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Nieuport Nieuport-10

Страна: Франция

Год: 1915

Истребитель

Nieuport - seaplane - 1913 - Франция<– –>Nieuport - Nieuport-11/16/18 Bebe - 1915 - Франция


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


Nieuport 10

   Самолет разработан в начале 1914 года известным французским авиаконструктором Густавом Деляжем, незадолго до этого поступившим на фирму "Сосьете дес Этаблиссментс Ньюпор" (Societe des Etablissements Nieuport). За основу был взят фюзеляж моноплана "Ньюпор-IV", который Деляж снабдил новыми несущими поверхностями оригинальной полуторапланной схемы с очень узким нижним крылом и V-образными межкрыльевыми стойками. Узкое нижнее крыло способствовало улучшению обзора вперед-вниз для наблюдателя, поскольку самолет создавался как армейский разведчик.
   Поначалу аэроплан был двухместным и строился серийно в двух модификациях: Nie-10AV, в которой летнаб сидел в передней кабине, и Nie-10AR, где летнаб размещался позади пилота. Обе модификации имели одинаковую цельнодеревянную конструкцию с полотняной обшивкой и оснащались 80-сильными двигателями "Рон".
   Полуторапланы "Ньюпор-10AV", пока еще без вооружения, начали поступать во французские разведывательные эскадрильи весной 1915 года. Однако уже через несколько месяцев большинство из них было переделано в одноместные истребители. При этом переднюю кабину летнаба заделывали, а над верхним крылом устанавливали курсовой пулемет "Льюис", стрелявший поверх диска вращения винта. Эта модификация получила обозначение Nie-10C.1. Во второй половине 1915 года многие "десятки" уже изначально выпускались в одноместном варианте.
   Помимо Франции, "Ньюпоры-10" и -12 выпускались серийно и состояли на вооружении в Италии, Великобритании, и России. Кроме того, на "десятках" французской постройки летали бельгийские и американские летчики. Отдельные экземпляры попали в Португалию, Бразилию, Японию, Таиланд и некоторые другие страны.
   Английская морская авиация получила 169 "Ньюпоров-10" и -12, из которых 50 штук были построены в Великобритании на фирме "Бердмор Компани". Итальянская фирма "Ньюпор-Макки" построила 260 таких самолетов, а московский завод "Дукс" - примерно 100 "Ньюпоров-10" в одноместном (истребительном) и двухместном вариантах.
   "Ньюпоры" фирмы "Бердмор" имели слегка видоизмененное вертикальное оперение с небольшим килем, по форме напоминавшим киль"Ньюпора-24".
Российские "Ньюпоры-10" и -12 использовались на русско-германском фронте вплоть до прекращения там боевых действий, а несколько десятков из них еще успели принять участие в гражданской войне.
   Всего в 1915-16 годах выпущено более 1000 "Ньюпоров-10", -12 и -12bis.
   Кроме того, японские фирмы "Накадзима" и "Токоросава" выпускали разработанные на базе "Ньюпора-10" учебные самолеты Ko-2, которые применялись в летных школах до конца 20-х годов.


  
ОСНОВНЫЕ ИСТРЕБИТЕЛЬНЫЕ МОДИФИКАЦИИ
  
   "Ньюпор" 10 двухместный; вооружение - 2 несинхронных пулемета "Кольт" или "Льюис". Один - на турели или на шкворневой установке у летнаба и один - курсовой над верхним крылом, стреляющий поверх винта.
   "Ньюпор" 10 одноместный; вооружение - 1 несинхр. пулемет "Кольт" или "Льюис" над верхним крылом. На российских "Ньюпорах" пулемет иногда устанавливали на фюзеляже перед кабиной под углом вверх.
  


А.Шепс Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты


"Ньюпор-10" 1915 г.

   В 1913 году Густав Деляж начал проектирование одностоечного биплана для участия в гонках на кубок Гордона Беннета.
   Начавшаяся война не позволила участвовать в гонках, и фирма предложила почти готовую машину военным. После ряда доработок в начале 1915 года самолет совершил свой первый вылет, и сразу же началось серийное производство. Конструкция этой машины определила конструкцию всех машин фирмы "Ньюпор", строившихся в Первую мировую войну. Подробно о ней рассказано в описании самолета "Ньюпор-11".
   Отметим только отличия. "Ньюпор-10" был более крупньм двухместным разведчиком и первоначально не нес вооружения. Следом за Францией его серийное производство начали заводы "Дукс" и Лебедева в России, где самолет получил большое распространение. Было выпущено несколько вариантов, отличавшихся двигателями и конструкцией капота, машина не была ни полноценным разведчиком, ни истребителем (малый радиус действия), и стала как бы переходной к знаменитому истребителю "Ньюпор11".

  
Модификации
   "Ньюпор-9" - разведчик с двигателем "Рон" (80л. с.). Наблюдатель располагался на переднем месте. Вставая, он вылезал в круглое отверстие в центроплане и мог вести огонь из карабина.
   "Ньюпор-10" - получил большое распространение. Самолет с тем же двигателем. Наблюдатель находился на заднем месте и мог вести огонь из пулемета-ружья "Мадсен" над верхним крылом. Но жесткое крепление оружия ограничивало сектор обстрела.
   "Ньюпор-10-бис" - вариант с двигателем "Гном-Моносупап" (100л. с.). Открытый снизу капот имел 5 отверстий в лобовой части и по одному отверстию по бокам для лучшего охлаждения.
   "Ньюпор-10-бис" - одноместный вариант с двигателем "Рон". Капот как у "Ньюпор 10".
   "Ньюпор-10-бис Дукс" - на нескольких машинах установили более мощные двигатели "Рон" (110 и 120 л. с.). Капот большего диаметра.
  
