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Fokker E.I/E.III

Страна: Германия

Год: 1914

Истребитель

Fokker - M.4 - 1913 - Германия<– –>Fokker - M.6/M.8/A.I - 1914 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


ФОККЕР" E.I/E.II/E.III / FOKKER E.I/E.II/E.III
  
  Первый в мире истребитель, оснащенный синхронным оружием, был создан немецким авиаконструктором голландского происхождения Антони Фоккером путем установки пулемета "Парабеллум" на самолет M5K, разработанный на базе французского многоцелевого моноплана "Моран G". Но в отличие от изделий фирмы "Пфальц", M5K не был точной копией "Морана". Он выделялся, прежде всего, конструкцией силового набора фюзеляжа и оперения, который на французской машине был деревянным, а у "Фоккера" - сварным из стальных труб. Кроме того, самолет имел оригинальную тележку шасси.
  Невооруженный M5K выпускался серийно с 1914 года, а в варианте истребителя он совершил первый полет 23 мая 1915 г. В июне самолет приняли на вооружение под обозначением "Фоккер" E.I (E - сокращение от немецкого Eindecker - моноплан) и запустили в серийное производство. Серийные "фоккеры" оснащались 80-сильными ротативными моторами "Оберурсель" и синхронными пулеметами "Парабеллум" или LMG 08. Вариант со 100-сильным "Оберурселем" получил обозначение E.II. Летом 1915 г. На заводе Фоккера в Шверине построено 54 E.I и 59 E.II.
  Вскоре была запущена в серию самая массовая модификация фоккеровского истребителя-моноплана - E.III, отличавшаяся увеличенными геометрическими размерами. На некоторые из них ставили по два синхронных пулемета. Объем производства этих машин составил 260 экземпляров.
  Появление "эйндеккеров" на западном фронте позволило немцам захватить господство в воздухе. Боевые потери английской и французской авиации резко возросли. До конца 1915 г. союзники не имели самолета, способного на равных противостоять этим машинам.
  22 экземпляра E.III было поставлено в Турцию, где на них летали немецкие пилоты, шесть штук - в Австро-Венгрию и три - в Болгарию.
  
  
  
МОДИФИКАЦИИ
  
  E.I; двигатель "Оберурсель" U 0, 80 л.с. ВООРУЖЕНИЕ: 1 синхр. "Парабеллум" или LMG 08/15 "Шпандау".
  
  E.II; двигатель "Оберурсель" U I, 100 л.с.
  
  E.III; увеличен размах крыла и длина фюзеляжа, двигатель тот же. Самая крупносерийная модификация - 270 экземпляров.
  
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
  
   E.I Е.III
  Размах, м 8,50 9,52
  Длина, м, 6,7 7,3
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 14,00 16,00
  Сухой вес, кг 358 399
  Взлетный вес, кг 563 610
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 130 140
  Время подьема на высоту
   2000 м, мин.сек 15,0 12,0
  Потолок, м 3000 4100


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Fokker M 5 K
  This aircraft was a pre-war design and a shorter-span version of the M 5 (the K indicating Kleine Spannweite - small span). A few machines of the type passed into military service as single-seat scouting monoplanes and were retrospectively designated A III. It was this type, subsequently armed, which became the E I. Power unit was 80 h.p. Oberursel U O.

Fokker M 5 L
  With longer-span wings, the M 5 L featured three bracing cables per wing panel. A small number were built and used on scouting and reconnaissance duties, these machines receiving the retrospective military designation AII. Usage continued only a few months into 1915. Engine, 80 h.p. Oberursel U O .

Fokker M 5 K/MG
  Illustrating the mounting of Parabellum machine-gun for ground testing of synchronisation gear in April 1915. Only one airframe so fitted, before production as E I, and may not have been flown.


