the ensuing winter, they could not be used because the engine coolant froze.
   One of the Type Mo-6 Aeroplanes, No.266, survived for many years by having been dismantled and stored in the rafters of what had been the Nukiyama Laboratory, of the Department of Engineering, Tohoku University, where it escaped destruction during the Second World War. It was later restored and is now preserved in the Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo.

   Single-engine pusher reconnaissance biplane with crew nacelle. All-wooden construction with fabric covering. Crew of two in open cockpit.
   100-110hp Daimler six-cylinder inline water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   One nose mounted Hotchkiss flexible 7.7mm machine-gun.
   Span 16.13m (52ft 11 in); length 9.33m (30ft 7 1/2in); height 3.10m (10ft 2in); wing area 62sq m (667.364 sq ft).
   Empty weight 75 kg (1,671lb); loaded weight 1,060kg (2,336Ib); wing loading 17.1 kg sq m (3.5Ib/sq ft); power loading 9.64 kg/hp (21.2Ib/hp).
   Maximum speed 60kt (69mph); cruising speed 49kt (56mph); climb to 2,000m (6,562ft) in 25min; service ceiling 3,500m (11,482ft).
   134 built 1917-1921: PMBRA thirty-five; Army Arsenals forty seven; Tokorozawa Branch, Supply Dept forty-eight; Akabane Aeroplane Manufacturing Works four.

Army Maurice Farman 5 Aeroplane

   This aeroplane was identical to the Army Maurice Farman 1914, Type Mo-4 Aeroplane, but was equipped with dual controls for primary pilot training. With the exception of the length being extended from 9.14m to 9.38m it hardly warranted a redesignation. This became the Army's first primary trainer to be built expressly for this purpose.
   Production became the responsibility of the Army Artillery Arsenal. Six were manufactured in 1919 and the Tokorozawa Branch of the Department of Supply built an additional five in 1920. However, in that year, licence rights for manufacturing the Nieuport 81E2 primary trainer came into effect and with this the Army organized a new system of flying training and, as a result, there was no further need for the Farman trainers. A few were retained at the Tokorozawa Aviation School until about 1923.

   Single-engine pusher biplane primary trainer with crew nacelle. Wooden construction with fabric covering. Crew of two in open cockpit.
   70-80hp Renault eight-cylinder vee air-cooled engine, or 100hp Daimler six-cylinder inline water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 15.52m (50ft 11 in); length 9.38m (30ft 9 1/4in); height 3.17m (10ft 5in); wing area 58sg m (624.327sg ft).
   Loaded weight 778kg (1,715lb); wing loading 13.4kg sg m (2.74Ib sg ft); power loading 9.73 kg hp (21.4lb/hp).
   Maximum speed 49kt (56mph); climb to 2,000m (6,562ft) in 35min; endurance 4hr.
   Data for Renault-powered version.
   Eleven built 1919-1920: Army Artillery Arsenal six; Tokorozawa Branch, Dept of Supply five.

Kishi No.3 Tsurugi-go Aeroplane

   Suspecting the unsafe design of the sweptback wing used on the No.2 Tsurugi-go, this new aeroplane used the conventional straight wing, very much like that of the Army Maurice Farman Type Mo-4. Although the centre cockpit nacelle was original in design structure, other parts of the airframe were identical to the Type Mo-4.
   After its first public flying demonstration on 11 February, 1917, japan's National Foundation Day known as Kigensetsu, Kishi designated the aeroplane as the No.3 Tsurugi-go. Acting as flying instructor, Lt Inoue used it to introduce many people to the experience of flying an aeroplane. Because of its activity at the Susaki Airfield on reclaimed ground, the site became known as Kishi Airfield. Eventually, this aeroplane went to Itoh Airfield.

Kishi No.6 Tsurugi-go Aeroplane

   In the autumn of 1918, the Akabane Aeroplane Manufacturing Works was awarded an initial Army contract for four Maurice Farman Type Mo-6s. At about that time, through the influence of Viscount Shimpei Goto, Dr Kishi received the support of a noted businessman, Soichiro Asano, and they reorganized and expanded the company, undertook the manufacture of automobiles, and established a flying-cadet programme for schoolage boys at the aerodrome.
   Less attention was given to the production order for the new No.6 Tsurugi-go Aeroplane, and therefore the design reverted to the earlier Maurice Farman Type Mo4 so as to use existing parts. At this time, the Kishi iron ore mining business at Osore-yama in Aomori Prefecture, had failed, and Kishi became heavily in debt. The popular period of the Farman biplanes had passed and the Army cancelled further orders, forcing the Akabane Aeroplane Manufacturing Works and its flying activities to be closed in March 1921. Dr Kishi abandoned aviation and became a director of the Electricity Bureau of Tokyo, thus ending the name of Kishi in aviation.
Army Henri Farman Type Model 4 Aeroplane.
Army Maurice Farman Type Model 6 Aeroplane.
Kishi No.3 Tsurugi-go Aeroplane.
Sole survivor of the Army Maurice Farman Type Model 6 Aeroplane is No. 266 which is now in the Yasukuni Shrine.
Army Maurice Farman 5 Aeroplanes
Navy Type Mo Small Seaplane

   The first two Maurice Farman Seaplanes were imported into Japan by the Navy and assembled at Oppama for initial flying demonstrations in October and November 1912. An additional two were purchased and used for flying training over a considerable period. The relatively simple construction was soon copied by the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal which added a small number to the four already imported. Being of the same type as that of the Army, they received the same short designation Type 10 Small Seaplane. These had fabric-covered wooden structures and were equipped with twin Tellier-type wooden floats. The two seats were in tandem in a fuselage pod, with a 70hp Renault pusher engine in the rear.
   When the Tsingtao Campaign erupted in September 1914, three of the imported Type Mo Small Seaplanes, together with one imported Type Mo Large Seaplane, were carried by the seaplane tender Wakarniya to participate in the campaign. They were soon joined by a fourth aircraft which was a japanese-made Type Mo Small Seaplane of the same type. These aeroplanes, manned by seven pilots during this two-month operation, succeeded in making 49 sorties during which they dropped 199 bombs. Working with Army aircraft in these air operations, they were unsuccessful in attacks on their most important target, the cruiser Kaiserin Elisabeth, but did succeed in sinking one small torpedo-boat with bombing attacks.

   Single-engine twin-float pusher biplane reconnaissance/bomber. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Crew of two in open cockpit.
   70hp Renault eight-cylinder vee aircooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 15.50m (58ft 10 1/4in); length 10.14m (33ft 3in); height 3.80m (12ft 5 1/2in); wing area 56sq m 602.798sq ft).
   Empty weight 650kg (1,433Ib); loaded weight 855kg (1,884Ib).
   Maximum speed 46kt (53mph) at sea level; climb to 500m (1,640ft) in 11min; service ceiling 1,500m (4,921ft); endurance 3hr.
   Several built beginning in July 1913.

Navy Type Mo Large Seaplane (Maurice Farman 1914 Seaplane)

   This was a large seaplane with a 100hp engine which the Navy imported from France in 1914. Designated Type Mo Large Seaplane, it was superior in general performance to the Type Mo Small Seaplane, particularly in its operational altitude of 3,000m (9,843ft). The aeroplane was larger than the 1912 model and could carry a crew of three.
   Soon after its arrival from France the aeroplane was deployed aboard the seaplane tender Wakamiya in support of the Tsingtao Campaign in September 1914, along with the three Type Mo Small Seaplanes. They were used in this operation for reconnaissance, spotting of German mines, and bombing missions.
   Production of the Type Mo Large Seaplane was undertaken by the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal with few changes. Most noteworthy was the change of engine to the 100hp Benz instead of the 100hp Renault installed in the imported example. Eventually these Type Mo Large Seaplanes were redesignated Ro-go Otsu-gata.
   It was only natural to continually test the capabilities of these and other aircraft with long-distance and duration flights. On 4 March, 1915, Lieut Kishichi Umakoshi piloted one of the Ro-go Otsu-gata (serial No.2) for nearly eight hours over a closed course Oppama, Yokosuka, Yokohama, Bohsou coastline, Miura Peninsula, and back to Oppama. This endurance record was soon broken by a similar aircraft that recorded a duration of 10hr 5min, covering 434nm (500 sm), and, with another, an altitude of 3,500m (11,500ft) was recorded.
   The first fatal accident involving japanese Naval aviators occurred with one of the Yokosho-made aircraft (serial No.15) when it crashed at sea on 6 March, 1915, with Sub-Lieuts Tozaburo Adachi and Takao Takerube along with W/O 3/c Hisanojo Yanase on board, killing all three.

   Single-engine twin-float pusher biplane reconnaissance/bomber with enclosed crew nacelle. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Crew of three in open cockpit.
   100hp Benz six-cylinder inline watercooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 19.02m (62ft 5in); length 9.43m (30ft 11 1/4in); height 4m (13ft 1 1/2in); wing area 50sq m (538.213sq ft).
   Empty weight 995kg (2,193Ib); loaded weight 1,363kg (3,004Ib).
   Maximum speed 52kt (59.8mph) at sea level; climb to 1,000m (3,280ft) in 25min; endurance 4 1/2-6 1/2hr.
   At least fifteen built.
Yokosho Navy Type Mo Small Seaplane.
Yokosho Navy Type Mo Large Seaplane.
Army Type Ko 1 Trainer (Nieuport 81-E2)

   French influence on the Japanese Army resulted in an influx of imported French aircraft for training, starting in January 1919. Among these were 40 Nieuport 81-E2s and as their numbers diminished the Japanese Army decided to supplement them with others built in Japan.
   Nieuport 81-E2s and 83-E2s were the standard Army trainers and they were initially manufactured under licence in Japan by the Army at Tokorozawa. But recognizing that manufacturing aircraft was not a function of the military, the production of the Nieuport 81E2 was transferred to Mitsubishi which had recently begun building Navy aircraft, and production of the Nieuport 83-E2 went to Nakajima, a newly formed aircraft manufacturer. All drawings and specifications were furnished by the Army and both aeroplanes remained identical to the French-built aircraft. The first of the Mitsubishi-built aircraft was completed in May 1922.
   The identity of these two aircraft changed from the French system beginning in November 1921 when the Army established a new designation system, giving a separate identity symbol to each foreign manufacturer's name: Type Ko for Nieuport, followed by a sequential number for each separate type. The Nieuport 81-E2 therefore became the Ko 1 and the Type 83-E2 became the Ko 2.
   These Army trainers served at Tokorozawa from the time the Tokorozawa Army Flying School was opened in 1922. Others served at the Kagamigahara Airfield and with some Air Regiments, some remaining operational until around 1926. These two types, with the Nakajima Ko 3, were the main trainers for the Japanese Army during its initial expansion period. After service with the Army, many were released to civil flying schools.

   Single-engine sesquiplane trainer. Wooden structure with fabric covering and some plywood and metal. Crew of two in open cockpits.
   80-100hp Le Rhone nine-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine, driving a Regy-type two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 9.20m (30ft 2 1/4in); length 7.20m (23ft 7 1/2in); height 2.60m (8ft 6 1/4in) tail down; wing area 23sq m (247.578sq ft).
   Empty weight 490kg (1,080Ib); loaded weight 760kg (1,675lb); wing loading 33kg/sq m (6.759Ib/sq ft); power loading 7.6kg/hp (16.7Ib/hp).
   Maximum speed 70kt (81 mph) at sea level; service ceiling 4,000m (13,123ft).
   Fifty-seven built.

Army Type Ko 2 Trainer

   In November 1921 the Army developed and used a new identifying system for its standard equipment. In the case of Nieuport aircraft, they were all given the designator Type Ko, making the Nieuport 81 E.2 the Ko 1, and the Nieuport 83 E.2 the Type Ko 2. As with the Nakajima-built Type Ko 3, already described, the Type Ko 1 and 2 were needed in greater numbers than could be imported, so licence-manufacture was planned for these aircraft as well. In keeping with the usual practice, production was started at Tokorozawa, but by this time aircraft manufacturing was being shifted to civil companies. The Army remained responsible for the licence agreement with Nieuport and transferred all production materials to respective companies. In doing this, the Army contracted with Mitsubishi to build the Nieuport 81 E.2 as the Type Ko I, and with Nakajima to build the Nieuport 83 E.2 as the Type Ko 2 in addition to the Type Ko 3.
   The first of the Nakajima-built Type Ko 2s was completed in March 1922, and was identical to the Nieuport 83 E.2. Subsequent trainers of both the Type Ko 1 and 2 types were delivered and assigned to Army Flying Schools at Tokorozawa and Kagamigahara, and some Flight Regiments beginning in 1922. They remained in service until around 1926. After that a number was released to civil flying schools.

   Single-engine sesquiplane fighter. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pupil and instructor in open cockpit.
   80-100hp Le Rhone nine-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine, driving a Regy fixed-pitch wooden propeller.
   Span 8.11 m (26ft 7 1/4in); length 7.035m (23ft 1in); height 2.9m (9ft 6in); wing area 18.40sq m (198.062sq ft).
   Empty weight 440kg (970Ib); loaded weight 710kg (1,565Ib); wing loading 38.5kg/sq m(8Ib/sq ft); power loading 8.8kg/hp (19.4Ib/hp).
   Maximum speed 76kt (87.5mph) at sea level; service ceiling 5,000m (16,404 ft); endurance 2hr.
   Forty built from March to July 1922.
Mitsubishi Army Type Ko 1 Trainer, a Japanese manufactured Nieuport 81-E2
Nakajima Army Type Ko 2 Trainer, a Japanese-produced Nieuport 83 E.2.
Army Type Ko 3 Fighter/Trainer

   Following the First World War, the Japanese Army imported a number of aircraft that had proved themselves in combat. Among these was the SPAD S.VII, imported in 1918, the (100) SPAD S.XIIIs in 1919, (50) Sopwith Pups in 1919, and the Morane-Saulnier A.I in 1922. Additionally, there were French Nieuport 24.C1 and 27.C1 fighters, imported in 1917. These were found to be the most manoeuvrable, and as a result the Army adopted the Nieuport 24.C1 as its standard fighter.
   This brought the need for additional aircraft of this type for Army service. They were built under licence agreement at the Tokorozawa Branch of the Army Supply Depot beginning in March 1919, but, later, production of these fighters was transferred to Nakajima. Le Rhone engines to power the aircraft were licence-manufactured by Tokyo Gasuden.
   There were actually two missions assigned to these Nieuport designed fighters. The Nieuport 24.C1 was used as a single-seat trainer powered by an 80hp Le Rhone engine; the other, the Nieuport 27.C1, equipped with a 120hp Le Rhone, wa used as a fighter. Both were so identified by markings on their tails. The Japanese Army referred to both as the Type Ni-24; the Ni being the first kana in the word Nieuport. In November 1921, a new designation system for Army aircraft was enacted, and both became the Ko 3.
   The first of the Nakajima-built aircraft was completed in July 1921. Structurally it was identical to the Nieuport 24.C1. These were a signed to fighter units beginning in June 1922 to replace the Type Hei 1 (SPAD XIII) Fighters and remained operational until the later years of the Taisho reign which ended in 1926, replaced then by the Type Ko 4; Nakajima Nieuport 29-C-1 fighters.
   As the Ko 3 was phased out of Army service, some were released to the civil market and used as single-seat sports aircraft until around 1933.

   Single-engine single-bay biplane fighter. Wooden Structure with fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
   80-93hp Le Rhone or 120-130hp Le Rhone nine-cylinder air-cooled rotary engines, driving two-bladed wooden propellers.
   One fixed forward-firing 7.7mm machine-gun.
   Span 8.22m (26ft 11 1/2in); length 5.67m (18ft 7 1/4in); height 2.40m (7ft 10 1/2in); wing area 15sq m (161.463sq ft).

   With 80hp Le Rhone With 120hp Le Rhone
Empty weight 415kg (915Ib) 450kg (992Ib)
Loaded weight 595kg (1,311Ib) 630kg (1,389Ib)
Wing loading 39.7kg sq m 42kg sq m
   (8.1lb/sq ft) (8.6lb sq ft)
Power loading 7.44kg hp (16.4Ib hp) 5.25kg hp (11.5lb hp)
Maximum speed 74kr (85mph) 88kt (101 mph)

   Nakajima production only: thirty in 1921, forty-seven in 1922, twenty-five in 1923.
Nakajima Army Type Ko 3 Fighter/Trainer of the Nieuport 24.C1 design.
Nakajima Army Type Ko 3 Fighter converted for civil use with fuel tank under the upper wing for the November 1922 Tokyo-Osaka mail flight competition.
Army Type Ko 4 Fighter

   Immediately after the First World War, the Nieuport company introduced it new fighter, the Nieuport 29-C-1, then acclaimed the best fighter in the world, and it became the standard equipment of the Armee de I'Air. The Japanese Army imported some of these fighters in 1923 to replace the Type Hei 1 and Type Ko 3 Fighters as its standard equipment. To provide the additional aircraft necessary, Nakajima procured the licence to manufacture them in Japan, as the Type Ko 4 Fighter.
   These aircraft were markedly different in structure from previous Army fighters in that the Nieuport 29-C-1 had a very advanced well streamlined wooden monocoque fuselage.
   The first was assembled from imported components in December 1923. Production began with some Japanese modifications and continued until January 1932, 608 being delivered to the Army. It was the Army's first mass-produced fighter, and the lack of changes in its outward appearance from that of the original Nieuport 29-C-1 confirmed its excellent design. The slim fighter had a very smooth skinned fuselage, Lamblin radiator, and dihedral on the upper wing only. Armament consisted of two Vickers 7.7mm machine-guns on top of the forward fuselage. The type entered operational service with Japanese Army units in 1925 and remained as standard equipment until about 1933, being replaced by the Nakajima-built Army Type 91 Fighter.
   The Ko 4 was excellent in general performance, but it had peculiarities such as a tendency to slide-slip and stall at speeds greater than normal stalling speed. Many pilots experienced emergency landings because of engine problems and they preferred the earlier Type Ko 3 with the better flying qualities. The wooden monocoque fuselage caused new difficulties when requiring repair.
   Type Ko 4 Fighters participated in the Manchurian and Shanghai Incidents, making them the first Japanese fighters to be sent overseas for combat; however, they did not engage the enemy because there was no air opposition. Following their military service life, some were released to civil operators and remained in flying schools until as late as 1937.

   Single-engine single-seat single-bay biplane fighter. Wooden monocoque fuselage with fabric-covered wooden wing. Pilot in open cockpit.
   300-320hp Mitsubishi-Hispano-Suiza eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Two forward-firing fixed 7.7mm machine-guns.
   Span 9.70m (31ft 9 3/4in); length 6.44m (21ft 1 1/2in); height 2.64m (8ft 8in); wing area 26.80sq m (288.482sq ft).
   Empty weight 825kg (1,818Ib); loaded weight 1,160kg (2,557Ib); wing loading 43.3kg/sq m (8.8Ib/sq ft); power loading 3.84kg/hp (48.4Ib/hp).
   Maximum speed 126kt (145mph); cruising speed 92kt (106mph); landing speed 50kt (59mph); climb to 4,000m (13,123ft) in 13min 30sec; service ceiling 8,000m (26,246ft); endurance 2hr.
   608 built from December 1923 to January 1932.
Nakajima Army Type Ko 4 Fighter, a licence-produced Nieuport 29-C-1.
A rare inflight view of a Nakajima Army Type Ko 4 Fighter.
Army Type Otsu 1 Reconnaissance Aircraft (Kawasaki-Salmson 2-A.2)

   At the end of the First World War, the president of Kawasaki Dockyard, Kojiro Matsugata, received a strong indication that the Army intended acquiring a number of Salmson 2-A.2 aircraft. The Army was impressed by this aeroplane of which several were taken to Japan by the Mission Francaise d' Aeronautique in January 1919 and in which Japanese pilots and crews were trained by the French. Wishing to enter the aircraft manufacturing market, Matsugata went to Paris and acquired the manufacturing rights for the Salmson 2-A.2 reconnaissance aeroplane along with its engine. He also shipped two of these aircraft and one Salmson 7A.2 to Japan, arriving there in August 1919.
   Before their arrival, Kawasaki secured a contract from the Army for the manufacture of the Salmson. In 1920, in order to study the Salmson manufacturing process, the company sent to the Salmson factory in France, Engineer Suzuki, and senior mechanics of the automobile section, Kasahara and Nishida along with Engineer Miwa and chief mechanic Hayashi of the head office, and they returned with the knowledge and materials needed for Salmson production. At the same time, the Army wanted to begin its own manufacture of this aircraft but only had a licence to build the engine. Army aircraft production began however, under the guise of 'aircraft repair.' Salmson filed a protest, and mediation by the manager of Kawasaki's Aeroplane Deparnnent, Tomokichi Takezaki, cleared the way for continued Army production.
   The two production sources worked in collaboration. The Army completed its first Salmson 2-A.2 in late 1920 at Tokorozawa and officially accepted it in December 1921 as the Type Otsu 1 Reconnaissance Aircraft. Kawasaki sent engineers Suzuki and Arai to Tokorozawa to learn ways of speeding its own production and this enabled Kawasaki to complete its first two prototypes in November 1922. One, assembled from Army parts, the other built solely by Kawasaki, received serial numbers 1001 and 1002 respectively.When flight tests were successfully accomplished, the Army placed an order for 45 with Kawasaki, followed by further orders reaching 300 aircraft before production terminated in August 1927. These Japanese aircraft were identical to the French Salmson 2A.2 with the exception of some with modifications around the engine cowling and seats. Kawasaki imported fifty-six engines from Salmson for installation in early production aircraft, but after 1923 all airframes were equipped with Kawasaki-built engines. In time, the Army fitted some with dual controls to use them as trainers. Some variants had a forward-firing fixed machine-gun, or wing-mounted shackles for six small bombs or small flare bombs.
   In April 1923, when production of the Type Otsu 1 was well underway, Kawasaki began a performance-improvement project calling for modification of existing aircraft. Withdrawing two Type Otsu 1 aircraft from production and the imported Salmson 7-A.2, which was the French improved version of their 2-A.2, modifications were made on them, including the use of the more powerful 300hp Salmson AZ-9 engine, and a radiator change to the Lamblin type. Dimensions remained the same but the modified aircraft were 100kg heavier in empty weight. However, with the added power, an increase in performance was expected, but engine overheating problems brought a decision to retain the original 230hp Z-9 engines.
   As the Army reorganized its air units according to the French system, the Type Otsu 1s were assigned to bomber units as interim light bombers. The first combat from the Army Type Otsu 1 took place in October 1922 while operating in Siberia. In the Manchurian and Shanghai Incidents, the Type Otsu 1s were also very active, not only in their original reconnaissance role, but for bombing, liaison, light cargo transport, message pick-up and dropping, smoke-screen laying and ration re-supply. Because of their large numbers they remained in service as the Army's primary aircraft until replaced by the Type 88 Reconnaissance Aircraft around 1933. Those released to civilians as surplus aircraft were popular during the biplane era together with Avro 504Ks and Hanriots.