  
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
  
   "Ньюпор-10" "Ньюпор-10-бис"
   1915г. 1915г.
   Размах, м 8,2/7,8 8,2/7,8
   Длина, м 7,1 7,1
   Высота, м 2,8 2,8
   Площадь крыла, кв.м 17,6 17,6
   Сухой вес, кг 409 455
   Взлетный вес, кг 658 630
   Двигатель: "Рон" "Гном-Моносупап"
   мощность, л. с. 80
   Скорость максимальная, км/ч 125 138
   Скорость подъема на высоту
   2000 м, мин.сек 20,0
   Дальность полета, км 250 250
   Потолок, м 3600 4200
   Экипаж, чел. 2 2
   Вооружение карабин карабин или ручной пулемет


В.Шавров История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.


"Ньюпор-X" ("Ньюпор-10" ). Выпущенный в 1915 г. и доставленный в Россию в конце того же года этот самолет первоначально был двухместным разведчиком с двигателем "Рон" в 80 л. с. При этом было два его варианта: с сиденьем летчика сзади и впереди.

   Первый тип называли у нас "Ньюпор-IX". Наблюдатель-стрелок, становясь на переднее сиденье, мог вылезать почти до пояса в круглое отверстие центроплана и в таком положении стрелять из ружья. Пулемета на самолете тогда еще не было.

   В самолете типа "Ньюпор-X" наблюдатель помещался сзади и мог уже пользоваться пулеметом, но положение его для стрельбы было неудобным и сектор обстрела получался очень ограниченным. В обоих случаях самолет не удовлетворял назначению ни истребителя, ни разведчика.

   Поэтому двухместный "Ньюпор-X", поступивший на фронт, сразу же стал подвергаться переделкам в одноместный, часто в порядке инициативы летчиков, и в таком виде получил распространение как истребитель. Самолет строился на заводах "Дукс" и Лебедева с конца 1915 г. в двух одноместных вариантах - с двигателем "Рон" в 80 л. с. (несколько экземпляров) и "Гном-Моносупап" в 100 л. с. (рис. 164, б) (десятки экземпляров). В обоих вариантах он назывался "Ньюпор-X бис" с добавлением марки двигателя. На нескольких экземплярах самолета завода "Дукс" в 1917 г. были также установлены двигатели "Рон" в 110 и 120 л. с.

   Двухместный "Ньюпор-X" применялся довольно долго как учебный с одиночным и с двойным управлением и в 1916-1917 гг. строился небольшими сериями, просуществовав в строю до 20-х годов. Одноместные "Ньюпоры-X" строились еще в начале 1918 г.

   При переделке "Ньюпора-X" в одноместный заднее сиденье сохранялось, переднее - закрывалось, управление смещалось к заднему сиденью. Неподвижный пулемет устанавливался на этом самолете без синхронизатора, поэтому ось ствола была направлена вне диска винта.

   Установку пулеметов на русских "Ньюпорах-X" и последующих выполнил в 1915-1917 гг. киевский конструктор Василий Владимирович Иордан - начальник авиационной базы VIII армии, который сконструировал и построил до десятка удачных оригинальных установок. Заслуживает внимания пулеметная установка, выполненная им для летчика А. А. Козакова в начале 1916 г. Объем переднего сиденья на самолете был использован для помещения 700 патронов, пулемет был установлен под углом 24° вверх к оси двигателя. Ось ствола проходила в 100 мм над диском винта (рис. 165, а). Успех этой установки в бою был полный, хотя самолет с двигателем "Рон" в 80 л. с. и не обладал высокими летными качествами. В других установках В. В. Иордана пулемет помещался над центропланом, а патроны с лентами - под пулеметом или рядом с ним под обтекателем.

   "Ньюпор-X бис" с двигателем "Моносупап" в 100л. с. ("Ньюпор-X-Моносупап" в 100 л. с., "Нюдес"). Самолет отличался тем, что в его передней стенке капота было сделано пять больших круглых отверстий и в боковых стенках по одному большому отверстию для лучшего охлаждения двигателя. Пулемет ставился над центропланом.

   "Ньюпор-X-бис" с двигателем "Рон" в 80 л. с. Самолет имел капот спереди без отверстий, закрывавший двигатель только сверху и с боков. Характерным признаком, отличавшим "Ньюпоры-IX, -X и -XI" от других типов были треугольные выступы-щеки в задней кромке капота.

   "Ньюпоры-X" с двигателем "Рон" в 110 и 120 л. с. были построены заводом "Дукс" в 1917 г. Капоты не имели отверстий, как при двигателе "Рон" в 80 л. с., но были большего диаметра.


Самолет (X) с c c c
Год выпуска 1915 1915 1916 1916 1917
Двигатель, марка
   мощность, л.с. 80 80 80 100 110
Длина самолета, м 7,1 7,1 7,1 7,1 7,1
Размах крыла, м 9 9 8,2 8,2 8,2
Площадь крыла, м2 17,6 17,6 17,6 17,6 17,6
Масса пустого, кг 430 430 430 455 435
Масса топлива+ масла, кг 45+12 45+12 45+12 60+20 64+22
Масса полной нагрузки, кг 250 175 175 175 175
Полетная масса, кг 680 605 605 630 610
Удельная нагрузка на крыло, кг/м2 38,6 34,4 34,4 35,8 34,7
Удельная нагрузка на мощность, кг/лс 8,5 7,6 7,6 6,3 5,6
Весовая отдача,% 37 29 29 28 28
Скорость максимальная у земли, км/ч 138 140 135 138 145
Время набора высоты 1000 м, мин 6 5 7 5,5 3,5
Время набора высоты 2000 м, мин 13 12 18 12 8
Время набора высоты 3000 м, мин 28 23 38 24 15
Время набора высоты 4000 м, мин 40 44 25
Потолок практический, м 3800 4200 3600 4200 4800
Продолжительность полета, ч. 2 2 2 2 2


