В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны
"РОЛАНД " D.II/D.III / ROLAND D.II/D.III
После восстановления предприятия на нем запустили в серию улучшенную модификацию истребителя - "Роланд" D.II. Верхнее крыло у него было приподнято и установлено на невысоком пилоне, чтобы улучшить обзор вниз. Вооружение усилено на один пулемет, а два бортовых радиатора заменили одним, размещенным на верхнем крыле.
D.II выпускался с октября 1916 года, а с декабря начал поступать на фронт. В ноябре появилась очередная модификация D.IIa, оснащенная двигателем "Аргус" As.III мощностью 180 л.с. Вскоре D.IIa сменил D.II на линии сборки.
Всего на фирмах LFG и "Пфальц" построено 70 экземпляров D.II и 300 D.IIa. Выпуск прекращен в феврале 1917 г.
Последняя серийная модификация в "линейке", ведущей свое начало от "Роланда" D.I, - "Роланд" D.III. Его отличала бипланная коробка "обычного" типа (верхнее крыло крепилось к фюзеляжу на стойках) и измененная форма вертикального оперения с увеличенным рулем поворота. Двигатель и вооружение аналогичны "Роланду" D.IIa. В конце 1916-го - начале 1917 года построено 100 экземпляров D.III, в том числе 50 - на фирме "Пфальц", но большинство из них поступило в учебные подразделения.
Самолеты "Роланд" отличались высокой прочностью конструкции и хорошими скоростными данными, но по остальным показателям они уступали "Альбатросу". Кроме того, двигатель "Аргус" оказался недостаточно надежным и постоянно недодавал мощности. Из-за этого "роланды" не получили широкого распространения на западе, но часть машин использовалась на восточном фронте, где некоторые из них были сбиты в воздушных боях русскими летчиками. Две трофейные машины применялись в российской авиации.
Шесть экземпляров D.II и столько же D.III были переданы Болгарии и воевали в составе болгарских ВВС на македонском фронте.
D.II; двигатель "Мерседес", 160 л.с. Построено 70 штук в октябре-ноябре 1916 г.
D.IIа; двигатель "Аргус", 180 л.с. Построено 370 экз. в ноябре 1916 - феврале 1917 гг.
2 синхр. LMG 08/15 "Шпандау".
Размах, м 8,94
Длина, м 6,85
Площадь крыла, кв.м 22,80
Сухой вес, кг 685
Взлетный вес, кг 915
Скорость максимальная, км/ч 180
Время подъема на высоту
2000 м, мин 6,0
5000 м, мин 23,0
Потолок, м 5000
А.Александров, Г.Петров Крылатые пленники России
Летая с тем же двигателем "Мерседес" 160 л. с. или с "Аргусом" 180 л. с, сухопутные истребители "Роланд Д. II" или "Роланд Д. IIа" постройки фирмы "Л. Ф. Г." превосходили по скорости морской "Альбатрос В. 4" всего примерно на 10 км/ч, достигая максимального показателя 170 км/ч. Им не помогала их, казалось бы, обтекаемая форма - наоборот, изящное сочленение верхнего крыла и фюзеляжа затрудняло обзор, так необходимый в бою. Добавим сюда тяжелое управление, и станет понятно, почему германские пилоты-истребители не любили эту модель, впервые испытанную в октябре 1916 г., а затем произведенную в количестве до 430 экземпляров компаниями "Л. Ф. Г." и "Пфальц". Таким образом, попытки улучшить аналогичный предыдущий тип, Д. I, спроектированный инженерами Танценом и Хофманом (Tantzen, Hoffmann) и неофициально прозванный "акулой", не достигли цели. Фирму "Л. Ф. Г." - "Люфтфарцойг Гезельшафт" (Luftfahrzeug Gesellschaft), обязанную своим рождением в 1912 г. в том числе и крупповскому капиталу, не надо путать с "Эльфауге". Возможность такой неразберихи была очевидна с самого начала и потому компания учредила торговую марку "Роланд" в дополнение к основному имени. Не испытывая необходимости бросать на Восточный фронт новейшие и совершеннейшие истребители, немцы запросто обходились там такими не слишком удачными аппаратами, как "Роланд", которые иногда становились добычей наших летчиков. 