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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

DFW B.I

Страна: Германия

Год: 1914

DFW - Taube - 1913 - Германия<– –>DFW - B.II/C.I/C.II - 1914 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


DFW B-I/C-I/C-II

  Двухместный цельнодеревянный трехстоечный биплан. Отдельные элементы конструкции (межкрыльевые стойки, тележка шасси, каркасы оперения, рулей и элеронов) выполнены из стальных труб каплевидного сечения.
  DFW В-I разработан в начале 1914 года на лейпцигской фирме Дойче Флюгцойгверк. Фабричное обозначение машины MD-14. Её непосредственным предшественником был биплан "Марс", на котором немецкие летчики воевали в составе турецкой армии в балканских войнах 1912-1913 гг. За характерную серповидную форму крыльев, предназначенную, по замыслу авторов, для повышения продольной устойчивости, самолет получил прозвище "летающий банан".
  С начала войны В-I применялся в качестве разведчика на западном и восточном фронтах. Весной 1915-го "банан" модернизировали, установив на него более мощный мотор и пулемет "Парабеллум" на кольцевой ферме над верхним крылом. Для стрельбы наблюдатель, размещенный впереди летчика, должен был вылезать из кабины и вставать на сиденье.
  Несмотря на то, что подобная система была не только неудобной, но и опасной (наблюдатель при работе с оружием полностью загораживал обзор пилоту и при любых маневрах мог просто выпасть из машины), в 1915 году построили 130 аппаратов данного типа. В связи с установкой пулемета, DFW перевели в класс "вооруженных бипланов", присвоив ему индекс C-I.
<...>
  
  
ДВИГАТЕЛЬ
  
  "Мерседес", 100 л.с. (B-I)
  
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ
  
  На В-I отсутствовало.
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
(DFW B-I)
  
  Размах, м 13,97
  Длина, м 8,38
  Сухой вес, кг 653
  Взлетный вес, кг 1020
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 120
  Время набора высоты, м/мин 1000/5


А.Александров, Г.Петров Крылатые пленники России


Довоенный биплан "Марс", претерпев ряд усовершенствований, к 1914 г. стал обладателем уникальной формы крыльев, за которые удостоился прозвища "летающий банан". Строившая самолеты данного наименования фирма "Дойче Флюгцойг Верке" была основана Бернардом Майером (Deutsche Flugzeug-Werke, DFW; Bernard Meyer) в 1910-1911 гг. и начинала свою деятельность с производства "Фарманов" и тех же "Голубей". К 1914 г. численность ее рабочих выросла с 60 до 300, а развитие двухместной бипланной модели МД14 привело к появлению аэроплана ДФВ Б. I (MD14, DFW В. I), того самого "банана". Остов его фюзеляжа сваривался из стальных труб и обтягивался полотном, а крылья имели смешанную деревянно-полотняную конструкцию. Двигателем служил "Мерседес Д. I" (Mercedes D. I) мощностью 100 л. с, с ним аэроплан развивал скорость до 120 км/ч, при полезной нагрузке до 365 кг - совсем неплохо! На фотографиях 4 и 5 хорошо показано устройство корпуса и шасси трофейного ДФВ, находившегося в одном из наших авиапарков. Следует отметить собранную из металлических стержней и выходящую под фюзеляжем трубу, через которую наблюдатель мог кидать небольшие бомбы. На снимке 6 (из коллекции М. Маслова) мы видим "новехонький" аппарат 6-й авиароты, украшенный русской трехцветной кокардой. Кроме нее на левом борту находится радиатор "Хазет", в данном случае 14-секционный. Как гласит оригинальная подпись к фотографии 7, последняя изображает аэроплан "Марс" 4-го авиапарка, г. Лида, днем 23 июня 1915 г. . Возможно, один из названных самолетов служит объектом следующего кадра (8) - вид в небе. Опознавательные знаки большого размера накрашивались на нижней стороне нижних и верхних крыльев.


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


D.F.W. B I
  Illustrated is D.F.W. Type MD 14 B I, a 1914 reconnaissance and school machine. Originally it had a welded steel tube fuselage, but later versions (illustrated) had an all-wood, ply-covered structure. Here the machine has been fitted with machine-gun, and when later fitted with the more powerful Benz III motor was re-designated C. Engine, 100 h.p. Mercedes D I. Span, 14.0 m. (45 ft. 11 1/4 in.). Length, 8.4m. (27 ft. 6 3/4 in.). Weights: Empty, 650 kg. (1,430 lb.). Loaded, 1,015 kg. (2,233 lb.). Speed, 120 km.hr. (75 m.p.h.).