L.Opdyke French Aeroplanes Before the Great War (Schiffer)


Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing


O.Thetford British Naval Aircraft since 1912 (Putnam)


NIEUPORT 10

   This was the first of all the historic Nieuport biplanes to enter service with the RNAS early in 1915. Although a two-seater, it was often flown as a single-seater (with the front seat removed) and a machine-gun on the top wing. Fifty were supplied to the RNAS (3163-3186,3920-3921, 3962-3973 and 8516-8517) and they served with NO.1 Wing RNAS at Dunkirk and No.2 Wing in the Agean including the Dardanelles campaign. One 80 hp Gnome engine. Maximum speed, 87 l/2 mph. Climb, 16 min to 6,500 ft. Span, 25 ft 11 in. Length, 22 ft 11 in.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


NIEUPORT 10 France

   Founded in 1910 by Edouard Nieuport, the Etablissements Nieuport became responsible for a series of fighting aircraft to the designs of Gustave Delage that was to extend over a quarter-century. The first of this distinguished line, the Nie 10, was allegedly derived from a racing biplane intended for the Gordon-Bennett contest and appeared before the end of 1914 as a military two-seater. At first, the French authorities evinced little interest, but subsequent to the British Royal Naval Air Service ordering 24, the Nie 10 was purchased in quantity. Initially, there were two versions: the Nie 10 AV (avant) in which the observer occupied the front seat and the Nie 10 AR (arriere) in which he occupied the rear seat. These were mostly converted to single-seat configuration for the fighting role, with a single machine gun mounted above the upper wing. Of orthodox wood-and-fabric construction, the Nie 10 was of sesquiplane configuration, the narrow-chord lower wing having less than half the area of the upper wing, and was powered by an 80 hp Gnome or Le Rhone rotary engine. It entered service with both France’s Aviation Militaire and the Royal Naval Air Service in May 1915, and was licence-built by Nieuport-Macchi in Italy, and by Dux and Lebedev in Russia, where production continued until 1920. Some Russian-built single-seaters were powered by the 100 hp Monosoupape or 110 hp and 120 hp Le Rhone engines, and were referred to as the Nie 10bis. The following data relate to the 80 hp single-seat version.

Max speed, 91 mph (146 km/h) at sea level.
Time to 6,560 ft (2 000 m), 16.5 min.
Empty weight, 904 lb (410 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,455 lb (660 kg).
Span, 25 ft 11 in (7,90 m).
Length, 22 ft 11 1/2 in (7,00 m).
Height, 8 ft 10 1/4 in (2,70 m).
Wing area, 193.76 sq ft (18,00 m2).


J.Davilla Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.3: Aircraft M-W (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 75)


Nieuport 10

  In 1915 the Societa Nieuport-Macchi had acquired the rights to build Nieuport 10s under license, after ten had been imported from the Nieuport factory. The Italians employed the airplane as a dedicated fighter and, for this reason, the observer’s cockpit was faired over and a Lewis gun was fitted to the top wing. These aircraft were often called Ni 10 or Ni 18 sq m the latter based on the wing area.
  The first Nieuport 10s arrived from France in July 1915 and were initially assigned to 8a Squadriglia at Aviano. The pilots assigned to this unit were Italians who had been trained in France. A sezione of two Nieuport 10s was sent to Santa Caterina to provide aerial defense for the Comando supremo (Supreme Command). This sezione saw considerable activity against the Austro-Hungarian Lloyd and Brandenburg reconnaissance aircraft. However, the limited performance of the Nieuport 10s soon became apparent and it has been reported that the Austro-Hungarians and Germans regarded the type as posing a negligible threat.
  As of January 1916 there were two Italian units using Nieuport 10s: 1a and 2a Squadriglias.

1a Squadriglia
  An M.F. 11 reconnaissance unit, it has been reported that at least one Nieuport 10 was supplied to the unit probably to provide escort for the slow Farmans.

2a Squadriglia
  2a Squadriglia was placed at the disposal of the Comando supremo (Supreme Command) for the defense of Udine and was strengthened by the addition of two Nieuport 10s which were flown by Guido Tacchini, Maffeo Scarpis, and Francesco Baracca in 1915. On 1 September 1a Sezione Nieuport replaced capitano Scarpis and received Oreste Salomone and lieutenant Domenico Bolognesi. On 19 November the unit had five M.F.11s and four Nieuport 10s. By 11 December 1915 the unit was redesignated 2a Squadriglia da Ricognizione e Combattimento and Sezione Nieuport.

70 Squadriglia
  The unit was born on April 15, 1916 as an autonomous unit on the field of S. Caterina di Udine as a fighter squadriglia.
  The unit’s flight line consists of eight Nieuport 10s.
  On 9 May, a storm uncovered three of the Squadriglia’s wooden hangars, seriously damaging eight planes, four of which had to be sent to the air park for repairs.
  On 9 August 70a escorted a formation of Capronis on a bombing mission over Dornberg. By 19 August the unit had 10 pilots and 12 aircraft, eight Nieuport 11s and four Nieuport 10s. Of the latter, urgent replacement was requested because they were not very fast and have been worn out by intense use. On that same day 70a Squadriglia escorted a formation of Caproni bombers on a bombing raid on Dornberg.
  By early 1917 the last Nieuport 10s had been replaced. One of the aircraft’s claim to fame in Italy was that it was on a Nieuport 10 that tenente Baracca of 70a Squadriglia achieved the first Italian victory on 7 April 1916 when he destroyed a Austro-Hungarian Brandenburg C.I over Medeuzza.