   Single-engine two-bay reconnaIssance biplane. All-wood structure with fabric covering. Crew of two in open cockpits.
   230-260hp Kawasaki Salmson Z.9 nine-cylinder water-cooled radial engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Single or twin dorsal flexible 7. 7mm machine-guns, with optional forward-firing fixed 7.7mm machine-gun.
   Span 11.767m (38ft 71/4in); length 8.624m (28ft 3in); height 2.90m (9ft 6in); wing area 37.27sq m (401.174sq ft).
   Empty weight 930kg (2,050Ib); loaded weight 1,500kg (3,306Ib); wing loading 40.2kg/sq m (8.2Ib/sq ft); power loading 6.51 kg/hp (14.35Ib/hp).
   Maximum speed 101 kt (116mph) at 2,000m (6,562ft); climb to 3,000m (9,843ft) in 11 min 42 sec; service ceiling 5,800m (19,028ft); endurance 3 1/2-7hr
   300 built by Kawasaki from November 1922 to August 1927 and approximately 300 built by Tokorozawa Branch of Army Supply Dept.
Kawasaki Army Type Otsu 1 Reconnaissance Aircraft, adapted from the French Salmson 2-A.2.
An Army Type Otsu 1 with Japanese markings.
Ishibashi SPAD XIII Racing Aircraft

   In an effort to make good some of the loss of the three SPAD XIIIs, Ishibashi built a Japanese version of the type by using salvaged parts and making new parts and structures from manufacturing drawings. Assisting him were his engineer Tsuruzo Takeda and apprentice Ryo Kitazato. Unable to replace the 220hp Hispano-Suiza engine, he bought a 180hp Hispano from Sale & Frazar Ltd as a substitute. A larger fuel tank was installed in the under-fuselage of this single-seat aeroplane to extend the range for his planned competitions. This gave the aeroplane a much fatter appearance than the standard SPAD XIII.
   Upon completion, Ishibashi entered the Fourth Prize-winning Airmail Flying Contest which was flown between Kanazawa on the central northwest coast and Hiroshima on the southwest coast of Honshu on 3 November, 1921. On the way, he was forced to make an emergency landing at Fukuyama, Hiroshima Prefecture, because of lack of fuel caused by stronger than expected headwinds. A year later, Ishibashi entered his aeroplane in the Tokyo-Osaka Airmail Roundrobin Flight Competition. It demonstrated its superior performance with its high speed capability but lost the first place because of an infringement of the rules.
Ishibashi SPAD XIII Racing Aeroplane
Other early flights in Japan included the glider flights of Navy Lieut Shiro Aihara. With the assistance of the French Military Attache, 2-Lt Leprieur, who had witnessed flights in France, they built a glider using bamboo for the structure, and made gliding tests with an automobile as a tug in December 1909 at Ueno Park. This was the first glider flight in Japan.
   Aihara was one of three Naval officers assigned to the Provisional Military Balloon Research Association. In this capacity, he was sent to Germany on 19 February, 1910, to study aeronautics. While on a training night on 4 January, 1911, he was thrown from the aeroplane during an emergency landing and died from injuries four days later.
The first gliding flights in Japan was made by this bamboo-frame glider in December 1909 at Ueno Park, Tokyo, a year in advance of the first powered flight in Japan.
Awazu Flight Research Studio (Awazu Hiko Kenkyusho)

   Minoru Awazu, an aviation enthusiast, was the third son of one of the chief guardians of the Ohtani families of the Higashi Honganji Temple in Kyoto and this social status gave Awazu the opportunity to pursue interests which were denied to those whose primary purpose had to be that of survival. He founded the Kyoto Flight Education Society, and because of his continued enthusiasm, this expanded to the manufacture of aeroplanes and later, to a flying training business.
   Using his educational background acquired at an industrial arts school, he made a makeshift workshop in a room in the temple and, around 1918, established an aeroplane company that he called the Awazu Flight Research Studio. With his first and only aeroplane, and a taxi-ing trainer, Awazu embarked upon the flying training business at the area that was known as Katsuragawa Airfield (later called Awazu Flying School) on the dry bed of the Katsura River in Kyoto, managed by aviator Ginzo Nojima.

Awazu No.2 Seicho-go Aeroplane

   Having acquired a 70hp Mercedes Daimler engine confiscated from the Germans during the Japanese-German encounters in Tsingtao in China, Awazu and Nojima began the design of their new aeroplane. The propeller and the radiator were fashioned according to technical documents brought back from China with the engine. When their design was completed, construction was turned over to Terutaka Tamai, a younger brother of the late Seitaro Tamai, an established builder of aeroplanes under this name.
   When the aeroplane was completed in March 1919, the high-priest of the Higashi Honganji Temple, Kouen Ohtani, named it the Seicho-go, meaning Bluebird. To have a safe place for making its first flight, the aeroplane was moved by rail to Tokyo and the sandy triangular ground at Haneda where Seitaro Tamai had established a flying field for his Nippon Flying School. Satisfied with success after several flights made by Terutaka Tamai, Awazu had the aeroplane shipped again, this time to Yokkaichi on Ise Bay, south of Nagoya, home of the Tamai family and aircraft
   On a commemorative flight on 26 August, 1919, however, after taking off from the Chikko reclaimed ground, Tamai had to make an emergency landing due to rapidly deteriorating weather, and the aeroplane turned over upon landing. After repair, he made a flight over Kyoto from the Fukakusa Parade Grounds in October 1919 at Awazu's request, and delivered the aeroplane to Awazu.
   With the aeroplane to hand, Awazu Flight Research Studio became the Awazu Flying School at the so-called Katsuragawa Airfield situated on the Katsura Riverbed. For flying training, he used this Seicho-go Aeroplane and the 35hp Franklin powered Awazu No.3 Ground Taxi-ing Trainer. As instructors, he acquired the services of Sadajiro Okamoto and Fumisaburo Kataoka, both former members of the Tamai Airfield.
   This location for flight training became impractical when the river filled, causing interruption of flying lessons. After much criticism from the students, flying was moved to the Fukakusa Parade Grounds in Kyoto, but coupled with poor management influenced by Awazu's weak and vacillating character, many students left the school and eventually the airfield and flying school were closed.
   Converting the Seicho-go to a floatplane, Awazu used the aeroplane on nearby Lake Biwa, the first seaplane operation there, and established a seaplane base.

   Single-engine tractor biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Two seats in open cockpits.
   70hp Mercedes Daimler four-cylinder inline water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 11.54m (37ft 10 1/4in); length 7.22m (23ft 8 1/4); height 2.88m (9ft 4 3/4in); wing area 27. 7sq m (298.17sq ft).
   Empty weight 453kg (998lb); loaded weight 726kg (1,600lb).
   Maximum speed 61 kt (70mph); climb to 1,000m (3,280ft) in 10min; endurance 1hr.
   One built, in March 1919.
Awazu No.2 Seicho-go Aeroplane. Seicho on the tail means Bluebird.

   One of the members of the Provisional Military Balloon Research Association (PMBRA) established in 1909, was Army Capt (Infantry) Kumazo Hino from Hitoyoshi, Kumamoto Prefecture. As has already been described in the section on the PMBRA and in the introduction to this history, Hino was the first japanese to make a flight in Japan (although recorded as unofficial). His interest in aviation long preceded his official preparation for his flight, and also prevailed long after, to the extent that it interfered with his official duties. Hi personal attempts in building aircraft ended in failure, but these failures led to the success of others' and are therefore worthy of record.

Hino No.1 Aeroplane

   Aside from his official duties, Hino studied foreign reports on the design and building of aircraft, an interest in which he was deeply involved. Obtaining space at the Hayashida Wood Works at Gokencho, Ushigome-ku, Tokyo, in late 1909, he began building his single-seat aeroplane. The structural members were made of bamboo and japanese cypress (hinoki), giving the aeroplane a wing span of 8m (26ft 3in) and length of 5m (16ft 5in). He designed and built his own engine for his project called the Hino two-cycle engine developing 8hp and installed it as a tractor on the front of the airframe. Empty weight of the aeroplane was 110kg (242lb) and when loaded it weighed 180kg (396lb). From 6 to 18 March, 1910, at Toyamagahara in Tokyo, he relentlessly attempted to make the aeroplane become airborne, but because of insufficient power, it would only taxi. Nevertheless, the PMBRA purchased the aeroplane from Hino so that it could be used for further experIments.

Hino No.2 Aeroplane

   It was after Capts Hino and Tokugawa were sent to Europe to study aviation and each to bring back an aeroplane, that Hino began the design on his second attempt to build a successful aeroplane of his own. A year after his part in the history-making first flight in Japan in 1910, he built an aero-engine in a laboratory of the Tokyo Army Technical School during his time off between military duties. This engine was a water-cooled, precompression four-cylinder 30hp type, but actually developed only 18hp.
   While developing this engine, he devoted much attention to the building of his second aeroplane in which the engine was to be installed. The aeroplane was a monoplane with a canoe-like pod to accommodate the pilot and the pusher engine. It had a wing span of 9.20m (30ft 2 1/2in) and length of 5.70m (18ft 8 1/2in). A skid extended from the undercarriage rearward to support the empennage. This design was purely original in all aspects.
   Test flights were attempted from 23 to 25 May, 1911, at the Aoyama Parade Grounds but without success. After modifications, further attempts were made at the Yoyogi Parade Grounds from 23 to 25 August, sponsored by the Kokumin Shimbunsha (Nation's Newspaper) to bring attention to aviation, but again without success. Tests were repeated at Kawasaki Stadium, but the aeroplane refused to fly. The reason for failure was insufficient engine power, for it produced approximately half of what was expected. Empty, the aeroplane weighed 170kg (374lb) and loaded it weighed 320kg (705lb).
   Obsessed with these efforts to the detriment of his military duties, the situation was resolved when he was promoted to Major and was 'reassigned to an infantry regiment in Fukuoka in December 1911. The PMBRA also purchased this aeroplane for their experiments.
Hino No.1 Aeroplane
Hino No.2 Aeroplane
Hino No.3 and No.4

   Kamikaze-go Aeroplane Hino's efforts to construct a successful aeroplane continued while at Fukuoka. What became the Hino No.3 Aeroplane was actually a modification of an Iga Maitsuru-go. He first tested the aeroplane at Fukuoka on 20 April, 1912, with poor results, then modified it into a seaplane with 2.20m (7ft 2 1/2in) long floats. Giving the aeroplane the designation Hino No.3 Kai or No.4 Kamikaze-go, he made attempts to fly on 25 September, 1912, at Nezumijima Island near Nagasaki, but again, his aeroplane would not become airborne. Disappointed with three consecutive failures and being criticized for being distracted from his military responsibilities, Hino gave up his interest in aviation. His interest was rekindled and he created a tailess glider in 1937, the development of which was taken over by Kayaba Manufacturing Works (Kayaba Seisakusho) and then by Hidemasa Kimura of the Aeronautical Research Institute of Tokyo Imperial University. Designated HK-1 (Hino Kayaba), it was built by Itoh Aeroplane Co Ltd.
   Kumazo Hino, despite the lack of success with his early designs is looked upon as a major pioneer of japanese aviation. He died on 15 january, 1946, at his home in Azabu, Tokyo, at the age of 67.
Hino No.3 Aeroplane equipped with floats and called Hino No.3 kai or No.4 Kamikaze-go.

   Yonezo Hoshino of Tamachi, Akasaka-ku, Tokyo, was a graduate from Sloane Flying School at Hempstead, Long Island, USA, in 1913 from which he earned international licence No.231. He returned to Japan in july of that year.

Hoshino Aeroplane

   With financial assistance from Kanzaburo Aijima, a member of the japanese Diet, he built his first and original design of a tractor biplane in a warehouse of the Yamashina Maritime Industry Co (Yamashina Kaiji Kogyo Kaisha) in Kobikimachi, Kyobashi-ku, Tokyo. In appearance it resembled an early Curtiss tractor biplane, having its ailerons mounted at mid-point on the wing struts. This single-seat aeroplane had a wing span of 12m (39ft 4 1/2in), was 7.90m (25ft 11in) long, and had an empty weight of 390kg (860lb). It had two mainwheels and a small one at the front of the skid provided to prevent nose-overs. For an engine, always the most critical factor in building an aeroplane, Hoshino borrowed a 50hp Gnome air-cooled rotary from his friend Tetsusaburo Tsuzuku, also a builder of aircraft.
   Completed in August 1914, Hoshino's aeroplane was first flown very successfully at Inage across the bay from Tokyo. During a later flight on 13 September of that year, he attempted a flight to Tokyo, but while flying in fog and having to stay very close to the surface to maintain visual contact around Tsukijima, his port wingtip hit a post that was standing in the water, and he was forced to make an emergency landing nearby on a muddy area of reclaimed land. This enforced landing damaged the nose and propeller of the aeroplane and Hoshino was injured.
   After the aeroplane was repaired, he redesignated it Hoshino No.2 Aeroplane, although only minor changes had been made. Beginning in October 1914, he took the aeroplane on an exhibition tour starting at Shizuoka and Gifu. Again, Hoshino sustained injuries and damaged his aeroplane when the engine failed on 31 October. With repairs made, undaunted he flew on to Hamamatsu, Maisaka and Hamanako, all on 30 November, and to Fukui on 10 to 12 December. By now, however, he was committed to return the borrowed engine to Tsuzuku who needed it to power an aeroplane ordered by the Chinese revolutionary army. Thus, without an engine, he was also without an aeroplane, so he assisted his friend Tetsusaburo Tsuzuku with the delivery of the Tsuzuku No.3 Aeroplane to Shantung in northeast China, and served as an instructor pilot.
   The Hoshino No.2 Aeroplane remained at Inage, was soon given a 70hp Gnome rotary engine and converted into a two-seat aircraft. It is known to have flown from the Tokyo Aoyama Parade Grounds on 22 September, 1916, in this configuration, but no further details are known.
Hoshino Aeroplane.

   Yoshinori Ichimori was born into a wealthy family in Higashi Tengajaya, Osaka. An early hobby was that of automobiles and related driving. Soon, his attention turned to aviation and in early February 1919 he acquired the Tamura Tractor from the estate of the late Toshikazu Tamura. After it was destroyed (see Shirato Takeru-go Aeroplane) his desire was to build an aircraft of his own and in order to do so he constructed a building on the family property.

Ichimori Monocoque Aeroplane

   In early 1919, Ichimori purchased a US-built 100hp Maxim engine around which he designed a biplane with the help of a close friend and aviator, Ginzo Nojima. This had a single-seat fuselage with monocoque construction which closely resembled the pfalz D XII fighter of the First World War. Since very little plywood was available in Japan, he made his own laminations with three-layers of Japanese cypress (hinoki) with isinglass, imported from the United States, as an adhesive. The wing design used the USA 2 aerofoil and the wings and empennage were fabric covered. Dope was applied to the fabric surfaces. For a homebuilt-aeroplane the design was impressive.
   Completing his aircraft in November 1919, Ichimori prepared it for flight at Okinohara Airfield in
Yokkaichi, southeast of Lake Biwa. While Noburu Fujiwara was preparing to make the maiden flight and about to start the engine, the aircraft caught fire as the result of a fuel leak and was completely destroyed in less than a minute, the loss of an investment of 18,000 yen. (see other misfortunes of Noburu Fujiwara under Itoh Emi 6 Aeroplane.)

   Single-engine homebuilt biplane. Fuselage of plywood monocoque construction, wings and empennage of wood with fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
   100hp Maximotor six-cylinder inline water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span upper 8.84m (29ft), lower 8.53m (27ft 11 1/2in); length 6.55m (21ft 5 1/4in); wing area 25.55sq m (275.026sq ft).
   Empty weight 499kg (1,100lb); loaded weight 683kg (1,505lb).
   Maximum speed 78kt (90mph); minimum speed 39kt (45mph); endurance 2 1/2hr. Estimated figures.
   One built in 1919.
Ichimori Monocoque Aeroplane.

   One of three barons in early Japanese aviation history, Ujihiro Iga was a family member of the Tosa-Sukumo clan, born around 1886. During his enlistment in the Army, he had an idea for a flying machine that could be used as a scout. He applied for a patent for his idea on 23 April, 1910, which was granted on 4 October of that year (Pat N.18633). After his discharge from the Army in March 1911 he built a model of his concept that he called the Iga Flying Device which closely resembled a biplane.
   Iga's next venture was a monoplane glider with bamboo frame and fabric covering. The glider had an 8m (26ft 3in) wing span and weighed 90kg (198 1/2Ib). This was tested by being towed behind a car at Itabashi Race Track, Tokyo, on 16 March, 1911, with perhaps little success since the undercarriage was damaged during this attempt and nothing further was recorded.

Iga Maitsuru-go Aeroplane

   In the summer of 1911, Baron Iga began the construction of a powered monoplane. At that time, a publishing company, the Science World Co (Kagaku Sekai Sha) was promoting aviation by publishing a special issue called Air Flying. The editor, Orito, became a sponsor of Iga and his flying machine, and the financier of the publishing company, Kihei Yanagihara, supported part of the construction expense. For an engine, Narazo Shimazu, the manager of Tankin, the long-established ornamental silverware store in Osaka, had built an Anzani fan-type three-cylinder 25hp engine which was then used for this aeroplane.
   Named Maitsuru-go Aeroplane, meaning Dancing Crane, it closely resembled a reduced-span Bleriot monoplane. Iga had written to Louis BIeriot who kindly sent him drawings of his aeroplane which he used as reference. With this design concept, the flexibility of the wings was gained by using bamboo for wing ribs whose fabrication was assisted by a master bow-maker, Yasaku Ishizu. When completed in December 1911, it could truthfully be said that this aeroplane was built entirely from Japanese materials, something of note in these early times of Japanese-built machines.
   On 24 December, 1911, a test flight attempt was made at the Tokyo Yoyogi Military Parade Grounds, being witnessed by Dr Aikichi Tanakadate and Capt Yoshitoshi Tokugawa, the latter having been the first man to fly in Japan the year before. Causing disappointment but not urprise, the aeroplane did not fly, because of engine problems, the norm in these early days rather than the exception.
   Following this attempt, Iga ended his aviation research at his family's insistence. As a result, the airframe was handed over to Capt Kumazo Hino, the strong advocate of aviation and a member of the Provisional Military Balloon Research Association. (see Hino No.3 Aeroplane.)

   Single-engine Bleriot-type monoplane. Primarily bamboo construction with fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
   2Shp Shimazu Anzani-type three-cylinder fan-type air-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 8m (26ft 3in); length 7.50m (24ft 7 1/4in).
   Empty weight 205kg (452Ib).
   One built in December 1911.
Iga Maitsuru-go Aeroplane.
Inagaki Tractor

   Yasuji Inagaki, was the second son of Buntaro Inagaki, a civil contractor in Kyoto. It was Yasuji Inagaki's intention to design and build a biplane as a home-type project. As problems with the aeroplane continued to develop so did Inagaki's frustrations, Otojiro Itoh of the Itoh aircraft company was asked to assist with the project and make the aeroplane flyable at the Yokaichi Airfield, followed by exhibition flights over Kyoto.
   Itoh accepted the request but with the provision that his work be done at his company location at Inage, in Chiba Prefecture, and that no deadline be set for the date of the test flight. The fee would have been somewhere between 500 and 600 yen. Reluctantly, Inagaki sent the airframe to Inage where Itoh began his work. This included almost rebuilding the fuselage for the increased strength thought to be necessary, along with other modifications. To assure a better chance of success, Itoh installed his 80hp Hall-Scott engine. After three months, the task was completed.
   The aeroplane was test flown on 7 August, 1917, by Itoh attaining a rewarding altitude of at least 30m (100ft). With this success and his continued obligation to Inagaki, Itoh planned exhibition flights at Kyoto for the middle of September of that year as agreed, but Inagaki was not meeting his promise to Itoh for payment. As a result, on 14 December, 1917, Itoh removed his engine from the aeroplane after test flying it at Osaka in conjunction with his own demonstration flights in the Itoh Emi 2 Aeroplane. Inagaki frequently asked Itoh to make further demonstrations of his aeroplane at Kyoto the next January, but Itoh refused.
Inagaki Tractor

   Born on 14 August, 1877, at Zaimoku-cho, Kanazawa City, Ishikawa Prefecture, Onokichi Isobe developed his interest in aviation around 1908 when he was the chief engineer of the third reserve ship Anekawa as a Lieut-Cdr in the japanese Navy. While stationed aboard this ship, he designed and built a small glider equipped with floats that he would drop, with ballast, from the ship to alight on the water. Since this worked successfully, he then attempted to tow the model behind a torpedo-boat but this ended in failure.
   At his request, Isobe was reassigned to the first reserve ship Otoha (formerly a cruiser) with home port at Yokosuka. On this assignment, his senior officer was Cdr Odagiri, an officer who shared his interest in aeronautical theory and gave Isobe encouragement and assistance.

Isobe Seaplane

   Onokichi Isobe designed and built a Henri Farman type seaplane with help from seamen stationed at, and materials acquired from, the Yokosuka Naval Engineering School. A most noticeable feature of this biplane design was the use of a single-interplane strut instead of the conventional two parallel struts. This was accomplished by using bracing-wires to prevent vertical twisting of the wing on the single strut. It was a seaplane glider at first, equipped with a pair of inflatable rubber-lined canvas floats made for him by the Meiji Rubber Co in Shinagawa, Tokyo. For this combined design, he applied for a patent on 8 April, 1910, which was granted on 16 November of that year (No.18825) as the Isobe Aeroplane.
   When used as a two-seat glider, it was launched on the water at Shirahama beach, at Yokosuka, on 19 April, 1910. After confirming its stability while afloat, Isobe then had it towed by a steamboat at a speed of approximately 18 knots. The glider became airborne to a height of about 3m and flew for approximately 60m. At that point the glider went out of control and hit the water, wingtip first. Although this test ended in failure, it proved that an aeroplane could take off from and alight on the water in this fashion. It was to be another year before imported aircraft would be flown by the Navy for the first time from the Naval facility at Oppama. It is assumed that this Isobe aircraft was eventually repaired and had an engine installed.

Isobe No.2 Aeroplane

   With this taste of success, Isobe began immediately to build his second man-carrying aircraft. As soon as the airframe was completed, he asked the Provisional Military Balloon Research Association to let him borrow an engine for his new aeroplane. This request from outside the PMBRA was granted reluctantly, for the members looked upon Isobe's work as that of an amateur and unauthorized. It was with the help of Dr Aikichi Tanakadate that assistance was granted. (see Iga Maitsuro-go Aeroplane for details of Tanakadate)
   A number of taxi-ing tests were made at Shirahama beach, but when Admiral Sotokichi Uryu, Commander of Yokosuka Naval Station, was there, Isobe attempted to fly the aeroplane, but at the point of take off, the nose dug into the water and the aircraft turned over due to a design flaw in the control system and was severely damaged. Isobe planned to build a No.3 Aeroplane to correct the flaws that were suspected, but with his personal funds already exhausted, he was forced to abandon further plans. He left the Navy on 1 December, 1911, at age 33.

   Single-engine tractor biplane seaplane with fore and aft stabilizers. Wooden structure with fabric-covered wings and empennage. Pilot seated in open structure.
   25hp Anzani three-cylinder fan-type air-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 8m (26ft 3in); length 8.30m (27ft 2 3/4in); height 2.70m (8ft 10 1/4in).
   Empty weight 410kg (903Ib).
   One built in April 1910.
Although of very poor quality, this rare photograph gives some idea of the layout of the Isobe No.2 Aeroplane.
Itoh Aeroplane Research Studio (ltoh Hikoki Kenkyusho)

   The Itoh Aeroplane Works came into being on 30 January, 1915. It was his enthusiasm for and love of flying that prompted Otojiro Itoh to become involved with aviation and eventually to create his own aircraft manufacturing company. This is in sharp contrast to other aircraft companies in Japan whereby the more prominent ones had their beginnings with military contracts that assured success. Never a large company or builder of aircraft in quantity, Itoh was one of the earliest prominent companies and the first established aircraft manufacturer in Japan.
   While employed as a young man by the Sadoshima Copper and Iron Company in his hometown of Osaka, Otojiro Itoh became inspired with flight when seeing the Wright brothers' success in a film. He wrote to the Japanese aviation pioneer Sanji Narahara, asking him what was needed to get into the field of aviation. He was advised that he should have schooling in mechanical engineering and Itoh diligently obeyed by attending night school.
   At the age of 19, in 1910, ltoh left home and moved to Tokyo where he worked as a mechanic at the Narahara aeroplane company. Impressed with his eagerness and interest in aviation, Narahara made ltoh an assistant to Einosuke Shirato, who had worked exclusively for Narahara as a pilot. This association was interrupted when Itoh reached the age of 20 because, like all other young Japanese men, he was conscripted for a one year term of service in the military. Upon returning to Narahara in 1912, he assisted in the manufacture of the aeroplanes and accompanied demonstration flights around Japan as a ground crewman.
   As spare-time employment, ltoh assisted Shigesaburo Torigai with the manufacture of the Torigai Hayabusa-go Aeroplane which eventually crashed in September 1913. ltoh borrowed this aeroplane, quit his job and moved with the aeroplane to Inage, on Tokyo Bay just north of Chiba City. There he made repairs and modifications to the aeroplane, and began to learn to fly with the help of two others. The sandy beach there proved an excellent runway, but its availability was dependent upon the height of the tide. After three months of flying training, maintaining and repairing his own aircraft, he had accumulated a total of a mere 3 hours of flying.
   Pilot licences, or, for that matter, any regulations concerning flying and aeroplanes were yet to come. Therefore, Itoh established a flying school on the beach at Inage in February 1915, and called it the ltoh Kyodo Hiko Renshusho (Itoh Co-operative Flight Training Ground). The ltoh Aeroplane Research Studio and Training Ground were both known to the public as ltoh Airfield. For flying training, he used the Torigai Hayabusa-go Aeroplane after it had been modified. To supplement his income, Itoh joined part time with Shirato, formerly with the Narahara company, who now was building his own aeroplanes. This added income allowed ltoh to begin his commercial construction of aircraft and by the autumn of 1915 he completed his first; the Itoh Emi I.

