Самолеты (сортировка по:)
Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Avro 504/504A/B/C/J/R

Страна: Великобритания

Год: 1913

.

Avro - 503/Type H - 1913 - Великобритания<– –>Avro - 508 - 1914 - Великобритания


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


АВРО 504/504A/B/C/J/K / AVRO 504/504A/B/C/J/K

  Цельнодеревянный двухстоечный биплан с полотняной обшивкой. Автор проекта - знаменитый британский авиаконструктор и предприниматель Эллиот Вердон Ро. Разработка машины начата в ноябре 1912 года. 18 марта 1913-го "Авро 504" совершил свой первый полет. Самолет продемонстрировал выдающиеся для своего времени летные данные. Благодаря хорошей устойчивости, управляемости и простоте пилотирования он вскоре стал наиболее распространенной в английской авиации учебной машиной. Но помимо учебного, "Авро 504" имел и боевое применение. В 1913 году RFC принял на вооружение 12 аппаратов, еще несколько десятков поступило в следующем году.
  С началом первой мировой войны. 13 "пятьсот четвертых" отправили на западный фронт. 22 августа 1914 года в разведывательном полете один из них был сбит зенитным огнем, открыв таким образом счет боевых потерь британских Королевских ВВС. 21 ноября четыре "Авро" совершили первый в истории групповой бомбовый рейд на базу "Цеппелинов" в Фридрихсхафене. В начале 1915-го "Авро 504" перестали использовать для разведки и бомбардировки, оставив за ним функции учебно-тренировочной и связной машины. Выпускались также истребительная и патрульно-противолодочная модификации.
  Всего до конца войны сдано 8340 "пятьсот четвертых", из которых 3696 на счету фирмы Авро. На момент подписания перемирия в частях RAF насчитывалось еще 2999 самолетов этого типа. Помимо Великобритании их строили в Австралии, Бельгии, Канаде, Японии, Египте и СССР. Советская копия "Авро 504К" под обозначением У-1 выпускалась в 1921-1922 годах на московском заводе ГАЗ №5, а с 1923 по 1931 - на ленинградском авиазаводе "Красный летчик". Всего построено 664 самолета, применявшихся в народном хозяйстве и летных школах до 1935 года.
  В двадцатых годах большое количество "демобилизованных" "Авро 504" было распродано различным авиакомпаниям и частным лицам в десятках стран. Они летали в Дании, Китае, Финляндии, Индии, Ирландии, Новой Зеландии, Португалии, Испании, Швеции и т.д.

ОСНОВНЫЕ СЕРИЙНЫЕ МОДИФИКАЦИИ
  
  "Авро 504" - двигатель "Гном", 80 л.с.
  "Авро 504А" - усиленная конструкция крыльев и фюзеляжа.
  "Авро 504В" - установлен киль и синхронный пулемет "Льюис".
  "Авро 504С" - морской патрульный вариант для борьбы с дирижаблями. Установлен дополнительный топливный бак на 4 часа полета и пулемет "Льюис", стреляющий под углом 45° вверх.
  "Авро 504J" - учебная модификация без вооружения. Мотор "Гном-моносупап", 100 л.с.
  "Авро 504К" - самолет с универсальной моторамой, позволяющей устанавливать любые английские ротативные двигатели.


ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
Размах, м 10,98
Длина, м 8,98
Площадь крыла, кв. м 30,70
Сухой вес, кг 558
Взлетный вес, кг 828
Скорость максимальная, км/ч 145
Время набора высоты, м/мин 1100/7
Потолок, м 3650


А.Шепс Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты


"Авро-504" 1913 г.

  Английский конструктор Эллиот Вердон Ро создал в 1910 году фирму "А.V. Roe & Co. Ltd." и после трех лет экспериментов подготовил к серийному производству новый учебный двухместный самолет "Авро-504". Машина оказалась очень удачной. Первоначальный заказ для военного министерства и адмиралтейства был вскоре увеличен, и к августу 1914 года в дивизионах "Ройал Флеинг Корпс" и "Ройал Нэви Эйр Сервис" было уже 63 машины. Всего с 1913 по 1933 год во всем мире построено около 10 тысяч машин всех модификаций, в том числе в Великобритании - 8340 самолетов, в СССР - около 800 самолетов (У-1 и МУ-1).
  Самолет "Авро-504" - двухместный, двухстоечный биплан деревянной конструкции с довольно длинным фюзеляжем.
  Фюзеляж прямоугольного сечения; выполнен из деревянных брусков, обтянутых полотном с растяжками из стальной проволоки или ленты. Полотно пропитывалось авиационным лаком. Крепление двигателя выполнялось из стальных труб и профилей. Капот двигателя изготавливался из алюминиевых листов.
  Крылья трехлонжеронные. Лонжероны изготавливались из фрезерованных в форме двутавра брусков. Крыло обтягивалось полотном, которое крепилось к нервюрам, прошивалось и покрывалось лаком. Стойки бипланной коробки деревянные, каплевидного профиля. Растяжки из стального троса или ленты. Машины более поздних модификаций имели двухлонжеронное крыло с более мощными лонжеронами. Верхнее и нижнее крыло оборудовалось элеронами.
  Руль направления небольших размеров без киля. Рули высоты и стабилизатор обычной конструкции. Стабилизатор дополнительно крепился подкосами. Шасси с резиновой амортизацией и противокапотажным ясеневьм брусом.
  На самолете ставились 7- и 9-цилиндровые двигатели воздушного охлаждения, ротативные, звездообразные, разные на различных модификациях. Винт деревянный, двухлопастной.
  Управление самолета тросовое, от ручки управления и педалей, причем в учебных машинах системой управления оборудовались обе кабины. На легких бомбардировщиках RFC и RNAS задняя кабина оборудовалась шкворневой установкой пулемета "Льюис". Под крылом подвешивались бомбы общей массой 37 кг.
  На базе сухопутных вариантов "Авро-504" выпускались поплавковые варианты. Поплавки имели сложную конструкцию, они делались из тонких (4 мм) ясеневых досок в два слоя, закрепленных на каркасе из ясеневых брусьев. Между слоями досок прокладывалось полотно, пропитанное нетвердеющим лаком. Вся конструкция крепилась медными заклепками на алюминиевых шайбах и латунными шурупами.
  Стойки поплавков - стальные трубы с деревянными обтекателями. Конструкция была очень трудоемкой и довольно тяжелой.
  В СССР в начале 1920-х годов существенно упростили конструкцию поплавков. Они выполнялись выше ватерлинии из 4-5-мм фанеры, что уменьшило их массу с 211 кг до 170 кг без ущерба для их прочности, а также существенно удешевило производство.


Модификации

  "Авро-504" - прототип с двигателем "Гном" (80 л. с.), учебный двухместный самолет. Выпущено несколько машин для аэроклубов.
  "Авро-504B" - серийный учебный самолет с тем же двигателем для RFC и RNAS. Незначительные изменения в конструкции.
  "Aвро-504C" - разведчик на базе предыдущего, с тем же двигателем, пилот размещался в задней кабине, наблюдатель - в передней.
  "Авро-504E" - дальнейшее развитие серии "C. Отличался размещением пилота и наблюдателя, а также дополнительным усилением каркаса фюзеляжа. Двигатель "Гном-Моносупап" (100 л. с.).
  "Авро-504G" - дальнейшее развитие машин этой серии, фюзеляж усилен продольными брусками. Крыло стало двухлонжеронным, изменился его профиль. Изменилась конструкция капота.
  "Авро-504H" - самолет, оборудованный для старта с катапульты.
  "Aвро-504J" - учебный самолет для RAF с двигателем "Гном-Моносупап" (100 л. с.). Обе кабины оборудованы системой управления. Построено 2267 машин этой модификации.
  "Авро-504K" - массовая серия. Легкий бомбардировщик и разведчик, учебный самолет. Устанавливались двигатели "Гном-Моносупап" (100 л. с.), "Рон" (110 и 120 л. с.), "Клерже" (130 л. с.). Использовался иногда как истребитель.
  "Aвро-504L" - поплавковый вариант самолета "Авро-504K", летные данные хуже, чем у сухопутного самолета.
  У-1 - самолет первоначального обучения, строившийся в СССР с 1921 по 1932 год по образцу английского "Авро-504K". Отличался конструкционными материалами (сосна вместо ясеня и красного дерева, сталь вместо медного листа) и технологией изготовления. Двигатель М-2 (120 л. с.). При проверке на прочность испытания показали соответствие машины современным требованиям.
  МУ-1 - поплавковый вариант самолета У-1 для авиации ВМС. Летные качества неплохие. Однако время виража и набора высоты было вдвое больше, чем у прототипа.

  Самолеты У-1 и МУ-1 выпускались сначала на заводе № 5, а с 1923 года на заводе "Красный летчик".
  В Англии снятые с вооружения машины переоборудовались в учебные как для военных летных школ, так и для аэроклубов. Некоторые машины эксплуатировались до 1933 года. В СССР самолеты У-1 эксплуатировались до 1935 года, пока не были заменены самолетами У-2 Н. Н. Поликарпова.


ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

   Авро-504 Авро-504Е Авро-504G Авро-504К Авро-504L У-1 МУ-1
   прототип 1914г. 1915г. 1923г. 1925г.
   1913г.
  Размах, м 10,97 10,98 10,98 10,98 10,98 10,85 10,85
  Длина, м 8,91 8,98 8,98 8,98 9,85 8,78 9,85
  Высота, м 3,15 3,18 3,18 3,18 3, 3,18 3,58
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 31,77 30,70 30,66 30,70 30,70 30,0 30,0
  Сухой вес, кг 450 558 499 588 800 600 840
  Взлетный вес, кг 703 828 816 828 1040 840 1080
  Двигатель: "Гном" "Гном- "Рон" "Рон" М-2
   Моносупап"
   мощность, л. с. 80 100 120 110 120
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 132 140 132 145 132 137 136
  Дальность полета, км 400 300 420 400 195 190
  Потолок, м 3650 3960 4880 3500 4500 3200
  Экипаж, чел. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
  Вооружение - 1 пулемет 1-2 пулемета - - -
   37 кг бомб 37 кг бомб


A.Jackson Avro Aircraft since 1908 (Putnam)