71a Squadriglia
  This unit was created April 15, 1916 from 2a Squadriglia with Nieuport 10 (single and two-seat), as well as some Nieuport 11s. It was based at Cascina Farello, near Aquileia, and under the control of I Gruppo. The aircraft were most likely single-seater Nieuport 10s 658, 1249 (with wing of 14 sq m), 1040 (wing of 18 sq m) and the two-seater with wing from 18 sq m serial number 1263 and 1264.
  During this period the Squadriglia made numerous attempts to intercept Austrian planes attempting to penetrate Italian lines.
  The unit moved to Villaver la on 23 May, now under the command of XIV Corpo d’Armata, and engaged in inconclusive combats for the rest of the month. In May the unit had Nieuports 1047, 1263, 1264, 1265, 1266, 1449 and 1766.
  Due to the bad weather conditions, the redeployment was not complete until the 25th, the day on which the first mission from the new base at Ghelfi was undertaken.
  During the second half of 1916 the Nieuport 10s were assigned to provide fighter escort for Caproni bombers during attacks on Fiumee, Gorizia, Trieste, Opcina, and Dornberg.
  71a now operated in the northern sector in June during the battle of Ortigara. On 8 July the Squadriglia became part of III Gruppo commanded by maggiore Ernesto La Polla. Guarding the air space over Vicenza sky, the unit was very busy intercepting Austro-Hungarian aircraft. However, as the unit’s diary noted, the aircraft warning system was inadequate and interceptions were few for which the commander stated that he could not assume any responsibility.
  On 26 September, four planes were kept on alert from sunrise to sunset, in the area of the V Corpo d’Armata, available to 44e Divisione. They patrolled the Vallarsa, Dolomiti, Monte Maggio line in an attempt to intercept Austrian artillery co-operation aircraft. The unit also supported the Italian offensive, alongside 32a, 35a, and 75a Squadriglias.
  In October, 71a carried out combat patrols during the Italian offensive actions on the Pasubio.
  On 4 December 71a replaced 78a in interdiction flights over the plateau at Valsugana, in collaboration with 75a and la Idrovolanti.They all operated along Pasubio and Vai Lagarina flying in closely spaced pairs. The weather conditions greatly limited sorties. In 1916, 71a Squadriglia had made 523 sorties and engaged in 74 combats.

75a Squadriglia
  75a was formed at Tombette air field on 1 May 1916 under the command of capitano Maffeo Scarpis and assigned to III Gruppo. It was to provide air defense for the city of Verona with Nieuports 1455, 1456, 1457, 1458 and 1459.
  On 3 May the squadriglia sent a sezione of three planes and pilots to Villaverla.
  In October, 75a performed numerous escort missions for reconnaissance and bombing aircraft and supported aerial operations over Pasubio.
  The flight activity in the last two months of the year was limited due to bad weather. By now the unit had Nieuport 11s 1646, 1647, 1649, 1654, 1688, 1690 and 1695; by this time, the Nieuport 10s had been deleted.
  During 1916 74a had flown 361 combat sorties and engaged in 24 aerial combats’ there was one confirmed victory.

76a Squadriglia
  This Squadriglia was formed on the Comina field, near Pordenone, on 25 May 1916. It was equipped with Nieuport serial numbers 1042, 1043, 1805 and 1806 available. On May 29, 76a received the order to fly to S. Maria la Longa, to be assigned to I Gruppo.
  At the end of June the unit had Nieuports 1042, 1464, 1606, 1806, 3438, 2182 and 2206.
  On 29 September 76a became part of II Gruppo, based at Santa Maria la Longa. It supported II Armata offensive operations in the autumn of 1916.
During 1916 76a had to strike off charge Nieuports 1650, 1683,1699,2111,3128 and 3133 due to various damages. By 1917 the unit had fully re-equipped with Nieuport 11s.

77a Squadriglia
  77a Nieuport Squadriglia was formed on 31 May 1916 at Campo della Comina. It was assigned to the Comando Supremo and based in Istrana on June 18, 1916. It was equipped with Nieuport 10s. Combat operations began in July as it re-equipped with Nieuport 11s.
  By July 1916 Nieuport 11s had replaced the Nieuport 10s.

78a Squadriglia
  78a was formed June 29, 1916 at Comina. However, the unit had only a single Nieuport 10 (and seven Nieuport Ils); the Nieuport 10 was soon replaced.

  By the end of 1916, Nieuport 11s and 17s had begun to replace the Nieuport 10s in the fighter role. Nevertheless, as of mid-1917 six units still used Nieuport 10s: 70a, 71a, 75a, 76a, 77a, and 78a Squadriglias. By 1917 the two Nieuport 10s were replaced.
  The Nieuport 10 remained in front-line service well into 1917, but in the aerial reconnaissance role.
  By 1918 most Nieuport 10s had been assigned to training units. The Nieuport-Macchi firm built more than 240 of the type and it is believed that the Italians eventually acquired more than 500 Nieuport 10s before the end of the war.


Nieuport-Macchi 10 Single or Two-Seat Reconnaissance Aircraft with One 80-hp Le Rhone Engine
  Wingspan 8.03 m; length 7.01 m; height 2.85 m; wing area 18 sq m
  Empty weight 440 kg; loaded weight 650 kg
  Maximum speed 140 km/h; ceiling 3,800 m; endurance 2 hours 30 minutes, range 300 km


Журнал Flight


Flight, March 19, 1915.

A TWO-SEATER NIEUPORT BIPLANE.

