В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны
"ПФАЛЬЦ" E.I/E.II/E.III/E.IV / PFALZ E.I/E.II/E.III/E.IV
Основанная в 1913 году южногерманская фирма "Пфальц Флюгцойгверк" начала свою деятельность с лицензионного копирования французских двухместных аэропланов "Моран-Солнье" типов H (среднеплан) и L (моноплан-парасоль) с 80-сильными ротативными моторами "Оберурсель" U.O. Первый из них получил в Германии обозначение "Пфальц" E.I, а второй - "Пфальц" A.I. Те же машины, оснащенные 100-сильными двигателями "Оберурсель" U.I, назывались, соответственно, "Пфальц" E.II и А.II. Выпуск этих машин продолжался в 1914 и 1915 годах. На раннем этапе Мировой войны они применялись для разведки и аэрофотосъемки.
Когда летом 1915-го на фирме "Фоккер" был создан первый работоспособный пулеметный синхронизатор, инженеры завода "Пфальц" решили превратить E.I в истребитель. Машину оснастили синхронным пулеметом LMG 08, установленным над капотом. В остальном самолет практически ничем не отличался от своего французского "предка". Всего в течение лета и осени 1915 г. построено порядка 60 вооруженных E.I и Е.II, которые, в основном, поступали в баварские авиаэскадрильи и воевали на западном фронте.
Обозначение E.III носил оснащенный синхронным пулеметом парасоль A.II. Этот аппарат также строился малой серией и поступал в войска.
Завершающим в "линейке" истребителей-монопланов фирмы "Пфальц" был
E.IV, оснащенный двухрядным 14-цилиндровым ротативным мотором "Оберурсель" Ur.III мощностью 160 л.с. Самолет отличался увеличенными размерами и массой, усиленной конструкцией планера, а также - более мощным вооружением, состоящим из двух синхронных пулеметов LMG 08. По своим летным характеристикам E.IV превосходил более ранние модификации "Пфальца", но его "ахиллесовой пятой" стала низкая надежность двигателя. Серийный выпуск этой машины составил всего 24 экземпляра.
Размах, м 9,26 10,2
Длина, м 6,3 6,6
Площадь крыла, м2 14,0 16,0
Сухой вес, кг 345 471
Взлетный вес, кг 535 695
Скорость макс, км/ч 140 160
Время набора высоты
2000 м., мин. - 8,5
Потолок, м 3900 4200
O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)
Pfalz E I and E IV
Some time before the First World War the Pfalz Flugzeug-Werke, founded in July 1913, had been financed through the Bavarian Government in an endeavor to ensure it had some control of the equipment its flying services would use. The factory, which was established at Speyer am Rhein, was in the hands of the three Eversbusch brothers, Alfred, Walter and Ernst (until the untimely death of Walter in a flying accident on 1st June 1916), who not only designed but also tested the machines they built.
Initial product of the firm was a pusher biplane, under an Otto license, which was fitted with a 100 h.p. Rapp motor. Subsequently a license was obtained from the French Morane-Saulnier firm to manufacture their type "H" shoulder wing and type "L" parasol monoplanes, which latter type, with the application of the military designation, became the Pfalz A.I fitted with 80 h.p. Oberursel (Gnome license) rotary engine and the A.II when the 100 h.p. Oberursel was installed. These machines were used in 1914 for reconnaissance and photographic work.
The Pfalz E.I was a shoulder-wing monoplane (actually a license-built Morane-Saulnier type "H", slightly modified) with a rotary engine. Helmut Hirth, a well-known figure in German flying circles before the First World War, was nearly court-martialed for refusing to fly it. However, not all pilots held it in such poor esteem, for one who flew it with enthusiasm was the bespectacled Kissenberth. At first the type was used upon unarmed scouting duties (Kavallerie Flugzeug), but with the success of the Fokker synchronizing gear in 1915, a similar installation was tried on this Pfalz built monoplane, which then went into production as the Pfalz E.I. Some sixty examples were constructed before the next variant was produced. This was the Pfalz E.II, which was little more than an E.I with a 100 h.p. Oberursel engine fitted; the armament, consisting of a single machine-gun, remained the same. The E.III, which next appeared, was not strictly in the same lineage, as it was nothing more than the A.II parasol type now fitted with a single forward-firing machine-gun, and very few were built, only four being at the Front in April 1916.
