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Guidoni seaplane

Страна: Италия

Год: 1911

Ginocchio - seaplane - 1912 - Италия<– –>Macchi - Parasol - 1913 - Италия

H.King Aeromarine Origins (Putnam)

In the application of hydrofoils to aircraft the pre-eminent name is that of the Italian Guidoni, who began his experiments in 1910. As General A. Guidoni he told the story many years later.
   'Having witnessed some of the trials of the Forlanini boat,' he said, 'I was impressed with the ingeniousness and the possibilities of this system. So when in 1910 I designed my first seaplane, I put on it the Forlanini type of floats, but soon realised that they were no good for a seaplane. The change from one vane to the other gave severe bumps to the machine and produced changes impossible to control.
   'The Crocco system gave a too small area owing to the size of the floats and, astonishing though it may appear, I did not know at that time of his work. In my first test, using a two floats seaplane, I placed the hydroplanes between the floats; this proved unsatisfactory, because the floats would never get out of water, the drag at the getting-off speed being too high. Then I tried the Forlanini vanes under the floats, but without success.
   'My idea was then to have the hydro area divided in a multiplane with two or three legs; the vanes would be parallel and with a side inclination, the low end of each one being lower than the high end of the following vane.
   'This design had the advantage of the Crocco vane, because it gave a gradual variation of hydro area when emerging from water, and it had at the same time the advantage of the Forlanini's, in giving a sufficient hydro area with a considerable depth and a reduced width.
   '"Provando e riprovando" was my motto, but at the same time I tried to evolve the theory of the jumping due to the vanes...
   'The first set of vanes was built of steel plate and were very heavy. I tried wood with success and aluminium, which proved the best. In order to be able to move the vanes along the float, they were mounted on rings of steel plate or aluminium. The planes I used in this first stage of research were an old Farman 1909, F.1, and similar improved machines F.2 and F.3, built at the Navy Yard. Two monoplanes were also tested.
   'Increasing the power and speed of machines, I found the wood vanes inadequate. I tried aluminium sheet vanes and then I standardised a set of steel vanes, which proved to be the right sort for any kind of machine, provided the size, thickness and shape were designed according to the power, speed and weight. I used ordinary steel plates, reducing them at the grinding wheel and welding the legs to the surfaces.'
   Yet one may search in vain the aeronautical history books of the past half century for any recognition of Guidoni's work. May his own utterances, which I have quoted, save his name from oblivion.

J.Davilla Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 74)


  The first seaplane to fly in Italy was built by cap. del Genio Navale Alessandro Guidoni.
  Guidoni from 1 January 1909 had been assigned to the Direzione delle Costruzioni Navali dell’Arsenale di Spezia (Naval Construction Directorate of the Arsenale of Spezia), and had carried out aeronautical research, about which he reported in articles in the Maritime Magazine of July-August 1911. The experiments were carried out using aircraft and propeller models.
  He then moved on to the design of an airplane, which he perfected with the model No.2: it was a biplane with a 100-hp engine that powered two coaxial propellers. The aircraft was built in the arsenal of Spezia and was ready in 1910, but it did not fly because, as Guidoni wrote in his memoirs:
  At the time of trying it, I had the good sense to understand that to design the airplanes... it was necessary to have flown ...
  So without great difficulty, I obtained from the Ministry permission to take Farman's pilot license, which I did in August 1911.
  Instead of his No.2, Guidoni equipped a 1910 Henri Farman with a 70-hp (some sources state 50-hp) engine as a seaplane, applying two cylindrical floats with ogival heads in place of the wheels, equipped with two hydroplane fins, which were to facilitate detachment from the water.
  With this biplane “after unsuccessful tests and a few baths”, on 5 November 1911 he took off from the harbor of Spezia. This was the first flight of a seaplane in Italy.
  With the same aircraft, converted into a landplane, he was in Libya for the Italian-Turkish war. In January 1912, he bombed Ain-Zara,where he was hit and forced to land in enemy territory. Guidoni was repatriated due to his injuries, followed by the Farman which was subsequently used for further experiments until the end of 1913.
  He returned to La Spezia, and Guidoni again turned again to float-equipped Farman. On 6 June 1912, in the presence of Admiral Nicastro, made two long trips alone the Gulf at about 300 m altitude.
  The Sezione Aviazione di Venezia (Aviation Section of Venice), set up in Le Vergini in mid 1912 with Calderra, Ginocchio, Guidoni, and Curtiss-Paulhans for use as a training center.
  After the happy experiences with the Farman biplane seaplane, Guidoni built a monoplane with a 70-hp engine. This aircraft was equipped with a tractor propeller placed in front of the wing and a tubular structure tail with rudders (1912).
  A second Nieuport-type monoplane with an 80-hp engine was also built in 1912. In the following year, Guidoni transformed a Borel monoplane and a Farman biplane with an 80-hp engine into seaplanes:
  The latter (the Borel) was very handy, safe, had 4 hours of autonomy and could carry a passenger.
  Guidoni also dealt with the launch of torpedoes from aircraft, and in this regard he wrote:
  Note that in 1912 the maximum weights thrown by airplanes were no more than 10 kg. Yet I found it feasible and, as I always have ... I practically began to test whether it was possible to increase (this) weight. With the old and faithful Farman I was able to subsequently throw lead weights up to 80 kg which was the maximum that could be carried with an old 60 HP engine.
  Posted to Tripoli, capitano Guidoni suffered a crash landing in this machine.