Avro 504 to Avro 504H

  Design work on a successor to the Avro 500, begun at Brownsfield Mills in November 1912, was completed at the new Clifton Street works early the following year, Messrs. Chadwick and Taylor being responsible for the fuselage and undercarriage and H. E. Broadsmith the wings. Designated Avro 504, it was very lightly constructed with a rectangular section, wire braced, box-girder fuselage built from four ash longerons channelled for lightness and strengthened by flanges. Cross struts were of spruce. For maximum view the pilot sat in the rear, the passenger occupying the front cockpit, from the corners of which four ash struts supported the centre section. Equal span, two bay wings were rigged with 2 ft. stagger and braced by streamline section, hollow spruce interplane struts pin-jointed to the spars. Each wing panel consisted of five main ribs with spanwise stringers supporting a number of contour-forming strips of wood anchored to leading and trailing edges. Lateral control was by inversely tapered ailerons rigidly fixed at the inner end, the widened outer ends of which were warped by means of cables.
  Although similar to that of the Avro 500, the undercarriage was a much improved and simplified unit. An ash skid was anchored to the fuselage by steel Vee struts as before, but the axle was no longer bolted to it and was no longer a laminated spring. Instead, a simple steel tube axle was used in conjunction with two main undercarriage legs having built-in rubber shock absorbers (8 ft. 8 in. of bungee cord wound round the two halves of the leg) in streamlined cases. The tail skid was attached to the bottom of a comma-type rudder.
  In design, construction and performance the Avro 504 was considerably in advance of other 1913 types and benefited from the use of an improved wing section. Power was supplied by one of the new 80 h.p. Gnome rotaries (the actual power output of which is said to have been nearer 62 h.p.) installed in a square section cowling bulged on top and sides.
  To give it the widest possible publicity the Avro 504 was entered for the 1913 Aerial Derby and consequently was built in considerable secrecy. Its arrival at Hendon on September 20, 1913, morning of the race, was therefore something of a sensation as it was obviously very fast and the impression of speed was heightened by its staggered mainplanes. When F. P. Raynham crossed the finishing line in fourth place at an average speed of 66.5 m.p.h., few realised that the Avro 504 was virtually untried, having been delivered at Brooklands only three days before (September 17), and flown for the first time on the following day.
  After the Aerial Derby the Blackburn Aeroplane and Motor Co. Ltd. issued a challenge to its Lancashire rivals and on September 29 Raynham flew the Avro 504 from Brooklands to Leeds for a race against a new Blackburn monoplane flown by Harold Blackburn. The 100 mile race was held on October 2 over a course starting and finishing at Leeds and passing over York, Doncaster, Sheffield and Barnsley. With H. V. Roe as passenger, Raynham flew neck and neck with Blackburn until bad visibility forced him to land near Barnsley.
  Although basically a sound aeroplane the 504 needed modification and went back to the Manchester works where the engine mounting was changed for an improved version carrying more streamlined cowlings. Aileron control was also lightened by replacing the warping arrangement with constant chord hinged ailerons with wires to complete the circuit in place of the original rods. The wing structure was strengthened by replacing the hollow pin-jointed interplane struts by solid ones fitted in metal sockets. Redelivered at Brooklands at the end of October, the 504 was flown a great deal by Raynham during the following month. He made a forced landing at Horley with a broken carburettor control during the Hendon-Brighton-Hendon race on November 8; flew from Brooklands to Farnborough and back on November 15; gained second place in the Shell Trophy Race at Hendon the same afternoon and broke the lap record at 73 m.p.h.; spent a week on day and night flying at Shoreham and flew to Farnborough for official tests on November 24. With a passenger and fuel for three hours the Avro 504 clocked 80.9 m.p.h. over the measured mile and climbed to 1,000 ft. in 1 min. 45 sec.
  An outstanding performance put up by Raynham on February 4 was a climb to 15,000 ft. over Brooklands. This exceeded the existing British altitude record by almost 2,000 ft. but was not an officially observed record. During the descent Raynham shut off his engine, put the machine into a glide, and 25 minutes later was at 5,000 ft. over Hendon some 20 miles away. He then spiralled down to a landing, still without using his engine. Carrying R. J. MacGeagh Hurst in the front seat Raynham made an officially observed climb to a record height of 14,420 ft. over Brooklands on February 10.
  Later in the season the machine was purchased by the Daily Mail and toured the country giving passenger flights piloted by F. P. Raynham and G. Lusted. A. V. Roe and Co. Ltd. built an interchangeable twin float undercarriage so that the machine could be flown off the sea at coast resorts. At the same time the original 80 h.p. Gnome was replaced by an 80 h.p. Gnome Monosoupape which was supposed to give more power but which in fact gave only trouble. First flights as a seaplane took place at Paignton in April 1914, after which it visited Falmouth, Southport and Ireland but when war was declared on August 4 the machine was at Shoreham where it was immediately commandeered. Two days later the career of this historic aeroplane ended when the engine failed as Raynham took off to deliver it to the R.N.A.S. With no height in hand there was no alternative to putting the machine down on land where it was damaged beyond repair.
  Series production of the Avro 504 began in the summer of 1913 when the War Office placed a contract for 12 machines. This brought about some restressing of the wings to comply with their strength requirements which included doubling the depth and width of the rear spar. Others were built for non-military and experimental purposes, one of which was exhibited at Belle Vue, Manchester on January 1-3, 1914 and another, delivered at Brooklands on February 16, was fitted with the first Armstrong Whitworth-built 100 h.p. A.B.C. engine. After endless engine runs Raynham made what was possibly its only flight with this engine early in April. Drawings were also prepared for the installation of a 65 h.p. Austro-Daimler engine but as far as is known this scheme was shelved. A third Avro 504 was exhibited with rubber-sprung float undercarriage at the Olympia Aero Show in March 1914 and another was delivered to Harold Blackburn at Southport in July. In common with thousands of Avro 504 variants built in later years, these aircraft were noticeably different from the prototype because the top longerons sloped downwards aft of the cockpits to make the fuselage symmetrical in side elevation.
  Two Avro 504s, almost the last of the 12 War Office machines, were delivered at Brooklands on June 5, 1914 and it was in one of these on June 12 that F. P. Raynham succeeded in looping a 504 for the first time. They were delivered next day to Farnborough where 376 (probably the first machine of the batch) was tested to destruction during July. A few Avro 504s were among the aircraft of No. 5 Squadron R.F.C. when it left for France on August 13, one of which became the first British aeroplane brought down by the Germans when Lts. V. Waterfall and C. G. G. Bayly were hit by infantry fire in Belgium on August 22. In mid-October, 383, another Avro of the squadron was fitted with a Lewis gun by 2nd-Lt. L. A. Strange whose gunner, Capt. L. da C. Penn-Gaskell straffed a troop train at Perenchies and forced down an Albatros two seater near Neuve-Eglise a month later. Only a few Avro 504s saw frontline service and the greatest number in R.F.C. squadrons in France at any one time was thirteen.
  The Admiralty placed an order in the spring of 1914 for one Avro 504 and for six others a few months later. The first of these was delivered to the R.N.A.S. Eastchurch Squadron on November 27, 1914. Armed with four 16 lb. bombs and piloted by Fit. Sub-Lt. R. H. Collet, an attempt to bomb the Bruges submarine depot on December 14 was foiled by bad visibility and an attack was made on the Ostend-Bruges railway instead. Very few offensive sorties were made by the Avro 504, the most ambitious being the brilliant and historic raid on the Zeppelin sheds at Friedrichshafen. A special flight of four machines formed at Manchester in October 1914 by Sqn. Cdr. P. Shepherd, was equipped to carry four 20 lb. bombs per aircraft and shipped from Southampton to Le Havre. They arrived at Belfort by train on the night of November 13, 1914 and were hidden in a barn for fear of arousing the suspicions of local spies. It was not possible to flight test them and the first machine, 874, took off untried at 9.30 a.m. on November 21 piloted by Sqn. Cdr. E. Featherstone Briggs. Fit. Cdr. J. T. Babington then left in 875 followed by Fit. Lt. S. V. Sippe with five minutes separation in 873. Fit. Sub-Lt. R. P. Cannon's machine 179 (the first Avro 504 built for the R.N.A.S.) broke its tail skid and could not go. The raiders followed the Rhine at 5,000 ft., crossed Lake Constance at 10 ft. and put several bombs into the airship sheds from 1,200 ft. They narrowly missed destroying naval Zeppelin L.7 but hit the gas plant which exploded with considerable violence. Briggs was shot down but the others made the 125 mile return trip in safety after four hours in the air. Flown by Fit. Lt. H. L. Rosher, Sippe's Avro 873 was one of five belonging to No. 1 Sqn. R.N.A.S. which twice bombed Ostend and on March 24, 1915 destroyed two U-boats in an attack on the submarine depot near Antwerp. Together with 179 and 875, it survived to return to England for overhaul and transfer to school work.
  When the Avro 504 was relegated to training, a duty it was destined to fulfil with distinction for over 15 years, A. V. Roe and Co. Ltd. designed and supplied a self contained dual control unit comprising seats, control columns and rudder bars. Later in 1915 converted machines were joined by a number specifically built as trainers, total Avro 504 production amounting to 63 aircraft. As the war progressed, modification gave rise to a series of variants. The Avro 504A, built for the R.F.C, was a strengthened version with wide chord interplane struts and ailerons of reduced span. The lower wing roots were sometimes stripped of fabric to improve the downward view and 2905, delivered on January 17, 1916, was used at Farnborough for fabric tests. At least B3103 was fitted with an improved undercarriage having rear shock legs and front radius rods for use by the C.F.S. Communications Flight at Lopscombe Corner, Salisbury in 1918.
  The Admiralty insisted on wing spars of greater cross section and was supplied with a drastically modified version known as the Avro 504B. It reverted to long span ailerons and was identified by a large, unbalanced rudder hinged to a considerable dorsal fin. The top longerons were recessed to provide curved cut-outs in the sides of the rear cockpit. A stout ash tail skid, sprung with rubber cord and hinged to a pylon under the rear fuselage, became standard fitment on this and all subsequent 504 variants. A few R.N.A.S. Avro 504Bs were used operationally at Dunkirk, including 9890 and N5267 which had forward-firing guns and interrupter gear. A pioneer Zeppelin interception was also made by an Avro 504B from R.N.A.S. Westgate piloted by Fit. Sub-Lt. Mulock who made contact with L.Z.38 in the early hours of May 17, 1915. The airship climbed too rapidly for him to use his armament of two hand grenades and two incendiary bombs but later the same night the Avro 504B 1009, piloted by Fit. Cdr. A. W. Bigsworth, pursued L.Z.39 towards Ostend with more success. He managed to gain sufficient height to drop four 20 lb. bombs on the airship's stern and caused slight damage by fire which led to a heavy landing at Evere, Brussels.
  The majority of Avro 504Bs were naval trainers and late production models had the 80 h.p. Le Rhone, provision for Scarff ring and no cut-outs to the rear cockpit. At least one was used in early deck landing arrester gear experiments. In the coastal reconnaissance role the endurance was increased to 4 1/2 hours but this soon proved insufficient and 80 examples of a single seat version having 8 hours endurance were built. Powered by an 80 h.p. Gnome and known as the Avro 504C, it had a large cylindrical fuel tank in place of the front cockpit and a gap in the top centre section through which a Lewis gun could fire incendiary ammunition upward at an angle of 45 degrees. The R.F.C. equivalent, conceived in 1916 under the designation Avro 504D, retained the balanced comma-type rudder and short span ailerons, but had the recessed longerons and wing root modifications of the Avro 504C. Serial allocation suggests that six 504Ds were ordered but there is no evidence that they were actually built.
  Modification on this scale led to a severe weight penalty and additional power had become a dire necessity. The next R.N.A.S. variant, the Avro 504E, was therefore fitted with the 100 h.p. Gnome Monosoupape. At the same time the rear cockpit was moved farther aft and the change of C.G. position caused by installing the main fuel tank between the cockpits was counteracted by reducing the stagger from 24 to 9 in. Centre section struts were then repositioned to converge towards the top in side elevation. The 504E also reverted to the straight top longerons of the prototype but was fitted with the fin, rudder and ailerons of the 504B. Ten were built, some of which were used at Chingford and Fairlop and one at Cranwell.
  Designation Avro 504F was given to a single Avro 504C 8603 fitted at the suggestion of the Admiralty with a 75 h.p. Rolls-Royce Hawk six cylinder inline engine. It was evidently an unsuccessful union as a contract for 30 Avro 504F aircraft was cancelled and replaced by one for the 80 h.p. Gnome version.
  Uncertainty still shrouds the precise identity of the Avro 504G, described by Avro works manager R. J. Parrott in 1925 as an R.F.C. gunnery trainer, ten examples of which were built with 130 h.p. Clergets and equipped with synchronised front Vickers gun and rear Lewis. Designation Avro 504G was used also by the R.N.A.S. for the 80 h.p. Gnome-powered Avro 504B conversions having synchronised front Vickers guns and a Scarff ring on the rear cockpit.
  Last of the early exploratory variants was the 504H, a strengthened 504C fitted under the supervision of Sqn. Cdr. E. H. Dunning in 1917 with catapult pick-up points and a special padded seat. Piloted by Fit. Cdr. R. E. Penny this machine later became one of the first aircraft successfully launched by catapult.
  At this stage of the war orders for the several variants were far in excess of production capacity at Manchester and a number of sub-contractors were brought in.

SPECIFICATION AND DATA
  Manufacturers:
   A. V. Roc and Co. Ltd., Clifton Street, Miles Platting, Manchester
   The Bleriot & Spad Aircraft Works, Addlestone, Surrey
   The Brush Electrical Engineering Co. Ltd., Loughborough
   The Eastbourne Aviation Co. Ltd., Eastbourne
   The Humber Motor Co. Ltd., Coventry
   Parnall and Sons, Mivart Street, Eastville, Bristol
   The Regent Carriage Co. Ltd., Fulham, London
   S. E. Saunders Ltd., East Cowes, Isle of Wight
   The Sunbeam Motor Car Co. Ltd., Wolverhampton
  Power Plants:
   (Prototype)
   80 h.p. Gnome
   80 h.p. Gnome Monosoupape
   (Avro 504 and 504A)
   80 h.p. Gnome
   80 h.p. Le Rhone
   100 h.p. A.B.C.
   (Avro 504B)
   80 h.p. Gnome
   80 h.p. Le Rhone
   (Avro 504C and 504D) 80 h.p. Gnome
   (Avro 504E) 100 h.p. Gnome Monosoupape
   (Avro 504F) 75 h.p. Rolls-Royce Hawk
   (Avro 504G and 504H) 80 h.p. Gnome
  Dimensions:
   Span 36 ft. 0 in. Length 29 ft. 5 in.
   Height 10 ft. 5 in. Wing area 330 sq. ft.
  Weights and Performances:
   Prototype Avro 504 landplane seaplane Avro 504A Le Rhone
Tare weight - 924 lb. 1,070 lb. 1,050 lb.
All-up weight 1,550 lb. 1,574 lb. 1,719 lb. 1,700 lb
Maximum speed 81 m.p.h. 82 m.p.h. 75 m.p.h. 86 m.p.h.
Climb to 3,500 ft. 7 min.* - - 7 min.**
Endurance 3 hours - - 4 1/2 hours***
*With 80 h.p. Gnome Monosoupape.
**With 80 h.p. Gnome 9 min. 30 sec.
***With Avro 504C and 504D 8 hours.