9 сентября 1917 г. подпоручик А. Н. Свешников из 7-го корпусного авиаотряда, 2-я истребительная группа, атаковал на своем "Спаде 7" французской постройки неприятельский аэроплан, который после непродолжительного 15-минутного боя спустился в районе наших передовых позиций. Его пилот убежал к своим, тогда как "Роланд Д. Па" (с "Аргусом"), с заводским номером 539, оказался в плену, чем воспользовался неизвестный фотограф, запечатлевший событие во многих деталях. Вот Свешников (слева) стоит у пропеллера со штампом фирмы-изготовителя "Аксиаль"; на снимке отлично видны также кок винта, капот двигателя, выхлопной коллектор и т. д. (72, а). Вот почти та же сцена, но аппарат показан целиком (72, б); затем мы можем рассмотреть его хвост, погруженный на телегу, и шасси с поврежденным левым колесом (72, в). Отсутствие креста на фюзеляже является следствием распространенного среди летчиков той эпохи пристрастия, когда детали обшивки, приборы и прочие предметы становились своеобразными сувенирами победителя, подтверждавшими его удачу. Следы такой деятельности хорошо заметны на правом борту. Не менее интересны двухцветный - коричневый с зеленым - камуфляж верхних сторон аппарата, спрятанные в крыло радиаторы, альтиметр на центральном пилоне и т. д. (73). К сожалению, нам не удастся разглядеть 2 синхронизированных пулемета, чего не скажешь о следе от русской пули на левом борту фюзеляжа - она попала точно в крест (74). Согласно рапорту, причиной вынужденной посадки неприятеля было поражение топливного и масляного резервуаров. Еще один "Роланд Д. II" с загадочной белой полосой на корпусе и с демонтированными крыльями в августе 1917 г. находился в плену в Каменец-Подольске (75), а в 1922-1923 гг. один "Роланд Д. IIа" с номером 301 числился во 2-м авиаотряде истребительной эскадрильи в Киеве и потом во 2-м отдельном истребительном авиаотряде в Харькове (76). На крыло самолета облокотился весьма франтоватый пилот с орденом Красного Знамени на груди и с компасом на правой ноге, но, пожалуй, больший интерес представляет совершенно необычный рисунок на фюзеляже: если хорошенько присмотреться, то можно увидеть, скорей всего, огненно-красного цвета черта, набросившегося на рабоче-крестьянскую "серпасто-молоткастую" звезду, а хвост черта образует некий замысловатый узор, включающий, вероятно, букву А. Видимо, тот же единственный "Роланд" Красной авиации, замечательный, помимо всего прочего, своим самодельным ветровым козырьком, изображен на следующем снимке (77), сделанном, вероятно, в 1924 г. в одном из помещений 2-й постоянной авиабазы. По имеющейся информации, он летал с двигателем "Опель" 180 л. с.
O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)
L.F.G. Roland D II and IIa
With the success of the Roland C II and quantity production established, thought was given by the L.F.G. design staff, led by Dipl. lng. Tantzen, to the production of a single-seater to a similar formula. The resultant aircraft, the L.F.G. Roland D I, first flown in July 1916, had an unmistakable resemblance to its forebear, although its lines were finer and its general appearance was much slimmer, which, without doubt, gave rise to the name it was given - "Haifisch" (Shark).
As in the C II, the fuselage encompassed the full depth of the gap, but the attachment of the upper wing panels was modified from the shoulder position to a central one, where they joined a low extruded pylon. Some revision of the tail surfaces, with the addition of a blister fin round the tail skid; further cleaning up of the centre-section attachment and replacement of the "ear"-type radiators, brought forth the D II, which first flew in October 1916.