Itoh Emi 1 Aeroplane

   This was the first aeroplane built by the young aviator Otojiro Itoh, assisted by Toyokichi Daiguchi, Toyotaro Yamagata, and a hired carpenter. The work was begun in September 1915 and the aeroplane was flown for the first time on 11 November that year at Inage Beach. The engine was the French-designed 45hp Gregoire Gyp purchased in August 1914 from Shigesaburo Torigai.
   The aeroplane was a three-bay biplane with fabric-covered wooden structure and four-wheel undercarriage. Since today's common dope was not then available, primer paint was mixed with gelatine and Formalin, and external 'paint' was paraffin dissolved in petrol. The cost of building this aeroplane was about 400 yen, plus 1,200 yen for the engine, extremely cheap when compared to equivalent imported aeroplanes then costing over 10,000 yen.
   This was a time when there were few prepared airfields other than Tokorozawa Army Base. Aviation events normally took place on Army parade grounds, racecourses and dry river beds. Undercarriages had to be designed with sufficient strength for take off and landings from rough surfaces, and normally consisted of twin dual wheels and skids. Ground transport between events was normally by rail, and therefore the airframes were designed for ease of assembly and disassembly as well as repair.
   Overcoming these difficulties, Itoh made a daring flight on 8 january, 1916, from his base at Inage Beach to Tokyo, a distance requiring 55 minutes' flying, making this event the first flight by a civil aeroplane to Tokyo. This was the first of fifty-eight cities which he visited to demonstrate his aeroplane and create air mindedness in Japan. This was the second successful japanese-made civil aeroplane, following the Narahara 4 Ohtori-go Aeroplane.
   The success of the Emi 1 was not only due to Itoh's excellent design but also to his own flying ability. To express his appreciation to sponsors in Ebisu-cho, Osaka, where he was born, he named his aeroplane Emi-go (Emi and Ebi are the same when written in Kanji) and continued to use this name for his aircraft. Later the Emi 1 was used by Masaaki Fujiwara who replaced the engine with a 50hp Hino Type engine and used it for flying training at Inage.

   Single-engine tractor biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
   35-45hp Gregoire Gyp four-cylinder water-cooled inline engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 11.50m (37ft 8 3/4in); length 6.65m (21 ft 9 3/4in); height 2.50m (8ft 2 1/2in); wing area 33sq m (355.22sq ft).
   Empty weight 350kg (771lb).
   Maximum speed 41kt (47mph).
   One built in 1915.
Itoh Emi 1 Aeroplane
Itoh Emi 2 Aeroplane

   These early aircraft were noted for their short life span, so, early in 1917, Otojiro Itoh designed and built what he called the Emi 2 Aeroplane as a replacement for the ageing Emi 1. The engine and the propeller were those removed from the Emi 1. The new aeroplane was smaller than the earlier craft in the hope of increasing general performance. The wings were changed from three-bay to two-bay configuration, and an aerofoil with less drag was used. The undercarriage was changed from twin dual-wheels to a single wheel each side, and bungee cords were used for shock absorbers. The aeroplane was completed in April 1917 and on its first flight climbed to an altitude of 5,000m in 3min 40sec.
   After making flying demonstrations at many locations around Japan beginning at Tsuyama in May 1917, Itoh made a triumphal flight over Osaka, visiting his home town in September 1917. While there, the coast of Tokyo Bay was hit by a typhoon and a tidal wave on the night of 30 September - 1 October, 1917, destroying his hangar on the east side of the bay at Inage Beach. Fortunately for Itoh, the Emi 2 Aeroplane and his staff, normally based there, were safe in Osaka. (see fate of NFS Tamai 2 Trainer).
   After many demonstrations, the aeroplane was used as a trainer at Itoh Airfield which had by then been moved to nearby Tsudanuma Beach from Inage on 12 April, 1918. Eventually, the aeroplane passed into the hands of new operators at faraway Fukunaga Airfield at Kakezuka-cho, Iwatagun, just east of Hamamatsu. After training in the Emi 2, aviator Asao Fukunaga took the aeroplane to the Osaka area for demonstrations in August 1919. Misfortune plagued this inexperienced aviator. On one occasion, after taking off from Ikeda City to fly over his hometown of adjacent Toyonaka, the aircraft nosed over and turned onto its back after landing on the parade grounds. (This is thought to be the site of the present Osaka International Airport.) Although badly damaged, the Emi 2 was soon repaired. In the following May, soon after taking off from Osaka's Joto Army Parade Grounds, the aeroplane levelled off too soon and struck the roof of a private house, bringing a sudden end to the Emi 2.

   Single-engine two-bay biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
   35-45hp Gregoire Gyp four-cylinder water-cooled inline engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 9m (29ft 6 1/4in); height 2.25m (7ft 4 1/2in); wing area 25sq m (269.106 sq ft).
   Empty weight 250kg (551Ib)
   Maximum speed 46kt (53mph).
   One built in 1917.

Fukunaga Aeroplane Manufacturing Works (Fukunaga Hikoki Seisakusho)

   One of few privately financed companies to be classed as a manufacturer of aircraft was founded by Asao Fukunaga from Ikeda-cho, Osaka. He was first associated with aviation when in 1917 he imported a Bleriot 25 which he called the Tenryu 1. He then built an imitation of a Caudron-type tractor biplane in the hangar of the former Sempu Flying School in Yokkaichi, southeast of Lake Biwa. Designated Tenryu 2, it failed to fly because it was underpowered with a 25hp Anzani engine. It was used instead as a ground taxiing trainer. Recognizing his need for further knowledge and experience in aviation, Fukunaga attended the ltoh Flying School in April 1918 at Tsudanuma and acquired a graduate certificate within two months of starting his training.

Fukunaga Tenryu 3 Trainer

   To help Fukunaga establish a flying school of his own, ltoh released the Emi 2 Aeroplane to him and took it to Osaka. Using numerous fields in trying to find a suitable place for his flying school, the aeroplane was frequently damaged and repaired. Eventually Fukunaga settled on the dry river bed of Tenryu River in Kakezuka-cho, Iwata-gun, Shizuoka Prefecture, near his family's place of origin, where he established in November 1919 what was at first the Fukunaga Aeroplane Research Studio. Because of the many repairs and modifications, his aeroplane was so unlike the original Emi 2 Aeroplane that he renamed it the Tenryu 3 Aeroplane, a name he applied in retrospect to the two previous aircraft and continued to use, numerically sequenced, to those that followed.
   The Tenryu 3 was used to provide flying training for his younger brothers, Shiro and Goro, followed by other students who were merely allowed to taxi the aeroplane since the 1911 Gregoire Gyp engine was all but worn out and difficult to adjust. (see ltoh Emi 2).

   Single-engine tractor biplane trainer. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Student and instructor in open cockpit.
   45hp Gregoire Gyp four-cylinder inline water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span, upper 9.75m (32ft); lower 7.92m (26ft); length 5.93m (19ft 5 1/2in); wing area 20.8sq m (223.896sq ft).
   Maximum speed 48kt (55mph).
   One built in 1917.
Itoh Emi 2 Aeroplane
Fukunaga Tenryu 3 Trainer.
Itoh Emi 3 Seaplane

   In 1916, with the failure of Ikunosuke Umino to provide aerial demonstrations with his Christofferson Flying-boat because of its unreliable Hall-Scott engine, newspaper reporter Kokutempu Koyama of the Asahi Shimbun urged Itoh while performing at Iida-cho, Nagano Prefecture, to equip his Emi 1 Aeroplane with floats for water operations. While touring, he purchased the Hall-Scott engine from Umino, despite the problems it caused while installed in the Christofferson Flying-boat including an inflight fire.
   Using his experience of land-based aircraft, Otojiro Itoh designed a seaplane with twin wooden floats and built it at Inage Beach. Assisted by Toyokichi Daiguchi and Toyotaro Yamagata, and with the help of student pilots, the aeroplane was completed in August 1917 and proved to have excellent flying characteristics. It was then dismantled and transported to Osaka by rail.
   In preparation for demonstration flights, the Emi 3 Seaplane was assembled and maintained in a hangar located on the beach at Nishinomiya, just west of Osaka. It proved a successful venture for Itoh with frequent visitors paying to see this seaplane in operation. This became known as japan's first civil float aircraft, and it had a reputation for good stability and flying performance. Itoh named the Emi 3, Kamome-go, meaning seagull.

   Single-engine twin-float biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pilot and one passenger in open cockpit.
   80hp Hall-Scott eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 15.41m (50ft 6 1/2in); length 7.27m (23ft 10 1/4in); height 4.51 m (14ft 9 1/2in); wing area 46.5sq m (500.53sq ft)
   Empty weight 580kg (1,278Ib)
   Maximum speed 43kt (50mph).
   One built in 1917.
Itoh Emi 3 Seaplane
Itoh Emi 6 Aeroplane) (Fujiwara Tsubame-go)

   This was a typical two-bay sports biplane of the period, having a simple, light-weight wooden structure with fabric covering. Completed in May 1918 with a 40hp Elbridge four-cylinder inline watercooled engine, it was built at the request of Masaaki Fujiwara, from Tsuyama-cho, Okayama Prefecture. Fujiwara (who later changed his first name to Noburu) was one of the top bicycle racers in Japan, and had won the cycle racing championship in the Far East Olympic Games in Shanghai in 1916. Early in 1917, he decided to be an aviator, and took his training at the Itoh Airfield.
   With the help of sponsors in Kobe, Fujiwara purchased this Itoh Emi 6 which he named Fujiwara Tsubame-go (Swallow), after the brand name of his favourite bicycle. Fujiwara moved to Kobe, taking his aircraft with him. While test flying this aeroplane from the Naruo Horse Racing Track west of Osaka on 13 November, 1918, he overshot on landing and badly damaged it. After major repairs and following a safe test flight on 14 December, he decided on a new name for his aeroplane, the Kobe-go.
   Flying mishaps continued for Fujiwara. On 5 january, 1919, immediately after taking off from Naruo enroute to Kobe, the aeroplane stalled and crashed. Fujiwara survived, but the aeroplane did not; yet it is said that the misfortunes of Fujiwara in flying this and other aircraft established a new record of continuous air accidents for any one person. (see Ichimori Monocoque Aeroplane).
   These misfortunes did not dampen Fujiwara's spirits, for he continued to fly with second-hand aircraft such as other Itoh Emi aeroplanes, Nakajima Type 5, converted Navy Type 10 Carrier Fighter, Type 14 Reconnaissance Seaplane and others, with repeated accidents and damage to the aeroplanes. To satisfy his mounting debts, he sold the six bath-houses he owned and withdrew from active participation in aviation. According to his own account, after 1,040 flying hours, he was involved in three total crashes, twelve over-turning on take off or landing, and four emergency landings. This became a classic case of 'quitting while still ahead' (and alive).
   Technical data are not available.
Itoh Emi 6 Aeroplane, also known as the Fujiwara Tsubame-go.
Itoh Emi 9 Trainer

   A number of new student pilots arrived at the Itoh Aeroplane Research Studio after it relocated to Tsudanuma Beach following the tidal wave. A new two-seat trainer became a necessity. A frequent visitor to ltoh Airfield, Tomotari Inagaki involved himself with this project and, while still not employed by the company, he created a stable and practical two-seat trainer powered by an 80hp Hall-Scott engine which had been installed in the Emi 3 Seaplane. This was designated the Emi 9, and became the first authentic trainer aircraft at the Itoh Airfield.
   The design was started in the summer of 1918. To case manufacture, the two-bay wings were without taper, dihedral, and stagger. Ailerons were on the upper wing only. The fuselage was also of simple design, to a large extent based on the Emi 5 with similar nose configuration and side radiator arrangement.
   To obtain more effective control, horn-balances were used on the rudder and elevators, the first on a japanese-built civil aeroplane.

   Single-engine two-bay biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pupil and instructor in open cockpit.
   80hp Hall-Scott eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 9.80m (32ft 2in); length 7.45m (24ft 5 1/4in); height 2.30m (7ft 6 1/2in).
   Empty weight 350kg (771Ib).
   Maximum speed 60kt (69mph).
   One built in 1918.
Itoh Emi 9 Trainer
This view of the Eьi 9 shows the side radiator.
Itoh Tsurubane No.1 Aeroplane

   Following the move of the company from Inage to nearby Tsudanuma after the tidal wave of 1 October, 1917, the next aeroplane was the Tsurubane No.1 Aeroplane. The aeroplane was to be flown by Toyotaro Yamagata, ltoh's assistant, who showed good qualities as an aviator and was well suited to the task.
   The design evolved around the 50hp Gnome engine from the Tamai No.3 Aeroplane that crashed at Shibaura, Tokyo, in May 1917. This engine was obtained by Yamagata's uncle, Shigesaburo Torigai, with the intention of letting Yamagata design his own aeroplane around it. Eventually, Otojiro Itoh was asked to take over the project, using Yamagata's sketches of the intended design. It was a very simple single-seat two-bay tractor biplane, having as an important feature a very rugged undercarriage. It also had the inherently stable flying qualities which made ltoh's aircraft acknowledged as successful trainers. The name of the aeroplane Tsurubane (Crane's wing) came from Tsurubane Shrine to which Yamagata belonged in his hometown of Hiroshima. This name was painted on the rudder, and No.1 was painted on the sides of the fuselage.
   When the aeroplane was completed on 8 May, 1918, Yamagata took the aeroplane to Hiroshima for early flying demonstrations. From there, after arrangements were made by Asahi Shimbun reporter, Soten Abe, Yamagata visited Korea for nearly the full month of November and made exhibition flights at various locations at the request of the Governor-General in Korea, also named Yamagata. After the tour, exhibition flights were made over Osaka City for an extended period in the spring of 1919. On one occasion another person straddled the fuselage behind the pilot for a low flight over the spectators.
   In its later service life the Tsurubane No.1 Aeroplane served as a trainer for the Itoh flying school. Eventually it was bought by Hisayasu Sakae and donated to AkiItsukushima Shrine near Hiroshima.

   Single-engine two-bay biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
   50hp Gnome seven-cylinder aircooled rotary engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 10m (32ft 9 1/2in); length 6.5m (21 ft 4in); height 2.6m ( 8ft 6 1/2in); wing area 30sq m (322.927sq ft).
   Empty weight 380kg (83 7Ib); loaded weight 520kg (1,146Ib).
   Maximum speed 43kt (50mph).
   One built in 1918.
Itoh Tsurubane No.1 Aeroplane.
Itoh Emi 12 Trainer

   To overcome its shortage of two-seat trainers, the Itoh flying school received a surplus Type Mo-4 (Kishi No.3 Tsurugi-go) pusher aeroplane from Kishi Airfield. From this, Itoh built a tractor training biplane, using the wings and undercarriage from the Kishi aircraft mated to another fuselage, with appropriate modifications. Itoh used an 80hp Shimazu-Le Rhone rotary engine which had received first prize for a Japanese-made engine in 1916. (see Ozaki Tractor Biplane).
   While Motoharu Itoh, a nephew of Otojiro Itoh, was practising ground taxi-ing, he suddenly gave the aeroplane full power and took off, only to stall immediately and crash, badly damaging the aeroplane although the young Itoh escaped serious injury. This was an aeroplane with a very low wing-loading, and pupils disliked it because it was difficult to control.

   Single-engine biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Two seats in open cockpit.
   80hp Shimazu-Le Rhone nine-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 15.50m (50ft 10 1/4in); length 11 m (36ft 1in).
   Empty weight 570kg (1,256Ib).
   Maximum speed 33kt (38mph).
   One built in 1919.
Itoh Emi 12 Trainer
Itoh Tsurubane No.2 Aerobatic Aeroplane

   In 1918, the japanese Army purchased from France some of the most highly regarded military aeroplanes of the First World War, among them Nieuport 24 fighter. This and others were evaluated at the newly established Kagamigahara Army Airfield. At that time, 27 October, 1918, Tomotari Inagaki, a long-time friend of the company, and still studying in Tokyo Polytechnical School, became engineer of Itoh Aeroplane Research Studio. By chance, he had an opportunity to visit Kagamigahara and was able to rationalize the design and manufacture of a small aerobatic aircraft similar to the designs he had just seen. Beginning on 8 January, 1919, Inagaki started his first design as a company employee. It was to be a single-seat single bay biplane, light in weight, rugged, and easy to fly.
   Logically, the design followed that of the Nieuport, but to obtain sufficient lift with the low powered 50hp Gnome engine Inagaki increased the total wing area, yet retained the same overall wing span and chord of the upper wing, by enlarging the lower wing to conform to that of an equal-span biplane rather than the sesquiplane arrangement of the Nieuport. The appearance of this aeroplane was considered radical when compared to other Japanese aircraft at that time.
   The front half of the fuselage was ply-covered. To enhance the aeroplane's appearance and resemble a fighter aircraft after which it was patterned, Itoh himself painted a white crane like a unit insignia on the sides of the fuselage similar to those often used by the French Air Force. This aeroplane was completed on 21 April, 1919, and made its first flight on 25 April.
   Although Yamagata began teaching himself the skills of aerobatic flying, much had to be learned from an English-language book he had bought. His efforts included being suspended upside down while strapped in a chair to visualize control movements while in inverted flight, which must be considered a rather drastic measure by today's standards of teaching. On 5 May, using this aeroplane, he became the first civil pilot in Japan to complete a loop.

   Single-engine single-bay biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
   50hp Gnome seven-cylinder aircooled rotary engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 7.21m (23ft 8in); length 5.77m (18ft 11 1/4in); height 2.38m (7ft 9 1/2in); wing area 14.58sq m (156.942sq ft).
   Empty weight 204kg (450Ib); loaded weight 340kg (749Ib)
   Maximum speed 74kt (85mph); climb to 1,000m (3,280ft) in 4min 30 sec.
   One built in 1919.
Itoh Tsurubane No.2 Aerobatic Aeroplane.
Itoh Emi 5 Aeroplane

   An internationally known showman, Yumito Kushibiki, the man who had invited Art Smith and Katherine Stinson to give flying displays throughout Japan, had been looking for an opportunity to manufacture aero engines, when his friend, William Gorham, suggested that he manufacture airframes as well as aero engines in Japan. The two agreed to a partnership. At the start, in 1918, an American aviator, E. H. Patterson, arrived in Japan bringing a second-hand Gorham 125hp biplane and a new 150hp Gorham engine. The aeroplane closely resembled a Curtiss Jenny and may have been one. It was powered by a 125hp Gorham engine, and was therefore called by the Japanese the Gorham Biplane.
   Patterson announced a plan to begin air mail services between Tokyo and Osaka, but this was met by strong opposition in Japan. Discouraged, he returned to the United States, leaving the aeroplane and engine in the hands of Kushibiki after a final exhibition at Tokorozawa in August 1918.
   The aeroplane was later purchased by Itoh, and with minor modifications it now became the Itoh Emi 5 Aeroplane. ConsequentIy, the Emi 5 was not an aeroplane designed or built by Itoh but was useful to him in later aeroplane designs.
   On 23 October, 1919, the aeroplane participated in the First Tokyo Osaka Airmail Flying Contest, piloted by Toyotaro Yamagata, but did not win a place in the competition. In 1920, the aeroplane was entered in the First Prize-winning Flight Competition, this time piloted by Taiwanese Wen-Ta Shie. It won third-place in the altitude (1,400m) and speed (120 km/h) categories.

   Single-engine two-bay biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pilot and passenger in open cockpits.
   125hp Gorham six-cylinder watercooled inline engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Maximum speed 65kt (75mph); service ceiling 1,400m (4,593ft).
   One modified in 1918.
   Dimensions and weights not known.
Itoh Emi 5 Aeroplane
Izaki, also Sempu Flying School (Privately-built) (Sempu Hiko Gakko)

   When aviator Tsunesaburo Ogita returned to Japan from France in May 1914, he took with him an 80hp Le Rhone powered Morane-Saulnier MS 5 monoplane. He won first prize in the altitude category by reaching 2,000m at the First Civil Flying Meet, at Naruo in june 1914. Later, on 2 September, 1914, when he made an exhibition flight over Kyoto City, he was honoured by His Highness Prince Fushimi by giving his aeroplane the name Sempu, (meaning cut the wind with a wing).
   With this aeroplane, Ogita established the Sempu Flying School in Yokaichi, near Ohtsu by Lake Biwa. After nearly eight months of flying in Japan, the aeroplane crashed soon after taking off from the Fukakusa Military Parade Grounds in Kyoto on 3 january, 1915. It struck the ground at the nearby Army ordnance arsenal, killing Ogita and his assistant Shigeharu O-hashi, and was destroyed. The parts were collected and, along with spares for the aeroplane, were stored at the nearby Kyoto Flight Sponsorship Society (Kyoto Hiko Koenkai).

No.2 Sempu-go Aeroplane

   One month after the fatal crash, the Kyoto Flight Sponsorship Society decided in February 1915 to build an aeroplane from the remaining parts. With a working budget of 2,500 yen, Shozo Izaki and five flying students set about the task of rebuilding. The same 80hp Le Rhone rotary engine was used, but the repair of the engine by the Shimazu Motor company in Osaka delayed completion of the aeroplane until that August. It was called the No.2 Sempu-go Aeroplane in honour of Ogita.
   Initial test flights were made by Army 2-Lt (Reserve) Kyubei Kumaki and Shozo Izaki at the Okinohara ground in Yokaichi. The aeroplane proved very successful and caught the interest of a number of foreign aviators. The first of these was the American pilot Charles F Niles, when, on 31 january, 1916, he set japan's altitude record of 3,050m (10,000ft) with this aeroplane. Later one of the team members of the Miss Katherine Stinson aerobatic circus, pilot engineer Frank Champion, remained in Japan after the team returned to the United States in May 1917. His plan was to make a nonstop flight between Naruo and Tokyo flying the No.2 Sempu-go. In preparation, he equipped the aeroplane with a fuel tank to give a duration of six hours, sufficient for the flight.
   He took off from Naruo on 3 june, 1917, but while en route two emergency landings were made, one near Yokaichi and finally at Hamamatsu because of engine problems. The aeroplane had to be dismantled and returned to Yokaichi by rail for repair. When operational again and while performing in an aerobatic exhibition by Frank Champion on 30 October, 1917, over Kouchi City, Shikoku Island, the aeroplane disintegrated and Champion was killed in the crash.

   Single-engine shoulder-wing monoplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Two in open cockpits.
   80hp Le Rhone nine-cylinder aircooled rotary engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 9.30m (30ft 6in); length 6.58m (21ft 7in); wing area 14.5sqm (156.08sq ft).
   Loaded weight 550kg (1,212Ib).
   Maximum speed 70kt (81 mph); service ceiling 3,000m (9,843 ft); normal endurance 1 1/2hr.
   One built in June 1915.
Izaki No.2 Sempu-go Aeroplane.
Army-built Aeroplanes by the Provisional Military Balloon Research Association (Rinji Gunyo Kikyu Kenkyu Kai), and Army Arsenals (Rikugun Kosho)

   The formation and the background of this first source for Japanese built military aircraft, the Provisional Military Balloon Research Association (PMBRA), has been described in some detail at the beginning of this work. Its origin stemmed from the Imperial Order No.207 that was issued on 30 July, 1909, in that it was to develop new weapons systems, particularly those that pertained to balloons and aeroplanes for their military application along with associated air-to-ground communications.
   Making up this organization were fourteen members from the Army, Navy, Tokyo Imperial University, and the Central Meteorological Observatory. While this was intended to be bipartisan between the two military services, it was determined by Army influence in that Army Lt-Gen Gaishi Nagaoka was appointed the first president, with Col Jiro Inoue a manager, and having their offices at the 7th Division Army Headquarters. These efforts resulted in aircraft that were developed or purchased of which some were put into Army service, while the Navy accepted none of the design. This may well have been because of Army-Navy distrust, for each had its separate development group that fed on findings made by the PMBRA.
   The manufacture of these PMBRA aircraft that were identified as Kaishiki (Association Type) aeroplanes continued until 1916. During this period, officers of the PMBRA supervised modifications of imported Maurice Farmans and the manufacture of some of these took place at the Tokyo Army Artillery Arsenal. New designs that came from the PMBRA were normally built with the joint effort of the PMBRA's Tokorozawa Factory and the Tokyo Army Artillery Arsenal. As aeroplane manufacturing became more technologically orientated, the Nagoya Army Ordnance Arsenal was used for the repair and manufacture of the Type Mo-4 aircraft, and of later types.
   In April 1919, the PMBRA was abolished and replaced by the Army Aviation School of the newly formed Army Department of Aviation. Aeroplanes emerging as a result of this organization were known as Koshiki (School Type) aircraft, instead of by their former designation of Kaishiki. The actual building of these aircraft that had been done by the Tokorozawa Factory was then taken over by the Tokorozawa Branch, Department of Supply, under the Army Department of Aviation. Simultaneously, the research and design of new aeroplanes was absorbed by the Department of Research of the Tokorozawa Army Aviation School.
   During the Army's final phase of aircraft manufacture, the Chikusa Army Machinery & Equipment Manufacturing Works produced aero engines, while airframes were manufactured at the Atsura Army Weapon Manufacturing Works of the Nagoya Army Ordnance Arsenal. With the formation of the Army Air Headquarters on 1 May, 1925, the manufacture of aircraft by the Army was terminated. By this time the design and manufacture of new aeroplanes was undertaken through competition among civilian companies.
   The descriptions of aircraft that follow will identify those that were built under the auspices of the Army production. Resources used in the development and building of aircraft were exclusively those of the Army that centred on the PMBRA facility at Tokorozawa, west of Tokyo, and Army arsenals in Tokyo and Nagoya.