Fokker E Series
  
  One of the first German aircraft of the First World War to achieve a much publicized degree of notoriety was the E type Fokker monoplane, of which the E.III version became the main model. The success of the Fokker monoplanes, which reached its peak in the winter of 1915-16, was largely due to their being the first single-seaters equipped with a synchronized machine-gun of reasonable reliability, coupled with a good degree of maneuverability. Other inventors (such as Franz Schneider) had had the idea of a forward-firing fixed machine-gun, synchronized to fire between the airscrew blades, but Anthony Fokker was the first to convince the German authorities of the practicability of his own gear, which he had installed in one of his M 5k (A III) monoplanes previously used for unarmed reconnaissance.
  The E.I was powered with a seven-cylinder Oberursel U 0 rotary engine of 80 h.p. It was sent for operational assessment in the summer of 1915 and demonstrated by Fokker himself who-whatever his other short comings was undoubtedly a brilliant exhibition pilot. Oswald Boelcke subsequently flew an E.I (E 3115) and is reported to have brought down a French machine on his third sortie. The machine was also tried with equal success by Max Immelmann.
  An improved, slightly stronger version was put in hand for the main production series, and was known as the E.II. This entered service in September 1915. However, no more than twenty-three examples were built before detail alterations were made and the designation changed to E.III, the 100 h.p. Oberursel U I engine being common to both types. Boelcke's E.III was serialled 37/15. As far as can be ascertained, between 120 and 150 machines of this version were built. In April 1916 about 110 E.IIIs were operating on the Western Front. Stemming from a pre-war design that had never been intended for combat use, the Fokker monoplanes relied mainly on tactical surprise, and in this achieved much success. Their unsuspecting victims, seeing the enemy approaching from the rear, did not expect him to be able to fire through his airscrew and thereby destroy them. They were soon to learn the error of their judgment, and for a few months, during the latter half of 1915 and early 1916, the Fokkers reaped a grim harvest of unarmed, or poorly armed, Allied machines. Especially unfortunate were the British B.E. types with the observer in the front cockpit, where there was scant opportunity for defense-indeed, they became to be unhappily described as "Fokker Fodder". However, apart from the successful machine-gun installation, the shortcomings of its adversaries undoubtedly contributed towards what eventually became the Fokker legend.
  At first the Fokker monoplanes were not envisaged as an offensive weapon, but only for defense of their own two-seaters, and for this purpose were allocated-usually two aircraft-to Fl. Abt. units. At the time of introduction both Boelcke and Immelmann were with Fl. Abt. 62, and it was on 1st August 1915 that the latter scored his first victory flying an E.I, when his airfield was attacked by hostile aircraft. It was Immelmann who set the style of using the Fokker offensively by taking off on "roving commission" patrols and stalking the Allied machines that ventured across the German lines. He evolved the tactic of diving upon the enemy-from out of the sun if possible-rapidly closing for a quick burst, then back with the stick and a swift kick on the rudder-bar as the Fokker neared the vertical, producing a neatly executed reversal of direction without loss of height and readiness for another attack. It was only a matter of time for this maneuver to become known, as it is still known, as an Immelmann Turn.
  Inevitably the Fokker monoplanes were eclipsed as Allied designers evolved practical synchronizing gears (as they were literally forced to do) to neutralize the advantage of the Fokker. However, it may be said that the foundations of aerial fighting tactics were laid by the Fokker monoplanes and remained valid for many years to come.
  The E.I/E.IV monoplanes were of composite steel and wood construction, and bore an extraordinary degree of resemblance to the French Morane Saulnier monoplanes in both structure and appearance. The fuselage was completely fabricated from welded steel tube, with small brackets welded into the corners of the bays to form anchorages for the bracing cables, which were looped round them and joined with a single turnbuckle. Terminating in a horizontal knife-edge, the fuselage was completely slab sided except for two metal cowling panels at the sides of the extreme nose, which continued the circular section of the cowl for a short distance, and for a rounded top decking extending as far aft as the cockpit, also of sheet metal. The horseshoe-shaped cowling was cut away in the lower segment as a precaution against the accumulation of petrol, which might have drained through the valves and caught fire. The comma rudder and trapezoidal-shaped elevators were of the "all-moving" variety, with no fixed fin surfaces, and demanded continual vigilance from the pilot.
  Of parallel chord, the wings were angularly raked at the tips and were a quite flexible structure built on two I-section main spars. The ribs were of poplar, thin in section to afford the degree of flexibility necessary for the warp-type lateral control that was used in the design. The bracing of the wings was by four cables to each panel, anchored to an upper and lower pylon and to the forward main spar. A similar number of cables for lateral control were anchored to the rear spar but ran over pulleys at the apices of the pylons and thence into the cockpit, where they were connected to the control stick.
  The undercarriage was a somewhat complex steel-tube structure which also incorporated the lower cable anchorage pylons; the elastic-cord shock absorbers were attached to the tops of the main vertical members inside the fuselage. An inverted pylon of light-gauge steel tube supported the tailskid and also served as a pivot for the lower extremity of the rudder.
  
