Самолеты (сортировка по:)
Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Martinsyde G.100 / G.102 Elephant

Страна: Великобритания

Год: 1915

Истребитель

Martinsyde - pusher biplane - 1914 - Великобритания<– –>Martinsyde - R.G. / F.1 / F.2 - 1916 - Великобритания


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


Martinsyde G.100/G.102 Elephant

  Цельнодеревянный двухстоечный биплан. Передняя часть фюзеляжа обшита фанерой, остальное - полотном. Мартинсайд G.100 разработан инженером А.Флетчером на фирме "Мартинсайд Лимитед" в середине 1915 года как эскортный истребитель дальнего радиуса действия. Это первый в Великобритании одноместный самолет подобного назначения. К нему предъявлялось требование - обеспечить продолжительность полета не менее пяти часов, что обусловило большой запас горючего, а соответственно - солидный взлетный вес и размеры машины. За свои габариты G.100 получил прозвище "Элефант" ("Слон").
  Первый полет прототипа с двигателем "Бердмор" в 120 л.с. состоялся в сентябре того же года. Вскоре машину запустили в серийное производство. Поскольку синхронизаторов еще не существовало, курсовой пулемет "Льюис" на "Элефанте" был установлен над верхним крылом для стрельбы поверх диска винта. На некоторых экземплярах монтировали и второй "Льюис" на подвижной шкворневой установке по левому борту. Из него летчик теоретически мог отстреливаться от вражеских истребителей, атакующих сзади. Однако обслуживание этого пулемета было крайне сложным, а прицеливание из него - практически невозможным, поэтому в частях его обычно снимали, заодно облегчая тем самым машину.
  "Элефанты" начали поступать в войска в первые месяцы 1916 г. По два - три таких истребителя придавали разведывательным дивизионам, состоявшим из двухместных невооруженных аэропланов. Первый истребительный дивизион, целиком укомплектованный "мартинсайдами", был сформирован в феврале и 1 марта прибыл на Западный фронт.
  Самолет отличался простотой управления и хорошей устойчивостью по всем трем осям, однако мощность 120-сильного двигателя была явно недостаточна для обеспечения сколь-нибудь приемлемых для одноместного истребителя скоростных и пилотажных характеристик.
  "Элефант" оказался слишком медлителен и неповоротлив, чтобы вести маневренные воздушные бои с современными ему немецкими истребителями. Положение усугублялось неважным обзором вперед-вверх, а также малым боекомплектом и большой сложностью перезарядки надкрыльевого пулемета в полете.
  Более успешно самолет проявил себя в роли легкого фронтового бомбардировщика. В этом качестве машина применялась на западном фронте до ноября 1917-го, а в Месопотамии - до сентября 1918 г. После оборудования бомбовыми подвесками и механическими бомбосбрасывателями она могла нести две 112-фунтовые (51-кг) бомбы под нижним крылом или несколько бомб более мелкого калибра общим весом до 120 кг.
  В конце 1916 года "Элефант" оснастили новой версией двигателя "Бердмор" мощностью 160 л.с. Летные характеристики машины повысились, а продолжительность полета снизилась до 4,5 часов за счет возросшего расхода горючего. Модификация получила обозначение G.102. Ее стрелковое вооружение было аналогично G.100.
  Всего в 1916-1917 годах выпустили более 100 G.100 и 171 G.102. Эти аэропланы состояли на вооружении пяти боевых дивизионов RFC во Франции, трех - в Месопотамии, двух - в Палестине и шести учебных - в Великобритании.
  В августе 1918 года, после падения бакинской коммуны два "элефанта" с экипажами доставили в Баку, откуда они летали на разведку турецких позиций в Азербайджане вплоть до эвакуации английского гарнизона из города.


МОДИФИКАЦИИ
  
  
  G.100 - двигатель "Бердмор", 120 л.с.
  G.102 - двигатель той же марки, 160л.с.
  
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
G.100 (в скобках G.102)
  
Двигатель 1 х Бидмор 120 л.с. (160 л.с.)
Размеры:
  размах х длина х высота 11,58 х 8,23 х 3,10 м
Площадь крыльев 38,08 м2
Вес:
  пустого ? (813) кг
  взлетный 1099 (1115) кг
Максимальная скорость 153 (167) км/ч
Потолок 4270 (4875) м
Продолжительность полета 5 ч
Вооружение:
  стрелковое 2 неподвижных пулемета
  бомбовое 118 кг
Экипаж 1 чел.