Kaishiki No.1 Aeroplane

   In 1911, Capt Yoshitoshi Tokugawa, an Army committee member of the PMBRA, designed and supervised the construction of the first Japanese-manufactured military aeroplane. This work took place at the Army Balloon Corps facility at Nakano Village, west of Shinjuku, Tokyo.
   Using as a pattern, the Henri Farman of 1910 that had been imported, design began in April 1911 and construction was started the following July. Assistant Engineer Goichi Nakazato supervised the construction, while others assisting were Privates l/c Gisaburo Ohshima, Kichitaro Sugiyama and Jinzo Hirano, along with a carpenter and ten soldiers. Although the engine and the propeller were imported from France, all other materials were procured in Japan. The airframe was mainly constructed of hinoki (Japanese cypress) and covering was two layers of silk glued together by what was described as liquid rubber. Attachment fittings, bracing wires and turn buckles were specially procured from iron works companies or bought from local hardware shops.
   While this was regarded as a Farman-type, it did have its unique differences. It was converted to a sesquiplane design, giving it reduced wing area and therefore increased speed. A change was made to the aerofoil by having a greater frontal curve in the hope of achieving better lift. Ailerons were on the upper wing only, and the tail was simplified by having a single horizontal tail surface. The engine and propeller were mounted higher than in the original design, and therefore the undercarriage could be shortened. A windshield was added for the pilot.
   When completed, in October 1911, it was known as the Tokugawa Type aeroplane, but later was given the official identity Kaishiki No.1 Aeroplane. The aeroplane was moved to the Army facility and flying field at Tokorozawa where it made its first flight on 13 October, piloted by Capt Tokugawa.
   The flight recorded on 25 October, 1911, indicated that the aeroplane reached an altitude of 50m (164ft) and attained a speed of 72km/h (45mph). Maximum height recorded was 85m (278ft) and distance covered was 1,600m (1 mile). As tests continued it was discovered that the propeller ground clearance was too small, causing the propeller blades to make contact with the grass and reducing its rotation speed and resultant power. After modifying this and other necessary changes, the aeroplane was known as the Kaizo Kaishiki No.1, Kaizo signifying modified.
   Changes to the structure included lengthening the undercarriage, and fitting landing skids not integral with the airframe structure so that they could be more easily replaced when broken. The twin rudders were replaced by a single and larger-area rudder to take better advantage of the propeller slipstream for improved directional control. Longer interplane struts gave a greater spacing between the two wings, and the windshield was removed to give the student pilot a better sense of speed, thought at that time to be essential.
   A controversy developed over which aeroplane was the first Japanese-made aeroplane to fly successfully: this Kaishiki No.1 or the civilian Narahara No.2. The problem was that after a straight flight of 60m at a height of 4m, the undercarriage of the Narahara aircraft had failed on landing after its flight on 5 May, 1911, at Tokorozawa, five months before the Army-built craft was flown. Was the flight a failure or a success when the undercarriage broke upon landing? (see Narahara No.2 Aeroplane)
   The following data are for the original Kaishiki No.1 aeroplane.

   Single-engine pusher sesquiplane trainer. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Elevators at nose and tail. Skid-type undercarriage with dual wheels. Open tandem seating.
   50hp Gnome Omega seven-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine, driving a Chauviere two-blade wooden propeller.
   Span (upper) 10.50m (34ft 5 1/2in), (lower) 8m (26ft 3in); length 11.50m (37ft 8 1/2in); height 3.90m (12ft 9 1/2in); wing area 41sq m (441.334sq ft).
   Empty weight 450kg (992Ib); loaded weight 550kg (1,212Ib); wing loading 13.4kg/sq m (2.7Ib/sq ft); power loading 11kg/hp (24.2Ib/hp).
   Maximum speed 39kt (45mph); endurance 3 hr.
   One built in 1911, modified in 1912.

Kaishiki Nos. 2, 3 and 4 Aeroplanes

   With confidence gained by the success of the Kaishiki No.1, the PMBRA began construction of the Kaishiki No.2 in March 1912. Like the first, this was designed by Capt Tokugawa. It was built in the hangar at Tokorozawa Flight Test Grounds, and first flown in June 1912 by Tokugawa.
   Similar designs completed in November 1912 were the No.3 and No.4. Basically, the No.2 was like the No.1 but had a longer undercarriage for better propeller ground clearance. Some changes were made in the interplane strut configuration, and the tailplane and rear elevator were enlarged to improve stability. Engines varied with these aeroplanes and they were often interchanged. Since they were pusher aeroplanes, the engine arrangement with a 50hp Gnome rotary had the propeller between the engine mounting and the engine; but the No.4 powered by a 50hp Anzani rotary engine had its propeller behind the engine.
   In May 1912, with training aircraft now available, the Army selected five officers to become the first class of pilot officers. The next month, six officers were selected for the first reconnaissance-observer course. The importance of aviation within the Army was being recognized. To further demonstrate the capability of the aeroplane at this time, the first flight to visit Tokyo
was made on 27 October, 1912, by the Kaishiki No.2. To make this long flight of about 18 miles, the removable windscreen nacelle was reinstalled, and Capt Tokugawa made this historic flight, starting at 05:58 and landing at the Yoyogi Parade Grounds at 07:45. It was from here, twenty-two months before, that Tokugawa had made the first flight in Japan on 19 December, 1910, in an imported Farman. After refuelling, he circled the major boroughs of Tokyo and landed once again at Yoyogi for fuel. Returning to Tokorozawa, his starting point, he had covered 96.5km (60sm), a major accomplishment at that time.
   These early 'Tokugawa-type' aircraft, as they were more popularly called, were entered in many exhibitions, both singly and together, receiving considerable press coverage. Since the military was the greatest motivator in developing the aeroplane in Japan, and with its intended use as a military weapon, it must be noted that the Army used the Kaishiki No.4 to demonstrate for the first time, in December 1913, the dropping of simulated bombs.

   Single-engine pusher sesquiplane trainer. Wooden open structure with fabric-covered wings and control surfaces. Elevators at nose and tail. Skid-type undercarriage with two sets of dual wheels. Two seats in tandem.
   50hp Gnome Omega seven-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine, driving a Chauviere two-bladed wooden propeller (No.2 and No.3). 60hp Anzani six-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine, driving a fixed-pitch two-bladed wooden propeller (No.3 after modification and No.4).
   Span 11 m (36ft); length 11 m (36ft); height 3.90m (12ft 9 1/2in); wing area 41sq m (441.334sq ft).
   Empty weight 450kg (992Ib); loaded weight 570kg (1,256Ib); wing loading 13.4kg/sq m (2.74lb/sq ft); power loading 11kg/hp (24.2Ib/hp).
   Maximum speed 39kt (45mph); endurance 3hr.
   Three built, No.2, No.3 and No.4, all in 1912.

Kaishiki No.5 and No.6 Aeroplanes

   Following the arrival of the four Maurice Farman 1913 aircraft from France, the manufacture in Japan of No.5 and No.6 was put under the two officers who had studied in France and purchased the aeroplanes, Lt Kenjiro Nagasawa and Lt Shigeru Sawada. The aircraft were built from the same drawings but one was constructed at the PMBRA at Tokorazawa and the other at the Artillery Arsenal in Tokyo. Both were powered by 70hp Gnome rotary engines, experimentally manufactured at the Artillery Arsenal, but they proved less reliable than the 70hp Renault engines, thus ending the production of the Gnome-type after only two engines had been built.
   The two aeroplanes were a combination of designs for the Kaishiki No.3 and No.4 airframe and Maurice Farman 1913 wings. They were completed in the autumn of 1913 and entered operational service with the Type Mo 1913 Aeroplanes. Compared to the four preceding imported models, the two new aeroplanes had more powerful engines, making them faster by 2. 7kt, larger fuel capacity for a duration of four hours, and the seats were located in a longer fuselage nacelle to improve visibility for aerial reconnaissance. Within the PMBRA, the two aeroplanes were unofficially called Kaishiki Second Year Model (Second year of Taisho; 1913).

   Single-engine pusher sesquiplane trainer with crew nacelle. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Elevators at nose and tail. Skid-type undercarriage with dual wheels. Crew of two in open cockpit.
   70hp Gnome seven-cylinder aircooled rotary engine, driving a Rapid-santral two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 15.50m (50ft 10 1/4in); length 11m (36ft 1in); height 3.66m (12ft); wing area 44.1 sq m (474. 7sq ft).
   Empty weight 485kg( 1,069Ib); loaded weight 765kg (1,686Ib); wing loading 12.7kg/sq m (2.6lb/sq ft); power loading 10.9kg/hp (24Ib/hp).
   Maximum speed 51 kt (59mph); endurance 4hr.
   One each of No.5 and No.6 built in 1913.
Kaishiki No.1 Aeroplane
Kaishiki No.2 Aeroplane
Aviation in Japan. - Capt. Tokugaw's training machine at the Tokorozawa Aerodrome.
Kaishiki No.6 Aeroplane
Kaishiki No.7 Aeroplane

   Using the experience gained while studying in France, and the successful conversion of the Number 7 Type Mo aircraft, Lt Shigeru Sawada attempted a second modification, this time using a Henri Farman 1914 imported from France in November of that year. He began his conversion work in April 1915 at the Association's factory in Tokorozawa and completed the project the following July. Originally referred to as the Kaishiki A7, it became more commonly called the Kaishiki 7 Reconnaissance Aircraft since that was its designed mission.
   Among the changes was a small amount of dihedral added to the wings as well as slight sweepback to both the upper and lower wings. The most apparent change was the replacement of the Gnome rotary engine for a Curtiss OX-5 with its increase of 30hp. This gave noticeably improved speed, increasing it to 54kt (62mph). Both Capt Oka and Lt Sawada liked the handling characteristics and were the only regular pilots of the No.7, since it was disliked by the others who flew it. Flying came to an end on 25 September, 1915, however, when Lt Iwatomi was piloting the aeroplane and it crashed just north of Tokorozawa Airfield. The fire that followed partially destroyed the aeroplane and Lt Iwatomi was badly injured.

   Single-engine pusher sesquiplane reconnaissance aircraft with crew nacelle. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Tail elevator only. Skid-type undercarriage with dual wheels. Crew of two in open cockpit.
   90-100hp Curtiss OX-5 eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a Curtiss two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 14.50m (47ft 7in); length 7.80m (25ft 7in); height 3m (9ft 10in); wing area 46.8sq m (50375sq ft).
   Maximum speed 54kt (62mph).
   One conversion in July 1915.
Kaishiki No.7 Aeroplane
Kaishiki No.7 Small Aeroplane

   Extending his aircraft design ingenuity, Lt Shigeru Sawada created the first Japanese-made aeroplane that could be classed as a fighter aircraft. This was a Curtiss-pusher design that used the rebuilt Curtiss OX-5 from the crashed Kaishiki No.7. Along with the more modern tricycle-type undercarriage and eliminating skids, this aeroplane featured a flexible forward-firing machinegun.
   Incorporating the aerobatic features of the Curtiss-built aeroplane, it was a small and nimble aircraft. The design was begun in the autumn of 1915 and the aeroplane completed on 11 June, 1916, making its first flight two days later. It was officially designated the Kaishiki 7 Small Aeroplane, but within the Association it was known as the Kaishiki Kaizo (Association-Type Modified) 3rd Year Model Aeroplane. Other names, for record purposes, included Kaishiki 7 Pursuit as well as the Sawada Curtiss Pursuit.
   Because of the aircraft's apparent success, Lt Sawada was sent to Europe to study the latest developments being used in the war. On his return to Japan in February 1917, he continued further tests with his Kai-7 fighter. On 8 March, 1917, while making a dive from approximately 600m (2,000ft), he levelled at about 200m (656ft) at which point the structure failed and the aircraft crashed just north of Tokorozawa Airfield. Lt Sawada was killed, and his loss was severely felt by his associates and Japanese Army aviation in general, for he was regarded as a genius in aircraft design and a distinguished pilot.

   Single-engine pusher biplane fighter aircraft with crew nacelle. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Tricycle undercarriage. Pilot in open cockpit.
   90-100hp Curtiss OX-5 eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a Curtiss two-bladed wooden propeller.
   One nose-mounted flexible machinegun.
   Span 11 m (36ft 1in); length 9m (29ft 6 1/4in); wing area 41.2sq m (443.487sq ft).
   Loaded weight 734kg (1,618Ib); wing loading 17.8kg/sq m (3.6Ib/sq ft); power loading 7.34kg/hp (16.2Ib/hp).
   Maximum speed 60kt (69mph).
   One built in June 19 I6.
Kaishiki No.7 Small Aeroplane
Kishi No.2 Tsurugi-go Aeroplane

   To introduce improvements, a second aeroplane was built by Kishi, again using his 70hp Renault engine. This aeroplane was designed by Aijiro Hara along with T Naganuma and E Munesato from Kishi's staff. Being fully original, it differed from the previous aeroplane by having no forward elevator but having slight sweepback to the wings, and was a pusher-type aeroplane with a cockpit pod to which was attached a nosewheel thus giving it a tricycle undercarriage.
   Lt Inoue made the first, and last flight of this aeroplane at Inage on 12 December, 1916. Immediately after take off, the craft banked sharply to the left, allowing the wingtip to contact the ground, causing it to cartwheel and end the flight with considerable damage to the aeroplane. It was assumed that the cause of the accident was the sweptback wing design. Aspects of the design were therefore never tested but it was expected to have a maximum speed of 57kt (65mph) as opposed to that of 49kt (56mph) of the Maurice Farman 1913. It had the structural strength for aerobatics and the range to fly nonstop from Tokyo to Osaka, a major feat for 1916.

   Single-engine pusher biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covered wings, empennage and fuselage pod. V-shaped twin open-structure tail-booms with orthodox tail unit. Two seats in open cockpit.
   70hp Kishi-Renault eight-cylinder vee air-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 12.50m (41ft); length 8.55m (28ft 0 3/4in); height 2.80m (9ft 2 1/4in); wing area 40sq m (430.57 sq ft).
   Empty weight 480kg (1,058Ib); loaded weight 730kg (1,609Ib).
   One built in 1916.
Kishi No.2 Tsurugi-go Aeroplane.
Kishi No.4 Tsurugi-go Aeroplane

   Although based on the No.3 Tsurugi-go, various changes were incorporated into the airframe of this new aeroplane. The lower wing was shortened and the diagonal struts near the wingtips were dispensed with. With overall weight and size less than that of the Maurice Farman Type Mo-4, this No.3 Tsurugi-go Aeroplane was more commonly called the Small Mo-type aeroplane.
   Following successful flights, it joined others at Susaki to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of Metropolitan Tokyo. Also present were the Itoh Tsurubane No.2, Nakajima Type 3, and the Maurice Farman Type Mo 4 of the Imperial Flying Association. They all made circuits of Veno Park in Tokyo where the ceremony was held.

   Single-engine pusher biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covered wings, empennage and fuselage pod. V-shaped twin open-structure tail-booms. Two seats in open cockpit.
   70hp Kishi-Renault eight-cylinder vee air-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span upper 15.50m (50ft 10 1/4in), lower 9.8m (32ft 2in); length 8m (26ft 3in); height 2.80m (9ft 2 1/4in).
   Empty weight 450kg (992lb).
   Maximum speed 54kt (62mph).
   One built in 1917.
Kishi No.4 Tsurugi-go Aeroplane.
Kishi No.5 Tsurugi-go Aeroplane

   In 1917, Dr Kishi made a major personal investment by creating a true aviation business enterprise. He purchased 165,000sq m of land at Akabane, across the Arakawa River from Kawaguchi on the northern edge of Tokyo. Creating an airfield there, he built a hangar, an aircraft factory, a flying school and student dormitories. The first phase was completed in December 1917. Employing his original staff, he assigned Etsutaro Munesato as manager of the airframe shop, Rikichi Sasaki to manage the machine shop, Aijiro Hara as design superintendent, Lt Inoue as chief flying instructor, and Takehiko Satokata, a former reporter of Jiji Shimpo newspaper, as chief of administration. With these appointments the Akabane Aeroplane Manufacturing Works (Akabane Hikoki Seisakusho) was established. By January 1918 students were enrolled in the first pilot training course at Akabane and were using the No.4 Tsurugi-go as their trainer.
   Manufacture and sales expanded, with an improved engine magneto, experimental manufacture of the 130hp Benz engine, and a new aeroplane, the No.5 Tsurugi-go. The No.5 was a new design in that it was a fuselage-type tractor aeroplane, closely resembling the British B.E.2c reconnaissance biplane. Using the same 70hp Renault engine as earlier Kishi aeroplanes but now forward-facing, the cooling fan was eliminated and air baffles used instead. When needed, an additional fuel tank could be installed in the front cockpit to give an endurance of 8 hours.
   After its completion in November 1917, Lt Inoue made a few ground taxi-ing tests but soon he left the company and the aeroplane then sat idle in a hangar. After three years it went to aviator Kinzo Negishi, a graduate from the Akabane Flying School. Negishi worked on the aeroplane over the next six months to gain an airworthiness certificate from the Aviation Bureau that had begun to set standards in the summer of 1921. He named his rejuvenated aeroplane the Hagoromo-go (Robe of Feathers), and hangared it at the Nakajima Airfield at Ojima. On the night of 18 August that year, a fire destroyed the hangar containing three SPAD XIIIs, three Nakajima aeroplanes and the Hagororno-go.

   Single-engine two-bay biplane trainer. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Nose-mounted roll-over skids. Two seats in open cockpits.
   70hp Kishi-Renault engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 13m (42ft 8in); length 9m (29ft 6 1/4in); height 2. 70m (8ft 10 1/4in).
   Empty weight 500kg (1,102Ib).
   Maximum speed (calculated) 60kt (69mph).
   One built in November 1917.
Kishi No.5 Tsurugi-go Aeroplane.
Man-powered Screw Wing Machine

   The oldest heavier-than-air flying machine in Japan, for which there is a photograph, is one designed and built by Katsura Maruoka. He was a son of Kanji Maruoka, Governor of Kouchi Prefecture and was both a poet and an inventor. While living in San-ban-cho, Koujimachi, Tokyo, during 1902 and 1903 Katsura Maruoka and a friend, Daisaburo Matsushita, built a contrarotating wing device that they called a Man-powered Screw Wing Machine. The rotor-blades were made of wood and the framework structure was of steel pipe. Recognizing that obtaining sufficient power would be a major problem, and lacking a proper engine in Japan at that time, Maruoka resorted to man-power through a bicycle pedal drive system. At the handle-bar level were horizontal stabilizing wings for control. Although unsuccessful, it is worthy of note that this attempt to achieve vertical flight was made in Japan at such an early date. In appearance the craft was similar to Igor Sikorsky's 1910 engine-driven helicopter which also failed.
Maruoka Man-powered Screw Wing Machine.

   Shinzo Morita is credited with having made and flown, in 1911, the first aeroplane to be demonstrated in the heavily populated Kansai area of Japan which includes the cities of Osaka, Kyoto, Nara and others. This was only four months after the first flights in Japan, at Tokyo, that were made with imported aeroplanes.
   Morita was born on 28 january, 1879, the son of a leather wholesale dealer in Karamono-machi, Higashiku, Osaka. Coming from an affluent family, he was educated by Prof Yukichi Fukuzawa, founder of Keio Gijuku University in Tokyo, and excelled in English and French. He left Japan in 1900 at the age of 21 for eight years' additional study in the United States at a New York university. Later, while in Europe to visit the International Fair in Brussels, he bought a French Gregoire Gyp 45hp engine made in Belgium, and took it with him to Japan in the spring of 1910. With the intention of building an aeroplane for this engine, he rented space at the Osaka Joto Military Parade Grounds.

Morita Aeroplane

   Obtaining the assistance of draughtsman Mitsuzo Ohnishi and Noboru Tarao and Sensuke Shimizu, they designed an aeroplane based on the Bleriot and Antoinette monoplanes. The Morita had shoulder-mounted wings and a wooden frame fuselage with the rear portion left uncovered. The Gregoire engine was mounted on the nose inverted and partially faired over with an aluminium cowling. The two-wheel undercarriage had short skids to prevent nosing-over upon landing.
   The aeroplane was completed in April 1911 and flown for the first time on 24 April. During one of Morita's flights that followed, one of 100m in distance and 3m in altitude, his wingtip grazed a boy who was crossing in front of him on a bicycle. Because of this accident, and having thought at first that he had killed the boy, family pressures persuaded Morita to do no further flying. As a result, he started a model aeroplane business at Matsuyamachi, Osaka, which was the first in the Kansai area. Soon after, he published a book entitled Mokei Hikoki (Model Aeroplane) with Mitsuzo Ohnishi, the first such publication in Japan.
   As for the rare and therefore valuable Gregoire aero-engine, it passed from owner to owner, being installed in the aeroplanes of Shigesaburo Torigai, Otojiro Itoh, and Asao Fukunaga helping them to make their names in Japanese aviation.

   Single-engine tractor-type shoulder-wing monoplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
   45hp Gregoire Gyp four-cylinder water-cooled inverted inline engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 9.30m (30ft 6in); length 7.40m (24ft 3 1/4in).
   Empty weight 290kg (639.339Ib).
   Maximum speed 41 kt (47mph) (calculated figures).
   One built in April 1911.
Morita Aeroplane
Nakajima Type 1 Biplane

   A sign of Chikuhei Nakajima's independence in manufacture and design of aircraft was his intention that the company's first aeroplane design be directed toward sale to the Army. This aeroplane was designated Nakajima Type 1 Landplane. Design and draughting were mostly accomplished by Sakuma and Okui under Nakajima's close supervision. Tooling responsibility for aeroplane fittings was that of Kurihara. When fabrication was begun an additional fifteen to sixteen new craftsmen were hired for the project.
   The Army showed early interest in the aeroplane by releasing to Nakajima two of its US-built 125hp Hall-Scott engines. When this first aircraft was completed in july 1918, it was described as the Nakajima Type 1-1, meaning Type 1, No.1. In configuration, it had a strong resemblance to the first Boeing aeroplane, the B & W of 1916. The Type 1-1 was flown for the first time by Yozo Sato from the Tone river-bed near Ohta which eventually became the Ojima Airfield. However, on that first flight, poor control caused it to crash immediately after take off. Sato survived, but the airframe was badly damaged.
   In the meantime, design work had begun on the Nakajima Type 2. This was to be a seaplane intended to interest the japanese Navy. Materials were on hand for the first Type 2 but the aeroplane was never completed because they were diverted to repairing the damaged Type 1-1. After repair taking about twenty days, the aeroplane emerged as the Type 1-2. The second flight was made, again from Ojima Airfield, on 25 August, 1918, this time piloted by Army Cavalry Capt Naranosuke Oka, and three flights, each of several minutes, were made that day. Upon landing the third time, however, a wingtip touched the bank of the river-bed and the aeroplane was damaged once again.
   This time, repairs took about a week. In making the repairs some changes were made in the design, as recommended by Capt Oka. This also called for a change in designation to Type 1-3. To avoid repeating the mishap because of the narrow take-off strip at Ojima, further flights were transferred to the Army's test base at Kagamigahara Airfield, north of Nagoya, a considerable distance away. On 13 September the aeroplane flew again, piloted by Capt Oka. After approximately 17 minutes in the air, the Nakajima Type 1-3 made a safe landing. However, while taxi-ing to the starting point, one of the wheels skidded into a ditch near the corner of the flying field, and yet again the airframe was damaged. The aeroplane was returned to the factory.
   Again repairs, including more modifications suggested by Capt Oka, were made, making it necessary to change the designation to Type 1-4. For the next test flights, the long trip back to Kagamigahara was avoided by using the nearby Ojima Airfield. Becoming airborne on 9 November, once again at the hands of Nakajima's pilot Yozo Sato, structural failure occurred and the aeroplane crashed into the rushing waters of the river, destroying the aeroplane and severely injuring Sato.
   It was later learned that centre of gravity problems plagued the aircraft from the very beginning, it being tail-heavy. Coupled with this, tractor-type aircraft were thought to be extremely difficult to control, since at that time most of the Army and Naval aircraft were pusher types. In truth, the failings of the Type 1 were due to inexperience on the part of those who designed it. Although built to serve Army needs, it was never delivered because of its total destruction. Thus came the unhappy ending to the first Nakajima aircraft.