  
Description: Single-seat escort fighting scout.
Manufacturer: Fokker Flugzeug-Werke G.m.b.H. (Fok.).
   E.I E.II E.III
Power Plant: 80 hp Oberursel 100 hp Oberursel 100 hp Oberursel
Dimensions:
   Span 8.53m ( 28 ft.) 9m (29.5 ft.) 10m (32 ft. 8 in.)
   Length 6.76m (22 ft. 2 in.) 7.3m (23.9 ft.) 7.16m (23 ft. 6 in.)
   Height 2.89m (9 ft. 6 in.) 2.89m (9 ft. 6 in.) 2.29m (7 ft. 10 in.)
Weights:
   Empty 357.4 kg ( 788 lb.) 399 kg ( 878 lb.) 398.2 kg (878 lb.)
   Loaded 662 kg (1,239 lb.) 560 kg (1,232 lb) 608.7 kg ( 1,342 lb.)
Performance:
   Max speed 131.9 kph ( 82 mph ) 140.8 kph ( 87.5 mph) 140.8 kph ( 87.5 mph)
   Ceiling 3,048m (10,000 ft.) 4,114.8m (13,500 ft.) 4,114.8m (13,500 ft.)
Armament: one forward firing one forward firing one forward firing
   7.92mm machine gun 7.92mm machine gun 7.92mm machine gun


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


FOKKER E I (M 5K/MG) Germany

  Flown in the late spring of 1914, the M 5 (the prefix letter signifying Militar) was a single-seat monoplane of mixed construction, with a welded steel-tube fuselage, wooden wings and fabric skinning. It was built in two versions, the M 5L (assigned the military designation A II) with long-(lang) and the M 5K (A III) with short-(kurz) span wings. Several were supplied privately to Prussian officers and two (A IIs) to the Austro-Hungarian Luftfahrttruppen. One M 5K was fitted with a DWM Parabellum MG 14 with Fokker’s so-called Stangensteuerung (push-rod control) synchronising the weapon with the propeller. This was successfully demonstrated to the Idflieg (Inspectorate of Flying Troops) as the M 5K/MG and was ordered in series by the Heeresverwaltung as the E I. The more reliable air-cooled version of the Maxim LMG 08/15 gun was standardised and the E I was powered by an 80 hp Oberursel U O (Gnome copy) seven-cylinder rotary engine. Production deliveries commenced in June 1915, a total of 54 aircraft being built, of which the majority were assigned to the Kampf-Einsitzer-Kommando (Single-seat Battle Command). Some E Is went to various Feldflieger-Abteilungen, six were ordered by the Marine-Landflieger and nine were assigned to the Austro-Hungarian Luftfahrttruppen. Deliveries of the E I were completed in June 1916.

Max speed, 81 mph (130 km/h).
Range, 124 mis (200 km) at 68 mph (110 km/h).
Service ceiling, 9,840 ft (3 000 m).
Empty weight, 789 lb (358 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,241 lb (563 kg).
Span, 29 ft 4 1/3 in (8,95 m).
Length, 22 ft 1 3/4 in (6,75 m).
Height, 7 ft 10 1/2 in (2,40 m).
Wing area, 155 sq ft (14,40 m2).