J.Herris DFW Aircraft of WWI (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 29)


DFW B-Types

  Despite the fact that some DFW Mars biplanes served operationally early in the war, the only DFW B-type in the Frontbestand is the DFW B.I.
  Many of the modest number of DFW B.I aircraft built were used for training in addition to frontline service early in the war. The DFW B.I was distinguished by its curved, 'banana-wing' planform.
  An unknown number of DFW B.I aircraft were modified to give the observer a flexible machine gun, bridging the gap between B-types and C-types. The gun ring was position well above the fuselage, requiring the observer to stand to fire the gun. This
position gave the gunner a 360° field of fire above the horizontal. All these conversions look the same, indicating they were either modified at the factory or converted using a factory-supplied kit in the field.
  Less well known is the DFW B.II, which featured a more common rectangular wing planform that was much less distinctive. The B.II served primarily, and perhaps solely, as a trainer.
  Although the armed B.I conversion saw service, the follow-on DFW C.I was derived from the DFW B.II and the C.I armament mounting differed significantly from the armed B.I.

DFW B.I

  The DFW B.I was a fairly typical unarmed two-seat reconnaissance airplane and trainer of its time with steel tube fuselage structure covered by fabric. The DFW factory designation was MD14 for Militar Doppeldecker (military biplane) 1914; DFW B.I was the military designation. The unusual curved 'banana wing' planform make the type distinctive, especially in flight where the wing planform was more visible.
  A common engine was a 100 hp Mercedes D.I, although other early engines were also fitted in these early airframes, including 100-150 hp Argus and Benz engines. Side radiators were the 1914 state of the art in Germany and were installed on the B.I. On July 14, 1914, DFW chief pilot Heinrich Oelerich flew the MD14 to a height record of 8,150 m.
  The DFW B.I was flown at the front in small numbers early in the war and was used to train pilots at the DFW flying school and the Lubeck-Travemunde flying school throughout the war.
  The wingspan was 14 meters, length 8.40 meters, empty weight 650 kg, maximum flying weight 1,015 kg, and top speed 120 km/h.

DFW Armed B.I

  According to the late historian Peter M. Grosz there was an order from November 1915 for conversion of DFW B-types to armed biplanes. The fact the gun mountings for these conversions all appear the same is consistent with the complex mounting being a factory design.


E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918


01. — 010. Flugzeuge ausländischer Produktion (Самолеты иностранного производства)
01.01 — 01.09 D.F.W. B.I Merc 100


Журнал Flight


Flight, August 28, 1914.

AIRCRAFT "MADE IN GERMANY"
WHICH MAY BE EMPLOYED AGAINST THE ALLIES.

11. The D.F.W. Military Biplane
  differs considerably from the previous machine. In its general outline the fuselage is somewhat reminiscent of that of the Albatros biplane, with the exception that it tapers to a horizontal knife edge at the rear. Constructionally, it is quite different from the Albatros, however, being built entirely of steel. The struts and cross-members, which are, like the longerons, made of steel tubes, are secured to the latter by steel clips and acetylene, welding. The cross-bracing wires are secured to these steel clips, and the whole structure is one of great strength.
  Behind the engine is the passenger's seat, while still further back is the pilot's cockpit. On a neatly-arranged dashboard in front of the pilot is mounted a very complete set of instruments.
  The main planes differ from those of other Arrow-type biplanes, in that they are crescent-shaped. Both upper and lower planes are set at a dihedral angle, and there is a very pronounced "wash-out" of the angle of incidence towards the tips. Small slightly upturned ailerons are hinged to the tips of the upper plane. The chassis, like the rest of the machine, is built up of steel tubes, and is fitted with a brake similar to the one used on the Albatros biplane flown by Thelen at Hendon some time ago. With a 100 h.p. Mercedes engine the speed of the D.F.W. military biplane is 75 m.p.h., and she is credited with a climbing speed of 1,000 metres (3,281 ft.) in 5 mins.