Avro 504J and Avro 504K

  In the autumn of 1916 a more powerful version of the Avro 504A with the 100 h.p. Gnome Monosoupape was produced for the R.F.C. This variant, designated 504J and known in the R.F.C. as the "Mono Avro", was externally identical with the earlier type and large numbers ordered as 504As were completed as 504Js.
  Among the first recipients of the Avro 504J was the School of Special Flying founded at Gosport in July 1917 by Maj. R. R. Smith-Barry. Here (and later at similar schools at Shoreham, Lilbourne, Redcar, Ayr and Curragh) instructors were introduced to Smith-Barry's revolutionary flying training technique, a system based on demonstration and explanation by an instructor who was in verbal communication with the pupil. The 'Gosport' speaking tubes specially designed for this purpose were still to be found in club aircraft half a century later. The Avro 504J was fully aerobatic and made an ideal training aircraft because its light and powerful controls quickly showed up faults in a pupil's flying. It is now historically important as the aeroplane which made possible a system of training which, in modified form, became part of the R.A.F.'s Flying Training School syllabus for more than 40 years. As the standard R.F.C. trainer, the Avro 504J was ordered in such quantity that contracts were placed with additional sub-contractors. Components for Avro-built machines were constructed in Manchester for erection at the company's new aerodrome at Hamble.
  In his memoirs C. A. Nepcan Bishop recalls that the Gosport School Avro 504J C4448 was the personal machine of Capt. Williams whose favourite trick was to land between the hangars, touch down on the tarmac, swing completely round and finish the landing run inside 'C' Flight hangar. Among other Gosport instructors were Maj. E. L. Foote who was to become well known as airline, test and sporting pilot in the years immediately after the War, and Capt. Duncan Davis, manager of Avro's South Coast joyriding aircraft in 1919-20 and C.F.I, of the Brooklands School of Flying in the 1930s. A distinguished pupil was H.R.H. Prince Albert (later King George VI) who learned to fly on C4451. In 1918 a team of instructors took four Mono Avros across the Channel to demonstrate the Gosport system to the French.
  By the end of 1917 the 100 h.p. Gnome Monosoupape was outmoded as a front line power plant and British production of this engine was allowed to tail off. To prevent interruption of Avro 504J production through engine shortage, all surplus rotaries, including 80 h.p. and 110 h.p. Le Rhones as well as 130 h.p. Clergcts, were collected from English and French aerodromes. There was no difficulty in fitting the 80 h.p. Le Rhone and a number of 504Js were thus powered, but it was necessary to modify the front fuselage before larger engines could be installed. Following the trial installation of a 130 h.p. Clerget in B3157 for Smith-Barry at Gosport at the end of 1917, the Technical Dept. of the Air Board asked A. V. Roe and Co. Ltd. to produce adaptors and a new type of universal engine mounting. In the older machines this was of the two bearer type, the front bearer being in the form of a ball race supported on four tubular arms forming extensions to the fuselage longerons. This 'spider' was now replaced by an overhung mounting designed by H. E. Broadsmith which consisted of two bearer plates which would accept any suitable engine and allow the use of a smooth open fronted cowling. Irrespective of the type of engine fitted, aircraft built with this mounting were known as the Avro 504K, even though many had been ordered as 504Js or even 504As. The original 'Clerget Avro' B3157 joined 'F' Flight, School of Special Flying, and crashed at Gosport on March 2, 1918.
  With standardisation accomplished the way was clear for greatly increased production and the Avro company was authorised to plan the construction of 100 machines a week, plus spares. They were also required to produce 20 sets of knock down parts per week for assembly at the Eastern Aircraft Factory at Aboukir, Egypt and by the Armistice production had reached 80 Avro 504Ks a week, including 20 sets of components for Aboukir.
  As a result of demonstration flights over Washington by Avro 504J C4312 imported by the British Mission under Col. Lee in the winter of 1917-18, fifty-two Le Rhone engined 504Ks were purchased by the Americans in July 1918. These were used by the A.E.F. for advanced training at No. 3 Instruction Centre, Issoudun, France, and after the War survivors were shipped to the U.S.A., where one or two still exist.
  Major modification of the Avro 504J was confined to the fitting of short span, single bay wings and curved fin to B4264 at Gosport in January 1918. Standard 36 ft. mainplanes were eventually replaced, rigged experimentally with the gap reduced from 5 ft. 6 in. to 5 ft. 1 1/4 in. In March 1918 the same set of short span wings was fitted temporarily to B3155, a two seater with shortened fuselage and armed with a Lewis gun. In the following May it flew as a single seater with the fuel tank in the front cockpit, and this led logically to the first of a number of 110 h.p. Le Rhone engined single seat 504Ks for high altitude work with Home Defence Squadrons in the north of England. These had the gravity tank repositioned to port to make way for a Lewis gun on the top centre section, and with front cockpit faired in could reach 18,000 ft. Some were fitted later with a low drag Vee-type undercarriage similar to that of the Avro 521. Two so modified were flown at Gosport - C605 with 130 h.p. Clerget on June 15, 1918 and C604 with Le Rhone on February 3, 1919.
  Total wartime production of Avro 504s of all marks exceeded that of any other type of British aeroplane but the oft quoted figure of 8,340 aircraft (3,696 by A. V. Roe and 4,644 by sub-contractors) is obviously in excess of the actual total. Nine were delivered to the Expeditionary Force in France in 1914; 4,771 to training units; 274 to Home Defence Units; 392 to the Middle East Brigade and 52 to the Americans. When the R.F.C. and R.N.A.S. came under unified command on April 1, 1918, Avro 504Js and Ks were in use with almost every Service unit in Britain so that on October 31, 1918 there were 2,999 on R.A.F. charge (including 2,267 at flying schools and 226 on Home Defence). One hundred and eleven were in Egypt and Palestine, where some were pressed into emergency air mail service during the Egyptian rising of March-April 1919.
  In 1919 the Sunbeam Motor Co. Ltd., sub-contractor for the Avro 504B, J and K, fitted one of its 100 h.p. water cooled Dyak airship engines into a 504K airframe. With brass nose radiator and attendant plumbing it was a heavy power plant which substantially reduced payload. Conversions were consequently few but two were supplied to Norway in 1920 and several were built for civil use with the Dyak engine in Australia in 1922.
  The Royal Aircraft Establishment found the 504K a most useful test vehicle in the years immediately after the war, and each of Farnborough's resident machines was used for a wide variety of experimental flying. One important phase was flight testing a number of wings designed by Boulton and Paul, Humber, Vickers and the Steel Wing Company with metal spars and/or ribs. The metal wing programme was initiated partly through timber shortage but chiefly because seemingly identical wooden spars varied considerably in strength and weight. Minor experimental devices flown on the 504Ks ranged from a Leitner-Watts metal airscrew to a windmill-driven clear vision rotating windscreen.
  A postwar gunnery trainer version of the Avro 504K (130 h.p. Clerget) was designated Avro 540 but differed from standard only in the region of the rear cockpit which was strengthened and built up to take a Scarff mounting for a rear gunner. There was no new production, the few that existed being converted 504Ks.
  Of greater importance was the 504K's contribution to low speed flying research in the course of which H2402 was fitted with a Vee-type undercarriage, water ballast tanks near the C.G. and in the tail, as well as an immense fin and unbalanced rudder. Eleven gallons of water could be pumped into the rear tank in the air to enable the aircraft to fly at very large angles of incidence (up to 35 degrees) with the object of exploring controllability in stalled flight and so reduce the risk of hitting the ground in a nose-down attitude as described in R. & M. 991. In the event, H2402 experienced almost uncontrollable longitudinal oscillations and a second machine, F8940, with similar undercarriage, fin and rudder, was flown with variable incidence tailplane and lead weights up to 80 lb. over the tail skid. Large range differential ailerons allowing upward angles in excess of 90 degrees and interconnected with leading edge slots, were actuated by a wheel mounted on the control column. Research also embraced balanced ailerons mounted at mid-gap and concluded with flight tests by E3269 equipped with Handley Page slots interconnected with Frise-type balanced ailerons. This aircraft was demonstrated sensationally by F/Lt. P. W. S. Bulman at Farnborough on April 15, 1925.
  The 504Js were declared obsolete in September 1921 but the 504K remained in service as the standard R.A.F. trainer with the C.F.S. and Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Flying Training Schools until the late 1920s. It also served with No. 24 (Communications) Squadron; with Nos. 600, 601, 602 and 603 Auxiliary Air Force Squadrons; and with Fleet Air Arm training units at Netheravon and Leuchars. It took part in Hendon R.A.F. Displays, commencing in 1920 when F/O Quinland cavorted 'L'Avro Comique' B3292 with extra large four speed and reverse gear box, be-cobwebbed undercarriage, vacuum cleaner, anchor, kettle, flue pipe, jazz painted interplane struts and four dummy heads! The Display of July 3, 1921 included a standard Avro race won for Kenley by F/O P. Murgatroyd who won again in the following year while representing Cranwell. Crazy flying by F/Lt. Jack Noakes in 1921 and F/Lt. W. H. Longton in 1922 brought congratulations from King George V. The Avro 504K made its final appearance in a star role in 1923 as the 'Orva Mayfly', which paraded in front of the crowd with 'A.B.C. Lion' engine, wireless clothes line, kettle, chimney, six inch gun and carrot accelerator!
  The last Avro 504Ks, built by A. V. Roe to Contract 707157/26, appeared in two batches. The first 40, delivery of which was completed on November 11, 1926, were followed by 10 delivered by January 17, 1927.
  In 1963 several Avro 504Ks survived in the U.K. in military markings. D7560, fitted with the wings of E3104, property of the Science Museum, London, was on permanent exhibition until stored in 1939. H2311, flown down from Scotland under another identity by F/Lt. Birch to join the Nash Collection at Brooklands in 1938, was overhauled by A. V. Roe and Co. Ltd. for the Royal Aeronautical Society in 1950 and flown at the Farnborough R.A.F. Display by Gp. Capt. L. S. Snaith in July of that year. After a period in store at Hendon and London Airport, it was transferred to Upavon in 1962. A third 504K, c/n R3/LE/61400, which had been stored for many years by the Shuttleworth Trust at Old Warden, was rebuilt by apprentices at the Chadderton works of A. V. Roe and Co. Ltd. Fictitiously numbered E3404, this machine flew again in 1955 and took part in the film "Reach for the Sky". It is still flown on rare occasions, as at the Fifty Years of Military Aviation display at Upavon on June 16, 1962.

SPECIFICATION AND DATA
  Manufacturers:
   A. V. Roe and Co. Ltd., Clifton Street, Miles Platting, Manchester; and Hamble Aerodrome, near Southampton, Hants.
   Australian Aircraft and Engineering Co. Ltd., Sydney, N.S


Avro 504K (civil)

  The vast armada of Avro 504Ks rendered surplus by the 1918 Armistice included not only wartime training veterans but also large batches of new machines at storage units or still in the factories. An offer by A. V. Roe and Co. Ltd. to repurchase them en bloc was refused on the grounds that the Disposal Board found it impossible to compute the precise number of saleable aircraft. Sales therefore began by public auction at No. 1 Aircraft Salvage Depot, Hendon, but in 1920 Handley Page Ltd. bought all Disposal Board stocks and the 504Ks were thereafter marketed by its subsidiary, the Aircraft Disposal Co. Ltd. of Croydon. Trade was brisk despite the late G. P. Ollcy's forced landing on March 31, 1920 in Southwark Park pond in the company's demonstrator G-EAHW (130 h.p. Clerget). Foreign and Commonwealth governments made considerable inroads into stocks but even greater numbers were sold for civilian use. Low first cost and a seemingly endless spares backing, made the Avro 504K the only military aircraft of the period to find lasting favour as a civil type. Between 1919 and 1930 over 300 were allotted civil registrations in Britain alone and before the advent of the D.H. Moth in 1926 the Avro 504K was the most common British aeroplane. The majority had the dual controls removed and the decking cut away to make room for a third seat but a few were used for flying instruction and the total included a number ferried abroad in temporary civil marks.
  Civil flying was sanctioned in Britain at Easter 1919, a memorable Bank Holiday when A. V. Roe's immortal trainer embarked on an even greater career as a pleasure trip machine. Its usefulness extended over two decades and its name will be linked for ever with the halcyon days of itinerant joyriding, the story of which falls into four clearly defined periods.
  Excited by the deeds of great wartime pilots, the public developed a thirst for flying which earned every airworthy 504K a handsome living for the rest of 1919. Despite an ambitious essay into organised pleasure flying by the Avro company, lesser concerns also made a great deal of money, particularly in Scotland. Quick to fill the gap when Avro withdrew from the business in 1920, many former R.A.F. pilots bought 504Ks in the hope of reaping similar rewards but over 50 such mushroom enterprises were ended within the year by the trade slump. The third period, which lasted until the end of the decade, saw Avro pleasure flight business reduced to a number of old established firms run by a handful of seasoned pilots whose lives were dedicated to the game. Their eventual absorption into the great air displays of the 1930s brought the career of the 504K to an end as it had begun, in organised joy flying on the grand scale.


Avro 504K (overseas)

  In 1919-20 the British Government made each Dominion an Imperial Gift of surplus Avro 504Ks and other aircraft, and during the next 12 years large numbers of additional 504Ks were stripped, overhauled and test flown at Croydon by the Aircraft Disposal Co. Ltd. for military and civil use overseas. Vickers Ltd. and A. V. Roe and Co. Ltd. were also heavily engaged, the latter completing 100 504Ks in 1921 alone. Manufacturing rights were also sold in Japan and elsewhere.