FOKKER E II & III (M 14) Germany

  Derived from the M 5K fighting scout, the M 14 was, in its initial form at least, an unarmed tuitional aircraft with 10.76 sq ft (1,00 m2) more wing area and a marginally longer fuselage. Some local structural reinforcement and minor changes were introduced in the forward fuselage decking, the upper wing bracing pylon and the undercarriage, and the 80 hp Oberursel engine of the E I was retained. Twelve were ordered by the Heeresverwaltung under the designation E II. In the event, 47 additional E IIs were also to be built, with a similar armament to that of the E I, the first three of these being delivered in July 1915 and 13 more following in August before the first unarmed examples (six delivered in each of September and October) were taken into the inventory. The armed E IIs were re-engined with the 100 hp Oberursel U I nine-cylinder rotary during repair or overhaul, reappearing in Fokker’s delivery lists as E IIIs when redelivered to the Fliegertruppen. The designation E III was, in fact, that applied to new-build M 14 airframes fitted with the U I rotary from the outset, improved synchronising gear being provided for the LMG 08/15 gun. Of 258 aircraft built from the outset as E IIIs, 221 were delivered to the Fliegertruppen, 19 were supplied to Marine-Landflieger, 12 were received by the Austro-Hungarian Luftfahrttruppen and the remaining six went to the Austro-Hungarian Navy. The following data relate to the E III.

Max speed, 87 mph (140 km/h).
Range, 149 mis (240 km) at 74 mph (120 km/h).
Service ceiling, 11,810 ft (3 600 m).
Empty weight, 880 lb (399 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,345 lb (610 kg).
Span, 31ft 2 4/5 in (9,52 m).
Length, 23 ft 7 1/2 in (7,20 m).
Height, 7 ft 10 1/2 in (2,40 m).
Wing area, 165.77 sq ft (15,40 m2).