   Single-engine unequal-span biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Crew of two in open cockpits.
   125-130hp Hall-Scott A-5 six-cylinder water-cooled inline engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 14m (45ft 11 1/2in); length 8m (26ft 3in); height 3m (9ft 10in); wing area 40sq m (430.57sq ft).
   Empty weight 800kg (1,763lb); loaded weight 1,200kg (2,645Ib); wing loading 30kg/sq m(6.1Ib/sq ft); power loading 9.6kg/hp (21.llb/hp).
   Maximum speed 65kt (75mph) at sea level; landing speed 32.5kt (37.5mph); service ceiling 3,000m (9,843 ft); endurance 4hr.
   One built in July 1918.
Nakajima Type 1 Biplane
Nakajima Type 3 Biplane

   With the failure of the Type 1, design of the Type 3 was approached in a more practical way to gain experience in aircraft design, using the proven design of the wings and tail of the Yokosho Ro-go Ko-gata Reconnaissance Seaplane with which Lieut Nakajima had been closely involved just before leaving the Navy. As a tractor-type it was a successful aeroplane and was used extensively as a proficiency trainer. The fuselage of the Type 3 was the same as that of the Type 1-4 with only minor changes.
   The new aeroplane, powered by the second of the two 125hp Hall-Scott engines released by the Army, was completed in December 1918. This time, careful attention was given to calculation and adjustment of the centre of gravity. It had a very light wing loading, and in calm air was quite stable. In the hands of Katota Mizuta, a pilot hired by Nakajima to test fly the Type 3, this became Nakajima's first successful aeroplane.
   Mizuta was formerly an Army Lt and a pilot instructor at Tokorozawa. He established the Mizuta FIying School, which was sponsored by Nakajima, and then used this Type 3 aeroplane as the school's trainer. It was also used in a number of celebrations by giving flying demonstrations. As part of the celebration of the 50th Anniversary of Metropolitan Tokyo, demonstrations were made from Susaki Airfield in Tokyo by Yozo Sato, who by now had recovered from his injuries in the crash of the Type 1-4. In March 1921 a rope ladder was attached to the aeroplane for aerial demonstrations at the 50th Anniversary of Kobe Port when it was flown by Mizuta with student pilot Toshio Hino in the rear seat. The next month, over Takasaki City in Gumma Prefecture flying demonstrations were given by Gyozo Imaizumi, further proving the qualities of this successful aeroplane which led the way to later successful Nakajima aeroplanes.
   However, its demise came when, making a landing on the Notsuke Army Parade Grounds in Takasaki City, a man ran from the crowd in front of the aeroplane. In avoiding him a wheel and strut were broken causing the aeroplane to nose-over with resultant extensive damage to the port wing.

   Single-engine unequal-span biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Crew of two in open cockpits.
   125-130hp Hall-Scott A-5 six-cylinder water-cooled inline engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 15.50m (50ft 10 1/4in); length 8m (26ft 3in); height 3.30m (10ft 10in); wing area 59.5sq m (640.473sq ft).
   Empty weight 800kg (1,763Ib); loaded weight 1,100kg (2,425lb); wing loading 18.4kg/sq m (3.7Ib/sq ft); power loading 8.8kg/hp (19.4lb/hp).
   Maximum speed 54kt (62mph) at sea level; minimum speed 27kt (31 mph); service ceiling 3,000m (9,843ft); endurance 3hr.
   One built in December 1918.
Nakajima Type 3 Biplane.
This view of the Nakajima Type 3 Biplane shows the wide span and deep gap.
Nakajima Type 4 Biplane

   The design of the Type 4 biplane was made very cautiously, relying heavily on the experience gained with the Type 3. The company's intention was to gain Army acceptance of the aeroplane and to eliminate the reputation for failure that lingered after the Type 1 mishap.
   For this new and better streamlined aeroplane, the fuselage had minor modifications from that of the Type 3, and the area of the wings and horizontal tail surfaces was reduced. In planform, the shape of the new wing was reminiscent of the German Albatros reconnaissance aeroplanes. Jiro Sakuma was the chief designer under the close supervision of managing director Chikuhei Nakajima. Design calculations and experiment and test phases of the project were checked by Eiji Sekiguchi and Tatsuo Miyazaki respectively. Jingo Kurihara oversaw the general management of manufacture and final assembly. Like the earlier aeroplanes, this too used a Hall-Scott A-5 engine, but this was later replaced by a Hall-Scott A-5a rated at 150hp.
   The new aeroplane was completed in February 1919 and Army evaluation gave genuine approval of its excellent performance and inflight stability. The Army agreed immediately to order a large number. Following the issuance of its letter of intent, the Army requirement was changed to twenty prototypes and production models with minor changes to that of the Type 4. The aeroplanes built to this order became the Nakajima Type 5, the first civilian-built military standard aeroplane made in Japan. Following the Army's evaluation of the Type 4 it was used by Nakajima for test purposes.
   Fame for the Type 4 had not ended. Participating in the First Tokyo Osaka Airmail Flying Contest in October 1919, sponsored by the Imperial Flying Association, the Type 4, flown by Yozo Sato, took first prize after making the round-trip flight in 6hr 58min (to Osaka in 3hr 40min, to Tokyo in 3hr 18min). Second prize was won by an American-built Graham biplane flown by Toyotaro Yamagata, requiring 8hr 28min to make the trip. This decided advantage by the Japanese-built aeroplane firmly established Nakajima in the aviation market.

   Single-engine two-bay biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Crew of two in open cockpits.
   150-165hp Hall-Scott A-5a six-cylinder water-cooled inline engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 13m (42ft 8in); length 7.50m (24ft 7 1/4in); height 2.90m (9ft 6in); wing area 35sq m (376.749sq ft).
   Empty weight 700kg (1,543Ib); loaded weight 1,200kg (2,645Ib); wing loading 34.3kg/sq m 7lb/sq ft); power loading 8kg/hp (17.6Ib/hp).
   Maximum speed 70kt (80.6mph) at sea level; minimum speed 32.5kt (37.5mph); service ceiling 3,500m
(11,482ft); endurance 5hr.
   One built in February 1919.

Nakajima Type 5 Biplane

   The success of the Type 5 was almost assured because of the successful demonstrations made its the forerunner, the Type 4, and the new aeroplane went into immediate production. Approximately one hundred were manufactured for the Army, one for the Government House in Taiwan, and a small number was built to fill civilian orders. After a time, several of the aeroplanes manufactured for the Army were released because of design shortcomings, but with modifications they served well in a civil capacity. Total production was 118.
   In original production aeroplanes and those modified into civil aircraft, there were numerous differences that were made at the request of the purchasers. Paint schemes and markings also varied widely. The most widely-known user of the Type 5 was the Mizuta Flying School.
   In one aviation event after another the Type 5 performed remarkably well. In May 1921 student pilot Toshio Hino displayed remarkable aerobatic proficiency in a Type 5, taking second prize in the Second Prize-winning Flight Competition held at Susaki Airfield in Tokyo, giving the Type 5 an even greater reputation. At the Second Airmail Flying Contest, this time between Osaka and Kurume, Kyushu, in November 1920, Mizuta entered with a Type 5 powered by a 220hp Sturdevant engine, but dropped out of the race because of radiator problems. He entered the third of these competitions with a Type 5; this time the route was between Tokyo and Morioka, in northern Honshu, but without awards. When the course was once again between Tokyo and Osaka, five of the fourteen entries were the 150hp Hall-Scott Nakajima Type 5s and there was one that had a 160hp Daimler engine.
   The Type 5s remained very popular in these events. In the Tozai Teiki Kokukai (East-West Regular Air Transport Association) event sponsored by the Asahi Shimbun in January 1923, six of the eight entries were Type 5s. At the Fourth Flight Competition in June 1923, Army-released Type 5s were the majority of the entries. In December 1924 at the Ise Bay Flight Competition, four Type 5s participated and achieved high scores.

   Single-engine two-bay biplane. Wooden construction with fabric covering. Crew of two in open cockpits.
   150-165hp Hall-Scott A-5a six-cylinder water-cooled inline engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 12.606m (41 ft 4 1/4in); length 7.046m (23ft 1 1/2in); height 2.882m (9ft 5 1/2in); wing area 34sq m (365. 984sq ft)
   Empty weight 780kg (1,719Ib); loaded weight 1,130kg (2,491Ib); wing loading 33.2kg/sq m 7lb/sq ft); power loading 7.53kg/hp (16.6Ib/hp).
   Maximum speed 70kt (80.6mph) at sea level; minimum speed 32.5kt (37.5mph); service ceiling 3,400m (11,155ft); endurance 4hr.
   118 built including civil production of seventeen from April 1919 to May 1921.

Nakajima Type 5 Trainer

   In May 1919, while the Nakajima company was still in its infancy and known as the Nihon Hikoki Seisakusho, it was informed by the Army of the acceptance of its newly designed and built Type 4 trainer. After failures of previous designs, it was the Type 4 that achieved the success Nakajima needed in attaining Army recognition of its aeroplanes. With minor changes to this aeroplane, the Army requested another prototype which became the Type 5 and this was followed by an order for twenty aircraft, a figure that was later increased to one hundred. This was an astonishingly large order, as well as the first order of this type placed with a civil company. Up to that time, almost all aeroplanes used by the Army were imported or licence-manufactured. Japanese-designed aeroplanes were looked upon as only experimental and not to be considered for acceptance as standard military equipment. For these experimental aircraft and small production runs, the Army had relied upon its own Tokorozawa Branch of Army Supply Dept.
   The design of the earlier Type 4 was based largely on the successful designs of the United States Standard H-3 and the German Albatros C II. The engine for the new aeroplane was to be the imported 125hp Hall-Scott from the USA. Under the direction of the company founder, Chikuhei Nakajima, engineers adapted these design concepts into a Nakajima product. The drawings were by Jiro Sakuma and structural analysis was undertaken by Eiji Sekiguchi. Tatsuo Miyazaki and Jingo Kurihara supervised production tool making and product manufacturing respectively.
   When the first aeroplane was completed, it was delivered to the Army by surface transport to Tokorozawa Airfield where it was closely examined and assembled, making its first flight towards the end of April 1920. It showed excellent performance. The pilot was Katota Mizuta, a former Army cavalry lieutenant, and flying instructor at the Tokorozawa Army Flying School. Production aircraft were equipped with the 150hp Hall-Scott engine of greater power than the prototype. Variations included one that was tested with a 130hp Benz and a modified engine cowling.
   As the Type 5 Trainers were delivered to the Army, they were assigned to various flight regiments and fIying schools. In service, a number of defects were encountered which resulted in serious accidents. Stalls were prematurely induced because of wing ribs having been manufactured to incorrect drawings. Inflight fires were not uncommon, caused by a build-up of engine oil in the bottom of the engine cowling. On 14 October, 1920, the 60th aircraft of this type, flown by Capt Saburo Iniwa, caught fire in flight and the ensuing crash killed the pilot and the mechanic. These and other defects brought an end to the Army's use of the Type 5 as standard equipment in favour of the Type Ko 1, Type Ko 2, and Type Otsu 1.
   After 1921 and approximately a year of service, many of the Type 5s were released by the military and used as civil aircraft. As a consequence the aircraft was better known as a civil aeroplane than a military trainer. It was this initial military order, however, that placed the Nakajima company on a sound financial footing, as well as instigating the disagreements that brought about the separation of Seibei Kawanishi from the company.

   Single-engine two-bay biplane. Wooden construction with fabric covering. Crew of two in open cockpits.
   150-165hp Hall-Scott A-5a six-cylinder water-cooled inline engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 12.606m (41ft 4 1/4in); length 7.046m (23ft 1 1/2in); height 2.882m (9ft 5 1/2in); wing area 34sq m (365.984 sq ft).
   Empty weight 780kg (1,719Ib); loaded weight 1,130kg (2,491Ib); wing loading 33.2kg/sq m 7lb/sq ft); power loading 7.53kg/hp (16.6Ib/hp).
   Maximum speed 70kt (80.6mph) at sea level; minimum speed 32.5kr (37.4 mph); climb to 1,000m (3,280ft) in 7min; service ceiling 3,400m (11,155ft); endurance 4hr.
   101 built from April 1919 to May 1921 (military purchase only).

Nakajima Type 6 Biplane

   As was to be expected the Type 6 Biplane was a version of the Type 5 with improved performance. It was built in August 1919 during the production run of the first twenty Type 5s for the Army. The major difference in the Type 6 was that the airframe was designed to take the heavier and more powerful 200hp Liberty Hall-Scott L-6 engine. The L-6 was a faster-running engine, and required a smaller diameter fighter-type propeller. It could be compared with first-line military aircraft of other major countries at that time.
   The Type 6 was in existence by the time Nakajima entered the first Tokyo to Osaka Prize-Winning Flight Competition on 22 and 23 October, 1919. The Type 4 piloted by Yozo Sato was the winner. The Type 6 piloted by Katota Mizuta had been expected to win because of its greater power but Mizuta became disoriented on his way from Tokyo to Osaka and made an emergency landing near the Kinokawa River in Wakayama City, south of his destination, and was disqualified. On his return from Osaka to Tokyo, Mizuta took off from the Joto Military Parade Grounds in Osaka, with engineer Kurihara in the rear seat, and flew to Susaki Airfield in Tokyo in 2hr 10min, taking advantage of a strong tailwind. This established a new speed record between the two Cities.

   Single-engine biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Crew of two in open cockpits.
   200-244hp Liberty Hall-Scott L-6 six-cylinder water-cooled inline engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 12m (39ft 4 1/2in); length 7m (22ft 11 1/2in); height 2.80m (9ft 2 1/4in); wing area 32sq m (344.456sq ft).
   Empty weight 850kg (1,873Ib); loaded weight 1,300kg (2,866Ib); wing loading 40.6kg/sq m (8.3lb/sq ft); power loading 6.5kg/hp (14.3lb/hp).
   Maximum speed 76kt (87.5mph) at sea level; minimum speed 35kt (40mph); service ceiling 3,500m (11,482ft); endurance 5hr.
   One built in August 1919.
Nakajima Type 4 Biplane
Nakajima Type 5 Trainer
Nakajima Type 5 Biplane
This view of the Nakajima Type 5 Trainer shows the tail more clearly.
Nakajima Type 6 Biplane
Narahara, also Tokyo Aeroplane Manufacturing Works (Tokyo Hikoki Seisakusho)

   Sanji Narahara was born on 29 December, 1876, the second son of Baron Shigeru Narahara, the Governor of Okinawa Prefecture and retainer of the Satsuma clan. Around the time that he graduated from the Faculty of Ordnance of Tokyo Imperial University, he had already published his own design for an aeroplane. In April 1908 he joined the Navy and was assigned to the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal as a Naval Assistant Engineer. Because of his recognized talent for aviation he became a member of the Provisional Military Balloon Research Association organized in 1909.
   Separate from his official work with the PMBRA, Narahara started building his aeroplane in his father's garden, then at Shio-cho, Yotsuya, Tokyo. After his first aeroplane, and unable to continue building aircraft there, Narahara established the Tokyo Hikoki Seisakusho (Tokyo Aeroplane Manufacturing Works) in Tsunohazu, Shinjuku, Tokyo. An early project at this factory was the manufacture of 3m diameter airship propellers for the PMBRA. This established Narahara and his company as a factory for the Association.

Narahara No.1 Aeroplane

   Consulting foreign aeronautical publications and using his own inventive qualities, Narahara designed an aeroplane, beginning in May 1910, seven months before Captains Tokugawa and Hino made the first aeroplane flights in Japan.
   The aeroplane was of unusual configuration, being a highly-staggered tractor biplane with very shallow gap. The double-surfaced wings were so arranged that the trailing edge of the upper wings was only slightly aft of the leading edge of the lower wing. The bamboo open structure of the fuselage was wire-braced and supported a forward-facing 25hp Anzani engine at the nose. In addition to horizontal and vertical tail surfaces there was an outrigged forward horizontal surface believed to have acted as the elevator. This was of wide-span and carried widely separated vertical triangular surfaces near its tips said to prevent sideslipping. There were two main wheels of Bleriot type and a large-diameter tailwheel. Originally the undercarriage comprised twin mainwheels each side of a skid. The fabric surfaces were coated with a paint made from grass paste as a primer, and shibu (an astringent juice) as a finish. Construction took approximately six months to complete.
   On 24, 30 and 31 October, 1910, Narahara attempted to fly the aeroplane at Toyamagahara Military Parade Grounds in Tokyo, but the best it could achieve was a height of about 30cm (1 ft). Narahara concluded that the aeroplane was underpowered because although he had placed an order for a 50hp Gnome engine through a trading company, a 25hp Anzani had been delivered. In despair, Narahara sold the aeroplane to the PMBRA for ground operational study.

   Single-engine tractor biplane. Bamboo and wood construction with fabric covering. Pilot in open structure.
   25hp Anzani three-cylinder aircooled fan-type radial engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span, upper 11.30m (37ft 1in), lower 9.30m (30ft 6in); chord 1.50m (4ft 11in); length 7.20m (23ft 7 1/2in).
   Empty weight 310kg (683Ib).
   One built in 1910.
Narahara No.1 Aeroplane
Narahara No.2 Aeroplane

   In early 1911, Sanji Narahara ordered for a second time a 50hp Gnome engine and this was delivered. For this engine he designed a new aircraft that he called the No.2 Aeroplane. Influenced by new British and French designs, Narahara introduced some dihedral to the wing and fitted ailerons. Once again, he used a tractor layout and placed the pilot's seat in an open-pod behind the engine, using booms on which to mount the tail. Because of reports of pilots being injured by splintered bamboo in mishaps in other countries, Narahara substituted wooden structural members.
   The aeroplane was taken to Tokorozawa Flight Test Grounds, newly established as the first airfield in Japan. On 5 May, 1911, Narahara succeeded in flying this aeroplane, five months after two imported aircraft had made the first flights in Japan. Narahara's flight covered 60m (200ft) at about 4m in height, establishing the first flight recorded by a Japanese-made aeroplane. This historic event ended with a slight mishap when an undercarriage strut broke upon landing and damaged the propeller.
   In later flights, the aeroplane recorded a maximum air distance of approximately 600m (nearly 2,000ft) at a height of approximately 60m (200ft). This was regarded as an amazing altitude since most early flying attempts were made at approximately 5m (16ft) height and on a straight-line course. It was with this aeroplane that the first civilian flying training was undertaken. Some of the students, including Einosuke Shiraro, Umejiro Imamura, Ginjiro Goto, and Saito, were later to become well known in Japanese aviation.

   Single-engine tractor biplane with engine/pilot pod. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pilot in open structure.
   50hp Gnome seven-cylinder aircooled rotary engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span, upper 10m (32ft 9 1/2in), lower 9.20m (30ft 2 1/4in); length 10m (32ft 9 1/2in); height 2.80m (9ft 2 1/4in).
   Empty weight 430kg (948Ib); loaded weight 550kg (1,212Ib).
   One built in May 1911.
Narahara No.2 Aeroplane
Narahara No.3 Aeroplane

   The Narahara No.3 Aeroplane was made from reassembled parts taken from the worn and damaged No.2 Aeroplane after its many training flights. This new aeroplane was a two-seat trainer with a more orthodox fuselage instead of the pod and tail boom layout. Initially, the structure was left uncovered, but when it was covered it was of the highest quality used on any of the Narahara aeroplanes, being a layer of silk over a layer of cotton with the weaves diagonal and bonded. Wing dihedral was eliminated and the ailerons consisted of the 'pulldown only' type for both the No.2 and No.3 Aeroplanes. A more rugged undercarriage with four wheels and landing skids were incorporated. The Gnome engine was from the No.2 Aeroplane.
   This aeroplane also flew successfully and became a trainer not only for the previously mentioned Einosuke Shirato, who later established the Shirato Aeroplane Research Studio, but also for Otojiro ltoh, eventually of ltoh Aeroplane Research Studio, and Saken Kawabe, later to be Principal of the Toa Professional Flying School, who also assisted Narahara with his work.
   A gust of wind destroyed the No.3 Aeroplane while it was on the ground in September 1911. This incident, along with reports from other countries about aeroplane crashes and pilot fatalities, brought about Narahara's family's insistence he should not continue flying and since he was more interested in the design and building of aircraft he agreed. Therefore, Einosuke Shirato became the instructor while Narahara concentrated on the building of other aeroplanes. By this time, Narahara had left the Navy with an equivalent engineering rank of Navy Lieutenant, Architect.
Narahara No.3 Aeroplane
Narahara No.3 Aeroplane after the entire fuselage was covered.
Narahara No.4 Ohtori-go Aeroplane

   In the autumn of 1911, Narahara's group was joined by Shuhei Iwamoto, later a professor of Tokyo University, and Kiyoshi Shiga, BSc. By March 1912 they had created the Narahara No.4 Aeroplane with the help of Saken Kawabe, Otojiro Itoh and Ginjiro Goto, themselves to become notable in aviation. The aeroplane was built at the Orient Aeroplane Company (Toyo Hikoki Shokai), having its office in Kyobashi, Tokyo. The factory was then located at Fukagawa (near or at Susaki Airfield) and final assembly was made at Tokorozawa where it was to be flown. It received the name of Ohtori-go, after a champion sumo-wrestler, Ohtori, at the request of the sponsor who supported the project.
   The aeroplane performed well and was taken on exhibition tours, with flights at major cities throughout Japan to demonstrate what was referred to as their 'japanese-made civil aeroplane'. Since there were no airfields in Japan at this time, flights were made from race tracks or military parade grounds of such relatively small size that landings and take offs were very near the spectators. During the first of these exhibition flights on 13 April, 1912, at Kawasaki Race Track, Kanagawa Prefecture, a failing engine caused the aeroplane to land short, allowing a wingtip to strike a school boy, breaking his arm.
   The aeroplane was again demonstrated on 11 and 12 May for His Highness the Crown Prince (later Emperor Taisho) and his three sons (one to later become Emperor Showa [Hirohito]) along with Field Marshal Aritomo Yamagata and many other high-ranking officers at the Aoyama Military Parade Grounds. These demonstrations brought Narahara an award by the Imperial House, the first distinction given to someone involved in japanese civil aviation.
   The last exhibition flight by the Ohtori No.4 was in Seoul, Korea, on 3 and 4 April, 1913.

   Single-engine tractor training biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pupil and instructor in open cockpit.
   50hp Gnome seven-cylinder aircooled rotary engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span, upper 11.40m (37ft 5in), lower 9.30m (30ft 6in); length 7m (22ft 11 1/2in); height 2.80m (9ft 2 1/4in); wing area 39sq m (419.8sq ft).
   Empty weight 470kg (1,036Ib).
   Maximum speed 38kt (44mph).
   One built in 1912.

   In May 1912, Narahara established japan's first civil aerodrome, on the sandy beach at low tide by Inage in Chiba Prefecture, because the airfield at Tokorozara had been declared to be used only by the Provisional Military Balloon Research Association.
   While the Narahara No.4 Ohtori-go was touring Japan with demonstration flights by Shimo, the 'Narahara No.5 Ohtori Nisei-go (meaning Ohtori the 2nd) was built. It was almost identical to the No.4 but was powered by a 70hp Gnome rotary engine and had a strengthened undercarriage. This aeroplane was completed in june 1913 and made exhibition flights at Ibaragi, Toyama, Ishikawa and Niigata from june to September that year.
   Sanji Narahara eventually retired completely from aviation at his family's insistence. His aviation activities were first taken over by Einosuke Shirato who then began manufacturing aeroplanes under his own name and provided flying training at Inage beach. In addition to Shirato's activities, Otojiro Itoh also became known for his aviation endeavours, and between the two, a new era of civil aviation began in 1913 stemming from Narahara's works and now centred at the Shirato/ltoh Airfields.
Narahara No.4 Ohtori-go Aeroplane.
This view of the Narahara No.4 Ohtori-go shows the drooped ailerons.
The man most acclaimed for powered heavier-than-air flight in Japan is Kazuhachi Ninomiya (born in 1865). Ninomiya became the first Japanese to fly a rubber-powered model aeroplane, on 29 April, 1891. The wings of his craft were shaped like those of a crow, since as a youth in Ehime Prefecture, Ninomiya had studied the crow's flying characteristics in his efforts to solve the mysteries of flight. After this first success with his model, he made an even larger model aeroplane with a wing span of 3.2m (10ft 6in) powered with a clock spring driving a pusher propeller. Since it was inspired by the shape of an insect called Tamamushi, his craft was given that name.
   Because of its success, Ninomiya offered the plans of his aeroplane to the Army, with which he was now serving during the Sino-Japanese War (1894-95). He saw the potential of such a man-carrying flying machine as an aerial spotter but his proposal fell upon deaf ears. Dejected, on leaving the Army Ninomiya joined a pharmaceutical company in the hope of saving enough to build his own man-carrying aircraft, but upon hearing of the success of the Wright brothers in 1903, he abandoned his efforts.
   As time passed, Lt-Gen Gaishi Nagaoka, former Chief of Staff of the Ohshima Army Brigade during the War, and who was responsible for rejecting Ninomiya's plans, made him a public apology, and in 1925 he was officially commended by the Minister of Communications and awarded a medal of merit by the Teikoku Hiko Kyokai (Imperial Flying Association:) as Japan's aviation pioneer. In return, Ninomiya, who was by then an executive in the pharmaceutical company, established a shrine dedicated to the development of aviation in Japan.
This scale model of an aircraft shows the modern concept as envisioned in 1891 by Kazuhachi Ninomiya. This rubber-powered model flew 10m, but Japanese officials were not impressed with this proof of concept of flight.