Power unit of both the D I and D II was the 160 h.p. Mercedes D III. Alternative installation of the Argus As III of 180 h.p. in the D II airframe produced the D IIa; there were other minor modifications, mainly in the lightening of the structure. Engines were well buried in the nose, only the upper part of the foremost cylinders protruding above the fuselage shell. Twin Spandau machine-guns were positioned either side of the engine inside the fuselage, and collector manifolds were fitted on the starboard side of the motor exhausting sideways. A large, near hemispherical, metal spinner enclosed the propeller hub, and immediately aft of the airscrew was a metal cowling band extending the full diameter of the fuselage and slotted with characteristic Roland cooling vents. The remainder of the fuselage, with the exception of the metal engine-access panels, was of wooden construction based on very light oval plywood formers with spruce longerons, and spirally wrapped with a double three-ply skin only 1.5 mm. thick, which, in turn, was fabric covered. The vertical fin was also of wooden construction, built integral with the fuselage and surfaced with a plywood skin. Attachment of the wooden trapezoidal-shaped tailplane was unique. The inboard ends of the leading edge were hollowed and embedded on the ends of a timber member which transversed the fuselage and projected about 18 in. either side, thereby ensuring a rigid fixture. Additionally the tailplane was braced to the fin with two light streamlined steel struts. The horn-balanced control surfaces were of steel tube framing with fabric covering.
In the cable-braced wing structure, which was quite conventional, a return made to the more orthodox type of parallel interplane struts, as compared with the C IIs I-struts. The unstaggered wings were of equal chord, the upper of slightly greater span than the lower; they were rigged without dihedral, but had some 1 1/2 ° of sweep. There was only a slight rake to the almost square-cut tips. Based on the usual twin-spar arrangement, the spars were of hollow box construction and braced with four steel-tube compression members to each panel. The ply ribs were fretted with lightening holes and capped with ash flanges. False ribs were positioned between the main ribs and extended as far aft as the rear spar. Fabric-covered ailerons were unbalanced, of parallel chord and actuated by torque tubes running through the wings, which, in turn, were operated by push-rods connected to cranks at the inboard ends. The radiator of aerofoil shape was positioned centrally in the centre-section, and a gravity fuel tank was offset to port in the upper wing panel.
A conventional undercarriage chassis with streamline steel-tube vees was fitted. The axle and twin spreader bars were enclosed in a streamline fairing and the wheels were sprung with elastic cord.
Although cut-outs were made in the upper wing panels, forward view from the cockpit was very poor, a serious disadvantage in a fighter. Despite this, some 300 of the type (including D Is) were eventually built. The majority of these aircraft were constructed under licence by the Pfalz Flugzeug-Werke and not by the parent L.F.G. firm.
In an endeavour to improve forward view, the Roland D III was developed with a conventional centre-section, but saw only limited production, as it was already outclassed by other manufacturers' products. Roland D II and IIas did not usually form the complete establishment of any Jagdstaffeln when they came into service in the early months of 1917. Most seem to have appeared on the French sector of the Western Front, as they do not feature in British combat reports. Several D IIs were on the establishment of Jasta 27 at the time it was commanded by Hermann Goring during 1917 one being regularly flown by Lt. Karl Riehm. One unit that was completely equipped with Roland D IIs in 1917 was Marine Feldjagdstajfel 2. This unit was subsequently destroyed by a British bombardment, whereupon the Staffel was re-equipped with Alb. D IIIs. Jasta 25 in the Balkans in 1917 was also equipped with D IIs prior to receiving Albatroses.
Although having considerable speed, the Roland D IIs were not popular aircraft due to the heaviness of the controls, a considerable disadvantage in a fighter type.
Description: Single-seat fighting scout.
Manufacturers: Luftfahrzeug Gesellschaft m.b.H. Berlin-Charlottcnburg (Rol.).
Sub-contractors: Pfalz Flugzeug-Werke G.m.b.H. Speyer am Rhein (Pfal.).
One 160 h.p. Mercedes D III six cylinder in-line water-cooled engine (D II.)
One 180 h.p. Argus As III six cylinder in-line water-cooled engine (D IIa.)