В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Фоккер" E.I с пулеметом "Парабеллум", пилот Макс Иммельман, лето 1915г.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Фоккер E.III, пилот - фельдфебель Э.Удет, 1915г.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Of the new machines built in Germany since the beginning or immediately before the war, one which is likely to be employed against the Allies is the new Fokker monoplane illustrated in the accompanying photographs. This machine, it will be seen, is very reminiscent of the rrench Morane monoplane, from which it differs chiefly in the design of under-carriage. As shown in the illustration on the left, the chassis is characterised by short stub axles, whilst the shock-absorbers are placed inside the body, the oblique chassis struts passing through a slot in the side of the fuselage. The engine fitted is an 80 h.p. Gnome.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Transporting a German aeroplane (Fokker) by road.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
A BATCH OF HOSTILE FLYERS. - Although the German Army is chiefly using machines of the biplane type, the monoplane has not been altogether banned, as will be seen from the accompanying photograph showing a batch of 15 Fokker monoplanes ready for their acceptance tests. That they are intended for military purposes is evident from the fact that they are all marked with the black cross on wings and rudder.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
A Fokker Monoplane, 1914-15 type, with Uberursel motor. One of the earlier examples of the type which was proved so redoubtable as a "destroyer".
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
The redoubtable Fokkers played their part on the Isonzo Front, as with this E.I of Fliegerkompanie 4 at Haidenschaft in February 1916.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
The Fokker Eindeckers were a favourite mount of Max Immelmann, perhaps the greatest of the early air fighting aces.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker M 5 L (foreground only)
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Авиаконструктор Антони Фоккер в кабине пока еще невооруженного М5К.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker M 5 K
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
The original M 5K/MG during demonstration to Feldfliegerabteilung 62 near Douay
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
Fokker fighter E I-E III 1915/16.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker M 5 K/MG
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker E.I
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
Fokker Eindecker, showing machine-gun.
A.Imrie - German Naval Air Service /Arms & Armour/
Since the Navy had no facilities of its own for training single-seat pilots, when Fokker E monoplanes were introduced into naval landplane units, naval pilots were sent to the single-seater School attached to Kampfeinsitzerstaffell (Kest I) on Sonthofen aerodrome near Mannheim. The first pilot to undertake this conversion course was Flugmaat Boedicker, seen (left) with his Army instructor and Fokker E15/15 at Mannheim. Boedicker returned to II Marine-Feldflieger-Abteilung at Neumunster in December 1915 and flew the first Fokker E allocated to the Marine Korps.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker E I, (serial 36/15) folded for transport.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
The longer "bathtub" cockpit of the M.5K/MG (E.1) is quite evident. This aircraft was serialed 46/15.
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W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
A Fokker E I of the Kampf-Einsitzer-Kommando over the Western Front late summer 1915.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
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Fokker E.II
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O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
The famous Fokker Monoplane which caused such havoc on the Western Front when introduced in 1915.
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Fokker E.III
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O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker E III (serial 210/16).
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker E III (serial 210/16).
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
The capture of Garros and his 'gun system' led to the development by Fokker of his series of monoplanes armed with a Spandau firing through the propeller disc using an interrupter gear, in this case an E.lll.
Fokker M.14V (E.III) 401/15 flown by Lieutenant Von Zastrow. The aircraft carried no compass and there was an unknown device attached to the cockpit side.
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В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Современная реплика "Фоккера" E.III.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
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A.Imrie - German Naval Air Service /Arms & Armour/
Fokker E III LF199 of I Marine-Feldflieger-Abteilung gets away in a cloud of castor oil smoke. In mid-September 1916 there were some 40 single-seat land fighters on naval charge, most of them Fokker E monoplanes. While a number of these were concentrated at 11 Marine-Feldflieger-Abteilung at Neumunster as a Kampf-Einsitzer-Kommando, at least half of the fighter strength was deployed in the Luftschiff-Hallenschutz-Staffeln (Airship Shed Defence Units) at Nordholz, Tondern and other airship bases.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Another Fokker E.lll showing the neat lines of this aircraft and the exceptional field of view for the pilot; one of the criticisms of the design was that the pilot sat on top' and was the danger of head injury in the event of the aircraft flipping over in landing. Some 150 of the Oberursel-powered EIIIs were built and their impact on the air war was far in excess of their actual numbers. This example was captured by the French and subjected to a rigorous technical examination; the results were published in the magazine L'Aerophile in 1916.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Fokker E IIIs of KEK Vouziers, the KEK signifying Kampf Einsitzer Kommando, comprising 16 aircraft, in this case, supporting the 3rd Army in the Vouzier sector. Initially the relatively few Fokker Eindeckers had been distributed in pairs to the Field Flight Sections, but were brought together to form the KEK from February 1916. However the KEK proved short-lived, being ended in October 1916, to make way for the squadron, or Jagstaffel system, which, while theoretically having 16 machines, frequently could only muster around 8. The Jagstaffel, usually abbreviated to Jasta, was to remain the basic fighter unit of the German army until the Armistice, although after mid-1917, these were operated more and more as part of a larger wing, or Jagdeschwader, normally shortened to JG, that comprised anything up to 60 aircraft.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
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Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
The Fokker E III of Max Immelmann at Douai, where his unit, KEK 3, was based. Immelmann had been the first to score a victory in a Fokker Eindecker in the autumn of 1915, when he and Oswald Boelcke were serving together as the single seater section of Fl Abt 62. Inventor of the Immelmann Turn, a basic air fighting maneuvre using a loop and roll to reverse the enemy's initial advantage if attacked from the rear, Oblt Max Immelmann, with 15 confirmed victories, was killed in air combat near Lens on 18 June 1916. Powered by a 100hp Oberursel U I rotary, the E III had a top level speed of 87mph at sea level. Armament normally comprised a single 7.92mm Parabellum or Spandau, although some E IIIs were known to carry a second. Around 260 E IIIs are believed to have been built.
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W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The E III was essentially similar to the E II apart from its engine, most E IIs being converted.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
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В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Фоккер" E.III с прозрачной целлоновой обшивкой: неудачная попытка создать "невидимый" самолет.
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
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Носовая часть "Фоккера" Е.III без обшивки. Хорошо виден ротативный мотор "Оберурсель", топливный бак, ручной бензонасос и синхронный пулемет LMG 08 с коробом для патронной ленты.
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В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
Fokker Eindecker, wing warping control system.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
A general arrangement drawing of the production E I.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
Fokker E.III
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Fokker E.I/E.III