   IN the accompanying photographs is seen a biplane which has been recently issued from the Nieuport works. Hitherto the Nieuport firm have chiefly concentrated their energies on machines of the monoplane type, and with the exception of the extra pair of wings their new machine follows very closely on the lines of the monoplanes that made the late Nieuport brothers famous, and it will be noted that everything has been done with the object of improving the views from both pilot's and passenger's seats and to give a gunner as far as possible a free range of firing in any direction.
   Generally speaking, this Nieuport military tractor biplane follows standard practice as regards the general arrangement, but upon closer examination several original ideas are noticed.
   From the photographs it will be seen that only one pair of struts on each side of the fuselage separates the two planes, and these struts, instead of being parallel to one another, as is usually the case, run to a point on the bottom plane. The reason for this is that the lower plane has only a single spar, which takes the form of a steel tube round which the wing pivots. The upper plane is fitted with two spars in the usual manner, to the rear one of which are hinged the two ailerons. For lateral control a hand lever in front of the pilot operates simultaneously the ailerons on the upper planes, whilst warping, or, more correctly speaking, pivoting, the corresponding half of the lower plane. This system undoubtedly provides ample lateral control. In fact we should imagine that the ailerons on the top plane would alone be sufficient for the maintenance of lateral stability, and the chief advantage in having such a small chord to the lower plane would lie in the fact that it only obscures the downward view to a very slight extent.
   As for the arrangement of the gunner's quarters, his seat is placed in the usual manner in front of that of the pilot, and when sitting down inside his cockpit a very wide range of vision is obtained in a downward and forward direction.
   In order that the propeller may be avoided when firing forward, there is a circular opening in the top plane through which the gunner can pass the upper portion of his body when standing in his seat. In this position, the muzzle of the gun or rifle is above the circumference described by the tip of the propeller, so that the gun can be fired straight forward, or in an upward direction. Altogether the Nieuport firm is to be congratulated on the machine.


Flight, October 22, 1915.

EDDIES.

<...>
   In another photo, is seen a batch of French avions, which includes M. Farmans, Caudrons, Morane "parasols," and Nieuport scouts. The latter, of which we published illustrations and particulars some months ago, are, I believe, proving highly successful, a fact which, as they are modelled on the lines of our scouts, is no mean compliment to the Sopwith Aviation Co., who were the first to demonstate the high value of this type of machine as long ago as the summer of 1913.


Flight, October 19, 1916.

THE NIEUPORT BIPLANE-SCOUT.

   "SOMEWHERE in France" there is a little band of Americans, known as the American Escadrille, who are doing good work at the Front in the French flying service. The Nieuport "one-and-a-half-plane" is used by these American pilots, and we are indebted to our contemporary, Aerial Age, for the following description of this machine, the first model of which was illustrated in "FLIGHT" for March 19th, 1915.
   The top plane has a span of 24 ft. 6 ins. and a chord of 3 ft. 11 ins., whilst the lower plane is 23 ft. span and 2 ft. 4 ins. chord. The narrow lower plane allows a good range of vision, and the trailing edges of top and bottom planes being in line produces the effect of staggered planes. Both planes are slightly swept back, and thу lower one has a dihedral of about 8 ins. The upper plane, in two sections, is built up on two main spars 34 ins. apart. Above the pilot's seat the plane is cut away so that the pilot can easily reach the cockpit and also obtain a good view above to locate other aircraft or fire a machine gun. The ailerons, recessed in the upper plane only, are attached to tubes - indicated in the drawing by dotted lines - which run through the plane behind the rear spar to arms mounted above the fuselage. These arms are connected by rods passing inside the fuselage to a cross bar on the control column. This arrangement is shown in the accompanying diagram. The gap between the rear spar and the leading edge of the aileron is covered by an extension of the plane-covering. Each section of the lower plane is 10 ft. 5 ins. span, and has a single spar situated 9 ins. from the leading edge at the centre of pressure, the inner extremity forming the attachment to the fuselage. The attachment consists of a pivoted joint whereby the angle of incidence of the plane may be varied by rotating the spar by means of suitably arranged cranks and a hand lever.
   Top and bottom planes are separated by one pair of struts on either side of the fuselage. Each pair, it will be seen, is in the form of a V, the struts converging at the bottom in a single strut-socket, which is so clamped around the spar that the latter may turn in it. The vertical member of the inclined V is 3 ft. 6 ins. in length, 4 ins. wide, with its upper end attached to the rear spar of the top plane. The inclined member is 3 1/2 ins. wide, and has its upper end attached to the front spar of the top plane. The struts are streamlined and bound at 1 ft. intervals with silk fabric. Struts supporting the top plane above the fuselage are oval-section steel tube.
   The tail plane consist of a non-lifting stabilizing surface 1 ft. 5 ins chord by 7 ft. 9 ins. mean span, two elevator flaps of about 15 sq. ft. area, and a large vertical rudder. The stabilising plane is stayed by steel tubes from the bottom of the stern-post, and its trailing edge, to which the elevator are hinged, consists of a steel tube. The rudder is also a steel tube, and is hinged to the fuselage stern-post.
   The usual girder box construction is employed for the fuselage, which has flat sides and bottom, a turtle-deck top following the curve of the engine cowel which is 40 ins diameter. Vertical members are light, T section, and the covering is fabric back of the pilot's cockpit and three-ply veneer forward. The seat is a few inches from the fuselage bottom and the wide cockpit allows for free movement of the arms. The fuselage is 33 ins, deep and 32 ins wide at the cockpit, tapering to 12 ins. deep at the stern post, whilst at the leading edge of the stabilising plane it is 8 ins. wide.
   A V-type landing chassis is used, with a steel axle, sprung on rubber shock absorbers, carrying two 36 in disc wheels spaced 5 ft. 4 ins. apart. The streamline chassis struts are 4 ins. wide and 1 ins. thick, strongly braced with cable. The tail skid, which is of ash with a steel plate shoe is enclosed in a streamline shield of veneer. The control consists of a single vertical column in the centre of the cockpit operating the ailerons and the elevators by a side to side and forward-and-backward movement respectively, and a pivoted foot bar operating the rudder. The ailerons may also be operated by means of foot bat entirely separate from the rudder bar. All openings in the fuselage for control cables are reinforced with aluminium rings, 2 ins. diameter, riveted to the fabric. Where the elevator cables go through the tail plane there are slots, 6 ins. long, with aluminium edges. Small and easily removable doors are located at either side of the fuselage permitting inspection and adjustment of the control levers, &c.
   An 80 h.p. Rhone engine is used, coupled direct to an 8 ft. Levasseur tractor screw The fuel tanks are situated at the rear of the engine in the top of the fuselage.
   The following are the main characteristics, of this machine : Span, top plane. 24 ft. 6 ins.; bottom plane. 23 ft.; chord, top, 3 ft. 11 ins.; bottom, 2 ft. 4 ins.; supporting area, 145 sq. ft.; gap, 4 ft. 2 ins. (centre), 3 ft. 5 ins. (tips); length overall, 18 ft. 6 ins.

Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
A Nieuport 10 N237 in French Service. French Nieuports usually did not carry roundels on the fuselage
А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Учебный самолет/разведчик/истребитель "Ньюпор-9" авиаотряда русской VIII армии (1916г.). На самолете смонтирована пулеметная установка В.В.Иордана
А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Разведчик/корректировщик/истребитель "Ньюпор-10" авиации русской армии (1915г.)
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Ньюпор 10, ВМФ России, 1916г.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Российский одноместный "Ньюпор-10" постройки московского завода "Дукс", вооруженный курсовым несинхронным пулеметом "Виккерс-Максим" в обтекателе над верхним крылом, 1916г.
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.3: Aircraft M-W /Centennial Perspective/ (75)
Nieuport 10 Ni 13510, Unit unknown
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.3: Aircraft M-W /Centennial Perspective/ (75)
Nieuport 10 Ni 13052, Unit unknown
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.3: Aircraft M-W /Centennial Perspective/ (75)
Nieuport 10, Unit unknown
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.3: Aircraft M-W /Centennial Perspective/ (75)
Nieuport 10, Unit unknown
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.3: Aircraft M-W /Centennial Perspective/ (75)
Nieuport 10, Unit unknown
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.3: Aircraft M-W /Centennial Perspective/ (75)
Nieuport 10, Unit unknown
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
N10 #169, pilot and unit unknown
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
N10 #318, crew and unit unknown
J.Bruce - Nieuport Fighters /Albatros/
"Ньюпор" 10 в начале войны. Единственное оружие - винтовка.
Primogenitor of the historic line of Nieuport fighting biplanes was the Type XB, initially flown and produced as a two-seater with the observer in the forward seat, on which he had to stand to take up his firing position, the upper wing about his waist, as seen here. Later two-seat Type XBs had the pilot in front, but the single-seat conversions of this design were more readily made from the basic type. This is believed to be the, or a, prototype, devoid of any markings, and powered by an 80-hp Gnome engine.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The early two-seat version of the Nie 10 sesquiplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
View from above of the Nieuport two-seater biplane, showing the hole in the top plane for the gunner when he wishes to fire in an upward or forward direction.
В.Шавров - История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.
"Ньюпор-IX"
В.Шавров - История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.
Пулеметная установка В. В. Иордана на самолете "Ньюпор-IX";
O.Thetford - British Naval Aircraft since 1912 /Putnam/
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
The cockade on the rudder of this Nieuport 10A.2 reconnaissance two seater, along with the uniforms of the attendant personnel positively identify it as belonging to an RFC unit, but the aircraft was also operated by the RNAS and it was this service that took a more muscular attitude in its deployment of the type, sometimes replacing the second seat with a .303-inch Lewis gun to give the machine a more agressive role. Powered by an 80hp Gnome or Le Rhone rotary, the top level speed was 90mph at sea level. The machine was used by France, both British services, the Italians, who also deployed it as a single-seat fighter, and Belgium
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
Sous Lieutenant Henri Crombez and his observer, Lieutenant Roger Lesergeant d’Hendecourt, IVme Escadrille, in one of the first Nieuport N10s delivered to the Av.M.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
On 5 March 1916, Adjt Egide Roobaert & S/Lt Pierre d’Ursel, 5me Esc, had an aerial combat with an LVG. Afterwards they were forced to land on account of a snow storm.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
Nieuport N10 # 169 flown as a two-seater.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
Nieuport N10 #318, possibly belonging to 4me Escadrille, at Houthem airfield.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
S/Lt Jules Tyck in front of his Nieuport 10, with a mechanic in the cockpit.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
Adjt Roger Castiau & S/Lt Louis Robin ready for take off in their Nieuport 10.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
Adjt Roger Castiau & S/Lt Louis Robin, Esc II, were very active in August 1915.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
Lieutenant Henri Crombez in front of his Nieuport N 10.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
Capitaine Felix Isserentant is flanked by Adjudant Roger Castiau (L) and Sous-Lieutenant Louis Robin, IIme Escadrille, after their return from a long-distance reconnaissance over Brussels on 19 September 1915.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
Louis Robin & Roger Castiau, 2me Escadrille, before take off to Brussels on 19 September 1915. In 1974, Louis Robin was wrapped in this Belgian flag, before being laid in his coffin.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
Three future fighter pilots, probably in France: L. to R.: Jean Olieslagers, French officer, Alfred Sarteel who was in France serving with the technical branch, Jules Tyck, and the unfortunate Robert Lagrange.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
Nieuport N10 taking to the air, most likely at Houthem.
Форум - Breguet's Aircraft Challenge /WWW/
This is a Nieuport 10 (or XB as it was also known at the time) captured by the Germans. Clearly can be seen the man-'hole' in the wing, where the observer could use the machine gun that was mounted on top of the wing, firing over the propeller. These were the days before or in the beginning from the interrupter gear, which allowed shooting through the propeller.
J.Bruce - Nieuport Fighters /Albatros/