Avro 504L

  First peace-time 504K variant was the Avro 504L training seaplane. The prototype conversion, C4329, used two wooden, pontoon-type, single step main floats, each attached to the fuselage by two steel struts, as well as tail and wing tip floats bolted directly to the main structure. A large curved fin was fitted to compensate for the extra keel surface forward and the fairing of the fuselage sides was improved to conform more closely to the shape of the cowling. To give a reasonable take-off performance the higher powered 130 h.p. Clerget was fitted and trials conducted at Hamble in February 1919 led first to the fitting of a four bladed airscrew and the removal of the small wing tip floats. Later the main undercarriage was strengthened by means of an additional strut to the rear of each float.
  The Avro 504L did not meet any R.A.F. requirement and was not adopted, nevertheless the Avro company built a considerable number of float undercarriages. The Hamble works also produced six short range float-equipped three seatcrs for the Avro Transport Company. Still more power was needed and a proposal to fit the new 170 h.p. A.B.C. Wasp I radial was turned down after trials with this engine in K-147, a 'guinea pig' 504K from the same production batch. The 150 h.p. Bentley B.R.I rotary therefore became the standard engine and drove a two bladed airscrew.
  G-EANB, last of the six, was certificated too late in the season to be gainfully employed but the other five were all used for joyriding. Piloted by Capt. F. Warren Merriam one worked the Isle of Wight resorts and Hayling Island, and the others went to Paignton, Devon. Flights over Torbay and to Teignmouth proved very popular and 250 passengers were carried during August-September 1919. On August 25, two 504Ls (in all probability K-145 and G-EAJX), flew along the South Coast en route to an autumn joyriding season at the First Air Traffic Exhibition, Amsterdam. One refueling in Dover Harbour but the other forced landed off Ramsgate with petrol shortage and had to be towed in. Their replacements G-EALH and 'LI were withdrawn to Hamble but K-146 (Capt. Evans) was wrecked off Alderney in fog on October 5 while carrying newspapers to Guernsey.
  Operations begun on Windermere under C. Howard Pixton on August 4, 1919 were quite remarkable. His aircraft were not true 504Ls but float-equipped 504Ks (130 h.p. Clerget) and without the third undercarriage strut. In common with the majority of Avro Transport Company machines at that time, they flew with enlarged Service markings, in this case H2581 and '82 (later G-EADJ and 'DK). They used the slipway and hanger at Bowness formerly occupied by the Lakes Flying Company and continued the lucrative pleasure flights pioneered eight years earlier by the Avro-built Water Bird. The suspension of night mail boat services to the Isle of Man also gave Pixton the opportunity of making twelve 90 minute early morning crossings to Douglas with 3 cwt. parcels of the Daily News.
  The Eastbourne Aviation Co. Ltd. embarked on a South Coast joyriding season of its own and produced six float-equipped 504Ks. These were also without the third undercarriage strut, and the three occupants sat one behind the other in separate cockpits. The enterprise ended late in 1920 with a seaplane race as grand finale at Hove, Sussex, on August 19 during which G-EAJH sank with a collapsed undercarriage. Maj. J. P. B. Ferrand carried 350 passengers in the former Windermere machine G-EADK at Folkstone in 1920 but Avro waterborne activities then ceased round the British Isles. In 1921 the Aircraft Disposal Co. Ltd. sold the new production 504L G-EANB and two others (almost certainly H1911 and 72) in Sweden to Kungl. Vattenfallsstyrelsen (Royal Waterfalls Committee) as S-IAA, 'AB and 'AG. They were used in connection with power station construction in North Sweden. Later two were flown inside the Arctic Circle for seven months by Gosta Hulstrom and Ing. Holmen who made 106 return journeys between Porjus and Suorva, flew 23,820 km. in 202 hours 53 minutes flying time and carried 362 passengers plus 6,681 kg. of mail. One Eastbourne 504L, G-EASD purchased for ?400 by Ing. G. Spaak, also went to Sweden in 1921.
  Activities elsewhere were confined to idyllic flights from Bermudan beaches in 1920 by two 504Ls of the Bermuda and Western Atlantic Aviation Co. Ltd.; from Manly Bay, Sydney Harbour, by one of the Australian Aircraft and Engineering Company's imported machines (without dorsal fin) and later by two Imperial Gift 504Ls of the R.A.A.F.; at Mission Bay, Auckland, by two Imperial Gift aircraft of the New Zealand Flying School; in Canada where a few Imperial Gift float undercarriages were brought into use to enable 504Ks to operate from lakes on forestry patrol; and at Valparaiso where three 504L trainers (130 h.p. Clerget) were used by the Chilean Naval Air Service.
  A British Mission led by Col. the Master of Sempill, sent out to advise the Imperial Japanese Navy in 1921, took with it a selection of British machines including ten Hamble-built Avro 504Ls. Maj. Orde-Lees and Mr. H. Crisp trained the first Jap naval pilots on these at Kasumigaura, near Tokyo, from which on September 3, 1921 they made a mass formation flight to escort the Crown Prince's warship and all landed in Yokosuka Harbour. When Japan purchased the manufacturing rights from A. V. Roe, Bentley powered 504Ls were built for the Navy by Nakajima. They were without the strengthened undercarriages and their performance deteriorated considerably when the B.R.ls wore out, the only available replacement engine being the licence built 110 h.p. Le Rhone (see p. 124). One Avro 504L remained in service with the Japan Air Transport Research Institute of Osaka until 1927.

SPECIFICATION AND DATA
  Manufacturers:
   A. V. Roe and Co. Ltd., Hamble Aerodrome, near Southampton, Hants.
   The Eastbourne Aviation Co. Ltd.
   Nakajima Hikoki Seisaku Sho (Nakajima Aircraft Manufacturing Co.), Ohta-Machi, Tokyo, Japan
  Power Plants:
   One 110 h.p. Le Rhone
   One 130 h.p. Clerget
   One 150 h.p. Bentley B.R.I
  Dimensions:
   Span 36 ft. 0 in. Length 32 ft. 1 in.
   Height 11 ft. 4 in. Wing area 330 sq. ft.
   Weights: Tare weight 1,408 lb. All-up weight 2,006 lb.
  *Performance:
   Maximum speed 87 m.p.h. Cruising speed 75 m.p.h.
   Initial climb 650 ft./min. Endurance 2 hours
  *With 130 h.p. Clerget engine.


Avro 504M

  In the spring of 1919 Hamble was very busy converting Avro 504Ks for the Avro Transport Company and produced the six 504Ls, a number of Avro 536 five seaters and single examples of two dissimilar cabin variants. First of these, built in April of that year, was the Avro 504M, a standard 504K modified above the top longerons to form a claustrophobic enclosure accommodating two passengers in staggered seats behind the pilot.
  A curved plywood roof with two glazed portholes in each side was hinged along the port longeron. After it was opened the pilot entered by raising a further section of roofing, and once in, viewed the landscape through five vertical Triplex panels mounted round the edge of the cockpit. A light fabric covered structure faired the cabin smoothly into the tail and additional side area was compensated by the addition of a 504L-type dorsal fin. Despite the considerable weight penalty, improved streamlining made it faster than the standard 504K.
  The Avro 504M was unusual among British civil Avros in having a 100 h.p. Gnome Monosoupape nine cylinder rotary. It was certificated on June 25, 1919 with the temporary registration K-134 and next day R. F. Park flew it to Chorley Wood Common, Bucks, to pick up a newly married pair outside the church. After a refuelling stop at Bournemouth, the 504M landed the honeymoon couple at Fowey, Cornwall, in an elapsed time of four hours. The machine then returned to Hounslow Heath and spent the rest of the summer doing a roaring trade among ladies wishing to fly over London without donning special flying kit. Avro's manager G. L. P. Henderson made many charter flights in it including return trips to Aintree on July 8 and Brighton on July 13. Its one recorded overseas flight took place in the early hours of September 6 when Capt. R. T. Fagan flew nonstop from Hounslow to Le Bourget in 2 hours 45 minutes with Norwegian passengers Robshon and Waase.
  Many hours were flown during the railway strike, by which time the permanent marking G-EACX had been applied but the C. of A. was not renewed in 1920, no doubt due to the very cramped accommodation of such a primitive conversion. When the Japanese acquired 504K manufacturing rights in 1921, they quickly produced a 504M equivalent known as the Aiba Tsubami IV with 150 h.p. Gasden Jimpu engine, one example of which, J-BABC, was still in use in 1928.

SPECIFICATION AND DATA
  Manufacturer: A. V. Roe and Co. Ltd., Hamble Aerodrome, near Southampton, Hants.
  Power Plant: One 100 h.p. Gnome Monosoupape
  Dimensions:
   Span 36 ft. 0 in. Length 29 ft. 5 in.
   Height 10 ft. 5 in. Wing area 330 sq. ft.
   Weights: Tare weight 1,220 lb. All-up weight 1,975 lb.
  Performance:
   Maximum speed 98 m.p.h. Cruising speed 85 m.p.h.
   Climb to 8,000 ft. 5-5 min. Endurance 3 hours
  Production: One aircraft only, K-134JG-EACX, c/n A.T.C.10; sole owner A. V. Roe and Co. Ltd.; C. of A. issued 25.6.19, not renewed in 1920


L.Andersson Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 (Putnam)


Avro 504K, U-1 and MU-1

  Designed as a successor to the Avro 500 the two-seat Avro 504 biplane - made its maiden flight in September 1913. The Avro 504J version (and later Avro 504K) became the standard trainer of the RFC in 1917 and several thousands were built during the First World War and and in the early 1920s. The Avro 504K version, which appeared in 1918, had a new universal engine mounting which permitted more powerful types of engines to be fitted.
  The long fuselage of the Avro 504 was of rectangular section with four longerons, wire braced, box-girder type, with rounded top decking. The circular cowling enclosed a rotary engine, which could be of several different types including the 100hp Gnome Monosoupape, 110hp Le Rhone and 130hp Clerget. The wing centre section was supported by four struts. The equal-span, two-bay wings were rigged with stagger (30· on the U-1). Each wing panel had five main ribs and the spars were made of pine (U-1). Both wings and tailplane were of constant chord and had straight tips with rounded corners. There were ailerons on both the upper and lower wings. The elevators were unbalanced and the comma-type rudder was characteristic for the Avro 504. There was no fin. The undercarriage included a long skid which was to prevent overturning.
  The Avro 504 was produced in Great Britain until 1927. It was used by both civil and military operators and many were exported to Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Ireland, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands East Indies, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the USA. Many were also built under licence in Australia, Belgium, Canada and Japan. Modified versions, including the Avro 504N, were also produced and exported.
  British intervention forces brought about thirty or more Avro 504Ks to Russia during the Civil War and at least twelve of them were captured and used by the RKKVF: 2280, 3707, 3710, 9673, 9678, 9747, 9749, 9754, 9756, 9757 and 9758 (probably including E3707, E3710, H9673, H9678, H9747, H9749, H9754, H9756, H9757 and H9758). The Soviet purchase of surplus aviation equipment in Great Britain in 1922 included ten Avro 504Ks with 110hp Le Rhone engines (2055, 5498, 6646, 7479, 9479, 9501, 9571, 9589, 9605 and 9610, probably H2055, J5498, H6646, H7479, E9479, E9501, H9571, H9589, H9605 and H9610). They were delivered on board the Miranda to Leningrad in May 1922 along with a new float-equipped Avro 504 (probably an Avro 504L) powered by a 130hp Clerget (c/n 5041). The Avro 504L was a more powerful float-equipped version of the Avro 504K and the prototype flew in 1919. It had single-step main floats and a small tail float, and differed from the Avro 504K by having a large fin. The Soviet example was assembled in Leningrad and flown for the first time in August 1922.
  The Avro 504Ks were used by the 1st Aviation School at Kacha (ten from 1922) and the Moscow School of Military Pilots (five, including three that had been used by the Sevastopol school in 1921). The 7th Aviaotryad at Khar'kov also had one. The float- equipped example was issued to the 1st Otdel'nyi Razvedivatel'nyi Gidrootryad at Oranienbaum.
  One of the Avros captured during the Civil War was taken near Petrozavodsk in the summer of 1919. It was dismantled and transported to GAZ No. 1 in Moscow, where it was studied in detail and copied by a team led by Nikolai Polikarpov. Production drawings were prepared and sent to GAZ No. 5 Samolet in Moscow, where production started late in 1922. The first aircraft built was almost certainly c/n 165, tested at the NOA until March 1923. It had a span of 10.97m and a wing area of 30.6m2, which was reduced to 10.85m and 30.0 m2 respectively on later production aircraft. Length was 8.72m, some 25cm less than the original Avro, while weight had increased by 40kg. The NOA received other Avros from GAZ No. 5 production; c/n 177 in April 1923 and c/ns 272 and 274 in March 1924. When Soviet-made (GAZ No. 4) M-11 copies of the 120hp Le Rhone became available they were fitted in place of original engines.
  In 1925 production was discontinued in Moscow and moved to GAZ No. 3 Krasnyi letchik in Leningrad, where it continued until 1931. It also seems that the RVZ No. 2 repair shop at Nizhnii-Novgorod built a few Avros in addition to repair and rebuilding work. The 'repair numbers' 243-252 were allocated to Avros that were to have built but this batch was later cancelled, 272-275 were probably delivered in 1924, 302-331 were ordered in 1923 and delivered in 1924, and another sixteen (unnumbered) were cancelled. In 1925 the VVS designation U-3 was assigned to the Avro trainer and although this was changed to U-1 in 1926 the earlier designation was still in use in 1927. The MU-1 seaplane was fitted with floats of simplified construction, which weighed 170kg compared to the 211kg of the original British floats. Unlike the original Avro-built floatplane the MU-1 had no fin and no tail float. Although the floats were lighter it seems that the MU-1's empty weight had gone up in comparison with the original, from 640kg to 840kg.
  It was planned in 1922 to build thirty-three Avros in the following year. GAZ No. 5 production amounted to at least 207 aircraft (c/ns 165 to 371 noted), which were delivered between 1923 and 1925. The following GAZ No. 3 production batches are known: 1794-1797 (four MU-1s), 1798, 1799 (two U-1s), 1800-1805 (six MU-1s), 1806-1833 (twenty-eight U-1s), 1834, 1835 (two MU-1s), 1836-1848 (thirteen U-1s), 1912-1981 (70 U-1s), 1992- 2001 (ten U-1s), 2002-2011 (ten MU-1s), 2012-2089 (seventy-eight U-1s), 2152-2236 (eighty-five U-1s), 2237- 2256 (twenty MU-1s), 2312-2390 (seventy-nine U-1s), 2391-2406 (sixteen MU-1s), -2497-2564- and -2636-2663- (possibly 2496-2670 U-1s)
  According to Shavrov's Istoriya konstruktsii samoletov v SSSR do 1938 a total of 737 U-1s was built, including seventy-three MU-1s. The number of aircraft delivered to the VVS between November 1923 and April 1931 was 657. To this should be added those delivered earlier in 1923 and later in 1931, and those delivered to Osoaviakhim in 1931. On 1 October, 1923, fifty-one were in RKKVF service including the captured and imported machines. Two hundred were in service in 1927 and in 1930 the number had risen to over three hundred. Regarding the float-equipped MU-1 an order for twelve was issued in 1923, but the first two were not delivered until 1925. Ten were in service at the end of 1926. Another ten were ordered in February 1927 and there were forty-four in service at the end of 1930.
  The U-1 became the first VVS standard trainer and replaced Farmans, Nieuports, Moranes and many other old types at the flying schools. It was used at the 1st Voennaya shkola letchikov (Military School of Pilots) at Kacha and the 2nd Voennaya shkola letchikov at Borisoglebsk. These schools had between ten and twenty U-1s each in 1923 and between eighty and ninety in 1927. A few were also used by the Training eskadril'ya, later Akademiya VVF, the 1st Vysshaya shkola voennykh letchikov (Higher School of Military Pilots) in Moscow and by the Vysshaya shkola KVF at Egorevsk. During the later 1920s the Voenno-teoreticheskaya shkola (Military-Theoretical School) in Leningrad and the Voennaya shkola vozdushnogo boya (Military School of Aerial Combat) at Orenburg also received U-1s. The Orenburg school, which became the 3rd Voennaya shkola letchikov in 1928, had about seventy U-1s in 1931. The new 7th and 8th Voennye shkoly letchikov at Stalingrad and Odessa, respectively, received U-1s from 1929.
  The MU-1s were used by the Voennaya shkola morskikh letchikov (Military School of Naval Pilots) at Sevastopol, which moved to Eisk on the Sea of Azov in 1930. During the second half of the 1920s one or two MU-1s were also assigned to the the 55th and 62nd Aviaotryady, the 87th and 88th Training Aviaotryady, and to the commander of the 9th Aviahrigada. The ship-based aviazven'ya of the cruisers Chervona Ukraina and Profmtern each had a few MU-1s. By November 1933 nineteen MU-1s remained but in 1934 the last of this type were replaced by Shavrov Sh-2s.
  Small numbers of U-1s were used by a few other training establishments and by the NOA and the NII VVS. Some were issued to operational units as hacks for liaison and training duties, including the 1st OIAE, the 1st ORAO, the 1st OOTA, the 82nd, 84th and 85th Training otryady. In June 1930 operational units in the Moscow, Leningrad, Belorussian and Ukrainian Military Districts had U-1s (six in each district). In November 1933 a total of 249 U-1s remained but they were soon replaced by Polikarpov U-2s at the VVS schools. One U-1 was used for experiments with rocket-assisted takeoff in Leningrad in 1931 (pilot S I Mukhin), when take-offs in less than two seconds were achieved. Another U-1 was converted into the KASKR autogyro in 1929 (see Kamov-Skrzhinsky KASKR, Autogyros and Helicopters section). U-1s were exported to China (Canton Government in 1925), Persia (five in July 1928) and possibly Mongolia (two in 1925).
  The U-1 was also used by civil organisations. Dobrolet wanted to try the type as a crop duster and acquired one from the VVS. It was registered ДЛ-16 (DL-16) (c/n 339) on 15 August 1928, which changed to CCCP-110 in 1929. This machine crashed and was replaced by another one, CCCP-195, at the end of that year. The U-1 was not very successful in the crop dusting role so the last-mentioned example plus another were transferred to the Leningrad Training Centre and the 3rd Combined Aviation School in 1931. One aircraft (c/n 2034) was given to the TsVIRL by the VVS in June 1929.
  The Osoaviakhim schools were supplied with U-1s beginning in 1928 when the the Penza school received two in July and the Khar'kov school received two, soon followed by another three (Deti Oktyabrya, Krasnyi militsioner Ukrainy and Zhilkooperatsiya Ukrainy). The Moscow school got four (numbered 1 to 4, one named Delegatka) in February 1929. Two of these were registered CCCP-312 (c/n 353) and CCCP-313 (c/n 2161). The Zaporozh'e branch of Osoaviakhim received c/n 308. Most of the 1931 production seems to have been for Osoaviakhim, which used the U-1 until 1935 as a trainer and as a tug for gliders and sailplanes.
  Starting in 1930 the U-1 was replaced by the Polikarpov U-2, but with a proportion of the wing covering taken off the U-1 remained in use as a taxiing trainer for many years. Thousands of civil and military Soviet pilots were trained on the U-1, which was regarded as a good trainer. It was simple to fly, although somewhat unstable. The thin wing profile caused loss of lift at high angles of attack and this brought about a tendency to stall. Pupils were told that the U-1 did not forgive mistakes.