Span, 8.94 m. (29 ft. 4 in.). Length, 693 m. (22 ft. 8 7/8 in.). Height, 3.11 m. (10 ft. 2 3/8 in.). Area, 22.8 sq m. (246.25 sq.ft.). (D II.)
Span, 8.9 m. (29 ft. 2 1/2 in.). Length, 6.95 m. (22 ft. 9 5/8 in.). Height, 2.95 m. (9 ft. 8 1/8 in.). Area, 22 sq.m. (237.6 sq.ft.). (D IIa.)
Empty, 715 kg. (1,573 lb.). Loaded, 954 kg. (2,098.8 lb.). (D II.)
Empty, 635 kg. (1,397 lb.). Loaded, 795 kg. (1,749 lb.). (D IIa.)
Performance: Maximum speed, 170 km.hr. (105 m.p.h.). Climb, 5,000 m. (16,400 ft.) in 23 min., D II; 5,000 m. (16,400 ft.) in 20 min., D IIa.
Armament: Two fixed Spandau machine-guns firing forward.
L.F.G. Roland D III
Produced and type tested in October 1916, the D III was intended to succeed the D IIa in service, but no great number was built due to increased production of the superior Albatros lighters. The D III continued the all-wooden construction with ply-covered fuselage, differing from its forebears principally in having reduced chord on the lower wings, resulting in converging interplane struts and the wing carried on conventional centre-section struts. Engine, 180 h.p. Argus As III. Weights: Empty, 717 kg. (1,577 lb.). Loaded, 961 kg. (2,114 lb.). Armament, twin fixed Spandau machine-guns.
W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters
LFG ROLAND D II Germany
While the pilot of the D I enjoyed an excellent upward view, the view downwards, impeded by the somewhat rotund fuselage and twin ear radiators, left much to be desired and was the subject of much criticism. Dipl-Ing Tantzen and his team therefore undertook some redesign, which resulted in the D II. Whereas the upper decking of the D I fuselage was faired into the upper wing, that of the D II was cut down and a narrow pylon faired into the wing, the lateral radiators being discarded in favour of a radiator in the upper wing. The D II proved more difficult to fly and somewhat less manoeuvrable than the Albatros D I, and had a tendency to enter a spin from a steep bank. Nonetheless, in October 1916, LFG received a contract for 30 D II fighters powered by the 160 hp Mercedes D III and armed with two 7,9-mm LMG 08/15 guns. A contract for an additional 100 aircraft was awarded to the Pfalz Flugzeugwerke in the following month. With the availability of the new 180 hp Argus As III water-cooled engine, this power plant was mated with the D II airframe and production continued as the D IIa, of which 40 were ordered in November 1916, 100 in January 1917 and a final 50 in the following March. Performances of the DII and Ha were essentially similar, but the Argus engine of the latter unexpectedly demonstrated a severe power loss at higher altitudes, seriously restricting the fighter’s usefulness. The D II reached the Front in February 1917, strength peaking at 97 aircraft in April and tapering off until the type disappeared from the first line inventory in October. The D IIa reached the Front in June 1917, in which month the inventory reached 128 aircraft, and it was withdrawn from first line service in December 1917. Data relate to the D II.
Max speed, 103 mph (165 km/h).
Time to 16,405 ft (5 000 m), 23 min.
Empty weight, 1,400 lb (635 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,797 lb (815 kg).
Span, 29 ft 3 7/8 in (8,94 m).
Length, 22 ft 8 3/4 in (6,93 m).
Height, 10 ft 2 1/2 in (3,11 m).
Wing area, 245.21 sqft (22,78 m2).
LFG ROLAND D III Germany
In a further attempt to improve visibility for the pilot, LFG evolved the D III. Using a fuselage essentially similar to that of the D II, this introduced staggered, unequal-span and unequal-chord wings, and a cabane of broad aerofoil-section struts. Retaining the 180 hp Argus As III engine of the D IIa and the paired 7,9-mm LMG 08/15 armament, the D III received type test approval in May 1917. LFG and Pfalz respectively received contracts for 150 and 200 aircraft. In the event, Pfalz did not build the LFG fighter, switching instead to the Pfalz D III, and as the former was powered by the marginally-performing Argus engine, very few Roland D IIIs were assigned to the Front, a maximum of nine being with first line units in February 1918 and the last being withdrawn in the following April.
