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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Hansa-Brandenburg G-I

Страна: Германия

Год: 1916

Бомбардировщик

Hansa-Brandenburg - D.I/KD - 1916 - Германия<– –>Hansa-Brandenburg - GW / GDW - 1916 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


ГАНЗА-БРАНДЕНБУРГ G-I / HANSA-BRANDENBURG G-I

  Единственный серийный двухмоторный бомбардировщик, выпускавшийся в Австро-Венгрии, имел немецкое происхождение. В конце 1915 года авиаконструктор Эрнст Хейнкель, работавший в то время на фирме Ганза-Бранденбург, спроектировал двухмоторный бомбардировочный аэроплан G-I.
  В начале 1916-го самолет прошел испытания, и им сразу же заинтересовалось австрийское военное командование. У австрийцев уже были налажены связи с фирмой, где они незадолго до этого приобрели лицензию на другую машину Хейнкеля - одномоторный разведчик "Ганза-Бранденбург" C-I, а также два прототипа двухмоторных бомбардировщиков, не пошедших в серию (обозначения - ZM и GF).
  Вскоре на венгерском авиазаводе Унгариш Флюгцойгфабрик АГ (UFAG) началась лицензионная постройка бомбардировщика G-I, представлявшего собой улучшенный тип GF. Его конструкция во многом повторяла предыдущие разработки Эрнста Хейнкеля: деревянный фюзеляж с фанерной обшивкой, бипланная коробка с элеронами на верхнем крыле и характерными "заваленными" вовнутрь стойками.
  Пилот и хвостовой стрелок размещались в общей кабине с большим овальным вырезом. В носовой кабинке сидел третий член экипажа - стрелок-бомбардир.
  Оригинальной особенностью машины был способ установки двигателей. Очевидно, не имея опыта размещения силовых агрегатов на крыле, Хейнкель прикрепил моторы к лонжеронам фюзеляжа на длинных ажурных фермах из стальных труб. Конструкция получилась довольно громоздкой, тяжелой, да к тому же - подверженной вибрациям.
  По первоначальному плану UFAG должен был построить 24 машины и еще 48 собирались заказать в Германии, но затем заказ уменьшили до 39 штук, из которых только 12 смонтировали в Венгрии. Некоторые серийные экземпляры отличались от других заостренной носовой законцовкой фюзеляжа. Кроме того, не у всех аппаратов двигатели были закапотированы.
  В январе-феврале 1917-го самолеты поступили на вооружение одной из бомбардировочных эскадр итало-австрийского фронта.
  Освоение машины сопровождалось многочисленными проблемами, в результате за три месяца фронтовой службы "Бранденбурги" совершили всего один успешный боевой вылет. В апреле все самолеты сдали на базы хранения.
  Примерно тогда же австрийцы получили возможность ознакомиться с летно-техническими данными нового немецкого бомбардировщика "Гота" G-IV. Поскольку его показатели были заметно выше, чем у "Бранденбурга", выпуск машины Хейнкеля быстро свернули, а взамен приобрели три десятка "Гот".
  Весной 1918-го G-I расконсервировали и попытались использовать как ночные бомбардировщики, но и в этом качестве они не преуспели. До конца войны "Бранденбурги" прослужили в учебных подразделениях.
  
  
ДВИГАТЕЛИ
  
  2 160-сильных "Австро-Даймлера".
  
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ
  
  2 пулемета "Шварцлозе" на горизонтальных полутурелях.
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
  
  Размах, м 18,0
  Длина, м 9,8
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 70,0
  Сухой вес, кг 1776
  Взлетный вес, кг 2740
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 133
  Время набора высоты, мин/м 30/3000
  Экипаж, чел 3


C.Owers Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI Vol.1: Landplanes (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 17)


The 05.06 Bomber

  Ordered in July 1915 this bomber was to have been powered by four 100-hp Mercedes engines mounted in push-pull configuration. This machine was completed to the stage where engine trials could be undertaken and these demonstrated the fragility of the structure. Flars blamed Heinkel as the structure of the almost completed machine was too weak, while the machine was grossly overweight. No specifications, photographs or plans of this machine have been found to date.