Guidoni HF. 3 Hydro (Seaplane Conversion)

  H.F.3 No.5 was converted to a seaplane at La Spezia by capitano Guidoni; its first flight was on on 5 November, 1911. It was powered by a 80-hp Gnome engine, had a longer wingspan, and was fitted with cylindrical floats with hydroplane fins designed by Guidoni. A simulated torpedo was held by a calm and supported by two semicircular supports enclosed by clamps.
  Based on his experience with this conversion, Guidoni would go on to develop his own unique flying boat design. (See entry under Guidoni).

Operations in Libya

  An H.F. 3 Hydro was sent to Libya, joined in October by two H.F.3s to become the la Flottiglia Aeroplani di Tripoli (Flotilla Airplanes Tripoli). At Tobruk the Squadriglia Aviatori (Aviator’s Squadron) was joined by three more volunteers on 28 November; one was sent to the squadriglia at Benghazi November 1911 to March 1912.
  The first combat sortie was carried out at Tripoli by De Rada on 5 November, but 16 December a cyclone destroyed the two H.F.3s of the unit. This was not a unique event, H.F. 3s were also damaged by weather on 31 January, 1912 and 13 April, 1912. An H.F. 3 as also a victim of bad weather on 9 January at Tobruk.
  In January, two Henri Farmans arrived at Tripoli. De Rada used them to perform a survey of the western sector for the purposes of creating a map. On 31 January, an H.F. 3 flown by Giuseppe Rossi dropped bombs on Aasen near Tobruk (these were literally thrown by hand from the pilots seat); his observer capitano Montu was hit by rifle shot, thus becoming first aviator in the world to be wounded during a combat mission.
  On 4 March, tenente Giulio Gavotti carried out a night flight. On 1 March the volunteers were repatriated. Now clearly obsolete, the H.F.3s went to the scuole at Pordenone and also to San Francesco at Campo (Turin). The survivors were gradually SOC in 1913.

Guidoni HF.3 seaplane
  Wingspan 14.20 m; length 12.00 m; wing area 50 sq m
  Empty weight. 450 kg; payload 250 kg; loaded weight 700 kg
  Maximum speed 70 km/h

J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H /Centennial Perspective/ (74)
Henri-Farman HF.3 in flight.
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H /Centennial Perspective/ (74)
Henri-Farman HF.3 in flight.
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H /Centennial Perspective/ (74)
Guidoni seaplane in flight.
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H /Centennial Perspective/ (74)
Guidoni seaplane taxiing.
H.King - Aeromarine Origins /Putnam/
For several years after 1910 the Italian Guidoni was developing schemes for hydrofoil aircraft. Glimpsed here, beneath the floats of one of his Farmans, is a very early installation of foils.