   Saburo Ogawa of Hirono-cho, Kagoshima City, was born on 18 November, 1896. Being an aeroplane enthusiast, at age 20 he began the design and manufacture of a biplane by studying his foreign aviation magazines. His efforts as a private home-builder of aircraft were not successful initially, but were typical of that time.

Ogawa No.1 Aeroplane

   Ogawa's first attempt at designing and building an aeroplane was a biplane, powered by a 7hp modified motorcycle engine. It had a wing span of 7m and when empty weighed 120kg. Assisting him were his friends Misao Nakoshi and Yoshiji Masuda, who helped bring the project to completion in March 1917. Their most arduous task was the propeller which was made from laminated oak, and difficult to carve.
   Causing them grave disappointment, their aeroplane did not fly, but it was recognized that insufficient power was the problem; their enjoyment came in using the aeroplane as a taxi-ing trainer.

Ogawa No.2 Aeroplane

   Beginning in July 1917, Ogawa began modifications to his Aeroplane by installing a 16hp Excelsior
two-cylinder air-cooled engine. Skids were attached to the undercarriage to prevent nosing over. Tomio Wakita assisted with this work, for he had additional skills due to having studied at a flying school at Haneda. When the modifications were completed in june 1918, Ogawa's No.2 Aeroplane was given the name Taiyo-go, meaning Sun.
   When all was ready for the first flight, Wakita was to be the pilot because of his previous experience. The aeroplane flew for about 50m a short distance off the ground, but suddenly a wing dipped, and it crashed, causing severe damage to the aeroplane but no serious injury to Wakita.
Ogawa No.2 Aeroplane
Ozaki Soga-go Aeroplane

   This all-new aeroplane was built in the hangar at Tokorozawa almost in parallel with the Ozaki Tractor Biplane. As a result of accidents with the Kaizo Rumpler Taube belonging to the Imperial Flying Association, it re-equipped with Type Mo-4 trainers as an interim type until deciding in 1916 to have a new trainer designed and built. A major finance contributor was Ichiro Soga, a rice speculator in Dojima, Osaka, and therefore the Association named the new biplane the Soga-go. Chief engineer for the project was Yukiteru Ozaki with guidance from Army Lt Morikichi Sakamoto.
   Based on the Christofferson biplane, ailerons were installed on the upper wing only, originally extending from the trailing edge but later to be inset. A steel-tube frame was used for the forward part of the fuselage, and the undercarriage was taken from the Kaizo Rumpler Taube. When completed in April 1917 at Tokorozawa, it was not only larger than the Ozaki Tractor Biplane, but nearly twice the weight, yet with only 10hp more.
   At the request of Ichiro Soga the aeroplane was taken to Osaka where it was to make its first flight from the Joto Parade Grounds, following ceremonies for the occasion to be held on 22 April, 1917. But defects were discovered in the carburettor, the location of the fuel tank was faulty, and the undercarriage structure was felt to be inadequate. As a result, flying at Osaka was limited to one flight, and the aeroplane was returned to Tokorozawa for modifications.
   On 3 June, 1917, Ozaki participated in a flying exhibition in the 300th Year Fair at Nagaoka City, Niigata Prefecture, sponsored by the Association. Immediately after take off, the engine lost power and an emergency landing had to be made on a sand bank along the Shinano River, causing the aeroplane to turn over and sustain heavy damage. When repaired, a number of major modifications were made to the Soga-go, which included the fitting of smaller wings. It was then used by the Association exclusively under the name No.2 Soga-go.

   Single-engine biplane trainer. Mixed wooden and steel-tube fuselage and wooden framed wings with fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
   90hp Austro-Daimler six-cylinder water-cooled inline engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span, upper 12.98m (42ft 7in), lower 10m (32ft 9 1/2in); length 7.98m (26ft 2 1/4in); wing area 35sq m (376.75sq ft).
   Loaded weight 760kg (1,675Ib).
   Maximum speed 61 kt (71 mph); endurance 5 1/2hr.
   One built in April 1917.
   Data for the original Soga-go.

   Having limited success with these two aircraft, Ozaki retired from aviation and followed his father's political activities as his secretary. After 22 years and still highly respected in aviation circles, he flew in the ole remaining Type Mo-6 biplane at the First Aviation Day Pageant at Haneda Airport, on 28 September, 1940, making this the commemorative last flight of this early aircraft. In 1947, he was elected a member of the House of Counsellors, and when aviation activities resumed in Japan following the Pacific War he was appointed an advisor to Japan Air Lines, and vice-chairman to Japan Aviation Association. He died in june 1964 aged 76.
Ozaki Soga-go Aeroplane

   Yukiteru Ozaki was of the class of wealthy and influential Japanese who could devote his time and resources to aviation. Born the third son of Yukio 'Gakudo' Ozaki, a noted politician and a member of the Diet from Mie Prefecture, he was privileged in that he could train with and graduate from the Army's first pilot training class at the request of the Imperial Flying
   When Syun Wen, the leader of the revolutionary army of the Republic of China, purchased a Christofferson biplane from the United States, and requested the Imperial Flying Association to assemble it in Japan, Ozaki made the test flights at the Joto Military Grounds in Osaka. It was then delivered to the Chinese in August 1916.

Ozaki Tractor Biplane

   With this aviation experience and influence, Ozaki used a hangar of the PMBRA at Tokorozawa and designed and built a light private aeroplane under guidance of Army Lt Morikichi Sakamoto. The aeroplane was powered by an 80hp Shimazu-Le Rhone engine which Narazo Shimazu had just won as first prize at the Japanese-made aero-engine contest sponsored by the Imperial Flying Association. The building of this aeroplane was undertaken by the Association's chief engineer Toriumi almost in parallel with the Ozaki Soga-go Aeroplane yet to be described. Design work was begun in July 1916 and the aeroplane was completed in March 1917.
   To simplify the aeroplane's transport by rail, the fuselage could be separated at mid-point. As a two-seat aircraft, it was expected to be able to fly for 40mins, but with only a pilot, and added fuel in the front cockpit, it could fly for 3hr at a maximum speed estimated to be 66kt (76mph).
   In August 1917 when His Imperial Highness Prince Takehiko Yamashina visited Tokorozawa, Ozaki attempted to fl y the aeroplane for the first time, but a broken axle prevented take off. Seemingly, no further attempts were made, for the aeroplane was stored for a while at his father's home. It was later purchased by supporters of the anti-communist Russian Capt Semiyonov, who attempted to invade Siberia early in 1920. Ozaki accompanied the aeroplane to Siberia, but when the attempted invasion failed, he returned home with the engine only, which he sold to the Itoh Aeroplane Research Studio.

   Single-engine biplane trainer. Wooden frame structure with fabric covering. Wing with RAF 6 aerofoil. Instructor and pupil in single open cockpits.
   80hp Shimazu-Le Rhone nine cylinder air-cooled rotary engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span, upper 10m (32ft 9 1/2in), lower 8m (26ft 3in); length 6.50m (21 ft 4in); wing area 27sq m (290.63sq ft).
   Loaded weight 570kg (1,256Ib).
   Maximum speed 66kt (76mph); climb to 2,000m (6,562ft) in 10min; normal endurance 40min, 3hr as single-seater with added fuel.
   One built in March 1917.
Ozaki Tractor Biplane
Seishiki-1 Aeroplane

   In May 1915, the PMBRA decided to experiment with the construction of a tractor-type aeroplane of more conventional design, powered by a 100hp engine. To undertake the design work, a committee was formed consisting of Engineer Shuhei Iwamoto, Capt Nobuhide Sakurai and Capt Akira Matsui, all recently returned from aviation research study in France. Joining them were Lt Shigeru Sawada and Lt Kenjiro Nagasawa, also from the PMBRA. The intention was to produce a general operational type aircraft to become standard equipment for the Army.
   The design reflected many of the technical details found in the German L.V.G. D IX. The unequal-span two-bay wings folded to the rear for ease in railway transport. For this first aeroplane, the Association used the 100hp Mercedes Daimler engine that the Imperial Flying Association had imported from Germany for installation in the Rumpler Taube monoplane. This engine was later licence-built by the Army Tokyo Artillery Arsenal and the Chikusa Army Machinery & Equipment Manufacturing Works of the Nagoya Army Ordnance Arsenal for the Type Mo-6 Aeroplanes. Fuel capacity was 360 litres to enable nonstop flight between Tokyo and Osaka. This was the first Japanese-made aeroplane to have a loaded weight exceeding 1 ton.
   When completed on 30 April, 1916, at Tokorozawa, it was designated the Seishiki-1 Aeroplane, Seishiki meaning official type, to mark the beginning of an all-new generation of military aircraft which came up to European military standards at that time. Ground tests made by Lt Morikichi Sakamoto on 1 May, 1916, were successful, and five days later, Lt Sawada made the first test flight. Unfortunately, immediately after take off, the fuel-tank pressurization was lost and the engine stopped, causing an emergency landing with serious damage to the aeroplane and slight injuries to Sawada.
   Repairs were completed by December at the Nagoya Army Ordnance Arsenal and included installation of a gravity-feed fuel system with a fuel tank in the upper wing centre-section. Wing struts were added to support the outer extensions of the upper wing, aileron area was increased in chord, and the undercarriage skid was removed.
   Once the aeroplane was flying again, its performance was found to be disappointing mainly because of poor stability, calling for a full redesign rather than modifications, so it was used only for experimental purposes. On 24 July, 1917, a Maurice Farman 1914 flown by Capt Nakanishi collided with the tail of the Seishiki-1 Aeroplane while on the ground, resulting in the dismantling of the aircraft for parts.

   Single-engine tractor biplane tactical aircraft. All-wooden construction with fabric covering. Rearward folding wings for railway transport. Crew of two in open cockpits.
   100-110hp Mercedes Daimler six-cylinder inline water-cooled engine, driving a Heine two-bladed wooden propeller.
   One dorsal flexible machine-gun. Unspecified bomb load.
   Span 15.10m (49ft 6 1/2in); length 9.35m (30ft 8in); height 3m (9ft 10in); wing area 40.5sq m (435.952sq ft).
   Loaded weight 1,100kg (2,425Ib); wing loading 27.2kg/sq m (5.57Ib/sq ft); power loading 10kg/hp (22lb/hp).
   Maximum speed 58kt (67mph); climb to 1,000m (3,2 80ft) in 10min; endurance 7hr.
   One built in April 1916.
Seishiki-1 Aeroplane.
Aviation in Japan. - Side view of a Japanese military tractor biplane.
Seishiki-2 Aeroplane

   Making a sharp break away from the Farman pushers, the PMBRA began the design in July 1917 for what would be the Seishiki-2. It was designed by Lt Morikichi Sakamoto with the help of Assistant Engineer Shiro Yoshihara who had just returned from aircraft design studies in Europe. In charge of construction was Lt Takazawa at the Association's factory at Tokorozawa.
   This aeroplane was only intended as an experimental high-speed tractor design to help the development of other types, and was to be powered by a 100hp Daimler watercooled engine produced by the Tokyo Army Artillery Arsenal. The fuselage was fairly large, being constructed of wood and having a contoured plywood covering. Radiators were mounted close to the fuselage sides like those of the Seishiki-1. Completed in December 1917, it made its first flight on 11 January, 1918, piloted by Lt Sakamoto. When making the second flight on 17 January, at a height of about 50m after take off, it was reported that the engine emitted heavy black smoke and lost power. Sakamoto attempted a tight turn back, which resulted in a spin and the aeroplane crashed on the north side of the Tokorozawa Airfield, killing Lt Sakamoto. Like its predecessor the Seishiki-1, the Seishiki-2 was the sole example. Although the PMBRA began design work on a Seishiki-3 in March 1918, it was taken over by the Department of Research at Tokorozawa Aviation School because of Army reorganization but the aircraft was not completed.
   Designers and engineers believed that the maximum speed of the Seishiki-2 could have been 70kt (80mph) but for the continuing problems with the Japanese-built Daimler engine. Others felt that the design was too advanced for Japanese manufacture, and as a result the twin boom pusher Type Mo-4 and Type Mo-6 Farmans remained the standard Army equipment until the French Aviation Mission visited Japan in 1919.

   Single-engine high-speed tractor biplane. All wooden construction with ply-covered fuselage and fabric-covered wings and tail. Two seats in open cockpits.
   100-110hp Daimler six-cylinder inline water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 9.86m (32ft 4in); length 6.7m (21 ft 11 1/4in); height 2.60m (8ft 6 1/4in); wing area 31sq m (333.692sq ft).
   One built in December 1917.
Seishiki-2 Aeroplane

Saigai Aeroplane

   Sotoichi Saito of Tsuruoka City, Yamagata Prefecture, had been involved in the development of balloon flight since 1889. In 1910 he bought a 50hp Gnome engine from France so that he could study aero-engines. He later acquired a patent for a 'Flying Machine' and manufactured an aircraft resembling a Bleriot monoplane. Helping with this project was Shotaro Ueda. (see Ueda aircraft).
   The aeroplane contained some rather innovative features. For protection against inflight fire, the fuel tank was installed on struts high above the rear fuselage at a considerable distance from the engine. Another feature was that in the event of an inflight emergency, a cable could be pulled, causing the fuselage and engine to separate from the wings leaving the pilot still seated on the wing section which was to act as a parachute.
   Saito named his aeroplane the Saigai, an acronym derived from his own name. In june 1912 he tested the aeroplane on the dry bed of the Akagawa River in Tsuruoka City. The aeroplane, piloted by Suketaro Koya, was put on a special railway track for take off. Koya was probably selected because of his engine experience in operating the Mogami Maru river boat. Soon after becoming airborne, Koya felt that further flight would be risky and pulled the emergency cord, thus destroying the aeroplane. The Gnome engine was salvaged and installed in the Tamai 3 Aeroplane in 1917, in which the pilot, Seitaro Tamai, was killed. The engine then passed to Shigesaburo Torigai, and still later was installed in the Tsurubane No.2 Aeroplane of Otojiro Itoh, which made the first loop by a Japanese civil aeroplane when piloted by Toyotaro Yamagata in 1918.

   Single-engine monoplane. Wooden structure with fabric-covered wing and uncovered fuselage structure.
   50hp Gnome seven-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 10.30m (33ft 9 1/2in); length 9.10m (29ft 10 1/4in).
   Loaded weight 560kg (1,234Ib).
Saigai Aeroplane.
Sakamoto No.6 Aeroplane

   Brief mention has already been made of Juichi Sakamoto and his association with Tachibana. During his partnership, the Sakamoto No.6 Aeroplane was built at the Nippon Hikoki Seisakusho at his request. Having travelled to the United States in 1908, Sakamoto had built his previous aircraft there. While studying at a Los Angeles Technical College, he built his first aeroplane which resembled a Bleriot. The degree of success attained went unrecorded. After graduation he built and flew the Sakamoto No.2 Aeroplane which was of the Curtiss pusher type. Between May and November 1912, Sakamoto studied at the Shiller Aviation School and acquired pilot's licence No.192 on 8 January, 1913, from the Aero Club of America.
   The next year he built and tested a Wright-type single-engined, twin-propeller tractor followed by a Curtiss-tractor as his No.3 and No.4. Sakamoto's No.5 combined Wright and Curtiss features. With this aeroplane, Sakamoto returned to Japan in April 1914. It was the success of this aeroplane in competitions and demonstrations that had interested Sakamoto in establishing an aviation school in Zasshonokuma with Tachibana although it did not happen.
   Having worn out his No.5 aeroplane within one year with his flying activities, he required a replacement. The building of this aeroplane at the Nippon Hikoki Seisakusho was accomplished under the supervision of the Americans Barr Williams and Harley Holms in March 1915. The new aircraft was similar to the No.5, having two seats and tractor configuration but this time the ailerons were set within the planform of the upper wing, and the orthodox two-wheel undercarriage was without the usual skids. Sakamoto used the engine that had been installed in his No.5 aeroplane.
   Sakamoto entered this aeroplane in the altitude category of the Second Civil Flying Meet held at Naruo Race Track in December 1915. He reached 600m (1,968ft) and won first prize, even though he was forced to make an emergency landing with engine trouble which resulted in an overturned aeroplane and some damage. After repairs and numerous exhibitions, Sakamoto took his aeroplane to Shantung in China in September 1916 to assist the Chinese revolution and established there the Revolutionary Army Aviation School. He and Ryokan Tachibana, the company owner, who was with him, were given major-general status and began pilot training for the Chinese. When their work was completed, Sakamoto sold the No.6 to the Chinese revolutionary army and returned to Japan in the spring of 1918. Sakamoto's later occupation is not known, but he died on 1 October, 1976, at the age of 87.

   Single-engine tractor biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Two seats in open cockpit.
   80hp Curtiss OX eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 11m (36ft 1in); length 8m (26ft 3in); height 2.30m (7ft 6 1/2in).
   Empty weight 490kg (1,080lb).
   One built in 1915.
Sakamoto No.6 Aeroplane with Japanese flags flying from the outer struts.

   As with the majority of early private builders of aircraft in Japan, Kiyotake Shigeno was from an upper-class family, the third son of Baron Kiyoharu Shigeno, a Lt-Gen in the Imperial Japanese Army. Kiyotake lost his two older brothers through illnesses and therefore became the heir to his family position at an early age. He entered the Army Central Cadet School, but left it halfway through his training because of illness and finished his education at the Tokyo Ueno Conservatory, majoring in music.
   At the age of 28, in july 1910, he left Japan for France, perhaps quite despondent after the death of his wife four months earlier. On arriving in Paris he went to an automobile driving school, and later to a flying school at Juvissy. Soon after, the school was closed and he transferred to the Caudron flying school and then the Issy-les-Moulineaux flying school, and acquired international pilot licence No. 744 on 26 january, 1912.

Shigeno Wakadori-go Aeroplane

   In 1912, Shigeno designed a single-seat tractor biplane and placed an order for its manufacture with Charles Roux, of France, who had already built a monoplane with the same structural principles. He named this aeroplane Wakadori-go, meaning Young Bird, after his late wife, Wakako. Powered at first by a 4050hp Gregoire-Gyp four-cylinder water-cooled engine, it was soon replaced by a 50-60hp Anzani engine for its first flight on 26 April, 1912. The aeroplane was exhibited at the Fourth International Aviation Salon held in Paris that year.
   During the flight-test period of the Wakadori-go, Shigeno was summoned by his family to return to Japan and left France in May 1912 by ship with his dismantled aeroplane. It was reassembled at Tokorozawa Flight Test Grounds the following September. On 9 September, when Shigeno banked too steeply at low altitude just after take off, the wingtip touched the ground, causing damage to the wings, propeller, and undercarriage. After repairs, the new wings were of greater span with consequent Increase in wing area.
   After these repairs and modifications, the Wakadori-go set a new civil aeroplane record in Japan on 20 April, 1913, reaching 300m (984ft) with a flight of 45min. The existence of flyable aircraft in Japan at this early date was quite an accomplishment. Later, the Anzani engine was installed in a Kaishiki aeroplane belonging to the Provisional Military Balloon Research

   Single-engine tractor biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
   60hp Anzani six-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span, upper 10.07m (33ft 0 1/4in), lower 7.09m (23ft 3in), cord 1.54m (5ft); length 8.106m (26ft 7in); wing area 24.33sq m (261.89sq ft).
   Empty weight 370kg (815lb); loaded weight 500kg (1,102Ib).
   Maximum speed 62kt (71 mph), endurance 3hr.
   One built in April 1912.

   In April 1914, Baron Shigeno returned to France to purchase a new aeroplane. After the start of the First World War that August he joined the French Army as a 2-Lt assigned to Pau aerodrome. During the war, he was awarded the Legion d'Honneur and Croix de Guerre while serving with one of the Escadrilles des Cigognes (Stork Squadrons). He attained the rank of Captain. In january 1920, Shigeno returned to Japan with his second wife, Jeanne, and their daughter, Ayako. He planned a career in aviation but died in Osaka in October 1924.
Shigeno Wakadori-go at Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, 29 January, 1912, when equipped with Gregoire-Gyp 50hp engine.
Shigeno Wakadori-go Aeroplane.
Shirato Aeroplane Research Studio (Shirato Hikoki Kenkyusho)

   Einosuke Shirato, the founder of this aeroplane manufacturing company, was born in the northernmost part of Honshu in 1886. He enlisted in the Army Balloon Corps in 1906 and worked under Capt Yoshitoshi Tokugawa, noted for being the first person to fly an aeroplane in Japan. After leaving the Army in 1910, Shirato became an assistant to Sanji Narahara through an introduction by Capt Tokugawa. While with Narahara, a builder of aeroplanes and a flying instructor, he learned to fly, and became the second civilian aviator, preceded only by Narahara.
   After Narahara retired from aviation in April 1912, Shirato began a series of paid fIying exhibition engagements as the exclusive pilot of the Narahara No.4 Aeroplane. Later he worked as a flying instructor at the Nihon Kyodo Hiko Renshusho (Japan Co-operative Flight Training Centre) at Inage in Chiba Prefecture, which had been established by Narahara. He trained several students including Otojiro Itoh (a future manufacturer of aeroplanes) and Saken Kawabe. This school was the first to train civilian aviators in Japan.
   In January 1915 Shirato obtained a 50hp Green engine from Takehiko Sonoda who had taken it to Japan from England. Aero-engines were a rare commodity, for in these early days the few on hand were all imported and very expensive. At the request of Shirato, Otojiro ltoh built the first Shirato aeroplane which was completed in April 1915 and named the Asahi-go. With this aeroplane he made exhibition flights in Hokkaido, the first on that island.
   In December 1916 he transferred his Shirato Flying Training Ground, which was associated with the Japan Co-operative Flight Training Centre in lnage, to Shinjuku Beach, Samukawa in Chiba Prefecture, where he completed hi first practical aeroplane without major outside assistance, the Shirato Takeru-go, in 1918. The war caused Shirato to be recalled into the Army and he served in Siberia where he became ill and was discharged in December 1918. During his absence, his flying students maintained his airfield and training school. It was at this time in 1918 that he established a new name for his company, Shirato Hikoki Kenkyusho. This was prompted by Shirato becoming more involved in the commercial building of aeroplanes for exhibition flying and flying training. All these activities centred on the flying field at Inage, such as Shirato's flying school and aircraft building, were collectively referred to by the popular name Shirato Airfield.

Shirato Asahi-go Aeroplane.

   When Takehiko Sonoda returned from England after having his aeroplane built there in 1912, he brought with him only the 50hp Green engine that powered it. This engine was then sold to Einosuke Shirato in January 1915 to power the first Shirato aeroplane of what was to be a long line of aircraft. Shirato asked Otojiro Itoh to design and build this aeroplane for him. At that time, Itoh was 23 years old and had worked with Shirato when both were assistants of Sanji Narahara.
   Itoh started this first of what would be many designs on 11 March, 1915, and the aeroplane was completed on 17 April with the assistance of Toyokichi Daiguchi and Toyotaro Yamagata. The first flight was made on 24 April by Itoh himself. The aeroplane passed into Shirato's ownership after he flew it for the first time on 6 May. Shirato named the aeroplane Asahi-go after his birthplace at Asahiyama, Kanagi Village in Aomori Prefecture in northern Honshu.
   A number of commercial exhibition flights were made over a two-month period from June 1915, at many location in Niigata, Fukushima and Aomori Prefectures, before crowds of people who had never before seen an aeroplane.

   Single-engine tractor biplane. AII-wooden construction with fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
   50hp Green four-cylinder watercooled inline engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 11 m (38ft 1in); length 7.20m (23ft 7 1/2in); height 2.60m (8ft 6 1/2in).
   Empty weight 320kg (705Ib).
   One built in 1915.
Shirato Asahi-go Aeroplane.
Shirato Iwao-go Aeroplane

   Having a close working relationship with Otojiro Itoh and recognizing his success with the design of the Asahi-go, Shirato asked Itoh to design another aeroplane for him. This was a seaplane, the first japanese-built civil seaplane.
   The design was begun in late December 1915 and completed late the next month. It was a twin-float tractor biplane powered by a 60hp Indian rotary engine which was lent to Shirato by his friend Yuzo Umeda who often assisted with his work. Construction of the new aeroplane began on 28 january, 1916, with Shimo making the first flight on 3 March. Two weeks later, Shirato took this aeroplane, the Iwao-go, on the first of many exhibition flights, making the first from Lake Suwa in Nagano Prefecture.
   After other flights and exhibitions, Shirato encountered a series of problems after one of the floats struck a floating log on Lake Biwa near Ohtsu in Shiga Prefecture, and the exhibition had to be cancelled. The promoter of the event, Kyotsu Nippo (a newspaper company) placed a lien against Shirato for failing to honour his contract. Umeda, the owner of the engine, filed a counter suit with the Takamatsu District Court, and the case was settled out of court for 400 yen. Somehow this passed the ownership of the aeroplane to 19-year-old Yukichi Goto, one of Shirato's assistants, who had obtained money from his father. Goto took the aeroplane to his home in Nobeoka-cho, Miyazaki Prefecture, where he planned to fly it. Because special skills were required to fly a seaplane, apart from having general flying ability, Goto soon tired of the aeroplane and returned it to Umeda in February 1917 and went to Tokyo where he joined the Imperial Flying Association as a flying student to improve his skill as a pilot.