Type GF 05.08

  Another prototype twin-engined biplane bomber for the Austro-Hungarians was ordered as an "improved" GF and was given the serial 05.08. This aircraft was of mixed construction with a steel-tube fuselage and conventional wire-braced wooden wings. The 160-hp Mercedes engines were supported from the central core of the fuselage and did not affect the wing cellule. 05.08 participated in several bombing raids but was apparently put out of action when returning home from a raid on 16 May 1916, Austro-Hungarian anti-aircraft gunners shot at the unfamiliar shape. This machine was similar in construction to the G.I bomber.

Type GF (Austro-Hungarian G.I)

  Also designated GF, the G.I was the production model of the work that commenced with the ZM. The LFT were encouraged by the trials of the Brandenburg 05.05 to order 48 improved G.I bombers, half being constructed each by Brandenburg as the Series 62.5 and by UFAG as the Series 62. When it was apparent that the machines could not keep in the air with one engine the order was reduced to 39 machines. On receiving the first six from Brandenburg in June 1916 the shortcomings of the type were evident and Heinkel proposed installing a third engine in the nose but this was rejected. The landing gear was also a problem as it was too weak for operational use. Brandenburg refused to rectify the problems and this led to conflict with the Austro-Hungarian authorities that saw the LFT force Brandenburg to conduct all its financial dealings with the Austro-Hungarian military through Phonix.
  Twin wheels were fitted to the machines but this did little to overcome their failings. By March 1917 Fluggeschwader 1 had received five Brandenburg and six UFAG built G.I bombers. Due to the fact that the UFAG machines were of higher constructional quality than the Brandenburg-built machines, these were modified in the field. The commander/bomb aimer's position was moved to the nose while a seat was provided back towards the cockpit to protect him in the case of a landing mishap. New bomb carriers and gun turrets were fitted. Despite these sterling efforts the G.I bombers of Fluggeschwader 1 only made one mission. During April-May 1917, all the G.I bombers were stripped and placed in storage while the argument raged between Brandenburg and the LFT over who should pay for the modifications to the aircraft.
  Late in 1917 the decision was made to recondition the G.I bombers. Over 30 of the bombers were rebuilt by the Flars workshop and by Flugzeug Reparatur und Bau Anstalt. The machines were given strengthened engine mounts, the pilot's cockpit was moved forward for improved visibility, and horizontal bomb racks replaced the internal vertical racks. Bomb load was stated to be 160-300 kg of bombs. The modifications were not successful as the machines were tail heavy and required great strength to fly for any length of time. Landing accidents with fractured fuselages or landing gear were common. The type was used as a trainer. Gotha G.IV(LVG) bombers were obtained from Germany instead.(24)
  One source suggests that Poland obtained one G.I bomber and possibly two.(25)
(24) See Herris, J. Gotha Aircraft of WWI, Aeronaut Books, USA, 2013.
(25) Cynk, J.B."Les Avions de L'Independence Polonaise," Le Fana de l'Aviation, No.171, Feb, 1984.


Brandenburg Type GF (Austro-Hungarian G.I) Specifications
Source Typenschau Brandenburg 3-view PMG Data Series 62.5 PMG Data Series 62 Typenschau UFAG G.I
Span, m 18.00 18.000 18.00/18.00 18.00/10.00* 18.00
Length, m - - 9.80 9.83 -
Height, m - - 3.60 3.75 -
Wing Area, m2 69.70 - 70 64.0 69.70
Wt. Empty, kg 1,760 - 1,776 - 1,400
Wt. Loaded, kg 2,640 - 2,740 - 2,120
Speed in km/hr 140 - 144 133 140
Time to 1000 m 8 min - 8 min 8 min 8 min
Time to 3000 m - - - - 6 hrs 30 min
Endurance - - - - -
Motor 160-hp Austro-Daimler 160-hp Austro - 160-hp Daimler 160-hp Austro-Daimler
* This dimension is incorrect as photographs show that the upper and lower wings have the same span.


Brandenburg G.I Production Orders
Serials Qty Mfr Order Date
62.01 - 06 6 UFAG July 7,1915
62.51 - 56 6 Brand. Dec. 12, 1915
62.57 - 77 21 Brand. Dec. 18, 1915
62.07 - 12 6 UFAG Feb. 25, 1916


E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918


01. - 010. Flugzeuge ausländischer Produktion (Самолеты иностранного производства)
05.06 Brandenburg G 4 x Merc 160
05.08 Brandenburg G (Type ZM) 2 x Merc 160