Next of this line of machines to appear was the Pfalz E.IV, in which model the airframe was strengthened and adapted to take the twin-row 160 h.p. Oberursel U.III engine. Only twenty-four machines of this type were built. As was the case with the Fokker E.IV, the engine was not too reliable, and it did not produce the improvement in performance that was anticipated. The E.V was little more than a standard E.II airframe modified to take the 100 h.p. Mercedes D.I engine with a car-type nose radiator. It was a good machine, but became available too late; twenty aircraft were ordered, but it is not certain all were completed.
Pfalz E.Is and E.IIs, which were the main production aircraft, were allocated in twos and threes to the Bavarian Fl. AN. units to protect and escort their less-nimble two-seater brethren. Due to their great similarity in appearance to the Fokker monoplanes, the Pfalz machines automatically became "Fokkers" to their Allied opponents; indeed, it was only through the shape of their steering surfaces that the types could be positively identified; they differed little in size and weight.
In contrast, the Pfalz monoplane differed considerably structurally from the Fokker product, insofar as it had a completely wooden airframe instead of the welded steel-tube fuselage of the Fokker. The fuselage was a simple rectangular-section braced box-girder structure, based on four spruce longerons which tapered to a horizontal knife-edge aft. The forward panels back to the cockpit were covered with plywood sheet, that on the top decking being curved to the same radius as the engine cowling; the remainder of the fuselage was covered with fabric. Engines were mounted with back bearer plates and housed in horse-shoe style cowlings, which were cut away to the bottom longerons to allow free escape of exhaust. On the E.IV, which had the larger two-row engine, the cowling differed in almost completely enclosing the motor, yet being fretted with large ovoid vent apertures.
There were no fin surfaces in the tail assembly. The tubular spar of the balanced elevators served also as the axis and was mounted through the tubular sternpost. The balanced rudder was hinged to the sternpost and to the inverted steel-tube pylon which served as the anchorage for the ash tailskid. All tail surfaces were covered with fabric and were of approximate trapezoidal shape.
The fabric-covered wing was of constant chord, with angularly raked tips and, in view of the warp control, was of necessity a flexible structure. Of conventional two-spar layout, the front spar was rigidly braced by cables running from a pylon in front of the cockpit to the compression tube anchorages, and from the underneath to a similar pylon between, and forming part of, the undercarriage chassis. The warp control cables were connected to actuating cranks at the base of a pylon underneath the cockpit and ran out to the underside of the rear spar. They then ran from the top surface over a pulley wheel in the top pylon, thereby completing the return linkage.
Although apt to look complicated, the undercarriage was a simple vee-type chassis which additionally incorporated the inverted bracing pylon between the front legs where it joined the center of the straight-through axles. The undercarriage was considerably raked forward, even the front legs, which gave the machine good stability when taxiing and dampened any tendency to nose over occasioned by the extremely sensitive elevator control.
As was the case with the Fokker monoplanes, more efficient and powerful biplanes were soon to come into service, and the operational life of the Pfalz E types was comparatively short on the Western Front, although they continued to serve on the Eastern Front and also in a training capacity. An unusual feature in the finish of the Pfalz monoplanes was the painting of the national insignia on all four elevator surfaces in addition to the usual locations, which probably stemmed from the firm's independence of the Flugzeugmeisterei controls.
Description: Single-seat fighting scout.
Manufacturer: Pfalz Flugzeug-Werke G.m.b.H. Speyer am Rhein (Pfal.)
E I E.II E.IV
Power Plant: 80 h.p. Oberursel U.O 100 h.p. Oberursel U.I 160 h.p. Oberursel U. III
9-cylinder rotary engine 9- cylinder rotary engine 14- cylinder rotary engine
Span 9.26 m. (30 ft. 4 5/8 in.) 10.2 m. (33 ft. 5 5/8 in.) 10.2 m. (33 ft. 5 5/8 in.)
Length 6.3 m. (20 ft. 8 in.) 6.45 m. (21 ft. 2 in.) 6.6 m. (21 ft. 7 7/8 in.)
Height 2.55 m. (8 ft. 4 3/8 in.)
Area 14 sq.m. (151.2 sq.ft.) 16 sq.m. (172.8 sq. ft.) 16 sq.m. (172.8 sq. ft.)
Empty 345 kg. (759 lb.) 410 kg. (902 lb.) 471 kg. (1,036 lb.)
Loaded 535 kg. (1,177 lb.) 620 kg. (1,364 lb.) 694 kg. (1,526 lb.)
Max speed 145 km.h. (90.6 m.p.h.) 150 km.h. (93.75 m.p.h.) 160 km.h. (100 m.p.h.)
800 m. 3 min. 2.75 min. 2 min.
2,000 m. 12 min. 9.75 min. 8.5 min.
Duration 1 hr.