F.Manson British Bomber Since 1914 (Putnam)


Martinsyde G.102 Elephant

  An almost exact contemporary of the Factory's F.E.2B in the bombing role, the single-seat Martinsyde G.102 was nevertheless of more modern concept and configuration, yet was possibly less popular among its pilots when used for night operations. Ironically, although both aeroplanes were powered by the 160hp Beardmore engine in their finite bombing configurations, and carried much the same bomb load, the Martinsyde was about ten per cent faster at all altitudes (being somewhat smaller and lighter), yet fewer than two hundred were built, and only fully equipped one front line bombing squadron in France.
  The G.102 was a derivative of the G.100, a fighting scout of portly dimensions and powered by the 120hp Beardmore. It entered service at the end of 1915, before the appearance of reliable British front gun synchronizing gear. Thus during the Battle of the Somme the G. 100s, which equipped No 27 Squadron (commanded by Maj Sydney Smith, later Bt Col, DSO, MC), were generally outclassed in air combat and straightway became employed as light support bombers over the battlefield and immediately behind the German lines, being capable of carrying a pair of 112 lb bombs or up to eight 25-pounders.
  Like the F.E.2B, the Martinsyde was then fitted with the 160hp Beardmore to improve its weight-lifting abilities, a remedy that increased its ground level speed (without bombs) from 93 to 103 mph, and enabled it to carry a maximum load of one 230 lb bomb under the fuselage and four 25 lb bombs under the wings, although more often it flew with two 112 lb and four 25 lb bombs, or four 65-pounders. This version was termed the G.102, quickly gaining the unofficial, but widely accepted name of Elephant, a name prepetuated in the device of the official Badge of No 27 Squadron.
  Unlike the F.E.2B, the G.102 was little used as a night bomber for, despite possessing adequate range to attack targets well behind the enemy lines, it was not considered realistic for the pilot to navigate himself over long distances at night, nor for that matter to aim his bombs with any great accuracy. The G.102 therefore confined its bombing raids to daylight, being capable to a reasonable degree of defending itself against enemy fighters. Nevertheless No 27 Squadron flew many noteworthy raids, particularly during the Battles of Arras, Messines and Ypres.
  Being thus confined to daylight bombing over short ranges, the Elephant was not chosen for inclusion in the 41st Wing's order of battle for strategic bombing during the winter of 1917-18, and was therefore replaced on No 27 Squadron by D.H.4s by November 1917.
  Overseas, however, Elephants equipped Nos 14 and 67 (Australian) Squadrons in Palestine and Mesopotamia, as well as elements of Nos 30, 63 and 72 Squadrons, also based in Mesopotamia, between September 1916 and the end of the War, when they also were withdrawn from service.

  Type: Single-engine, single-seat, two-bay biplane light support bomber.
  Manufacturer: Martinsyde Ltd, Brooklands, Byfleet, Surrey.
  Powerplant: One 160hp Beardmore water-cooled in-line engine driving two-blade propeller.
  Dimensions: Span, 38ft 0in; length, 27ft 0in; height, 9ft 8in; wing area, 410 sq ft.
  Weights: Tare, 1,793 lb; all-up (with two 112 lb bombs), 2,692 lb.
  Performance (with two 112 lb bombs): Max speed, 96 mph at sea level, 92 mph at 10,000ft; climb to 5,000ft, 9 min 15 sec; service ceiling, 12,800ft; endurance, 3 hr.
  Armament: One forward-firing 0.303in Lewis machine gun above the wing centresection and one Lewis gun on mounting behind the cockpit on the port side. Bomb load of either one 230 lb and four 25 lb bombs, two 112 lb and four 25 lb bombs, or four 65 lb bombs on external racks under fuselage and wings.
  Prototype: Identity of first aircraft with 160hp Beardmore engine not known.
  Production: 171 G.102s built (A1561-A1610, A3935-A4004 and A6250-A6300). At least two aircraft, B864 and B865, formerly G.100s, rebuilt as G.102s by No 1 (Southern) Aircraft Repair Depot, South Farnborough, Hampshire.
  Summary of Service: G.102s served with No 27 Squadron, RFC, over the Western Front, with Nos 14 and 67 (Australian) Squadrons in Palestine, and with elements of Nos 30, 63 and 72 Squadrons, RFC, in Mesopotamia. They also flew with the Central Flying School, Upavon, and with Nos 31, 39 and 51 (Training) Squadrons.