U-1 (MU-1)
  120hp M-2
  Span 10.85 (10.97) m; length 8.78 (9.85) m; height 3.21 (3.58) m; wing area 30 m2
  Empty weight 600 (840)kg; loaded weight 840 (l,080)kg, alternative specification: Empty weight 650(815)kg; loaded weight 860(1,055) kg
  Maximum speed 139 (136) km/h; landing speed 70 (75) km/h; climb to 1,000m in 5.5 (9.1); ceiling 4,500 (3,100) m; endurance 1.5hr; range 195km


O.Thetford Aircraft of the Royal Air Force since 1918 (Putnam)


Avro 504K

  One of the most famous aeroplanes of all time, the Avro 504 in its original form appeared in 1913. In the opening phases of the First World War the type was used with first-line squadrons in the R.F.C. and R.N.A.S. for bombing and reconnaissance, but from 1915 onwards the 504 entered die training role for which it is celebrated.
  The most widely-used training variants were the 504J and the 504K. Both types remained in service with the R.A.F. after the war, the 504J being retired in September 1921 and the 504K carrying on until the late 'twenties. The 504J first appeared at the end of 1916, and was popularly-known as the Mono-Avro because of its 100-h.p. Gnome Monosoupape engine. This was the main type used by the famous School of Special Flying at Gosport, commanded by Major R. R. Smith-Barry. The exploits of Gosport's Avros are legendary, and they laid the foundations of systematic flying instruction in the R.F.C., evolving methods which became the basis of the R.A.F.4 Flying Training School syllabus for many years afterwards. Another notable fact about the 504J is that this was the type on which King George VI (then H.R.H. Prince Albert) learned to fly, the actual aircraft being С 4451.
  The 504K appeared in 1918, and differed from the 504J in having an open-fronted cowling and modified engine-bearers to take a variety of rotaries, including the 110-h.p. Le Rhone, the 130-h.p. Clerget and the 100-h.p. Monosoupape. This interchangeability was necessitated by the shortage of Mono engines from the end of 1917. Some 504Ks were converted from 504Js.
  Over 8,000 Avro 504s were built during the 1914-18 period, and in November 1918 the R.A.F. possessed about 3,000, of which 2,267 were in Flying Schools and over 200 on Home Defence. Post-war, the 504К was standard equipment at the Central flying School and Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Flying Training Schools until the arrival of the Lynx-engined 504N in the mid-twenties. The Avro 504К was also in service with No. 24 Squadron and Nos. 600, 601, 602 and 603 Squadrons of the Auxiliary Air Force.
  At the Hendon Displays, Avro 504Ks were a regular feature each year from 1920 to 1924.

TECHNICAL DATA (AVRO 504K)

  Description: Two-seat at initio trainer. Wooden structure, fabric covered.
  Manufacturers: A. V. Roe & Co. Ltd., Manchester and Hamble. Widely sub-contracted.
  Power Plant: One 110-h.p. Le Rhone, 130-h.p. Clerget or 100-h.p. Monosoupape.
  Dimensions: Span, 36 ft. Length, 29 ft. 5 in. Height, 10 ft. 5 in. Wing area, 330 sq. ft.
  Weights (Le Rhone engine): Empty, 1,231 lb; loaded, 1,829 lb.
  Performance: Maximum speed, 95 m.p.h. at sea level; 85 m.p.h. at 10,000 ft. Climb, 5 mins. to 3,500 ft.; 16 mins. to 10,000 ft. Range, 250 miles. Endurance, 3 hrs. Service ceiling, 16,000 ft.


Avro 504N

  The 504N, popularly known as the Lynx-Avro, was designed as a replacement for the wartime 504K, and it became the first new trainer to be adopted by the R.A.F. alter the First World War. It gave staunch service at the Flying Training Schools and with the University Air Squadrons for over a decade before being superseded by the Avro Tutor in 1932-33.
  The first installation of the Lynx engine was in two converted 504Ks (E 9265 and E 9266). This experiment preceded the two 504N prototypes which were J 733 with a Bristol Lucifer engine and J 750 with a Lynx, both fitted with a Siskin-type undercarriage. The production-type 504N, commencing J 8496 in 1927, retained the rugged oleo-pneumatic under-carriage, twin fuel-tanks beneath the upper mainplane and the additional stringers rounding out the fuselage sides. Early models of the 504N had a wooden fuselage and tapered ailerons. Later, Frise ailerons of rectangular shape were substituted and the fuselage was of welded tubular steel construction.
  The 504N remained in production until 1933 and 570 were built, including 78 conversions from Avro 504K. The last delivered was К 2423. Most R.A.F. pilots who learned to flу before 1933 remember the 504N with affection, and its characteristics are well described in F. D. Tredrey's delightful book Pilot's Summer. In addition to being used as a standard trainer by No. 1 F.T.S. (Netheravon), No. 2 F.T.S. (Digby), No. 3 F.T.S. (Grantham), No. 4 F.T.S. (Egypt) and No. 5 F.T.S. (Sealand), the 504N was widely employed as a communications aircraft by No. 24 Squadron (Kenley) and by the Auxiliary Squadrons of the day.
  At Wittering with the Central Flying School, six 504Ns of 'E' Flight pioneered instrument flying in the R.A.F., the first course starting in September 1931. These aircraft were fitted with blind-flying hoods, Reid and Sigrist turn indicators, and had 1' less dihedral than standard to reduce inherent stability.
  From 1930 to 1933 Hendon Display crowds were captivated by exhibitions of 'crazy flying' with 504Ns. When replaced by Tutors, many 504Ns were sold on the civil market, and with joy-riding companies gave thousands of people all over Britain their first experience of aviation. Some ex-R.A.F. 504Ns were converted to take five-cylinder Mongoose engines.

TECHNICAL DATA (AVRO 504N)

  Description: Two-seat at initio trainer. Wood and metal construction, fabric covered.
  Manufacturers: A. V. Roe & Co. ltd., Manchester.
  Power Plant: One 160- or 180-h.p. Armstrong Siddeley Lynx IV or 215- h.p. Lynx IVC.
  Dimensions: Span, 36 ft. Length, 28 ft. 6 in. Height, 10 ft. 11 in. Wing area, 320 sq. ft.
  Weights: Empty, 1,584 lb. Loaded, 2,240 lb.
  Performance: Maximum speed, 100 m.p.h. Cruising, 85 m.p.h. at 2,000 ft. Initial climb, 770 ft./min. Range, 250 miles. Endurance, 3 hrs. Service ceiling, 14,600 ft.


F.Manson British Bomber Since 1914 (Putnam)


Avro Type 504 Bombers

  Originating in 1913 as a much improved development of the Type 500, the Avro 504 attracted small pre-War orders by both the War Office and Admiralty, the former contracting for twelve aircraft in the summer of that year, and the latter for a total of five aircraft during the months immediately before the outbreak of war. A small number of RFC 504s accompanied No 5 Squadron to France, but these were used primarily for reconnaissance and gun attacks on ground targets.
  The last four of the pre-War 504s ordered by the Admiralty were not completed, and six War Office aircraft were transferred to Admiralty charge. Three of these (Nos 873-875) together with the original naval aircraft (No 179) were formed into a special bombing flight and, flying from Belfort in southeast France on 21 November 1914, Nos 873 (flown by Flt-Lt S V Sippe), 874 (Sqn-Cdr E Featherstone Briggs) and 875 (Flt-Cdr John Tremayne Babington, later Air Marshal Sir John Tremayne KCB, CB, DSO), set out to bomb the airship sheds at Freidrichshafen on the shores of Lake Constance. Each aircraft carried four 20 lb bombs under the fuselage and several bombs scored direct hits on their target, while another hit the hydrogen plant which blew up, causing extensive damage on the airship station. No 874 was shot down, but the other two 504s returned safely. No 873 later served with No 1 Squadron, RNAS, taking part in two bombing attacks on Ostend early in 1915, and hit two U-boats in a raid on a submarine depot near Antwerp on 24 March that year.
  The engine most widely used in the Avro 504 was the 80hp Gnome, and considerable orders were placed for subsequent versions of the aircraft, the 504A being the first major production version for the RFC, though relatively few examples were used as bombers. The much-modified 504B was built in quantity for the RNAS, being most easily identified by its large, unbalanced rudder hinged to a long, fixed dorsal fin. Production of the 504C was undertaken by Avro and the Brush Electrical Engineering company. While the majority of 504 variants were employed as training aircraft, conversions to carry bombs were made on an ad hoc basis, and the single-seat 504C was a dedicated antiairship aircraft, being equipped with a Lewis gun and able to carry 20 lb or 65 lb bombs. In place of the front cockpit, which was faired over, there was an extra fuel tank which enabled the aircraft to remain airborne for up to eight hours. A small number of 504As and Bs served at Aboukir and Imbros, several of these being used occasionally as bombers, but primarily for reconnaissance and coastal patrol.
  The Avro 504E, also a naval variant but powered by a 100hp Gnome monosoupape, featured cockpits moved further apart to counter the movement of cg caused by installing an extra fuel tank between the cockpits. At least one 504E was equipped to carry light bombs beneath the fuselage, possibly for anti-Zeppelin attack.