N209 was a typical single-seat conversion of the Nieuport XB, armed with an overwing Lewis gun. The forward centre-section struts, of inverted-V form, were characteristic of the type, and photographic evidence suggests that, in common with later Nie.10 two-seaters, the single-seat variant had its 80-hp Le Rhone engine on an overhung mounting and with the cut-away cowling seen here. The early Nie.10s had had fore-and-aft engine mountings.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
Three-quarter rear view of the Nieuport scouting biplane.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This Nieuport 10 single seater, wearing French colors, carries the number 237 on the rudder. The V struts can be seen between the upper and lower wing. Armament is a single, centrally mounted, overwing Lewis gun
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.3: Aircraft M-W /Centennial Perspective/ (75)
Nieuport 10 in French service.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
237 has a French roundel painted on the fuselage side, highly unusual for a French aircraft. Another Nie.10 stands in the background
J.Bruce - Nieuport Fighters /Albatros/
This photograph of Nie.10 N237 indicates that the Lewis gun mounting was a simple affair. The presence of a roundel on the fuselage side was unusual in a French-operated aircraft.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
A carry over from the days of the two seater, the Nieuport 10 has the characteristic look of an elongated two seater fuselage
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
A fleet of avions at an air station "somewhere in France."
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
The American Escadrille and some of the Nieuport Scouts "somewhere" in France. - Reading from left to right are :- Lieut, de Laage, Sergt. C. C. Johnson (New York), Capt. Lawrence Rumsey (Buffalo), Sergt. J . R. McConnell (Carthage), Lieut. William Thaw (Pittsburgh). Sergt. R. Lufhery (New Haven, Conn.). Sergt. Kiffin Rockwell (Atlanta), Adjt. Didier Masson (Los Angeles), Sergt. Norman Prince (Boston), who has since died from wounds received last week, and Adjt. Bert Hall (Galveston).
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Российский "Ньюпор-10" без вооружения.
H.Nowarra, G.Duval - Russian Civil and Military Aircraft 1884-1969
Kazakov, ace Russian pilot with his Maxim-armed Nieuport 11. The Imperial Russian insignia is painted on the cowling front.
В.Шавров - История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.
"Ньюпор-Х бис" с двигателем "Гном-Моносупап"
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Российская одноместная истребительная модификация "Ньюпора-10" с надкрыльевой установкой курсового пулемета "Максим" в обтекателе.
В.Шавров - История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.
"Ньюпор-Х" двухместный
М.Маслов - Русские самолеты Первой Мировой /Эксмо/
Сборка и ремонт военных самолетов в период Первой мировой войны велись в специализированных авиапарках (полевых ремонтных авиазаводах), которые комплектовались необходимым техническим персоналом и оборудованием. На снимке представлена сборочная мастерская 6-го авиапарка, размещенного в городе Львов в 1916 г. Узнаваемы самолет «Спад» SA-2 с отстыкованной передней кабиной воздушного стрелка и фюзеляж полутораплана «Ньюпор-X»
O.Thetford - British Naval Aircraft since 1912 /Putnam/
No.2 Wing, RNAS at Imbros in 1915: the aeroplanes are Henry Farman F.27s and Nieuport 10 two-seaters.
J.Bruce - Nieuport Fighters /Albatros/
Known single-seat conversions in the second RNAS batch of Nie.10s were 3964-3966. The first of these was delivered to Eastchurch on September 30 1915, and was initially flown as a two- seater. Its conversion to single-seat form probably took place in early 1916.
J.Bruce - Nieuport Fighters /Albatros/
Disappointing though the quality of this photograph is, it is of interest because its subject, No.3168 of the RNAS, was an example of a single-seat conversion of an aircraft of the first batch of Nie.10s to be supplied to that Service. Initially delivered, doubtless as a two-seater, to No.l (Naval) Squadron, St-Pol, by mid-May 1915, No.3168 was soon shipped to Mudros, and was with No.3 Wing at Tenedos by late July. Although reported missing on December 20 1915, it was evidently recovered and repaired by May 1917. Perhaps the repair process included conversion to the single-seat form seen here. The Nieuport was with ‘G’ Squadron of No.2 Wing by August 1917, and was finally deleted, damaged beyond repair, on October 2 1917.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
The French Nieuport company established a reputation for developing a series of fighters that were among the leading designs of the day. This Nieuport 10 ('8517) served with 2 Squadron RNAS and was one of 50 such taken on charge from 1915.
J.Herris - Weird Wings of WWI /Centennial Perspective/ (70)
This well-known photo shows Cdr. Salmson, RNAS standing in front of a N.10 with gun fixed to fire above the arc of the propeller. Lack of an effective synchronizer was the reason for the awkward mounting. Salmson is holding an automatic pistol; it is not known if it was for air-to-air use or personal protection in case of being brought down.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Charles Rumney Samson, born in 1883, came to epitomise the pugnacious spirit of early British naval aviation. Samson entered the Royal Naval College, Greenwich, as a cadet in 1898 and left as a sub-lieutenant in 1904. On 4 April 1910, Samson received the Aero Club Aviator's Certificate No 71 and from this time on, for the next eight years, Samson's destiny was bound up with naval aviation and its development. Samson, a born leader of men, remained an active pilot throughout this period, some of the highlights of which included his making the world's second only take-off from a warship, on 10 January 1912, and then in May 1918, when nearly losing his life attempting to fly the unforgiving Sopwith Camel from off a destroyer-towed lighter. Although destined never to down an enemy in combat, Samson's disciplined aggression was to have a profound impact on his foes, wherever he and his men where to go. Samson was in command of the RNAS's Eastchurch Wing at the start of the war, from where he moved the unit to