Max speed, 109 mph (175 km/h) at sea level.
Empty weight, 1,581 lb (717 kg).
Loaded weight, 2,119 lb (961 kg).
Wing area, 213.45 sq ft (19,83 m2).
Flight, July 12, 1917.
SOME 1917 TYPE GERMAN AEROPLANES.
The Roland Chaser, D. II.
Differs somewhat from the Roland two-seaters in several respects. It is chiefly characteristic on account of the peculiar arrangement of the top plane attachment, which secures the upper wing spars to an enclosed upward projection of the body. Constructionally the body is of the true monocoque type, without internal bracing. It is of rounded section, and throughout the whole machine great care has been taken to do away with any sharp corners or angles, the object evidently being to reduce head resistance to a minimum. The main planes, of which the upper measures 29 ft. 6 ins. and the lower 28 ft. span, have no dihedral, bat are swept back as was once the custom in a large number of German aeroplanes. Ailerons are fitted to the top plane only, and are operated Nieuport fashion by cranks on tubs running along the rear spar. The chord of both planes is the same, 4 ft. 9 ins. The stabilising plane and the vertical fin are covered with three-ply wood, and both rudder and elevator are partly balanced by triangular projections, as appears now to be the mode in Germany. The engine fitted is a 175 h.p. Mercedes, with the exhaust pipes bent outward and backwards as on the Albatros. The radiator is incorporated in the centre of the top plane. Two machine guns are fitted, one on each side of the engine, and, of course, with the usual interrupting gear. The weight of the machine empty is 1,450 lbs.
Flight, July 11, 1918.
THE ROLAND SINGLE-SEATER CHASER, D. II.
THE single-seater Roland biplane, D. II, which made its first appearance about March, 1917, is still frequently encountered by our pilots, especially on the Eastern sectors. It has therefore seemed to us of interest to give a description of it with detailed drawings. The dimensions of the Roland D. II are very small :-
Span of upper plane 8.90 m.
Span of lower plane 8.50 m.
Length overall 6.95 m.
Its weight - 827 kilogs. - with full tanks is slightly greater than that of the Albatros D. III chaser. The lifting surface being 23 sq. m., the wing loading is 36 kg./sq. m. (7.2 lbs./sq. ft.).
The construction of the fuselage, and its peculiar shape, merit special attention. Being built entirely of three-ply wood and covered with fabric, it is of the monocoque type, of oval section, and terminates at the stern in a vertical knife edge. The construction is excessively light, the framework consisting of very thin longerons running through the whole length of the body, the curves of which they follow. Rigidity is only provided by the ply wood, made in two halves joined along the middle of the top and bottom. The total thickness of the six layers is only 1.5 mm. From the pilot's seat to the tail there are only four formers of very small thickness.
Between the pilot's seat and the motor the fuselage forms a projection tapering upwards to form at its upper extremity an edge 0.11 m. wide, to which are attached the radiator and the top plane. The top plane is cut away to accommodate the radiator. This arrangement of an upward projection of the body itself takes the place of the cabane. On the lower part of the fuselage, and built integrally with it, there are the roots to which the two halves of the lower plane are attached. At the rear the tail skid, of wood with a shoe of metal, pierces the fuselage, and is supported on a projection of ply wood similar to that employed on the Nieuport.
The pilot is placed very high, and has in front of him two wind screens, one on each side of the central structure carrying the upper plane. The view in a forward direction being thus divided would appear to be inferior to that obtainable in other types of machines.