  Type: Single-engine, two-seat, two-bay tractor biplane modified as light bomber.
  Manufacturer: A. V. Roe & Co. Ltd., Clifton Street, Miles Platting, Manchester.
  Powerplant: One 80hp Gnome seven-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine driving two-blade propeller.
  Structure: All-wood, wire-braced box girder fuselage structure and two-spar wings.
  Dimensions: Span, 36ft 0in; length, 29ft 5in; height, 10ft 5in; wing area, 330 sq ft.
  Weights: Tare, 924 lb; all-up, 1,574 lb.
  Performance: Max speed, 82 mph; climb to 3,500ft, 8 min 30 sec; endurance, 2 hr.
  Armament: No gun armament; bomb load normally comprised up to four 20 lb bombs.
  Prototype: None. First flight by a bomb-carrying Avro 504 was by Sqn Cdr E. Featherstone Briggs, RNAS, in No 874 during the attack on airship sheds at Friedrichshafen on 21 November 1914; the aircraft was shot down during this flight.
  Production: Seven Avro 504s modified for use as bombers by the RNAS, Nos. 179 and 873-878. Served operationally with RNAS. Eastchurch Squadron, Special Bombing Flight, RNAS, and No 1 Squadron, RNAS.


O.Thetford British Naval Aircraft since 1912 (Putnam)


Avro 504

  For over 15 years the Avro 504 was the standard trainer of the British flying services, and on this fact alone its reputation stands secure in aviation history. It is less often appreciated that in the opening phases of the 1914-18 War it was used in first-line squadrons of the RFC and the RNAS for reconnaissance and bombing and that, with the RNAS, Avro 504s were responsible for one of the most audacious operations of the First World War.
  The prototype of the immortal 504 series was tested at Brooklands in July 1913. In general appearance it resembled very closely the thousands of production aircraft that were to follow; the main differences were in the square-section cowling for the 80 hp Gnome engine, the straight top longeron of the fuselage and the fact that lateral control was dependent on wing-warping instead of conventional hinged ailerons. Very early in the 504's career the wing-warping was discarded in favour of normal ailerons and a better streamlined cowling fitted.
  For 1913, the Avro 504 presented a thoroughly modern appearance, an appearance matched by a correspondingly good performance. Its sole rival in this respect was the Sopwith Tabloid, which turned out to have an even better performance, but in the event (chiefly due to its adoption as a trainer) the Avro outlived the Tabloid by many years.
  The original military orders for the Avro 504 were complicated by the fact that the Admiralty specified a different wing spar from that agreed by the War Office, and until the emergence of the RAF in 1918 this difference between the RFC and RNAS versions remained.
  At the outbreak of war in August 1914 the RNAS had only one Avro 504 on its strength, but by the middle of December 1914 No.1 Squadron RNAS (Sqn Cdr A M Longmore) had five more among its equipment. This squadron was sent to France in February 1915 to relieve Wg Cdr C R Samson's famous Eastchurch Squadron, which had been overseas since 27 August 1914 and which had taken delivery of its first Avro 504 on 27 November. The Eastchurch Squadron's Avro lost little time in getting into action, and on 14 December 1914, flown by F/Sub-Lt R H Collett, dropped four 16 lb bombs on the Ostend-Bruges railway.
  Routine sorties of this kind, however, would have contributed little to the fame of the Avro 504 as a weapon of war; what focused attention on the type was the magnificent and now historic raid of 21 November 1914, when three Avro 504s of the RNAS bombed the Zeppelin sheds at Friedrichshafen, on Lake Constance. This raid provided a good example of the Admiralty's remarkable foresight in the promoting the use of the bombing aeroplane, a policy which was later pursued with even more vigour in 1916 with the establishment of Nos.3 and 5 Wings for bombing duties.
  The RNAS unit which bombed Friedrichshafen formed at Manchester, under the command of Sqn Cdr P Shepherd, in October 1914, and it was decided to launch the attack from Belfort, a few miles from the Franco-Swiss border and about 120 miles from the target. The four Avro 504s concerned were Nos.179, 873, 874 and 875; No. 179 was the first of the type to be made for the Admiralty and hence, by the RNAS system of those days, sometimes used as a designation. The raid was at first delayed by bad weather, but when the aircraft eventually set off, each loaded with four 20 lb bombs, No.873 was flown by Sqn Cdr E F Briggs, No.874 by F/Lt S V Sippe and No.875 by F/Cdr J T Babington. No.179, flown by F/Sub-Lt R P Cannon, was forced to retire owing to a broken tailskid. The raiders flew north of Basle, followed the Rhine at a height of about 5,000 ft, came down to within 10ft of the water over Lake Constance to escape detection and then climbed to 1,200 ft again about five miles from the target. The three Avros dived to about 700 ft to release their bombs, and the effect was catastrophic. A gas-works exploded and sent gigantic flames into the sky and one of the Zeppelins was gravely damaged. Sqn Cdr Briggs was shot down and taken prisoner, but the other aircraft returned safely. Perhaps the best summary of this truly remarkable achievement is that by Walter Raleigh: the official historian, who wrote in The War in the Air:
  'The pilots deserve all praise for their admirable navigation, and the machines must not be forgotten. There have since been many longer and greater raids, but this flight of 250 miles, into gunfire, across enemy country, in the frail little Avro with its humble horse-power, can compare as an achievement with the best of them.'
  Although the Zeppelin sheds were not attacked again, Avro 504s took part in other notable bombing raids. One of these occurred on 24 March 1915, when five aircraft of No.1 Squadron, RNAS, flown by Sqn Cdr I T Courtney, F/Lts B C Meates and H L Rosher and F/Sub-Lts B L Huskisson and F G Andreae, raided the submarine depot at Hoboken near Antwerp and destroyed two U-boats, as well as setting the shipyard on fire.
  Avro 504s were also employed as anti-Zeppelin fighters, and on the night of 16-17 May 1915 both the LZ38 and LZ39 were intercepted by Avros flown by F/Sub-Lt R H Mulock (who later commanded No.3 Squadron, RNAS) and FICdr A W Bigsworth respectively. Both Zeppelins escaped destruction, but LZ39 was badly damaged by the four 20 lb bombs which were dropped on its envelope as Bigsworth climbed above it over Ostend. One variant of the Avro 504, the 504C, was specially developed for anti-Zeppelin patrols and about 80 were supplied to the RNAS. It had an auxiliary fuel tank in place of the front cockpit, which increased its endurance to eight hours, and frequently carried a Lewis machine-gun firing upwards at an angle of 45 degrees through the centre section.
  The Avro 504C (of which 80 were built) shared with the other RNAS variants the 504B, 504E and 504G a distinctive type of tail in which the familiar comma rudder of the 504 was replaced by vertical tail surfaces of elongated pattern. This tail assembly was used only on RNAS 504s; another distinctive feature of naval Avros were the long-span ailerons. The Avro 504B was employed chiefly for training and about 230 were built. The Avro 504G, of which 44 were built, was a gunnery-training development of the 504B and it was fitted with a single, fixed, synchronised Vickers machine-gun forward and a Lewis machine-gun on a Scarff ring aft.
  The Avro 504E differed more markedly from the classic 504 configuration than the other RNAS variants. Whereas the 504B, C and G had all retained the 80hp Gnome engine, the 504E had a 100hp Gnome Monosoupape; it also reverted to the straight-top longerons of the original Avro 504. Another noticeable feature of the 504E was the heavy reduction of wing stagger; this resulted from the changed centre of gravity position due to the installation of the main fuel-tank between the two cockpits and the re-positioning of the rear cockpit further aft. The Avro 504Es served at RNAS flying schools at Chingford, Cranwell and Fairlop.
  Mention must be made of two important experiments in naval flying which were undertaken by the Avro 504B and C. The 504B was used in pioneering work on deck-arrester gear and the 504C (under the new designation 504H) became in 1917 one of the first aircraft to be launched by catapult gear: the pilot was F/Cdr R E Penny.
  With the amalgamation of the RFC and RNAS to form the RAF in 1918, the Avro 504K was also used at former RNAS training schools, and this type remained in service for the training of FAA pilots during the nineteen-twenties. In 1923, at Leuchars, pilots scheduled for Panther spotter-reconnaissance flights first completed a course on Avro 504Ks, or dual Snipes, so as to accustom themselves to the vagaries of rotary engines; there were no dual-control Panthers. At about the same period all naval officers trained as pilots did their ab initio instruction on Avro 504Ks at Netheravon.

UNITS ALLOCATED
  NO.1 Squadron RNAS (Dover and Dunkirk): No.2 Wing. RNAS (lmbros); No.3 Squadron (formerly Eastchurch Squadron) RNAS (Dunkirk); No.4 Squadron. RNAS (Dover and Eastchurch). RNAS training schools at Chingford, Cranwell, Fairlop, Frieston, Manston, Port Victoria and Redcar.

TECHNICAL DATA (AVRO 504A, 504B and 504C)
  Description: Avro 504A: Single-seat bombing aircraft; Avro 504B: two-seat trainer; Avro 504C: single-seat anti-Zeppelin fighter.
  Manufacturers (504A): A V Roe & Co Ltd, Miles Platting, Manchester. (504B): A V Roe & Co Ltd, and sub-contracted by Parnall & Sons, Bristol; Regent Carriage Co Ltd, Fulham; Sunbeam Motor Car Co Ltd, Wolverhampton. (504C): A V Roe & Co Ltd, and sub-contracted by Brush Electrical Engineering Co Ltd, Loughborough. Serial numbers allocated were:- (504A):Nos.179, 873-878. (504B):Nos.1001-1050, 9821-9830, 9861-9890, N5250-5279, N5310-5329, N6010-6029, N6130-6159, N6650-6679. (504C):Nos.1467-1496, 3301-3320 and 8574-8603. (504E):Nos.9276-9285. (S04G):N5800-5829.
  Power Plant (504): One 80 hp Gnome; (504B): one 80 hp Gnome or 80 hp Le Rhone; (504C): one 80 hp Gnome.
  Dimensions: Span, 36 ft. Length, 29 ft 5 in. Height, 10 ft 5 in. Wing area, 330 sq ft.
  Weights (504): Empty, 924 lb. Loaded, 1,574 lb.
  Performance: (504): Maximum speed, 82 mph at sea level. Climb 7 min to 3,500 ft. Endurance, 4 1/2 hr.
  Armament: The Avro 504 equipped as a bomber carried four 20 lb bombs in improvised racks below the bottom wings and four small incendiaries. For anti-Zeppelin patrols, the Avro 504C had a single Lewis gun firing incendiary ammunition.


H.King Armament of British Aircraft (Putnam)


504. 'Each machine was fitted to carry four 20 lb T.N.T. bombs and four petrol incendiary bombs. No dummy bombs were available for testing, and the carriers were actually tested with live bombs.' So ran an Avro account of the historic and greatly daring raid on the Zeppelin installations at Lake Constance by four Avro 504s of the RNAS on 21 November, 1914. The H.E. bombs concerned were of Hales type; the incendiaries, with which the name of Wg Cdr F. A. Brock has been associated, were never carried. The bombs were hung two under each side of the fuselage on carriers devised by the Avro company. They were held in position by split-pins and were released by the pilot pulling on four wires. An elementary system of sighting by means of pins attached to the fuselage was installed. Thus armed, the 504, of enduring memory as a trainer beyond compare, and first flown in 1913 as an aeroplane with no specific application, answered its call to arms with the highest distinction. Nor was the Friedrichshafen raid the only occasion when 504s carried bombs with dramatic, if not always such telling, effect. An early raid (14 December, 1914) was made, for example, on the Bruges-Ostend railway line, on this occasion with four 16-lb bombs. In a single night (17 May, 1915) a 504 attempted to engage L.Z.38 with two grenades and two incendiary bombs, but was thwarted by the Zeppelin's rapid climb, and a similar machine dropped bombs on the stern of L.Z.39, causing damage, though the bombs passed clean through without exploding. For Home Defence some 504s carried four 20-lb bombs. A box of Ranken Darts was another anti-Zeppelin load.
  As for gunnery, in early 504 two-seaters the pilot sometimes had a pistol and the observer a rifle, a frustrating scheme, for the observer sat under the centre-section. Yet, concerning Avro No.398, the following account has been rendered by 2nd-Lieut (later Lieut-Col) C. W. Wilson:
  '... a Taube was seen coming from the south. Major Higgins instantly gave the order: "There you are Wilson. Go and take his number." I was off the mark at once, but Rabagliatti scrambled on board 398 before me, with a rifle and ammunition. We headed north, climbing. Rabagliatti kneeling on his seat in front and steering me till we got into position ahead and below as we had always meant to do. He then began tiring and ejecting his empties into my face, cursing at the tack of result. Suddenly his face lit up, and waving his rifle in the air he pointed to the ground... We were credited with the first German machine in the official history of the RFC.'
  This feat of British marksmanship was performed on 25 August, 1914.
  As for machine-gun mountings, one of the most historic of all times was associated with Avro No.383 and with the names of 2nd-Lieut L. A. Strange and Capt L. de C. Penn-Gaskell. Both these officers made contributions of note to the development of air armament. The mounting on the Avro consisted of a metal tube from a defunct Henri Farman and a length of rope to hoist the gun from the fuselage decking, the gun itself retaining a stock as on land-service guns for firing from the shoulder. This mounting was plied effectively on 22 November. 1914, when Lieut F. G. Small forced down an Aviatik after firing one full 47-round drum and 25 rounds from a second drum. Later, single-seater 504s (sub-types C.D.F and converted K) were occasionally and variously armed with Lewis guns, the C being specifically intended for anti-Zeppelin work and having to this end the gun mounted to fire upwards at 45 degrees through the centre-section. The most refined installation was probably on the K night-fighter conversion, which had a Lewis gun on a Foster mounting in association with a Hutton illuminated sight. A fixed synchronised Vickers gun, as well as a Lewis gun on a Scarff ring-mounting, is ascribed to the 504G, and a number of other 504s are known to have had synchronized guns.
  Although, as might be expected, no reference to armament appears in official publications concerning the 504, the following note is to be found in Erecting and Aligning 80 h.p. Avro Biplanes Type 504, issued by A. V. Roe and Co Ltd in 1915 ('with a view to instructing our clients') and including 'classes 504, 504a, b, c and d":
  'Although normally the tail is parallel to the top body-rail, peculiarities of the machine, or special requirements in the way of weight carrying, may necessitate an alteration in the angle of the tail.'
  Avro 504Ks, fitted with Hythe camera guns were used at Dymchurch for training cadets.