   Single-engine twin-float tractor biplane. All-wooden construction with fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
60hp Indian nine-cylinder air-cooled rotary-engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 11 m (36ft 1in); length 7.50m (24ft 7 1/4in); wing area 29sq m(312.163 sq ft).
   Empty weight 400kg (881Ib)
   One built in 1916.
Shirato Iwao-go Aeroplane
Shirato Kaoru-go (Shirato 16) Aeroplane

   With the assistance of Otojiro Itoh, this Shirato Kaoru-go (Fragrance) Aeroplane owed much to the experience gained with the Takeru-go. It was a simple two-bay tractor biplane with slight backward stagger, and originally it had a skid attached to the undercarriage to prevent nosing over, but this was later removed. It also had later changes made to the engine cowling as well as shortening of the wing span.
   When first built, the aeroplane carried its name, Kaoru-go, in japanese on the sides of the fuselage. When modifications were completed and its designation justifiably changed, it then carried the well-known Shirato circular insignia in place of the name, and 16 for Shirato 16 was added to the rudder.
   In 1919 Nobuo Takahashi from Hokkaido used the aeroplane to make exhibition flights at various locations in Hokkaido and Karafuto (now Sakhalin in the USSR). In August 1920 the aeroplane was entered in the First Prize-winning Flight Competition at Susaki Airfield in Tokyo where it recorded an altitude of 650m (2,132ft) and a speed of 35.5kt when flown by Takeo Shimada. Although it was the lowest powered aircraft entered, it took 5th place in both of these events.

   Single-engine two-bay tractor biplane. All-wooden construction with fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
   50hp Gnome seven-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.

   Shirato Kaoru-go Shirato 16
Span 11m (36ft 1in) 10m (32ft 9 1/2in)
Length 7.90m (25ft 11 in) 7.90m (25ft 11in)
Height 2.50m (8ft 2 1/2in) 2.20m (7ft 2 1/2in)
Empty weight 290kg (639Ib) 380kg (837lb)

   One built in 1918.
Shirato Kaoru-go (Shirato 16) Aeroplane after modification.
Shirato Takeru-go Aeroplane (Also known as Tamura Tractor and Ichimori Tractor)

   This was the first Shirato aeroplane that proved to have satisfactory performance from the beginning. It was built at the request of Toshikazu Tamura and completed in july 1918. Known as the Shimo Takeru-go, it was an improved landplane version of the earlier Iwao-go seaplane. It was a rather large aeroplane yet of sufficiently light weight for its 50hp Gnome rotary engine. Emphasis was on safety rather than performance. The pilot and passenger/student sat in tandem in a large single open cockpit. This was the first aeroplane to carry Shirato's target-like design on its wings and fuselage.
   As with so many early japanese aircraft, having an engine around which to build it was the key element. Tamura obtained his engine for this aeroplane by having it rebuilt from spares formerly owned by the American aviator Frank Champion who died in a crash while performing aerobatics over the city of Kouchi in October 1917.
   After gaining flying experience, Tamura demonstrated his skills by proudly flying over his home town of Sumoto on Awaji Island, an often used sign of achievement for early pilots.
   After several modifications made in the autumn of 1918, the aeroplane became known as the Tamura Tractor to distinguish it from pusher types. Following exhibition tours with his aeroplane that took him to points in northern Honshu and most of Hokkaido, Tamura had to retire from aviation because of illness and died in February 1919. Yoshinori Ichimori then became the owner and he rebuilt the aeroplane under the guidance of his older and experienced friend, aviator Ginzo Nojima. It was renamed the Ichimori Tractor.
   Arrangements were made whereby Noburu Fujiwara was to fly this aeroplane for a demonstration at Kobe in January 1920, but immediately after taking off from the Osaka joto Military Parade Grounds, the aeroplane failed to gain sufficient height because of loss of power, and the port wing struck a lightning rod at the Army Ordnance Arsenal, causing the aeroplane to crash and be destroyed. Fujiwara survived the crash but sustained injuries. (see other Fujiwara mishaps under Itoh Emi 6 Aeroplane).

   Single-engine tractor biplane. AIl-wooden construction with fabric covering except for aft portion of the fuselage. Pilot in open cockpit.
   50hp Gnome seven-cylinder aircooled rotary engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 8.90m (29ft 2 1/4in); length 7.10m (23ft 3 1/2in).
   Empty weight 305kg (672lb).
   One built in 1918.
Shirato Takeru-go Aeroplane, also known as the Tamura Tractor and Ichimori Tractor.
Tachibana, also Japan Aeroplane Manufacturing Works (Nippon Hikoki Seisakusho)

   In March 1915, a Gyro-engined Curtiss was purchased by Ryokan Tachibana just before his return to Japan from the United States. However, since he had not obtained a pilot's licence, he joined with aviator Shigeru Suzuki, who had also returned from the United States and became the exhibition pilot for Tachibana's Gyro-powered Curtiss at various places in Japan. Unfortunately, after a brief period while flying from the Asakura Military Grounds in Kouchi City, Shikoku Island, the aeroplane crashed on 25 May of that year, severely injuring Suzuki. The aeroplane was repaired but was again severely damaged in a landing accident at Zentsuji on Shikoku the following month.
   In the meantime, the owner of the aeroplane, Tachibana, intended establishing a flying school and an aeroplane manufacturing company in Noda-cho, Kita-ku, Osaka. At that time he learned that Juichi Sakamoto had announced his intention of establishing an aviation school in Zasshonokuma, Tsukushigun, Fukuoka Prefecture, under the sponsorship of the chief editor of the Kyushu Nippo (Daily Report) newspaper. Rather than competing with one another, Tachibana and Sakamoto joined partnership with the intention of forming the Oriental Aviation School (Toyo Hiko Gakko) in Zasshonokuma, at Fukuoka. This did not happen but the association of the two men continued.
   Tachibana therefore went ahead with his plans to form the Japan Aeroplane Manufacturing Works (Nippon Hikoki Seisakusho) in Osaka. This facility came under the supervision of two Americans, aviator Barr Williams and engineer Harley Holms who accompanied Tachibana on his return to Japan with his aeroplane.

Suzuki Gyro No.2 Tractor

   Using the wrecked components of Tachibana's Curtiss tractor, and incorporating design improvements made by Shigeru Suzuki, the aeroplane was rebuilt at the Nippon Hokoki Seisakusho (Japan Aeroplane Manufacturing Works), and called the Suzuki Gyro No.2 Tractor. An obvious difference from the original Curtiss design was that the rear part of the fuselage, formerly left uncovered and exposing its structure, was now completely covered. The former skids attached to the undercarriage were now eliminated. Once successfully test flown, it was entered in a competition at the Second Civil Flight Meet at Naruo Race Track near Osaka in December 1915. Flown by Ieyasu Nakazawa, it won the Second Prize for duration with a flight of 29min 35sec.
   Although this was a two-seat aircraft, it was difficult to take off when carrying two, so it was used as a single-seater. Later this aeroplane became part of the Itoh Airfield organization.

   Single-engine tractor biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Two seats in open cockpits.
   60hp Gyro J five-cylinder aircooled rotary engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 9.20m (30ft 2 1/4in); length 6.10m (20ft).
   Empty weight 370kg (815Ib); loaded weight 500kg (1,102lb).
   Maximum speed 60kt (69mph); endurance 1 1/2hr.
   One built in 1915.
Suzuki Gyro No.2 Tractor

   Takayuki Takasou built his own aircraft in order to obtain his objective, that of acquiring a pilot's licence. He was born in 1887 at Kobiki-cho, Kyobashi-ku, Tokyo, where he attended school at the Faculty of Commerce at Keio Gijuku (later a University), left at mid-term and began working at the Tokyo Automobile Manufacturing Works. In 1908, with the financial assistance of Horitoshi Ohmiya, Takasou went to the United States, seemingly with the express purpose of building an aeroplane there. In 1911 he built an aeroplane closely resembling a Curtiss pusher and called it the Takasou No.1 Aeroplane.
   This aeroplane is recorded as having been destroyed while taxiing. Following this, he built his No.2 Aeroplane which was said to have been successful. In his No.3 Aeroplane, for which there is no description, he took his examination for an International Pilot Licence and was granted licence No.219.

Takasou No.4 Aeroplane

   Takasou built another aeroplane, which he called the No.4, incorporating improvements over his earlier designs. He returned to Japan with this aeroplane in April 1914. As with many of the earlier designs, this too was based upon the Curtiss pusher but with his own innovations, and powered with a 60hp Hall-Scott engine. His aeroplane had a unique control system which he called the 'three in one,' in which the fore and aft movement of the control wheel operated the elevator, and left and right rotation of the control wheel operated the ailerons which were interconnected with the rudder. The pilot's left foot operated the wheel brake, and the right foot operated the throttle.
   This aeroplane made its first exhibition flight in May 1914 at Himeji Military Grounds in Hyogo Prefecture in central Honshu. In the following month Takasou entered his aeroplane in the First Civil Flying Meet, that was held at Naruo Race Track west of Osaka. He gained second place by staying airborne for 24min 5sec, but failed to win a prize for altitude, although he recorded 680m (2,230ft). He then participated in a memorial flight for Kouha Takeishi in July 1914 at the Kyoto Fukakusa Military Grounds where Takeishi had become the first victim of a civil aviation crash in Japan on 4 May the previous year. After that, Takasou took his No.4 Aeroplane for exhibition flights to Dairen (now Luda) in China, Seoul in Korea, and then to Fukuyama and Tottori in October and November, finishing the tour at Tanba Sasayama in December 1914. By this time the aeroplane was virtually worn out.

   Single-engine pusher biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Exposed tail and nose booms. Pilot in open structure.
   60hp Hall-Scott eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 11.20m (36ft 9in); length 11m (36ft 1in); height 2.30m (7ft 6 1/2in).
   Empty weight 230kg (507Ib); loaded weight 545kg (1,201Ib).
   Maximum speed 33kt (38mph); endurance 1hr.
   One built in 1914.

Takasou No.5 Aeroplane

   In need of a replacement aeroplane for his No.4, Takayuki Takasou built an improved model at his home workshop at Bakuro-cho, Higashi-ku, Osaka. Known as the Takasou No.5 Aeroplane, it was powered by the same 60hp HallScott engine as had been used in his No.4 Aeroplane.
   After being assured of the new aeroplane's performance in flights at Osaka in March 1915, Takasou took it to Taiwan and Okinawa for more demonstrations which further improved his reputation. He also entered the Second Civil Flying Meet held in December 1915 at Naruo, where he won First Prize for a flight of 35min 30sec, and Second Prize for altitude, having reached 360m (1,181ft).
   On the following day he was making a return flight from Osaka to Naruo when the engine failed over the Muko River on which he made an emergency landing. After repairs he sold the airframe to a Chinese buyer and had the engine rebuilt for his next design, the Takasou TN-6 Aeroplane.

   Single-engine pusher biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covered wings. Exposed tail and nose booms. Pilot in open structure.
   60hp Hall-Scott eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 11m (36ft 1in); length 9.62m (31 ft 6 1/4in); wing area n.5sq m (296sq ft).
   Loaded weight 530kg (1,168Ib). Maximum speed 52kt (60mph).
   One built in 1915.
Takasou No.4 Aeroplane
Takasou No.5 Aeroplane
Takasou TN-6 Aeroplane

   The Hall-Scott engine, damaged while installed in the Takasou No.5 Aeroplane, was repaired by the Nakajima Machinery Manufacturing Works, managed by Ikusaburo Nakajima (no relation to the aeroplane manufacturer). After repairs, it was rated at 65hp and ran continuously for 8 hours in tests at the Oka Secondary School in Osaka.
   Takasou built a new biplane of a tractor design in which he installed this rebuilt engine. He called this the TN-6, using the T of his name and N for Nakajima. With the help of his assistants, Yonezawa and Fukuda, and apprentice Harada, the aeroplane was completed in the autumn of 1917. Using features found in Morane-Saulnier and Martin-Wright designs, the fuselage could be separated at midpoint by four bolts for ease of transport by rail.
   Takasou used this aeroplane for flying training at Osaka Joto Military Grounds but, because of a landing accident, this lasted only a month. After repairs, the aeroplane was sold to Soujiro Yasui of Kyoto in August 1918. Following this transaction, the aeroplane was frequently modified, so altering its appearance that it was renamed the Yasui TN-6 Kai Aeroplane. Takasou gave flying instruction to Yasui at Kagamigahara, after which Takasou returned to the United States, this time to buy automobiles and begin a new business venture. (see Yasui TN-6 Kai Aeroplane.)

   Single-engine tractor biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering and metal engine cowling. Pilot in open cockpit.
   65hp Hall-Scott eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 11.20m (36ft 9in); length 7.90m (25ft 11in); wing area 28.5sq m (306.78sq ft).
   Empty weight 610kg (1,345Ib). Maximum speed 53kt (61mph).
   One built in 1917.

Yasui Flying Research Studio (Yasui Hiko Kenkyusho)

   Soujiro Yasui of Uonotana-cho, Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto, was from a family famous for very high quality Nishijin Kimonos. He purchased the TN-6 Tractor from Takayuki Takasou in August 1918, and began flying training with his friend and assistant Fukuda, while using the aeroplane at Kagamigahara, north of Nagoya, being instructed by Takayuki Takasou, the builder of the aeroplane.

Yasui TN-6 Kai Aeroplane

   This was an attractive biplane but accidents were frequent with it to the point that with each repair changes were made to its design and appearance. Because of these changes which were generally innovated by Yasui, he renamed the aeroplane the Yasui TN-6 Kai Aeroplane (kai meaning modified).
   Major modifications included entirely new wings with equal span, the addition of a second seat, and a newly designed vertical fin. A sheet aluminium cowling enclosed the original 65hp Hall-Scott engine.
   For a civil aeroplane of the period, the TN-6 survived for a long time, mainly because of careful maintenance of the engine and airframe. On 3 January, 1920, Yasui made a New Year celebration flight over his home in Kyoto from the Fukakusa Military Parade Grounds, and over Osaka the following new year, both major events for those that watched. During these years he gave flying lessons to several students with this aeroplane as well as with the Yasui No.3 Aeroplane that he later built.

   Single-engine tractor biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pupil and instructor in open cockpits.
   65hp Hall-Scott eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 11.50m (37ft 8 1/4in); length 9.50m (31 ft 2in).
   Empty weight 590kg (1,300lb).
   One built in 1917, modified in 1918-1919.
Takasou TN-6 Aeroplane
Yasui TN-6 Kai Aeroplane
Tamai also Nippon Flying School (Nippon Hiko Gakko)

   Seitaro Tamai was born in 1892, the eldest son of Tsunetaro Tamai who was a manager at the Hamada Iron Works in Yokkaichi City, south of Nagoya. At the age of 16, inspired by the work of the Wright brothers, he began building an aeroplane which when completed after years of work, was unsuccessful. In 1911, his father took him to Tokyo to visit Sanji Narahara, who had built his own aircraft, along with Army Captain Kumazo Hino, one of Japan's first pilots. On a later visit to Tokyo, when travelling by himself, he met Army Capt Yoshitoshi Tokugawa, Japan's first pilot, and received aeronautical instruction from him.
   Returning home, Tamai built a taxi-ing vehicle which he ran at Chikko reclaimed ground at Yokkaichi City in February 1912. It was powered by a 25hp Cameron four-cylinder air-cooled inline engine borrowed from Sotoichi Saito, builder of the Saigai Aeroplane. With this experience and with the aid of his younger brother, Toichiro Tamai, the older Tamai started a business to build Tamai aeroplanes, and established an assembly shop at their father's factory in Yokkaichi

Tamai No.1 Seaplane

   The so-called Tamai No.1 Seaplane was in fact originally completed as a floatplane and attempts to fly it were made on 12 October, 1912, but it would not leave the water. It was not only underpowered, but the floats were poorly designed and lacked steps. Not to be discouraged, Tamai took the aeroplane to Inage in Chiba Prefecture across the bay from Tokyo, where Itoh and other aircraft builders were located. He modified the machine and converted it to a landplane, with completion in November 1912. He used the 25hp Cameron engine borrowed from Saito, first used in his taxi-ing trainer. This unequal-span biplane had the typical wooden structure of that time and was covered with fabric treated with gelatine and shibu (an astringent juice) for making the fabric airtight to produce lift. An unconventional feature was a small elevator at the nose even though this was a tractor-type aircraft. The undercarriage comprised two sets of dual wheels with skids between each pair and strangely the wheels were solid and without tyres. This aeroplane also failed to fly, but had it been able to do so, the Cameron engine would have overheated after a mere 10 minutes' running.
   In December 1913, Tamai entered the Army and joined the Telegraphic Corps in Nakano, Tokyo. Although his manufacture of aeroplanes had to cease for the period of his mandatory Army service, he continued his study by visiting the Tokorozawa Flight Test Grounds on his off-duty days. With the outbreak of the First World War, he was transferred from the Army to the Navy Air Corps and engaged in the campaign to seize Tsingtao before being discharged from the service in January 1915.
Tamai No.1 Seaplane, reconfigured with wheels.
NFS Tamai No.1 Aeroplane

   This was really the Tamai 3 Aeroplane in sequential order, but renumbering began because of this aeroplane's success. Financial support was again received from Naoji Tomono and his Iron Works, and the design was made by Aijiro Hara. With help from his brother Toichiro Tamai, the aeroplane was completed on 5 October, 1916, and flew for the first time on 4 November.
   The Tamai No.1 was a small unequal-span two-bay biplane with two-wheel undercarriage and twin skids. Following this success, Tamai announced his intention of establishing the Tamai Flight Training Centre, but a reporter for a monthly magazine Hikokai (Flight World) Tamotsu Aiba, announced similar plans. With the continuing help of Naoji Tomono as a partner, the three together established the Nippon Flying School in August 1916 at Anamori, Shimo Haneda-cho, in Tokyo, thus the initials NFS used in the type name. At first the aircraft could only carry the pilot, but modifications were made to carry pupil and instructor. Flights had to be limited to 10 minutes due to overheating of the engine.
   The flying school opened on 4 January, 1917, and was located at the present site of Haneda International Airport, using buildings of the Nippon Hikoki Seisakusho (Nippon Aeroplane Manufacturing Works), situated where the airport parking lot now exists. This NFS Tamai No.1 Aeroplane was the first aeroplane to fly at what has become one of the busiest international
airports in the world.

   Single-engine biplane trainer. AIl-wooden construction covered with fabric, except for the forward part of fuselage which was ply-covered. Pupil and instructor in open cockpit.
   35hp Cameron four-cylinder aircooled inline engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 10.20m (33ft 5 1/2in); length 7.20m (23ft 7 1/2in); height 2.82m (9ft 3in); wing area 32sq m (344sq ft).
   Empty weight 290kg (639Ib); loaded weight 448kg (987Ib).
   One built in 1916.
NFS Tamai No.1 Aeroplane.
Tamai 2 Nippon-go Seaplane

   By the time of his discharge, Seitaro Tamai had already exhausted his funds for aeronautical research. With the help of Yoshihisa Kinoshita, an engine enthusiast, he arranged with Naoji Tomono, manager of Tomono Iron Works in Azabu, Tokyo, to assist with the building of a seaplane because this company also built light-weight engines. One of these was used for the new aeroplane that was completed in 1916, and known as the Tamai 2 Seaplane, named Nippon-go (Japanese-type).
   This was an unequal-span two-bay biplane with a single main float, and auxiliary floats beneath the tail and each wingtip. The fuselage was left uncovered. It somewhat resembled early British Short seaplanes as well as the Umino Seaplane built the previous year.
   Confident of success, Tamai took the aircraft to Yokkaichi City, where he intended to make the first flight to honour the residents of his home town. The event was to take place at the exhibition grounds of Umaokoshi Beach, where an admission charge was collected from the spectators. But at the start the engine failed to attain enough power to get the seaplane airborne and it only taxied. It was said that the seaplane would have flown if the engine had been running satisfactorily, but there is no record of later flights.

   Single-engine single-float biplane. Wooden structure covered with fabric except for the fuselage which was uncovered. Pilot in open cockpit.
   90hp Tomono six-cylinder watercooled inline engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 13.20m (43ft 3 1/2in); length 10m (32ft 9 1/2in).
   Empty weight 350kg (771lb).
   One built in 1916.
Tamai 2 Nippon-go Seaplane.
NFS Tamai No.2 Trainer

   In january 1917, flying training began at the Nippon Flying School with the newly built NFS Tamai No.2 Trainer. This was again the design of Aijiro Hara, and manufactured at Haneda at the cost of 3,800 yen. The fuselage was shortened giving it more strength and the gap between upper and lower wings was increased. It was built from japanese cypress (hinoki) and fastened with aluminium nails. Designed from the beginning as a two-seat aircraft, it was powered by the Cameron engine taken from the Tamai 1. They carved their own propeller after laminating hinoki and katsura woods, and finished it with urushi (Japanese lacquer). The wings were slightly changed from the predecessor by having narrower chord, thus increasing the aspect ratio, and reducing the area to less than the NFS Tamai 1. The fabric covering was coated with waterproof varnish.
   The school advertised its flying programme as using a 'Sopwith-type' two-seat tractor aeroplane, assuming that being associated with a foreign manufacturer's name might suggest greater reliability. However, the new Tamai aeroplane existed for less than a year, for on the night of 30 September, 1917, a tidal wave carried it into Tokyo Bay. The next morning, the wreckage of the Tamai 2 was caught in a fishing net off the coast of Urayasu-cho in Chiba Prefecture, but only the engine could be saved.

   Single-engine two-bay biplane trainer. All-wooden construction with fabric covering. Two-seat in open cockpit.
   35hp Cameron four-cylinder aircooled inline engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 10.50m (34ft 5 1/2in); length 6m (19ft 8 1/4in); wing area 28sq m (301sq ft).
   Empty weight 320kg (705lb)
   One built in 1917.

NFS Tamai No.3 Trainer

   The NFS Tamai No.3 Aeroplane was powered by a 50hp Gnome rotary engine which Director Tamotsu Aiba himself bought from Sotoichi Saito, the builder of Saigai Aeroplane, in the past. The fuselage was larger to provide better accommodation for the two occupants seated in tandem. It was completed after three months and made its first flight on 4 May, 1917, at Haneda.
   The Nippon Flying School moved to a new site at Shibaura which was prepared on reclaimed land, a project that was sponsored by the Tokyo Nichinichi newspaper. On 20 May, the company began a large-scale advertising campaign coupled with exhibition flights from its new location. On the third flight of that day, Seitaro Tamai took off with press photographer Reizo Yuasa to fly over the centre of Tokyo but soon after take off, undetermined problems occurred with the aeroplane and he returned prematurely to the airstrip to land. While on the approach, however, the aeroplane was reported to break up in flight. Tamai and Yuasa both died in the crash. This was the first fatality experienced by a civil flying school in Japan, and was also the first loss of a japanese press photographer in flight on assignment.
   This accident caused a serious problem: how to maintain a flying school after the loss of its primary equipment and the instructor. To help resolve the problem, Kazuhide Watanabe, chief editor of the monthly magazine, Kokumin Hiko (Nation's Flight), and four other people, took on the sponsorship of the Nippon Flying School. They invited Army Lt (Reserve) Mototaka Kawakami (graduate of the 3rd Army Aviation Cadet Class) to be the instructor, and re-started the flying school with the NFS Tamai No.2 Aeroplane.
   As previously mentioned this aeroplane was lost in the tidal wave of 30 September, 1917. Nevertheless, the NFS, under the leadership of Terutaka Tamai (he had changed his first name from Toichiro) began construction of a new trainer for the continuance of the school.

   Single-engine two-bay biplane trainer. Wooden construction with fabric covering. Three seats in pen cockpit.
   50hp Gnome seven-cylinder aircooled rotary engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 11.80m (38ft 8 1/2in); length 8.40m (27ft 6 1/2in); wing area 38sq m (409.04sq ft).
   Empty weight 430kg (948lb).
   One built in 1917.

