В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны
"СИМЕНС-ШУККЕРТ" SSW D.I / SIEMENS-SCHUCKERT SSW D.I
Появление на западном фронте в начале 1916 года новых французских истребителей "Ньюпор-11" вызвало серьезное беспокойство у немецкого авиационного командования. Вражеские самолеты по всем статьям превосходили монопланы "Фоккер" и "Пфальц", составлявшие в то время основу германской истребительной авиации. Авиафирмам был выдан срочный заказ на создание боевых самолетов с более высокими летными характеристиками. Инженеры фирмы "Сименс-Шуккерт Верк" (SSW) в ответ не придумали ничего лучшего, чем просто скопировать французскую машину, оснастив ее более мощным мотором собственной разработки.
Так в сентябре 1916-го появился "Сименс-Шуккерт" D.I, которой являлся почти точной копией "Ньюпора" с незначительными изменениями. В частности, межкрыльевые стойки у него изготовлялись не из дерева, а из стальных труб с алюминиевыми обтекателями.
Но главное отличие заключалось в силовой установке. На "Сименс-Шуккерте" стоял так называемый биротативный мотор "Сименс-Хальске" SH.I мощностью 110 л.с. Коленвал и винт у этого звездообразного мотора воздушного охлаждения вращались при работе в одну сторону, а картер с цилиндрами - в противоположную.
Преимущество столь оригинальной конструкции заключалось в том, что она позволяла передавать на винт больше мощности при меньшем числе оборотов. Благодаря этому становилась возможной установка винтов увеличенного диаметра с повышенным КПД.
Кроме того, биротативный принцип обеспечивал лучшие условия охлаждения цилиндров и снижал центробежные нагрузки на картер. Однако при этом мотор получился гораздо сложнее и тяжелее ротативного и не отличался высокой надежностью.
Испытания показали, что летные данные "Сименс-Шуккерта" в целом выше, чем у трофейных "ньюпора-11" и "ньюпора-16". 25 ноября 1916 г. Фирма получила заказ на 150 серийных экземпляров, а в декабре началась их сборка на заводах в Берлине и Нюрнберге.
Однако к тому времени уже выпускались и поступали в войска "альбатросы", которым "Сименс-Шуккерт" уступал практически по всем показателям. "Альбатрос" D.III был быстрее, скороподъемнее и вдвое лучше вооружен, поскольку на "Сименс-Шуккерте" стоял только один синхронный пулемет. В результате в марте 1917-го, после постройки 95 экземпляров "Сименс-Шуккерта", заказ был аннулирован и от дальнейшей постройки отказались.
Большинство уже построенных копий "Ньюпора" распределили по летным школам, но часть из них попала и во фронтовые подразделения. Никаких боевых успехов за этими машинами не числилось, и сколько-нибудь заметного следа в истории они не оставили.
Размах, м 7,5
Длина, м 6,9
Площадь крыльев, м2 14,4
Сухой вес, кг 430
Взлетный вес, кг 635
Скорость максимальная, км/ч 155
Время набора высоты
2000 м, мин. 8,0
Потолок, м 5000
O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)
Siemens-Schuckert D I
Siemens-Halske O.H. was founded in 1847 to manufacture telegraphic equipment. It was not until 1873 that the more famous Siemens-Schuckert Werke title was adopted on the merging with the Schuckert works of Nurnberg to form the giant electrical combine.
The firm made a tentative excursion into the aircraft manufacturing field in 1907, when a non-rigid military airship was constructed at the request of the German General Staff. From 1909 to 1911 three original aircraft were built, the last bearing a close resemblance to the Bleriot monoplanes. Interest in aircraft manufacture then ceased until 1914, when, in response to urgent requests for aeroplanes from the German military forces, the aircraft department was reopened on a new footing under the direction of Dr. Walter Reichel, assisted by Dr. Hugo Natalis, Wolff, the Steffen brothers (Franz and Bruno) and Forssman.
Initially "Giant" R (Riesenflugzeug) aircraft were designed and built, apart from the "Bulldog" monoplane, but towards the end of 1915 appeared the S.S.W. E 1, a neat shoulder-wing monoplane. It was accepted by Idflieg (Inspectorate of Flying Troops), and a small batch was built to bolster supplies of Fokker and Pfalz monoplanes. At this time the first French Nieuport scouts were enjoying a considerable success on the Western Front, and as there was no immediate prospect of Germany having a superior machine forthcoming, Idflieg requested the Albatros, Euler and S.S.W. firms to produce quickly an improved copy of the Nieuport as a means of obtaining parity with their opponents. Captured Nieuports were supplied to the firms as models, but Albatros did not make such a close copy of the French machine as did Siemens-Schuckert. Their machine closely resembled the Nieuports XI and XVII, differing noticeably only in the engine installation and, later, the tailskid arrangement. In October 1916 Bruno Steffen climbed to an altitude of 5,000 m. in 45 min. on the prototype Siemens-Schuckert D.I.