K.Wixey Parnall Aircraft Since 1914 (Putnam)


Parnall and Sons Limited
Aircraft Built under Contract 1914-1918

Avro 504

  About 10,000 Avro 504s were produced by the British aircraft industry between 1914 and 1932. Of this total 8,340 were completed during the four years of the 1914-18 war; 3,696 by the parent company (A V Roe & Co) and 4,644 by various sub-contractors, among which was Parnall & Sons at Bristol, which built at least 530 Avro 504s.
  First' appearing in 1913, the 504 was to become recognised as one of the great training aeroplanes of all time, although for a short period the type was employed on combat duties. The Avro 504 was intended as a civil sporting machine and was entered in the Aerial Derby at Hendon in September 1913, later achieving a speed of over 80 mph and a registered climb of 1,000 ft in under two minutes.
  The British War office became interested in the type and twelve were ordered for the Army and one for the Admiralty. After evaluation trials both Services placed production orders for 504s, the Admiralty stipulating that those machines built for the RNAS should have different sized wing spars from those employed in the RFC aircraft. This variation in 504s existed until the RNAS and RFC were amalgamated to form the RAF on 1 April, 1918.
  Those Avro 504s already in service at the start of the war were at first employed on reconnaissance and bombing missions, while a later version, the 504K was in 1918 modified in a number of cases as a single-seat anti-Zeppelin fighter for home defence duties, a .303-in Lewis machine-gun being mounted on the upper wing and the front cockpit faired over.
  An earlier version, the 504B, was recognised as the naval variant and differed mainly from other 504s in having a long extended fin and plain rudder, a distinct contrast to the comma-type rudder and absence of fin familiar on most other 504s. A pylon-style tailskid was also introduced on the 504B, and this set a pattern for the following variants.
  A modified gunnery training version of the 504B, the 504G, was armed with a fixed forward-firing Vickers .303-in machine-gun synchronised to fire through the propeller arc, while a .303-in Lewis machine-gun was mounted on a Scarff gun-ring in the rear cockpit.
  During 1916, the Avro 504J appeared powered by the 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape engine, this version becoming popularly known as the Mono-Avro. Many machines ordered as 504As subsequently emerged as 504Js, and did not possess the elongated vertical tail surfaces of earlier 504s of the RNAS.
  Supplies of Monosoupape engines began to diminish however, and alternative powerplants were tried out on some 504s; these included the 130 hp Clerget, and 80 hp and 110 hp Le Rhone. Installing these different engines necessitated modifications being made to the front of existing airframes, which resulted in the 504K variant. This type could be fitted with a Gnome, Clerget or Le Rhone engine, and subsequently a number of machines were converted to 504K standard, among them some 504Js. Those aircraft already under construction by contractors as 504As and 504Js were modified in situ and delivered as 504Ks.
  Naval 504s served with several RNAS units including, No.1 Squadron (Dover/Eastchurch), No.4 Squadron (Dover/Eastchurch) and at the RNAS Stations at Chingford, Cranwell, Fairlop, Frieston, Manston, Port Victoria and Redcar, all of which were training schools.
  Parnall & Sons first became involved with the 504 when it received an Admiralty contract to build thirty Avro 504Bs (9861-9890). These aircraft had underwing bomb racks and could carry four 16 lb bombs. One machine from this batch (9890) was armed with a forward-firing .303-in Vickers machine-gun and interrupter gear.
  Parnall's second Admiralty order for Avro 504s was to produce twenty 504Bs (N6010-N6029) intended for service with the RNAS. In the event, however, fifteen of these machines were transferred to the RFC and allotted Army serial numbers in the 'B' prefix series. Three other Parnall-built 504s (naval serials unknown) were also transferred to the RFC, where they were serialled A9975-A9977, but from which batch they came is not certain.
  During 1917, Parnall received a contract for the construction of thirty Avro 504B armament trainers (N6650-N6679) powered by 80 hp Gnome engines. Seven of these aircraft were later transferred to the RFC. At one time it was believed that this particular batch of 504Bs was built by Avro, but independent Admiralty and Avro documents have now confirmed that this order was fulfilled by Parnall at Bristol.
  By the same token, however, another batch of 504Bs (N5800-N5829) previously considered as Parnall-built, are now known to have been produced by Avro.
  A further two hundred 504s were ordered later from Parnall (B8581-B8780), these being 504Js. From this batch at least two are confirmed as having survived to become civil machines after 1918.
  Among the last aircraft with 'D' prefix serial numbers to be delivered to the RFC, before its amalgamation with the RNAS, was a batch of 100 Parnall-built Avro 504Ks (D9281-D9380) from which three at least survived to pursue civil careers.
  Subsequently among new contracts for aircraft to serve with the newly formed RAF was one received by Parnall for the production of 150 Avro 504K trainers (E3254-E3403). From this batch quite a number later appeared in the British civil register.
  Parnall is also believed to have built a number of 504Ks from another batch of 250 (F8696-F8945), but although it is known that F8864-F8882 were produced by Frederick Sage & Co, no confirmation of any machine being built by Parnall from this batch of 504Ks has been traced. One reliable source has recorded at one time that a number of 504Ks in this serial range were Parnall-built, and indeed mentions that aircraft F8812 and F8834 were later converted to 504N standards.

Avro 504B
  Two-seat trainer. 80 hp Gnome seven-cylinder air-cooled rotary.
  Span 36 ft; length 29 ft 5 in; height 10 ft 5 in; wing area 330 sq ft.
  Empty weight 924 lb; loaded weight 1,574 lb.
  Maximum speed 82 mph at sea level; climb to 3,500 ft 7 mins; service ceiling 12,000 ft; endurance 3 hr.
  Provision for four 16/20 lb bombs

Avro 504K
  Two-seat ab initio trainer. 110 hp Le Rhone, 130 hp Clerget or 110 hp Gnome Monosoupape.
  Dimensions as Avro 504B.
  Empty weight 1,231 lb; loaded weight 1,829 lb.
  Maximum speed 95 mph at sea level, 85 mph at 10,000 ft; climb to 3,500 ft 7 min, to 10,000 ft, 16 min; service ceiling 16,000 ft; range 250 miles; endurance 3 hr.
  One .303-in Lewis machine-gun on single-seat fighter conversions.
  Weights and performance with Le Rhone engine.

Production (Parnall only)
  504B: 50 confirmed; 504B armament trainers: 30 confirmed; 504A/ J / K including As and Js modified to K standard: 200 confirmed; 504K: 250 confirmed. An unknown number of 504Ks are believed to have been built by Parnall from a batch of 200 serialled F8696-F8945. These would have been in the F8696-F8863 range, as 504Ks serialled F8864-F8945 are known to have been produced by Frederick Sage.


R.Mikesh, A.Shorzoe Japanese Aircraft, 1910-1941 (Putnam)


Navy Avro 504 Trainer

  In 1921 The Master of Sempill's British Aviation Mission took thirty Avro 504 primary trainers to Japan for use by the Japanese Navy. These consisted of twenty Avro 504K landplane trainers (now called 504L), and ten seaplane trainers (504S), both types being outstanding in their class. The Japanese Navy decided to adopt these as its standard primary trainer and put them into production.
  To prepare for production, the Navy sent several of its officers to Avro to study the process. Among them were Capt (Ordnance) Ryuzo Tanaka, Capt (Ordnance) Tomasu Koyama, Lieut Kishichi Umakoshi, Lieut Misao Wada, and Engineer Katsusuke Hashimoto. The Navy purchased the manufacturing rights from A V Roe, and supplied both Nakajima and Aichi with actual sample aircraft and manufacturing drawings for their production when placing its orders. The Avro trainer for the Navy was in Nakajima production from 1922 to 1924 during which time the company built 250 in various versions.
  Aichi built thirty 504s fitted as twin-float seaplane trainers. The land-version was generally referred to simply as the Avro L and the seaplane model was the Avro S; however, the official Navy designation was Avro Land-based Trainer and Avro Seaplane Trainer.
  After the introduction of this aircraft by the Sempill Aviation Mission, it had a long life as the Japanese Navy's typical primary trainer. The later model, the 504N, developed into the Navy Type 3 Primary Trainer. Around 1927-28, a number of these Avro-designed trainers were released for civil use and were highly regarded. They had good stability and control, and were good aerobatic aircraft. A few were still flying as late as 1937 and were the last of the rotary-powered aircraft in regular flying operations.

  Single-engine land- and seaplane trainer biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Student and instructor in open cockpits.
  120hp-130hp Le Rhone nine-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine, driving a two- or four-bladed wooden propeller.
  One dorsal flexible 7. 7mm machinegun, (optional).
  Span 10.98m (36ft); length 8.57m (28ft 1 1/2in); height 3.03m (9ft 11 1/4in); wing area 30.7sq m (330.462sq ft).
  Empty weight 557kg (1,228Ib); loaded weight 830kg (1,830Ib); wing loading 27kg sq m(5.5Ib sq ft); power loading 6.9kg hp (15.2Ib/hp).
  Maximum speed 78kt (90mph); cruising speed 64kt (73.6mph); landing speed 30kt (34.5mph); climb to 3,000m (9,843ft) in 23min; service ceiling 4,340m (14,238ft); endurance 3hr; range 185nm (213sm).
  250 built by Nakajima 1922 to 1924 (wheel and float versions), thirty by Aichi from 1922 (float version).


M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)


AVRO Type 504

  When A.V. Roe initiated work in November 1912 on a development of the Type 500, he could not have anticipated the success that this machine would have. It became mainly a training machine during the war period and with progressive improvements, continued in this role until 1932. Many other uses, both civil and military, were found for this outstanding aircraft, which was also built in large numbers by other contractors in wartime and in various countries around the world. The major changes to the aircraft or its role were identified by a suffix and ranged from 504A to 504S. These variants were started in 1915 and so are outside the period of this work.
  Although Roe must rightly be given credit for the basic design, credit must also be given to his three designers, Chadwick, Taylor and Broadsmith, whose contributions were to make the overall design one which was outstanding.
  The prototype 504 flew at Brooklands on 18 September 1913, having been partly built at Brownsfield Mills and completed at Clifton St. works and then delivered to Brooklands the day before. Just two days after the first flight it competed in the Aerial Derby, in which contest Raynham finished fourth at 66.5 mph. Following further trials the machine was returned to Manchester for various modifications, including replacing the bulky cowling with one of circular form. The tapered ailerons, which were fixed at the inboard end, and were warped separately from the wing structure, were replaced with hinged parallel units. A number of less obvious changes were also made. After further flight trials the machine was bought by the Daily Mail and, from April 1914, was flown as a twin float seaplane. The outbreak of war saw the prototype 504 seaplane commandeered at Shoreham by the Navy, but it crashed on land during the delivery flight in June 1914 and was not rebuilt.
  Production for the War Office began in mid-1913, when a contract for twelve aircraft was issued and further aircraft for trials and for private owners, probably four, were put in hand. The Admiralty also placed orders for seven machines in early 1914 and a further forty-four were ordered by the War Office, before the end of the year.
  The single 504 fitted with the ABC engine was one sold to Armstrong Whitworth Ltd. to test the first engine of the type made by that company. The engine was fitted to a machine which arrived at Brooklands from Manchester on 16 February 1913, but the engine was not a success and after only one flight in April the project was abandoned.

  Power:
   80hp Gnome and Gnome Monosoupape seven-cylinder air-cooled rotaries.
   100hp ABC eight-cylinder water-cooled vee.
  Data
  Span 36ft
  Area 330 sq ft
  Length 29ft 5in
  Height 10ft 5in
  Weight land-plane 924 lb
  Weight allup 1,574 lb (Prototype 1,550 lb)
  Weight seaplane 1,0701b
  Weight allup 1,7171b
  Climb to 3,500 ft prototype 9min 30sec Gnome
  7min Monosoupape
  Max speed land-plane 82 mph
  seaplane 75 mph

  Production.
  Prototype. First flight at Brooklands 18 September 1913, destroyed. June 1914. S/No.889.
  Four Aircraft for trials and private sales.
  Twelve to the War Office. Serial Nos.376, 390, 397-398, 637-638, 652, 665, 685, 692, 715-716
  Forty-four to the War Office. Serial Nos.750-793.
  Seven to the Admiralty. Serial Nos.179, 873-878


P.Lewis British Aircraft 1809-1914 (Putnam)