J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I prototype.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I TANNENBERG of the DFW flying school.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I WARSCHAU of the DFW flying school.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
DFW В-I, 13 эскадрилья ВВС Австро-Венгрии, весна 1915г.
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
DFW B I 01.08 Flik 13
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
DFW B I
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I aircraft in flight are easily identified by their distinctive wing planform.This one carries national insignia on both sides of all wings.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This DFW B.I carries national insignia on both sides of all wings. (Peter M. Bowers Collection/Museum of Flight)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The prototype DFW B.I in flight shows its distinctive banana-shaped wings. This photograph was used as the inset in the next photo. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The prototype DFW B.I; the pilot sat in the rear cockpit. An inset shows it in flight.
A "D.F.W." all-steel biplane, in which the only wood employed is that of the propeller. This machine, which was designed by Mr. Cecil Kny, the Technical Director, will be built in this country as soon as the new works at Richmond are completed. With a full load, including fuel for 5 1/2 hours and two passengers, the machine has climbed to a height of 3,500 ft. in 4 mins. The engine is a 100 h.p. Mercedes, and the speed is 78.4 miles per hour. Inset is a view of the machine in flight.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The D.F.W. biplane, fitted with 100 h.p. Mercedes engine, on which Oelrich last week beat the world's height record by going up to 7,860 metres.
Like many B-types, the pilot sat in the rear cockpit in the DFW B.I. This unmarked aircraft may be the prototype.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Closeup of the prototype DFW B.I. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW chief pilot Heinrich Oelerich and a DFW MD14. Oelerich set a world altitude record in an MD14 on July 1914, and this photograph may have been in commemoration of that event.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
THE NEW WORLD'S HEIGHT RECORD. - On the left, Oelrich standing by the record-breaking D.F.W. biplane, with its laurels, while on the right is a photograph of the barograph records duly attested.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I DRESDEN was likely one of the trainers at the DFW flying school. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Side view of D.F.W. B.I biplane, Reconnaissance and School type.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Front view of a DFW B.I showing its three-bay wing cellule. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I WARSCHAU. The interesting thing about this aircraft is the wood vaneer used to cover the fuselage. This appears to be made from the Larch tree; this is very flexible before it is dry, but is like steel after it was dry. However, it was too expensive for general use. Very probably pilot Antoni Wroniecki, future member of Jasta 64w, is in the cockpit. He was shot down, wounded, and taken prisoner 14 April 1918 by 1/Lt Douglas Campbell from the 94th Aero Squadron, USAS.
Below: A closeup view of the side of DFW B.I WARSCHAU showing the wood grain and stenciling under the name.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The prototype DFW B.I displays its clean lines. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I at the DFW factory. It carries later national insignia on the rudder and both sides of all wings. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
Back view of D.F.W. B.I biplane, Reconnaissance and School type, nicknamed the "Banana" type owing to the wing shape.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I carrying early national insignia on the rudder at the DFW factory. The tail is supported to bring the aircraft to level flight attitude while the crew familiarizes themselves with the aircraft. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I with a barely-visible crewman standing over the cockpits.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I TANNENBERG was one of the trainers at the DFW flying school. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I at right at the DFW factory with national insignia on the rudder. The ground crew is positioning the aircraft. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW В-I на выставке трофейных вооружений в Париже, 1915 год
DFW B.I B.451/14 on display in Paris after being captured; a captured Taube is in the right background. The early national insignia on the rudder and both sides of all wings are well shown from this angle.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I B.451/14 on display at Les Invalides in Paris during September 1914.The early national insignia on the rudder and both sides of all wings are clearly shown. The insignia on the wings are painted well inboard.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW trainers at the DFW flying school at Lubeck-Travemunde; a B.I at left with a lineup of Taubes. DFW also owned the Lubeck-Travemunde floatplane production factory; those floatplanes are covered in German Seaplanes of WWI.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I QUENTIN (left foreground) and DFW B.II ALICE (right foreground) share the DFW flight school lineup at Lindenthal with a DFW Stahltaube (far right) and other DFW B-types. From right to left in the background, the first three aircraft of DFW B.I, then a DFW B.II, another DFW B.I, and another DFW B.II. The seventh aircraft in the lineup at far left is likely a B.I although it is not clear enough for positive identification. A DFW B.I is in front of the hangar in the middle background and the tail visible to the left of that hangar belongs to a DFW B.II. The 'banana' wing planform of the DFW B.I contrasts clearly with the rectangular wing planform of the DFW B.II. The leading edge of the fin is straight in the B.I but curved in the B.II, the opposite of their wings.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW and LVG trainers at Flieger-Ersatz-Abteilung 8 at Graudenz. The two aircraft in the middle and the one at left are DFW MD14s, later designated B.Is.The two aircraft at far right and the one second from left are LVG B-types.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I and B.II trainers at Lindenthal as shown in issue Nr.3865 of the Illustrirte Zeitung. The aircraft types are indicated in hand printing under the photograph. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Lineup of DFW B.I trainers at the DFW flying school at Lubeck-Travemunde. The aircraft at far right is Albatros C.I C.26/15 or perhaps C.26X/15. To the left of the Albatros C.I is DFW B.I GRAF SPEE, then B.I KAISER WILHELM, B.I LUTTICH, B.I SALEM ALEIKUM, B.I TANNENBERG, B.I name illegible, B.I QUENTIN, and several other DFW B.I trainers whose names cannot be read. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