60. Flugzeuge der Ungarischen Flugzeugfabrik A.G. (Ufag) Budapest und Hansa Brandenburgische Flugzeugfabrik Brandenburg/Briest
62.01 — 62.12 Brandenburg G.I (U) 2 x Dm 160
62.51 — 62.77 Brandenburg G.I (Br) 2 x Dm 160

В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Hansa Brandenburg G-I (62.01), ВВС Австро-Венгрии, 1916г.
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Hansa-Brandenburg G I 62.01 Wr. Neustadt
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Brandenburg G.I(U) 62.07
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
Ганза-Бранденбург G I
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Note the scalloped effect of the trailing edge on this G.I. This is caused by the fabric on top of the wing not being taken back to the rear edge of the wing and the light shining through the one layer on the bottom of the wing. This machine has only the single-wheel undercarriage (one wheel per side).
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
This UFAG-built G.I has only the single-wheel undercarriage (one wheel per side).
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
The sole Brandenburg 05.08 was an intermediate step between the 05.05 prototype and the production Brandenburg G.I.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Серийные "Бранденбурги" G-I венгерской постройки.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
A dark-colored G.I serves as a backdrop for a group photo.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
A modified G.I (note the dual wheels) undergoing engine testing at Fluggeschwader I.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Another view of UFAG-built Brandenburg G.I(U) 62.01, the first of an order for six machines placed on 7 July 1915.
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
The first UFAG-built Brandenburg G.I was G.I(U) 62.01, the first of an order for six machines placed on 7 July 1915. It had a single-wheel undercarriage and the radiators were mounted to the rear of the tapered engine nacelles.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Brandenburg G.I 62.54 was part of the first Brandenburg-built production batch of G.I bombers ordered on 12 December 1915 and accepted in June 1916. Numerous problems with these aircraft resulted in bitter arguments between Brandenburg and the LFT.
Brandenburg G.I, Flugzeugnummer 62.54. Waffenversuchsflik des Fliegerarsenals, versuchsweiser Einbau einer 7 cm-Kanone, später Übungsflugzeug
Brandenburg G.I, номер 62.54. Испытательный корпус авиационного арсенала, экспериментальная установка 7-см пушки, позже учебный самолет
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Installation of the 7 cm Skoda cannon in the G.I required a substantial mount for the weapon. Photographs taken in July 1918. Note the cylindrical magazine. A Schwarzlose M7/12 was mounted over the cannon in order to enable the gunner to line up his target. The front gunner's position was reduced in order to fit the weapon mounted in the extreme nose. The gunner's position must have been very restricted.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Poor photograph but one showing the cannon installed in the G.I.The machine has the dual wheels each side of the landing gear.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
G.I 62.54 at Briest. The barrel of the cannon (or mock-up) projected from the nose of the modified bomber in a movable mounting.The gunner's Cellon aiming window may be seen above the cannon's barrel. Single wheels are still fitted.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
This is thought to be 62.54 without the 7 cm Skoda cannon installed. The machine now has the double wheels each side of the undercarriage.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
The 7-cm Skoda cannon fitted in the nose of a modified G.I bomber in a movable mounting. The gunner's Cellon aiming window above the cannon's barrel gave a very limited field of view. Dual wheels are now fitted.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Close-up photo of the rear cockpit of an early G.I.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
The cockpit of Brandenburg 05.08 was well aft like the cockpit of 05.05, but now the engines were cowled.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Close-up of a modified G.I cockpit from the rear showing the P.u.W. bomb rack and passage between the cockpits.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Close-up photograph of the rear cockpit of a G.I bomber shows the gunner's seat, gun ring, and equipment.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Bomb, vertical bomb racks, and machine gun in the front cockpit of an early G.I.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Close-up photograph of the front cockpit of a G.I bomber shows the bombardier/gunner's seat and equipment.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
G.I 62.07, first machine of the 2nd order from UFAG of 25 February 1916. The weak undercarriage caused this accident. The engine cowlings were usually removed for flight operations.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
G.I 62.56 has already been modified with the revised cockpit and dual wheels. Despite the dual wheels, landing gear failure remained a constant problem with the G.I.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
On the facing page G.I 62.56 is shown in embarrassing circumstances, but now it has been wrecked, perhaps by a severe windstorm as indicated by the destroyed hangar in the background.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
The cause of this accident to the G.I can be seen to have been the weak landing gear, even with the dual wheels fitted each side.
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Brandenburg G.I
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Brandenburg G.I
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Brandenburg G.I
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Ганза-Бранденбург" G-I