The D.I was accepted for production, and on 25th November 1916 an initial order for 150 machines was placed. Production was somewhat tardy, airframes being held up for their engines-which were by way of being something new in geared rotaries-and a later order (21st March 1917) for 100 machines was cancelled, as it was found that by mid 1917 performance of the S.S.W. D.I was no longer up to requirements. Eventually only 95 aircraft of the original order were completed; 22 by the Berlin factory and 73 at Nurnberg. A further 55 uncovered airframes were delivered to Adlershof.
Power unit of the D.I was the Siemens-Halske Sh.I geared rotary, which had been developed by yet another branch of the Siemens combine. This was an engine of considerable mechanical ingenuity, in which the crankcase rotated in one direction at about 900 r.p.m. and the crankshaft in the opposite direction at the same speed, thereby achieving a virtual engine speed of 1,800 r.p.m. for an airscrew speed of only 900 r.p.m. This resulted in greater propeller efficiency. The engine was mounted in an open-fronted horse-shoe-type cowling, which incorporated a front bearer spider and was cut away almost completely in the lower half to allow free escape of exhaust. The fuselage, based on four main longerons, was a slab-sided braced box-girder. The top decking was rounded both fore and aft of the cockpit, with light formers and stringers. With the lower longerons being set closer together than the upper pair, the sides tapered in, exactly as in the Nieuport model The foremost bay of the fuselage sides was covered with slightly bulged metal panels, which were embossed with large vertical ventilation louvers, the remainder was fabric covered.
Tail surfaces were all of steel-tube framing and fabric covered, the trapezoidal tailplane and unbalanced elevators being mounted directly on top of the top longerons. The balanced rudder was hinged to the sternpost and was of flattened comma profile. At a later date the underside of the tailplane was braced to the lower longerons with two steel-tube struts on either side.
The sesquiplane layout and swept-wing plan form of the original French machine was retained, although the center panel of the upper wing was simplified somewhat and the four center-section struts were vertical in both side and front views. The wings were a normal braced structure based on two (upper) and one (lower) box spars; ribs in the upper wing panels being strengthened where necessary to act also as compression members. Ailerons were of light-gauge steel tube and of inverse taper; they were operated through a torque tube connected to bell cranks in the center section. Both interplane and center-section struts were of steel tube enclosed with wooden fairings.
A conventional vee-type undercarriage chassis was fitted, made up from streamlined steel tube and with the axle sprung with elastic shock cord. A hockey-stick type tailskid, pivoted about the lower longerons and internally sprung, was fitted to the first machines. Later the arrangement was modified and the tailskid attached to an inverted steel-tube pylon.
A further modification to the later production aircraft was the enclosing of the airscrew hub in a large pointed spinner, which considerably enhanced the lines of this already elegant aeroplane even though it did not materially improve its performance.
The only subsequent development of the S.S.W. D.I was a single D.Ia D3768/16, which had an increased wing area totaling 15.7 sq.m. Of the two D.Ibs which had one-piece upper wings, D1230/17 had a further increase in total area to 16.2 sq.m., and D1231/17 was fitted with a high compression Sh I engine, developing about 140 h.p. Area was again increased, to 19.2 sq.m., in an endeavor to achieve a good climb and altitude performance.
Many of the S.S.W. D.Is were used by the flying schools, although small numbers appeared on the Western Front with Jastas 1-5 and 7, 9, 11 and 14. Two machines were delivered to the "Armee-Flugpark Sud"
Description: Single-seat fighter.
Manufacturer: Siemens-Schuckert Werke G.m.b.H. Siemensstadt, Berlin und Nurnberg (Ssw.).
Power Plant: One 110 h.p. Siemens-Halske Sh I 9 cylinder geared rotary engine.
Span 7.50 m. (24 ft. 7 3/8 in.)
Length 6.0 m. (19 ft. 8 1/4 in.)
Area 14.4 sq.m. (155.52 sq.ft.)
Empty 430 kg. (946 lb)
Loaded 675 kg. (1,485 lb.)
Max speed 155 km.h. (96.875 m.p.h.)
1,000 m. 3.5 min
2,000 m. 8.0 min.
3,000 m. 14.5 min.
4,000 m. 24.3 min.
Duration 2 1/3 hr.
Armament: One fixed Spandau machine-gun firing forward.
Later twin machineguns were fitted.
Siemens-Schuckert D Ia
This machine differed little from the production D I, and when orders for that machine were cancelled development of the D Ia was discontinued. Only one was built, No. 3768/16. It had reduced gap and increased area as compared with the D I; the undercarriage differed slightly and the tailskid arrangement noticeably. Engine, 110 h.p. Siemens-Halske Sh I. Span, 7.5 m. (24 ft. 7 3/8 in.). Length, 6.0 m. (19 ft. 8 1/4 in). Area, 15.7 sq.m. (169 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 430 kg. (946 lb.). Loaded, 640 kg. (1,408 lb.). Speed, 140 km.hr. (87.5 m.p.h.). Climb, 4,000 m. (13,120 ft.) in 25 min. Duration, 14 hr. Armament, twin Spandau machine-guns.