H.King Armament of British Aircraft (Putnam)


G.100 and G.102. Dating from 1915, these large, robust single-seaters were well suited to carry armament, and the RFC name 'Elephant' seems to have been inevitable. On early production aircraft a Lewis gun fired over the centre-section; and for rearward fire a second Lewis gun was later clamped to a cranked pillar mounting just aft of the coaming on the port side. The over-wing gun was carried above the rear spar on a massive pyramid structure, itself braced to the front spar by a fore-and-aft tube. J. M. Bruce has recorded two forms of this mounting, designated Mk.I and Mk.II, the latter having the two elements which comprised the rear attachment pivoted on the underside of the spar. The gun was fired by Bowden cable and carried a long vertical handle attached to the spade grip. By means of this handle the gun could be swung down for reloading. An experimental installation was made of a triple-gun mounting of the Eeman (or, according to one official publication, Eaman) type, which was also tested by the Army. In this instance the fuselage-mounted guns fired upwards at 45 degrees through slots in the centre-section. There was an Aldis sight at the same angle. At least one aircraft had a non-standard mounting for a single Lewis gun offset lo starboard.
  As bombers, these Martinsydes were popular and successful, and in particular the more powerful G.102. Bombs were carried beneath the fuselage and wings, and among recorded loads were four 65-lb, one or two 112-lb, two 100-lb, one 230-lb, one 100-lb + four 20-lb, and twelve 20-lb. The constructors declared that the type was 'one of the few machines that could carry large 3 cwt bombs'. The bomb concerned was carried singly under the fuselage and was of the 336-lb type, designed at the Royal Aircraft Factory, Farnborough. At that establishment and also at Orfordness during the summer of 1916, tests were made with an 'Elephant' fitted with an experimental periscopic sight. The 'Bomb, H.E.. 336 lbs., Heavy Case, Mk.I' was nearly five feet long in its original form, in which it is known to have been carried by the 'Elephant'. It was later shortened to allow it to be carried on a 230-lb carrier. Mr Bruce reports that the periscopic bombsight was not developed sufficiently to see operational use in 'Elephants', but, though this may well have been so, a sight of the type was certainly made in quantity.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


MARTINSYDE ELEPHANT UK

  An unusually large aircraft by contemporary standards for a single-seater, the Elephant two-bay equi-span staggered biplane was designed by A A Fletcher of the Martinsyde Company, a prototype powered by a 120 hp Austro-Daimler engine entering test in the autumn of 1915. The initial production version, the G.100, was powered by a 120 hp six-cylinder Beardmore engine and was armed with a single 0.303-in (7,7-mm) Lewis gun mounted above the centre section (this later being augmented by a similar weapon bracket-mounted to port behind the cockpit), deliveries to the RFC commencing in 1916. The G.100 was succeeded by the G.102 version which differed in having a 160 hp Beardmore engine and replaced the lower-powered model progressively. The G.100 and G.102 Elephants were used in France and the Middle East, although only one RFC squadron was completely equipped with this type, a total of 270 being manufactured. While not particularly successful as a fighter owing to its poor agility by comparison with its smaller contemporaries, the Elephant performed a useful service as a bomber, carrying up to 230 lb (104 kg). The following data relate to the G.102.

Max speed, 103 mph (166 km/h) at sea level.
Time to 3,000 ft (915 m), 3.5 min.
Endurance, 4.5 hrs.
Empty weight, 1,793 lb (813 kg).
Loaded weight, 2,458 lb (1115 kg).
Span, 38 ft 0 in (11,58 m).
Length, 26 ft 6 1/2 in (8,08 m).
Height, 9 ft 8 in (2,95 m).
Wing area, 410 sqft (38,09 m2).