Tamai No.5 Trainer

   Retaining the name of the company founded by Seitaro Tamai, his brother Terutaka Tamai oversaw the building of a new aeroplane, the Tamai No.5 Trainer. To power the aeroplane, they used the Cameron engine recovered from the fishing nets that snagged the NFS Tamai No.2, and reconditioned it at the Tomono Iron Works. The new aeroplane was built to the drawings of the NFS Tamai No.2 and No.3 and incorporated remaining spare parts. The engine, fuselage and undercarriage were identical to the NFS Tamai No.2, and the wings and tail were the same as those on the NFS Tamai No.3. This aircraft was manufactured at the nearby Nippon Aeroplane Manufacturing Works owned by Terutaka Tamai beginning in February 1918, under the new name of Haneda Hikoki Kenkyusho (Haneda Aeroplane Research Studio).
   (For details of dimensions see Tamai No.2 and 3 from which the components were derived)
NFS Tamai No.2 Trainer
NFS Tamai No.3 Trainer
NFS Tamai No.5 Trainer

   Shigesaburo Torigai was a manager of an imported automobile sales and repair business in Yuraku-cho, Tokyo. Because of his new-found interest in aviation as a hobby, he organized the Nihon Hiko Kenkyukai (Japan Flight Research Association). Under this name, and to satisfy his own interest in aviation, he voluntarily managed and promoted exhibition programmes for Einosuke Shirato who flew the Narahara No.4 Ohtori-go Aeroplane on tours throughout Japan, and his ambition was to have an aeroplane of his own. To achieve this, he asked Toyokichi Daiguchi, who was associated with Narahara, for technical assistance in the building of his own aeroplane.

Thrigai Hayabusa-go Aeroplane

   In 1913, to open the project, Torigai purchased a used 45hp Gregoire Gyp engine from Shinzo Morita of Osaka after his flying accident. Torigai completed his aeroplane in April 1913 and called it the Hayabusa-go (Falcon). It was an equal-span three-bay biplane with uncovered fuselage, tractor engine, ailerons on the upper wing and undercarriage comprising two sets of twin wheels and two skids. He flew it for the first time on 3 May, 1913, at Inage, Chiba Prefecture, but at a height of about 20m the aeroplane stalled and crashed. Torigai survived, but the aeroplane was severely damaged.
   After repairs by Daiguchi, Torigai took the aeroplane to Hokkaido. While preparing for a flying exhibition at the Tsukisappu Military Drill Grounds on 7 September, 1913, Torigai took off and, on the outskirts of Sapporo, soon crashed once again. Speculation about the cause of this and the earlier accident is that Torigai did not know how to fIy, for there was no record of him having been given formal flying lessons. Torigai escaped serious injury but the aeroplane was badly damaged. The wreckage was saved and eventually transferred to Otojiro Itoh, to help start his flying school at Inage the next year. Itoh made the necessary repairs along with his own modifications and made the aeroplane flyable.
   Itoh eventually purchased the Gregoire Gyp engine from Torigai in August 1915 so that it could be installed in his first-built aircraft, the Emi 1 Aeroplane. This is the aeroplane that made the first flight to Tokyo from Inage on 8 January, 1916. (see Itoh Emi 1 Aeroplane.)
Torigai Hayabusa-go Aeroplane

   Tetsusaburo Tsuzuku of Komagome, Hongo-ku, Tokyo, began his direct involvement in aviation with scale models. Between 30 January and 19 February, 1911, he made experiments with a one-tenth scale model aeroplane towed behind a car at the Yoyogi Military Parade Grounds in Tokyo. It was at Yoyogi the month before, that the first manned flight took place in Japan. His efforts led to a patent he applied for on 15 November, 1910, and which was granted on 4 December, 1911, as No.21147. This patent and aeroplane concept interested a Tokyo businessman, Reizo Yamashina, in organizing an association for building a full-size Tsuzuku Aeroplane.

Tsuzuku No.1 Aeroplane

   With this financial support, a 50hp Anzani engine was bought from France and construction of the aeroplane begun. It was a Bleriot-type monoplane but with twin-pusher propellers having a drive system from the single engine much like that of the Wright brothers' aeroplane. The Tsuzuku aeroplane was completed in August 1911 and put on exhibition on 6 August at Takenodai, Ueno, Tokyo. Tsuzuku's theory was that a monoplane with pusher twin-propellers was the most efficient design for aeroplanes of the future.
   The first attempts to fly this aeroplane took place at Tokorozawa on 13 March, 1912 . However, because of the loss through the transmission system, insufficient power was available to sustain flight, and the aeroplane could only make repeated hops. After adjustments were made to the chain-drive system, the aeroplane became airborne on 5 May, 1912, at Tokorozawa Airfield, making two circuits on the first flight. On that same day, a second flight resulted in four circuits and a height of 20 to 30m (65 to 100ft). That afternoon, Tsuzuku took off once again to circle the airfield, but at approximately 40ft he encountered a strong wind and felt it prudent to make an immediate landing. Children were playing in the area, and in making a very low turn to avoid them, he collided with a fence. He was thrown out of the aeroplane with slight injuries but the aeroplane was destroyed.

   Single-engine, twin-pusher-propeller high-wing monoplane. Wooden structure with fabric-covered wings and empennage. Pilot in open structure.
   One 50hp Anzani five-cylinder aircooled radial engine, driving two two-bladed wooden propellers.
   Span 13m (42ft 8in); length 9.20m (30ft 2 1/4in); height 2.70m (8ft 10 1/4in); wing area 21sq m (226.04sq ft).
   Empty weight 300kg (661Ib); loaded weight 450kg (992Ib).
   One built in August 1911.
Tsuzuku No.1 Aeroplane with chain-driven twin-pusher propellers.
Tsuzuku No.2 Aeroplane

   Recognizing the power loss with a chain-drive transmission system, Tsuzuku built a new aeroplane, this time with a single propeller attached directly to the engine in the front of the aeroplane. This aeroplane incorporated features of both the Rumpler Taube and the Bleriot, and was completed in mid-June 1912. On 18 July of that year, during a training flight for Tsuzuku at Tokorozawa, a crash landing was made, flipping the aeroplane over and damaging the port wing. After repairs, the aeroplane was in the air again on 17 August at Tokorozawa. Four flights were made that day, all with increasing distances up to a maximum of more than three miles.
   Under sponsorship of the Shinano Mainichi newspaper, Tsuzuku took his aeroplane to Nagano Prefecture to make exhibition flights along the Sai River on 3 November, 1912. When preparing to land, in avoiding spectators, he had to land on unsuitable ground and badly damaged the airframe. A number of demonstration flights were made for military as well as civilian spectators by Tsuzuku with this aeroplane, many of which had similar endings followed by repeated repairs. Its ultimate fate is unrecorded.

   Single-engine tractor monoplane. Wooden structure with fabric-covered wings and empennage. Pilot in open structure.
   50hp Anzani five-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 12m (39ft 4 1/2in); length 10m (32ft 9 1/2in).
   Empty weight 300kg (661lb).
   One built in June 1912.
Tsuzuku No.2 Aeroplane.
Tsuzuku No.3 Aeroplane

   Early in 1915, the Chinese Revolutionary Army placed an order with Tsuzuku for the manufacture of a monoplane resembling the Nieuport NG. To complete this order in the shortest time, work was begun at a factory building in Kikukawacho, Honjo, Tokyo, with Tsuzuku's assistant, Shuichi Yano, acting as chief engineer. Construction was begun on 10 January, 1915, under the supervision of Torajiro Nishijima, with six other workers. In charge of the metal work was Masao Ohta, later president of Ohta Automobile Co, with three other sheet-metal workers. In record time, just 98 days, the aeroplane was completed on 28 April, 1915. The 50hp Gnome engine was taken from the Hoshino Aeroplane in which it was being used on loan.
   The aeroplane was scheduled for flight testing at Inage on 5 May of that year, but this was delayed because of conflicting relationships between China and Japan. Delivery was made, however, to Chinese aviator Yun-Peng Jao, of the Aviation School of the Chinese Revolutionary Army, and engineer Rong-Jong Wu. A Japanese aviator, Yonezo Hoshino, was assigned to look after the aeroplane during shipment and while in China. (see Hoshino Aeroplane.) According to evaluations made by the Chinese pilot, the aeroplane was good in both flying qualities and speed, and a letter of appreciation was sent by the Chinese to Tsuzuku.

   Single-engine shoulder-wing monoplane. Wooden structure (Japanese cypress) with ply-covered fuselage and fabric-covered wings and rail. Fuselage joined in the centre, with four bolts, for rail shipment. Pilot in open cockpit.
   50hp Gnome seven-cylinder aircooled rotary engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 11.40m (37ft 5in); length 7.50m (24ft 7 1/4in); height 2.60m (8ft 6 1/4in).
   Empty weight 350kg (771Ib); loaded weight 550kg (1,212Ib).
   Maximum speed 49kt (56mph); endurance 4hr.
   One built in April 1915.
Tsuzuku No.3 Aeroplane.

   As a spare time project when not working as a shop assistant for a wholesale rice dealer, 22-year-old Shotaro Ueda built a biplane glider in 1908 in his temporary shop in Nagoya near Tsurumai Park. Such a project was most unusual for someone other than an upperclass Japanese. Helped by his 34-year-old friend, Kisaburo Sato, the two created an open framed fuselage of bamboo for their glider to which they mounted conventional biplane wings and a tail unit. It was then towed behind an automobile with unrecorded results.

Ueda Hiryu-go Aeroplane

   Not satisfied with the results of a towed glider, but encouraged to pursue this project further, Ueda obtained a 25hp Anzani three-cylinder fan-type engine which was then mounted in the glider in addition to some modifications to the airframe. Ailerons were attached to the rear interplane struts between the two wings. The aeroplane had twin rudders to whose outer sides were attached short-span horizontal surfaces supplementing the elevator which had balance tabs and was hinged at the rear of the fuselage frame well aft of the vertical surfaces. The undercarriage consisted of wooden cart wheels without tyres or shock absorbers. Ueda gave it the name Hiryu-go (Flying Dragon).
   The aeroplane was completed as a powered aircraft towards the end of 1909, but there is no record that it actually flew. Had it done so, it would have been the first to fly in Japan. Unfortunately, Ueda's potential career was ended when he died in April 1912 at the age of 26.
Ueda Hiryu-go Aeroplane.
Umeda Aeroplane.

   Around 1910, while working as manager of a kimono shop in Shibaku, Tokyo, Yuzo Umeda became an aviation enthusiast, and in his home workshop built a glider which he intended to tow with an automobile. Whether this was a success or a failure is not known, but it was followed by a powered aeroplane with a 25hp Anzani engine. When completed, it was tested at Inage, as well as Sambonyoshi at Haneda Beach, but these efforts ended in failure.
   Believing that more power would solve most of his problems, Umeda purchased a 60hp Indian engine in the summer of 1914, and built a biplane. When completed, he assembled the major components in an Imperial Flight Association hangar located at the Yoyogi Military Parade Grounds. The aeroplane left the ground on its first attempt on 7 September, 1914, but crashed immediately and was destroyed.
   Reverting to the use of the 25hp Anzani engine, Umeda built a sesquiplane at Inage in May 1916, assisted by Shuichi Yano, a graduate of the Department of Science and Technology at Waseda University, along with Kichinosuke Tsukamoto. This aeroplane was referred to as a French Caudron design since it resembled that small single-seat aircraft. Umeda was disappointed again, for this aeroplane could only make short hops. Anticipating success, Umeda had erected a sign at Inage announcing the Umeda Aeroplane Co-operative Training Centre (Umeda Hikoki Kyodo Renshusho) on which he introduced his Anzani-powered sesquiplane as the trainer to be used, and called it the Umeda Tractor.
   Desperate to achieve at least some success. Umeda lent his 60hp Indian engine to aircraft builder Einosuke Shirato who then produced the Shirato lwao-go Aeroplane. This aeroplane was sent on flying tours accompanied by Umeda as part of a team. Eventually the aeroplane was sold to Yukichi Coto, and Umeda gave up direct involvement in aviation. (see Shirato Iwao-go Aeroplane)
Umeda Aeroplane
Umino Seaplane

   In May 1914, aviator Ikunosuke Umino took with him from the United States to Japan, a Christofferson flying-boat. While taxi-ing this aeroplane on 1 july, 1914, before a test flight, the engine caught fire and burned the major components of the aeroplane. Umino escaped uninjured. The engine used in this flying-boat was the same 60hp Hall-Scott that had been used in the Curtiss in which Kouha Takeishi crashed and was killed at the Fukakusa Military Grounds in Kyoto on 4 May, 1913. The engine was then repaired for further use in the Christofferson and by Umino for his aircraft.
   Using the remaining parts of the Christofferson flying-boat along with its engine, Umino designed a floatplane which he had built by Nippon Hikoki Seisakusho. This Umino Seaplane became the third and last aeroplane to come from this recently formed company. In the new aeroplane, the engine was in the tractor position instead of being a pusher as previously. The radiator was above the fuselage and behind the engine. There was a single main float with two wingtip pontoons. The cockpit was well aft at almost mid-fuselage.
   This aeroplane was completed in May 1915 and tested at Nishinomiya Beach west of Osaka. Several attempts were made to get the seaplane airborne but none succeeded. Discouraged, Umino retired from aviation.

   Single-engine single-float tractor biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covered wings, fuselage and tail unit. Wooden main float with tubular metal wingtip floats. Pilot in open cockpit.
   60hp Hall-Scott eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 10.30m (33ft 9 1/2in); length 7m (22ft 11 1/2in); height 3.60m (11ft 9 1/4in).
   Empty weight 510kg (1,124Ib).
   One built in May 1915.

Because of a lack of further orders the Nippon Hikoki Seisakusho went out of business and Tachibana, the owner of the company, went into the film industry.
Umino Seaplane
Experimental Japanese-Navy-Type Seaplane

   This aeroplane is claimed to be the japanese Navy's first aeroplane of original design. It closely followed the lines of the classic Curtiss pusher. Differences were that it had unequal span with the ailerons mounted on the top wing. The cockpit nacelle design was influenced by Maurice Farman aeroplanes. It was a tandem-seat aircraft for two crew, with the engine placed behind the cockpit in a pusher configuration. Like the Curtiss, this too had a single broad beam centreline float. From this first Navy aeroplane Lieutenant (Engineering) Chikuhei Nakajima was in charge of the design and construction of this and other aircraft, giving him the experience to later start his own aircraft manufacturing company.
   This aeroplane was completed in the autumn of 1913, and test flown by Lieut Tadaharu Yamada, a qualified instructor who had obtained his flying experience from the Curtiss Flying School. Only one aeroplane of this type was built because during test flights it was found to have quite heavy controls. By this time, the Japanese Navy owned three Curtiss seaplanes and four Maurice Farman seaplanes, therefore this Navy built aeroplane became unofficially known as the Navy No.8 Aeroplane. This is one of the rare incidences that an American design influenced the design of an early japanese aircraft.

   Single-engine single-float pusher sesquiplane. Wooden structure with wings, empennage and crew nacelle covered with fabric. Crew of two in open cockpit.
   75hp Curtiss O eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden pusher propeller.
   Span, upper 14.02m (46ft), lower 10.97m (36ft).
   One built in 1913.
Yokosho Experimental Japanese-Navy-Type Seaplane.
Experimental Yokosho Nakajima Tractor Seaplane

   By 1914 Chikuhei Nakajima was the chief designer of the Navy's Aeroplane Factory, part of the Ordnance Department at the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal. He created the first tractor float biplane in Japan, having closely studied Farman and Deperdussin aircraft designs. Completed in February 1915, this seaplane was known as the Nakajima-type Tractor. On its initial flight, when Lieut Fumio Inoue had only reached about 5m (16ft 6in) it went out of control and crashed, but a second example was built in September 1915 and successfully flight tested.
   Tests of performance and reliability were made in comparison with a Yokosho-built and modified Farman seaplane. Having proved successful, a third aeroplane of the Nakajima-type Tractor was completed in June 1916, this one powered by an imported 160hp Salmson engine. The aeroplane proved to be less practical than the Ro-go Otsu-gata three-seat pusher aeroplane, the Japanese-built larger version of a Maurice Farman with modifications.
   The Yokosho Nakajima Tractor was the first original design by Chikuhei Nakajima.

   Single-engine twin-float tractor biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Crew of two in open cockpit.
   100-115hp Benz F-D six-cylinder water-cooled inline engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 15m (49ft 2 1/2in); length 9m (25ft 6in); height 4m (13ft 1 1/2in); wing area 69sq m (742.734sq ft).
   Maximum speed 54kt (62mph) at sea level.
   Three built in 1915 and 1916.

Experimental Yokosho Ho-go Otsu-gata Seaplane

   Based upon the experience gained with the Yokosho Nakajima Tractor Seaplane, two experimental reconnaissance bomber seaplanes were completed in january 1916. These single-engined aeroplanes had larger wings than the earlier type. They were powered by the 200hp Salmson engine, claimed to be the most powerful aircraft engine at that time. Once again Nakajima was the chief designer. His assistant was Sub-Lieut Kishichi Umakoshi, an aircraft designer as well as a test pilot.
   The design was a success and two additional aeroplanes were built in 1919 and 1920 respectively. Both were powered by the newer 220hp Peugeot engines. All four aircraft were used for research into long-range reconnaissance and bombing. Compared with the Short Reconnaissance Seaplane imported in 1916, the japanese aeroplanes had better performance.
   They were unfortunately aeroplanes without a purpose, because the japanese Navy had not yet been organized with air units. Consequently, they were never put into production for operational use although the design was accepted in june 1918 as the Experimental Yokosho Ho-go Otsu-gata Seaplane.

   Single-engine twin-float unequal-span biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Rearward folding wings for stowage. Crew of two in open cockpits.
   200hp Salmson 2M-7 seven-cylinder water-cooled radial engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller (first two aircraft); 200-230hp Peugeot eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller (last two aircraft).
   One bomb could be carried beneath the fuselage.
   Span 21 m (68ft 10 3/4in); length 9.60m (31 ft 6in); height 4.122m (13ft 6in).
   Maximum speed 52kt (60mph) at sea level; endurance 11.7hr.
   Four built in 1916-1920.

Experimental Yokosho Ho-go Small Seaplane

   In addition to the larger Ho-go aeroplane previously described, a smaller seaplane design was created in 1917 in an attempt to achieve better manoeuvrability. Sub-Lieut Kishichi Umakoshi was the designer, and the aeroplane was completed in 1918. Features of the Short Reconnaissance Seaplane and Sopwith Fighter Seaplane were incorporated into the design.
   At that time pilots were being trained in the Farman Small (I-go) and Large (Ro-go) pusher aircraft. However, the Ho-go Small Seaplane had a higher speed, especially noticeable on take off and alighting and pilots found the aeroplane very difficult to handle. As a consequence, only one aeroplane of this type was built, but it provided valuable experience for the design of the Ro-go Ko-gata which followed.

   Single-engine twin-float biplane. Wooden structure with fabric-covering. Rearward folding wings for stowage. Crew of two in open cockpit.
   130hp Salmson M-9 nine-cylinder water-cooled radial engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
   Span 14.60m (47ft 11 in); length 9.955m (32ft 8in); height 3.62m (11ft 10 1/2 in ).
   Empty weight 884kg (1,948lb); loaded weight 1,364kg (3,007lb).
   Maximum speed 67kt (77mph) at sea level; climb to 3,000m (9,843 ft) in 60min; endurance 6 1/2hr.
   One built in 1918.
Experimental Yokosho Nakajima Tractor Seaplane.
Experimental Yokosho No-go Otsu-gata Seaplane.
Experimental Yokosho Ho-go Small Seaplane.
Experimental Yokosho Nakajima Tractor Seaplane.
Experimental Yokosho Twin-engined Seaplane

   This aeroplane not only has significance in being the first twin-engined aeroplane built in Japan, but, once completed, no one would fly it. Few pilots in Japan, if any, had ever seen a twin-engined aeroplane. However, it did influence future designs as a result of the experience gained in its design and ground testing.
   Intrigued with the idea of launching torpedoes from aircraft, Nakajima pursued this idea, beginning in about 1914. To explore this concept, he designed an aeroplane for this purpose in April 1916 at the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal. This twin-float biplane could carry a modified version of a 14-inch torpedo which was shortened from a standard torpedo-boat weapon.
   When the aeroplane was completed it was claimed to be the most powerful and the fastest aeroplane in Japan. But their claims were never substantiated, since none of the thirty Navy pilots stationed at the Oppama Naval Air Base would volunteer to fly the aeroplane. None had acquired twin-engine flying experience even while studying in other countries. As a result, only water taxi-ing tests were made, and the aeroplane was eventually stored in the South Hangar at Oppama.

   Twin-engined twin-float biplane with tail float. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Crew of two in open cockpit.
   Two 200hp Salmson 2M-7 seven-cylinder water-cooled radial engines, driving two-bladed wooden propellers.
   Torpedo weighing 350kg (771lb) having a range of 500 to 600m (1,640 to 1,968ft).
   Span 20m (65ft 7 1/2in); length 12m (39ft 4 3/4in); aspect ratio 12.
   Estimated maximum speed 70kt (81 mph) at sea level; endurance 4hr.
   One built in April 1916.
Experimental Yokosho Twin-engined Seaplane.
Navy Yokosho Ro-go Ko-gata Reconnaissance Seaplane

During the First World War a number of Yokosho seaplane designs were created by Lieut Nakajima with the assistance of Lieut Kishichi Umakoshi, and there was much test flying associated with the improvement of these designs. Using foreign techniques, Umakoshi designed a reconnaissance seaplane with the emphasis on stability and control. The first prototype was completed in the autumn of 1917 and flight tests began in early 1918. Better performance was achieved with this aeroplane than with any previous japanese Navy aircraft.
   Production began immediately at the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal and four aeroplanes were built in 1918. Confirming acceptance as a Navy type, they were officially designated Ro-go Ko-gata. Originally powered by a 140hp Salmson engine, the engine was soon changed to the newer 200hp Salmson, followed by the 200hp Mitsubishi type Hi (Hispano) engines which were used in production aircraft. The Ro-go Ko-gata was the first of the japanese Navy's aircraft to be put into production.
   In April 1919 three of these aeroplanes were converted from two-seaters to single-seaters to increase their fuel capacity. In this configuration they made a record-breaking long-distance flight from Oppama, to Kure near Hiroshima, Chinhae (22 miles west of Pusan in Korea), Sasebo in western Kyushu, and return to Oppama. On this flight, Sub-Lieut Kanjo Akashiba set a record by flying from Sasebo to Oppama on 20 April, 1919, an indirect distance of 1,300km (808 sm) in 11 hr and 35min at an average speed of 61 kt.
   The manufacture of these aircraft continued at Yokosuka Naval Arsenal until 1921. In 1920 production was begun by Aichi and Nakajima, making this the first Naval aeroplane built by Nakajima. In November 1923, to conform with a new Navy designation system for aircraft, the official Navy designation for these aeroplanes was changed to Yokosho-Type Reconnaissance Seaplane.
   This first mass-produced aeroplane for the Navy was widely used together with the Hansa Reconnaissance Seaplane over the period 1921 to 1926.
   In appreciation of his success, which began with the prototype design, Lieut Kishichi Umakoshi was given special recognition by the Minister of the Navy, the first for an aeroplane designer.
   The entry into service of the Yokosho Ro-go Ko-gata, with its increased speed and manoeuvrability, made the Farman pusher seaplanes obsolete, and they were taken out of service. In time, a number of this newer type was released for civil use on such duties as mail carriage. Some were In service as late as 1928.

   Single-engine twin-float biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Rearward folding wings for stowage. Crew of two in open cockpit.
   130-140hp Salmson M-9 (Type Sa) nine-cylinder water-cooled radial engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller (prototype); 200hp Salmson 2M-7 nine-cylinder water-cooled radial engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller (pre-production); 200-220hp Mitsubishi Type Hi (Hispano-Suiza E) eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed propeller (production).
   One dorsal flexible 7.7mm machine-gun.

   Prototype Production
Span 15.53m (50ft 11 1/2in) 15.692m (51ft 6in)
Length 10.172m (33ft 4 1/2in) 10.16m (33ft 4in)
Height 3.68m (12ft 1in) 3.666m (12ft)
Wing area 48.22sq m 4.22sq m
   (519.052sq ft) (519.052sq ft)
Empty weight 1,211 kg (2,669Ib) 1,070kg (2,358Ib)
Loaded weight 1,676kg (3,694Ib) 1,628kg (3,589Ib)
Wing loading 34.75kg/sq m 33.76kg/sq m
   (7.1lb/sq ft) (6.9Ib/sq ft)
Power loading 12.9kg/hp (28.4Ib hp) 8.1kg/hp(17.8lb/hp)
Maximum speed 75kt (86.36mph) 4kt (96. 72mph)
Climb to 500m (1,640ft) 500m (1,640ft)
   in 4min 12sec 4min
Range - 420nm (483sm)
Endurance - 5hr

   218 built: thirty-two Yokosho (1917 to 1921) Type Sa and Type Hi engines, eighty Aichi (1920 to 1924) Type Hi engine and 106 Nakajima (1920 to 1924) Type Hi engine.
Navy Yokosho Ro-go Ko-gata Reconnaissance Seaplane with Hispano-Suiza E engine.
Navy Yokosho Ro-go Ko-gata Reconnaissance Seaplane with Salmson engine used on early models.