W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters
SIEMENS-SCHUCKERT (SSW) D I Germany
The debut of the Nieuport 11 on the Western Front came as a serious blow to Germany, and, with no immediate prospect of a superior fighter forthcoming from the German aircraft industry, the Idflieg requested Albatros, Euler and SSW to produce improved copies of the Nie 11 with the utmost urgency. The SSW version, designed by Franz Steffen shortly before his death in the E II, was powered by a 110 hp Siemens-Halske Sh I rotary and armed with a single synchronised 7,9-mm LMG 08/15 machine gun, but was in most other respects virtually identical to the French fighter. In October 1916, Bruno Steffen, brother of the designer, made a noteworthy climb to 16,405 ft (5 000 m) in 45 min in the prototype of the SSW version of the Nie 11, and, on 25 November, a contract was placed for 150 aircraft under the designation D I. In the event, production tempo was slowed by delays in deliveries of the geared rotary engine, and as, by mid 1917, the SSW D I had been overtaken in performance by other types, only 95 were completed (the remaining 55 airframes being delivered uncovered to Adlershof). An order for a further 100 placed on 21 March 1917 had meanwhile been cancelled. Only small numbers of SSW D Is appeared on the Western Front, most being assigned to flying schools. Attempts to improve the basic fighter resulted in a single D Ia and two D Ib aircraft. The D Ia featured a twin-gun armament and a 14-sq ft (1,30-m2) increase in wing area, and the D Ib’s had one-piece upper wings, one having a further increase in wing area to 174.38 sq ft (16,20 m2) and the other having a high-compression version of the Sh I engine affording 140 hp and enabling the fighter to attain 16,405 ft (5 000 m) in 20.5 min.
Max speed, 96 mph (155 km/h).
Time to 3,280 ft (1 000 m), 3.5 min.
Endurance, 2.3 hrs.
Empty weight, 979 lb (444 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,442 lb (654 kg).
Span, 24 ft 7 1/4 in (7,50 m).
Length, 19 ft 8 1/4 in (6,00 m).
Height, 8 ft 5 7/8 in (2,59 m).
Wing area, 155 sqft (14,40 m2).
Flight, September 26, 1918.
A NEW GERMAN "CHASER."
THE SIEMENS-SCHUCKERT BIPLANE.
THE following is a translation of an article published in Le Matin of August 18th :-
"The reverses which the Germans have suffered with their 'chasers,' which since last March have been very much inferior to those of the Allies, have led them to venture into new designs.
"Some time ago we have remarked upon the new Fokker D VII biplane, whose fighting value is far below that of the Allies' fighting 'planes. Our enemies have also put into service the Halberstadt C II fitted with a 160 h.p. motor (Mercedes). They hoped to make a record with this machine, but they were forced to recognise that the relatively slow speed of the machine - 165 kilometres per hour - its great weight of 45 kgs. per square metre of carrying surface, made it inferior to our machines in speed and handiness.
"For some little time the Germans have placed in their fighting squadrons a few of the new Siemens-Schuckert biplanes, fitted with a rotary motor, eleven cylindered, and giving 260 h.p.
"The Siemens-Schuckert workshops which are producing this new chaser also construct large bombing machines of the Lizenz type with three or five motors.
"This 'chaser,' with a span of 7 metres and 6 metres in length, is short and squat in appearance. To obtain stability it has been necessary to fit a fixed plane to the tail, and to have an elevator of large dimensions.
"The upper and lower planes are of the same span, and balanced ailerons are fitted to both planes. The upper plane is rectangular in shape; it is made in one piece, but cut away to allow the pilot a better view. The lower plane is staggered to the rear, but it is of smaller chord than the upper wing.
"The rotary motor of 260 h.p. moves a four-bladed propeller after the English fashion. Certain 'planes of the same type are fitted with the modified 260 h.p. Mercedes.
"The armament consists of two machine-guns firing together or separately, through the propeller.
"The Germans say that this aeroplane is very easy on controls and that it 'stunts,' and in particular 'cartwheels' and 'loops' with surprising ease. They also say that its climbing speed is excellent, and that it climbs to 6,000 metres in 15 minutes. They have said the same of their Pfalz, their Fokkers, and their Halberstadts, that one is tempted to believe that they take their ideals for realities!
"But what must be remembered is the haste with which the Germans have tried to invent and to construct new machines in order to recover a little of the prestige of their air services which has been in a bad way for the last six months. The construction and transport has not been without difficulty. Witness the orders for the 40th Division :-
"'The slowness which is found in the replacing of aeroplanes and in the repair of existing machines, and the everincreasing difficulty of recruiting the personnel of the air services, oblige us to economise in our air forces. The forces will be directed with the distinct intention of refusing to participate in any mission which is not of primary importance in the war. This severe discipline, necessary because of the artillery action (which ought not to be held up for an instant during the present artillery duel), will not permit the use of battle planes for a moment longer than is absolutely necessary.'"