Armament: One Spandau machine-gun One Spandau machine-gun Two Spandau machine-guns
firing forward. firing forward. firing forward.
Pfalz E IV
In every way similar to the Pfalz E types covered in the main text, the E IV differed only in its being fitted with the 160 h.p. two-row Oberursel U III rotary engine. Comparatively few were built, one reliable source putting the number at twenty-four machines. Engine, 160 h.p. Oberursel U III. Span, 10.2 m. (33 ft. 5 5/8 in.). Length, 6.6 m. (21 ft. 7 7/8 in.). Height, 2.55 m. (8 ft. 4 3/8 in.). Area, 16 sq.m. (173 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 471 kg. (1,036 lb.). Loaded, 694 kg. (1,527 lb.). Speed, ca. 160 km.hr. (100 m.p.h.) Climb, 800 m. (2,624 ft.) in 2 min. Armament, one or two Spandau machine-guns.
W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters
PFALZ E I Germany
Early in 1914, the Pfalz Flugzeug-Werke, which had been established in the previous year specifically to manufacture aircraft for the Bavarian Flying Service, acquired a licence to manufacture the Morane-Saulnier Types H and L. In 1915, Pfalz produced its first aircraft to carry a machine gun, this, the E I, being broadly based on the Type H and powered by an 80 hp Oberursel U 0 (Gnome) rotary engine. This shoulder-wing monoplane of wooden construction passed its Typen-Prufung in September 1915. Two were at the Front by the end of the following month and the number of E Is at the Front peaked at 27 aircraft by the end of April 1916. Their principal role was as armed escorts for observation flights, armament comprising a single synchronised LMG 08/15 machine gun. Some E Is saw action in Palestine during the 1916 Sinai desert campaign, and others were flown by Bavarian units as unarmed high-speed reconnaissance aircraft.
Max speed, 87 mph (140 km/h).
Time to 2,625 ft (800 m), 3.0 min.
Endurance, 1.5 hrs. Empty weight, 760 lb (345 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,179 lb (535 kg).
Span, 30 ft 4 1/2 in (9,26 m).
Length, 20 ft 8 in (6,30 m).
Height, 8 ft 4 2/5 in (2,55 m).
Wing area, 150.7 sq ft (14,00 m2).
PFALZ E II Germany
Fundamentally an improved E I, the E II completed its Typen-Prufung in July 1916, but by that time 30 were already at the Front with various Bavarian squadrons. Following manufacture of some 60 E Is, Pfalz introduced a 100 hp Oberursel U I rotary, increased overall span by 3 ft 1 in (94 cm) and continued production as the E II. Armament remained a single synchronised LMG 08/15 machine gun, and the E II served alongside the lower-powered E I in twos and threes with two-seat reconnaissance aircraft units to undertake escort tasks. Like the E I, the E II was entirely of wooden construction and, apart from having a fabric-skinned rear fuselage, was plywood covered. The E II had disappeared from the Western Front by the end of 1916, some having served in Macedonia, Palestine and Syria.
Max speed, 93 mph (150 km/h).
Time to 2,625 ft (800 m), 2.75 min.
Endurance, 1.5 hrs.
Empty weight, 904 lb (410 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,261 lb (572 kg).
Span, 33 ft 5 1/2 in (10,20 m).
Length, 21 ft 1 9/10 in (6,45 m).
Height, 8 ft 4 2/5 in (2,55 m).
Wing area, 172.23 sq ft (16,00 m2).
PFALZ E IV Germany
Retaining the ply- and fabric-covered wooden airframe of the E II, the E IV differed primarily in having a two-row Oberursel U III rotary engine of 160 hp and an armament of two synchronised LMG 08/15 machine guns. Type-tested in January 1916, the E IV was found to be a poor gun platform and its U III engine proved unreliable. A series of 24 aircraft was built, but the E IV saw little frontline use owing to its shortcomings, and the maximum number at the Front at any one time was five aircraft (April 1916).
Max speed, 99 mph (160 km/h).
Time to 9,840 ft (3 000 m), 10 min.
Endurance, 1 hr.
Empty weight, 1,038 lb (471 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,530 lb (694 kg).
Dimensions as for E II apart from length of 21 ft 7 7/8 in (6,60 m).
PFALZ E VI Germany
Although, by early 1916, the more rugged and manoeuvrable biplane configuration was demonstrating a clear superiority over the monoplane in the fighting role, the Pfalz Flugzeug-Werke persisted with the latter and developed the E V and E VI. The E VI differed primarily in having the 100 hp Oberursel U I rotary engine, and some redesign of the vertical tail surface, but this type saw no combat, the 20 built being assigned to the instructional role.