its new base at Ostend within a matter of weeks. It was from here that Samson and his unit fought a valiant series of harrying actions against the might of the German army, using both his aeroplanes and the world's first fleet of improvised armoured cars, assembled and converted with the help of his brother Felix. From here on through the ill-fated Gallipoli Campaign of 1915 and his continuing 1916 Middle East forays with the seaplane tender, HMS Ben-My-Chree, Samson's resolve never flagged. From May 1917 and back in Britain, the indefatigable Samson turned his mind to countering the dual threat of Zeppelins and U-boats. Absorbed into the newly formed RAF from April 1918, with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, Samson was given command of No 4 Group, precursor of RAF Coastal Command. Samson retired from the RAF in 1929 as an Air Commodore. Samson is seen here in the cockpit of a Nieuport 10, while operating from the island of Tenedos in the Aegean Sea during 1915.
J.Bruce - Nieuport Fighters /Albatros/
An RNAS Nie.10 single-seater armed with two Lewis guns. It is not clear whether the side-mounted gun had any range of movement.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
Nieuport N10 # 169 after conversion into a single seater.
J.Bruce - Nieuport Fighters /Albatros/
N.188 was another of Belgium’s Nie.10s. It had a more substantial mounting for its Lewis gun.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
On February 26th, 1916, Sous-Lieutenant Jules Tyck was the first pilot of the newly created Iere Esc de Chasse who saw combat with an enemy aircraft.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
CpI Charles de Munck, Iere Esc de Chasse, saw his first taste of combat on 1 April 1916.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
Four fighter pilots of the newly created 5me Escadrille de Chasse. Max Orban (in the cockpit) and Edmond Desclee (R), escorted an F40 to Antwerp on 7 September 1916. Bob De Leener (L) & Teddy Franchomme are happy to pose with them.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
The first BE2c, #1, is here seen in its hangar in the background; a Nieuport 10 is in the foreground.
J.Bruce - Nieuport Fighters /Albatros/
The Nie.10 single-seater was used by several Allied flying services. This one wears Belgian markings, and its Lewis gun evidently could be swivelled. This aspect of the aircraft provides a clear impression of the type’s characteristic proportions.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
This Nieuport 10 has a machine gun mounted to fire above the propeller arc.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
S/Lt Jean Olieslagers, Iere Esc, scored two victories in two days, doubling his score to four, on 14 & 15 June 1917.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
S/Lt Jean Olieslagers is on duty to carry out an offensive patrol whenever he is ordered to do so.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
Adjt Jean Bastin, 2me Esc., scored not only his own, but also the squadron’s only victory, on 3 November 1918.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
Abel De Neef, the first brevetted pilot at Etampes, arrived at the front 11 January 1916.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
During the absence of Sous-Lieutenant Willy Coppens, I Sgt Maurice Jamar took the opportunity to borrow the former’s Hanriot HD23 to destroy the Leffinghe balloon on 10 July 1918. It was Jamar's only victory.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
Adjt Edmond Thieffry, 5me Esc, scored two victories in March 1917, one each on the 15th and 23rd.
J.Bruce - Nieuport Fighters /Albatros/
This single-seat Nie.10 was the first Nieuport biplane to go into Italian service; it was the first of a batch of six (Ni.383-388). By September 18 1915, it was with the Squadriglia Biplani Nieuport, and was flown by Tenente Francesco Baracca, who went on to become Italy’s leading ace. The Nie.10 was produced in Italy by Macchi, who built 240. Many survived the war to serve as trainers.
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.3: Aircraft M-W /Centennial Perspective/ (75)
Nieuport 10 in Italian service. (Roberto Gentilli)
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.3: Aircraft M-W /Centennial Perspective/ (75)
Oreste Salamone with his Nieuport 10
J.Bruce - Nieuport Fighters /Albatros/
The Finnish air service acquired several Nieuports of various types from Russia; most, if not all, had been built by the Duks concern. Two were aquired direct from Russia and a third was captured from the Bolsheviks. Here a Nie.10 is pushed out at Lappeenrannassa in 1918.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
S/Lt Jules Tyck crashed twice during July 1915. These are two views of his aircraft after one of these crashes.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
Diagram showing the controls for the ailerons and lower planes on the Nieuport scouting biplane.
J.Bruce - Nieuport Fighters /Albatros/
Diagrammatic illustrations from French Patent No. 477.457. The large drawing is of the variable-incidence installation for the lower mainplane of the Nie.XB; this was to be actuated by the impressive lever on the starboard side of the cockpit. ‘Fig. 10’ is a section through the ball-and-socket joint at the root end of the lower-wing spar; 'Figs 11 and 12’ are side and front elevations of the V-strut attachment point on that spar, in which the annular fitting is clearly seen.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The definitive single-seat version of the Nie 10 sesquiplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
THE NIEUPORT SCOUTING BIPLANE. - Plan, side and front elevation to scale.
H.Nowarra, G.Duval - Russian Civil and Military Aircraft 1884-1969
The personal machine of the Russian Ace, Kazakov, as fitted with Maxim gun armament.
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.3: Aircraft M-W /Centennial Perspective/ (75)
Nieuport 10
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.3: Aircraft M-W /Centennial Perspective/ (75)
Nieuport 10
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.3: Aircraft M-W /Centennial Perspective/ (75)
Nieuport 10