To taxi the prototype Floh the pilot had to stand up to see over the high wing and fuselage. In addition to being highly streamlined, the DFW T 28 was very small, both factors contributing to its speed. DFW B.I trainers are in the background at DFW's Lubeck-Travemunde facility. (Peter M. Bowers Collection/Museum of Flight)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This DFW B.I carries early national insignia on the rudder and both sides of all wings. It is waiting in the snow while being prepared for its next mission. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Ground crewmen steady the wings of a DFW B.I before take off. Early national insignia are on both sides of all wings. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I B.449/14 carries a white band on the fuselage and an early version of the national insignia on its rudder. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This DFW B.I carries national insignia on both sides of all wings indicating it was used during the war. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
D.F.W., Type B I, Flugzeugnummer 01.04
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I X38/14 carries early national insignia on the rudder. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I after capture by French forces. The serial is not visible but it is likely B.451/14.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I B.451/14 after capture by French forces.This aircraft is marked with early national insignia on the rudder and both surfaces of all wings.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I B.490/14 in the field carries early national insignia on the rudder and both sides of all wings.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Photo of armed DFW C.80/15.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Photo of armed DFW C.80/15. Although this appears to be a modified DFW B.I, the serial starts with 'C', not 'B', indicating the aircraft was designed to be armed at the DFW factory. Other than the gun and mounting, this aircraft was a standard DFW B.I with side radiators and 150 hp Benz Bz.III engine. Was C.80/15 the prototype conversion, or was the prototype conversion the aircraft without serial number shown on the previous pages? In any case, C.80/15 appears to be a transitional aircraft between the unarmed DFW B.I and the later DFW C.I.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Armed DFW B.I. Although initially unarmed, some B-types were later modified to have a flexible gun for the observer. The elevated gun ring above the observer's cockpit on this DFW B.I gave a 360° field of fire above the upper wing. (Peter M. Bowers Collection/Museum of Flight)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This closeup shot of the aircraft at the top of the facing page shows that the 'gun' being used was a wooden mockup. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Armed DFW B.I; the side radiators and 150 hp Benz Bz.III engine are well shown. This photo is likely of the same aircraft shown above. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Armed DFW B type being inspected by officers. This photograph may be of C.80/15 on the facing page from a different angle. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The observer occupied the front cockpit in DFW B-types, resulting in the complex gun mounting shown that enabled the observer to have a 360° field of fire above the aircraft. Were all these conversions performed at the factory, or were factory-designed and built kits supplied to the field for the conversions?
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I with Dr. Hochstetter at left.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I of FFA 23 with Oblt. Willy Meyer on left and Hptm. Eberhard Bohnstedt at right.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I aircraft B.620/14 and B.621/14 under construction in the DFW factory.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This DFW B.I carries a carbine for the crew. The carbine could provide limited self-defence for the aircraft and could also be used for self-defence after being forced down and possibly for hunting. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
А.Александров, Г.Петров - Крылатые пленники России
(КПР 4)
А.Александров, Г.Петров - Крылатые пленники России
(КПР 5)
А.Александров, Г.Петров - Крылатые пленники России
(КПР 6)
А.Александров, Г.Петров - Крылатые пленники России
(КПР 7)
А.Александров, Г.Петров - Крылатые пленники России
(КПР 8)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This DFW B.I carries Imperial Russian Air Service cockades after being captured.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I MACKENSEN on its nose. MACKENSEN was likely one of the trainers at the DFW flying school. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I WEDDINGEN after an incident at Leipzig-Lindenthal on 27 October 1915. WEDDINGEN was in training service at the DFW flying school there.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I B.290/14 after a rough landing. An early version of the national insignia is on its rudder, indicating the photo was taken during the war.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Armed DFW B.I after a bad landing. Although this aircraft might be C.80/15, the two photos of C.80/15 show it with the entire rudder painted white. This aircraft has a white background for the national insignia on the rudder, which is otherwise in comparatively dark finish.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
11. The D.F.W. Military biplane.
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
D.F.W. B.I
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
DFW В-I
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I Armed Version
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I Armed Version
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I Armed Version
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW B.I Armed Version