В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Невооруженный прототип Мартинсайда G.100, 1915 г.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
First flown in September 1915, the prototype Martinsyde G 100, serial no 4735, was a single-seat, long range fighter using a 120hp Beardmore with fuselage flanking radiators. This machine was followed by 100 production G 100s, whose engines had a much cleaner nose-mounted radiator. The G 100's effective armament was a single, overwing .303-inch Lewis gun, although a second, rearward-firing Lewis gun was fitted, presumably more in hope than expectation. Deliveries of these G 100s started early in 1916, with many going in twos and threes to serve as the escort sections of four RFC bomber squadrons in France and six in the Middle East. Indeed, only one unit, No 27 Squadron, RFC, was to be exclusively equipped with the type. With a top level speed of 97mph at sea level and lacking agility and pilot visibility, the G 100 was soon switched to bombing duties, thanks to its 5.5 hour endurance and ability to carry a 230lb bomb load. Around another 200 of the 160hp Beardmore powered single seat G 102 reconnaissance bombers were subsequently produced.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The Martinsyde Elephant in its initial G.100 production form with 120 hp Beardmore.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Мартинсайд G.100 из строевого дивизиона RFC
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
In its G.102 form (shown) the Elephant had a more powerful engine than was used in the G.100.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Martinsyde 'Elephant' A3988 at Salonica, possibly a 14 Squadron machine; the Squadron had been operating in the Middle East since November 1915, with detachments in Palestine, the Western Desert and Arabia.
F.Manson - British Bomber Since 1914 /Putnam/
A Martinsyde G.102, A6263, of No 27 Squadron. Being without synchronized front gun, the aircraft carried a Lewis gun on the top wing and another behind the pilot's left shoulder; these were usually retained when engaged in bombing operations.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Fig. 30. - Day bomber. Martinsyde 160 h.p.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Бомбардировщик и разведчик G.100 "Элефант" / Side View of a Martinsyde "Elephant", one of the most sucessful machines of 1916-17.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
A"live" combination. - A Martinside biplane and, inset, its pilot and pilot-owner, H. Sykes and C.H. Stevens. Sykes has for some time past been putting up wonderful stunts on this machine. Although bearing the marks of a nasty aeroplane smash experienced early in the year, Stevens was so keen on flying as to buy the machine and learn to fly it under the tutorship of Sykes.
Other 0
Photo from Nick Gribble. "Photo from The Royal Flying Corps at Marden, Kent where my grandfather was stationed during WW1."
Other 0
Photo from Nick Gribble. "My Grandfather Ernest Gribble"
Other 0
Photo from Nick Gribble.
Other 0
Photo from Nick Gribble. "My Grandfather Ernest Gribble is in the back row next to end on left."
Other 0
Photo from Nick Gribble. "My Grandfather Ernest Gribble is in the back row next to end on left."
Other 0
Photo from Nick Gribble.
John McKenzie:
  In these fotos the machine has the Ally' cover over the Magneto at the front ('Prop') end as for 160 HP Beardmore ...( 120 has Magnetos at other end ) .
  The exhaust pipes also is in 3 parts , each is a "Y" formed from 2 cylinders .....as are only used on 160HP, G102 .
  The early G100 has 120 Beardmore with all 6 pipes into a large Collector tube , with then streamlined out pipes , similar to (but NOT same as ) , late 160 , FE2b.
Other 0
Photo from Nick Gribble.
Other 0
Photo from Nick Gribble.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
DIPPING AT THE "SALUTING POINT" ON THE EDGE OF THE AERODROME. - Mr. H. Sykes on his Martinsyde at Hanworth.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
DIVERTING THE CARDINAL WOLSEY RIVER AT HANWORTH PARK. - Mr. H. Sykes, on his Martinsyde, looping in a gale of wind. The machine is travelling away from the spectator, and is in the inverted position.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
WINTER FLYING. - On a Martinsyde at Hanworth.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Martinsyde Elephants of 27 Squadron at Fienvillers in 1916. The Squadron had arrived in France in March, having formed with the Martinsyde G 100 at Hounslow Heath the previous November, as a scout Squadron. With a speed of almost 90mph (145kph) and good manoeuvrability, the Martinsydes were effective when they first entered service.
Форум - Breguet's Aircraft Challenge /WWW/
Форум - Breguet's Aircraft Challenge /WWW/
A German captured Martinsyde Elephant disassembled and ready for transport. No German markings are yet applied, but the English serial A1572 is still present.
Форум - Breguet's Aircraft Challenge /WWW/
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
In its G.102 form the Elephant had a more powerful engine than was used in the G.100 (shown).
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Мартинсайд G.100