The planes are of trapezoidal plan form, of unequal span, without stagger and dihedral angle, but with a sweep-back of 1.50. The chord, which is uniform, is 1.45 m. and the gap 1.34 m. The ribs are at right angles to the leading edge. As the inter-plane struts are secured to the spars over the same rib, it follows that in the front view the struts do not come quite in line. The spars of the upper plane, which are of spruce, are spaced 0.83 m. apart, the front spar being 0.13 m. from the leading edge. The ribs, of which there are 12, are of I section with flanges of ash. They are spaced about 0.37 m. apart. In the middle of each interval there is a false rib running from the leading edge to the rear spar. In each wing there are four compression members in the form of steel tubes 25 mm. diameter. These tubes are evenly spaced, the distance between them being 1.30 m., and are braced by 3 mm. piano wire. Between the front spar and the leading edge there are two tapes running parallel to the spars and crossing alternately over and under consecutive ribs. Two more tapes are similarly arranged between the spars. Certain corners are stiffened by reinforcement with ply wood. Each of the upper planes carries an aileron, which is not balanced and of equal chord throughout. A strip of three-ply wood, under the fabric, covers and protects the hinge fixed on the rear spar. The aileron measures 1.82 m. in length and has a chord of 0.42 m. Its leading edge is a steel tube of 30 mm. diameter. The aileron cranks are operated, as in the Nieuport, by two vertical tubes. In the left top plane is mounted a petrol service tank. Openings in each of the halves of the top plane accommodate the radiator. The upper planes are attached direct to the highest portion of the fuselage by means of special bolts resembling somewhat those used on the L.V.G. C. IV.
The lower planes are constructed in much the same manner as the top ones. The spars are similarly arranged and are consequently the same distance apart. In each wing there are 10 ribs, of which nine measure 0.01 m. and the last one 0.025 m. Between the ribs are false ribs measuring 10 mm. The internal wing bracing is the same as that of the top plane, but the distribution of the four steel tube compression struts (of which one is 20 mm. and the others 25 mm.) is somewhat different. From the first to the second is 1.17 m., from the second to the third is 1.13 m., and from the third to the fourth 1.11 m. The lower planes are attached to wing roots built integrally with the fuselage. The angle of incidence is 4# at the second rib and 3# at the seventh. The inter-plane struts are in the form of steel tubes 0.025 m. diameter, stream-lined with a wood fairing which brings their depth to 0.09 m.
The shape of the tail can be seen from the plane view of the machine. The fixed tail plane is built of wood, while the two elevator flaps are constructed entirely in metal.
A note should be made of the attachment of the tail plane to the body. The leading edge of the tail plane is hollowed out, and into the hollow space thus formed fits a piece of wood which runs across the fuselage and the ends of which project 0.50 m. on each side. Further rigidity is given to the structure by two stream-line tubes running from the tail plane to the rudder hinge on the vertical fin. The rudder, which is roughly rectangular with rounded corners and has a forward projection for balancing, is built up of steel tubes, while the fin, which is made integral with the body, is of three-ply wood.
The elevator cables, which are attached to a central crank lever, are enclosed inside the body except for the last meter or so from the stern.
The engine fitted on the Roland D. II is a 160 h.p. Mercedes six-cylinder vertical engine. The exhaust collector is nearly horizontal, and is placed on the starboard side. In addition to the gravity tank in the top plane there is a main petrol tank measuring 70x70x25 under the rudder bar. The airscrew having been smashed it has not been possible to identify it. It had its boss enclosed in the usual "spinner."
Two fixed Spandau guns are operated by the motor. They are mounted one on each side, and do not project through the fuselage covering until just at the extreme front.
The undercarriage is formed by two pairs of Vee struts, braced diagonally by two crossed cables. Their attachment to the fuselage occurs at two sloping formers. The axle, which is placed between two cross <...> is enclosed in a stream-line casing. The track <...>.75 m. The wheels measure 760 by 100. The shock absorbers are of rubber.
It has been said of the Roland D II that owing to its light construction the fuselage is apt to get out of shape, and that it has a tendency to spin. As up to the present no test of this machine has been possible, our opinion can only be based on the testimony of our aviators. From this it appears that this machine, of new conception, must be counted among the best of German chasers. The Roland D. II single-seater, enters still into the composition of certain enemy squadrons.