Avro 504

  When A. V. Roe designed the 504, there was no idea in his mind that he was embarking on a project which was to result in one of the most outstandingly successful and significant British aircraft ever built. In fact, it is recorded that he considered that the firm would be fortunate if half-a-dozen were ordered. Nevertheless, the machine proved itself to be a fine design from the start.
  Construction commenced in April, 1913, and when the prototype 504 emerged for testing at Brooklands in the following July it was seen to be a handsome, well-proportioned and sturdier development of the earlier 500. Wings of the same 36 ft. equal span were used, but stagger was introduced for the first time on an Avro biplane. The two-bay formula was retained, but a very unusual feature of the prototype was the use of strut-connected, inversely-tapered, warping ailerons on the four wing-tips. The outboard ends were warped by cables, while the innermost ends were fixed to the wings. It was not long before this rather queer arrangement was altered to one of normal fully-hinged, constant-chord ailerons. Compared with the 500, the 504 received additional refinement in the form of a shallow, curved top-decking to the fuselage, and also extra power from its 80 h.p. Gnome. The width of the fuselage nose was not quite sufficient to accommodate the diameter of the Gnome, and necessitated the fitting of bulges in the aluminium square-section cowling.
  In the undercarriage the previous Avro practice of using a leaf-spring axle was discarded, its place being taken by a rigid axle carried on legs sprung by means of vertical rubber cord shock-absorbers. The central skid, however, was retained and mounted on fore-and-aft vee-struts. A change was made also in the 504 to an independent, sprung tailskid, relieving the rudder of this jarring duty. The wing-tips of the prototype were protected in landing by short vertical, strut-braced skids. No fin was fitted and a new rudder of completely curved outline was mounted at the tail. When the revised ailerons were installed the fuselage lines were improved at the nose by a circular cowling with attendant side fairings.
  On 20th September, 1913, the 504 was flown into fourth place in the second Aerial Derby at 66-5 m.p.h. by F. P. Raynham, and in the following month, on 2nd October, Raynham, with H. V. Roe as his passenger, piloted the machine against Blackburn's monoplane flown by Harold Blackburn with its owner, Dr. M. G. Christie, as passenger in the 100-miles cross-country "War of the Roses" race for the Yorkshire Evening News Challenge Cup. The course was from Leeds over York, Doncaster, Sheffield and Barnsley, the race being abandoned by the 504 at Barnsley owing to bad visibility.
  Official tests were to be made of the machine at Farnborough, and it was flown there by Raynham on 24th November, passing its trials very successfully. At the beginning of 1914, a 504 with an Armstrong Whitworth-built A.B.C. eight-cylinder engine was tested at Brooklands. On 4th February, 1914, Raynham flew from Brooklands to Hendon and took the 504 to an unofficially-observed British height record of 15,000 ft. A few days later, on 10th February, with MacGeah Hurst as passenger, he reached 14,420 ft. to set up a new official record. At the March, 1914, Olympia Aero Show the company exhibited a new version on floats. In the spring of 1914 the prototype 504 was bought by the aviation-conscious Daily Mail to be flown on tour on wheels, and then on floats from one coastal resort to another, in a further effort to promote British air-mindedness. In addition to its new landing-gear, the machine was given a replacement engine with the installation of an 80 h.p. Monosoupape Gnome. Although nominally of the same power, the new engine was thought to give more than the original 80 h.p. Gnome, which was considered to produce just over 60 h.p. in reality. F. P. Raynham and George Lusted were engaged to pilot the 504 around the country, but Raynham was forced to crash-land it owing to engine failure during its delivery flight when it was commandeered on die outbreak of war.
  So ended the career of the original 504, but the sixteen months of its existence served its creators well, for it brought in the orders which truly set the Avro Company on its feet. The first of these came at the beginning of the summer of 1914, when twelve 504s were placed on order by the War Office together with one for the Admiralty. An alteration in the upper longerons was made in the production 504s so that they sloped down at the rear instead of being straight as in the original machine. A further difference between those built for the R.F.C. and those for the R.N.A.S. was that the naval aircraft were given wing spars of slightly greater cross section. Only a few of the 504s on order had been delivered by the time that war came on 4th August, 1914, and the type subsequently made its great name as a trainer.

SPECIFICATION

  Description: Two-seat tractor biplane. Wooden structure, fabric covered.
  Manufacturers: A. V. Roe & Co. Ltd., Clifton Street, Miles Platting, Manchester.
  Power Plant: 80 h.p. Gnome, 80 h.p. Monosoupape Gnome.
  Dimensions: Span, 36 ft. Length, 29 ft. 5 ins. Height, 10 ft. 5 ins. Wing area, 330 sq. ft.
  Weights: Empty, 924 lb. Loaded, 1,550 lb.
  Performance: Maximum speed, 80 9 m.p.h. Cruising speed, 70 m.p.h. Landing speed, 43 m.p.h. Climb, 1.75 mins. to 1,000 ft., 7 mins. to 3,500 ft. Endurance, 4.5 hrs.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


AVRO 504 UK

  Although the Avro 504 saw most widespread use as a two-seater for reconnaissance, bombing and training, it also saw some service as a single-seat fighter, initially with the Royal Naval Air Service for airship interception. The first variant intended specifically for this role was the Avro 504C which, powered by the 80 hp Gnome seven-cylinder rotary, was essentially similar to the two-seat Avro 504B apart from having a fuel tank occupying the space normally taken up by the forward cockpit, and a gap in the top centre section through which a 0.303-in (7,7-mm) Lewis gun could be fired upward at an angle of 45 deg. Eighty Avro 504Cs were ordered for the RNAS, 50 of these being built by Brush Electrical Engineering, and these were operated on home defence duties from various RNAS stations. One was modified in 1916 to take a 75 hp Rolls-Royce Hawk inline engine, and 30 were ordered for the RNAS as the Avro 504F, but, in the event, these were completed with the standard Gnome rotary. The Royal Flying Corps equivalent of the Avro 504C was the Avro 504D, but only six were produced, these being delivered in August 1915. Early in 1918, a number of singleseat fighter conversions of the 110 hp Le Rhone 9J nine-cylinder rotary-powered Avro 504K was produced for issue to Home Defence squadrons, these having a single Lewis gun on a Foster mounting above the upper wing centre section. Several of these were later fitted with a V-type undercarriage similar to that of the Avro 521. The following data relate to the Avro 504C.

Max speed, 83 mph (134 km/h) at sea level.
Time to 3,500 ft (1065 m), 7.2 min.
Endurance, 8 hrs.
Empty weight, 930 lb (422 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,592 lb (722 kg).
Span, 36 ft 0 in (10,97m).
Length, 29 ft 5 in (8,96m).
Height, 10 ft 5 in (3,17 m).
Wing area, 330 sq ft (30,66 m2).


Журнал Flight


Flight, October 11, 1913.

THE WAR OF THE ROSES.

  A "WAR of the Roses" was fought out again last week in the form of a race between F. R. Raynham on an Avro biplane, which, of course, was built in Lancashire, and Harold Blackburn on a Blackburn monoplane, a Yorkshire product. The race, which was for a challenge cup offered by the Yorkshire Evening News, started and finished at Leeds, and was held over a circuit of which the chief points were York, Doncaster, Sheffield and Barnsley, a total distance of nearly 100 miles. To see the start about 60,000 people gathered on Moortown on Thursday of last week and both pilots got away from Leeds promptly at 2.14 p.m., Mr. Blackburn with Dr. Christie as passenger and Raynham accompanied by Mr. H. V. Roe. The weather was very bad, the mist making it very difficult to pick up the landmarks and keep on the course, in which respect Blackburn scored over his opponent, as he was more familiar with the country. It will be seen from our table that Raynham had an advantage by the time York was reached, and he was the first away again. At Doncaster, however, he was three seconds behind. Both men got away promptly from the Town Moor, Doncaster, and Blackburn still further improved his position, Raynham being handicapped by being unable to locate the control at Sheffield. He had to make two descents before reaching his destination, and he had the same trouble at the next control, Barnsley. In fact he flew right past it, and when he did descend it was at Dewsbury, some miles away. As it was then hopeless to try and put matters right, he flew direct to Leeds, and arrived some time before Blackburn. Soon after Blackburn's arrival the cup was presented to Dr. Christie, and handed by him to Blackburn. We understand that a return match will be held in Lancashire towards the end of the month, and it is anticipated that the event will become an annual one.

   Blackburn. Raynham.
   h. m. s. h. m. s.
Start 2 14 0 2 14 0
York arr. 2 39 48 1/5 2 38 59 2/5
,, dep. 3 1 28 4/5 3 0 40
Doncaster arr. 3 33 0 3 33 3
,, dep. 3 51 0 3 5' 3
Sheffield arr. 4 19 50 4 23 50
,, dep. 4 42 0 4 43 0
Barnsley arr. 4 55 23 3/5 -
,, dep. 5 19 0 -
Leeds finish 5 48 0 Disqualifie


Flight, December 6, 1913.

THE 80 H.P. AVRO BIPLANE.

  IT is not so very long ago that really high speed was almost invariably associated with the monoplane type of aeroplane; the biplane being looked upon as more suitable for weight carrying at comparatively slow speeds. Things alter rapidly in the aviation world, however, and what seems to be a fantastic dream to-day is an accomplished fact to-morrow.
  With his new 80 h.p. biplane, Mr. A. V. Roe has proved that it is possible to-day to produce a machine of the biplane type which is as fast as, if not faster than, most monoplanes, and which, moreover, has the advantage that it can be landed at a speed which is very much below its normal flying speed. As a matter of fact the new Avro biplane possesses a speed range of very nearly 50 per cent.
  A good idea of the general arrangement should be gained from the accompanying illustrations. It will be seen that the most noticeable departure from the usual Avro practice is the staggering of the main planes, the reason for this no doubt being, that for the same gap and chord extra efficiency is obtained by having the upper plane placed in advance of the lower plane.
  In plan the main planes are of the same shape as those of the 50 h.p. non-staggered type, but in section they are naturally of a much smaller camber and angle of incidence.
  Four pairs of struts of hollow spruce connect the main planes, whilst another two pairs of ash struts connect the upper plane to the fuselage. The method of attaching the lower plane to the fuselage is shown in one of the accompanying sketches. It will be noticed, that a steel lug bolted to the lower longeron has two bolts passing through the plane, but not through the spar inside the inner end rib. Thus the spar is not weakened by piercing, and the wing is prevented from slipping out of the socket partly by the bolts passing inside the rib, and partly by the diagonal wing-bracing cables. Another of our sketches shows the method of joining the inter-plane struts to the main spars in a similar way. It is by close attention to details like these that it has been possible to construct a machine which combines light weight with a high factor of safety. It is really the keynote of the new Avro design that the weight has been cut down to a minimum without undue sacrifice of strength.
  The fuselage, which is of rectangular section, is built up of longerons of ash channelled out between the strut attachments for lightness and strengthened by flanges of three-ply wood against bending stresses. The struts and cross-members are of spruce, and diagonal cross-wiring completes the construction of the fuselage.
  The pilot's and passenger's seats are arranged tandem fashion, the pilot occupying the rear seat, from where he has an excellent view in all directions, and, owing to the small width of the fuselage - 2 ft. 6 ins. to be exact - he is able to survey the country below without the necessity of leaning out over the side. From the passenger's seat an equally excellent view is obtained, and the wind-shield enables him to make his observations in comfort protected as he is against the flow of air. The controls are of the usual Avro type and consist of a vertical lever pivoted on a longitudinal rocking shaft. A to-and-fro movement operates the elevator, whilst the ailerons are actuated by a side-to-side movement of the hand lever. A foot-bar operates the rudder through double control wires. In this particular machine dual control is not fitted, but could easily be introduced by lengthening the longitudinal rocking shaft.
  At the rear the fuselage terminates in a vertical knife's edge to which is hinged the rudder, which is of the usual Avro type; as are also the tail plane and elevators. A swivelling tail skid of the laminated steel spring type protects the tail planes against contact with the ground.
  In the front portion of the fuselage and enclosed by one of the neatest aluminium shields we have seen is the engine - an 80 h.p. Gnome - which is carried in double bearings, the front one of which is formed by four tubular extensions of the longerons which converge until they meet on a channel steel ring which carries the front ball-bearing. A small inspection door on each side of the engine housing permits of a general examination of the magneto, carburettor, oil pump, &c, whilst for close inspection the whole engine housing can be removed by undoing the butterfly fasteners by means of which the cowl is attached to the fuselage.
  The planes as well as the fuselage are covered with a fabric, which has squares of stronger threads woven into it, so that should the fabric become pierced by a bullet or through any cause, these squares will prevent the fabric from tearing.
  One of our sketches illustrates the very neat aileron hinge employed. In order to prevent the air from escaping through the opening between the rear spar and the aileron a strip of wood of triangular section is screwed on to the leading edge of the aileron. The edge of this strip of wood is held tight against the rear spar by means of coil springs on the part of the hinge which is attached to the rear spar, thus making a practically air-tight joint at any angle of the aileron, without causing any undue friction which might otherwise interfere with the free movement of the lateral control.
  The chassis, it will be noticed, has been slightly altered. Two pairs of V struts of streamlined steel tubes carry on their lower extremities a stout ash skid. Instead of the laminated steel spring axle is fitted a tubular axle which is not connected to the skid, and which carries on its ends the two disc wheels. Two steel tubes run from each end of the axle to a cross-piece, whilst another single tube, pivoted to the lower longeron and passing through the cross-piece of the lower tubes, carries another cross-piece on its lower extremity. Rubber shock absorbers connect the two cross-pieces, thus effecting the springing of the wheels. A neat streamline casing, open at the bottom, encloses the shock absorbers and protects them against oil thrown out from the engine. By sliding the casing up along the tube until the shock absorbers are uncovered, these may readily be adjusted and examined or, if need be, replaced. Stout stranded cables running from the lower ends of the skid struts to the top and bottom of the first pair of inter-plane struts, brace the wings very effectively against drift. During the official tests at Farnborough recently, we understand, the machine, with pilot, passenger and four hours' fuel, climbed 1,000 ft. in 175 mins. Her maximum speed was 80 m.p.h. and her minimum speed 43 m.p.h., thus giving a speed range of nearly 50 per cent.
  The weight of the machine with fuel for three hours and a passenger is 1,550 lbs., giving a loading of about 4 1/2 lbs. per square foot.


Flight, March 14, 1914.

WHAT THERE WILL BE TO SEE AT OLYMPIA.

THE EXHIBITS.

Avro (A. V. Roe and Co.). (64.).

  THIS well-known firm will exhibit three machines, all of which are fitted with 80 h.p. Gnome engines - a tractor hydro-aeroplane, a fighting biplane, and a scout tractor. The first mentioned has already proved its value as a fast machine with a wide speed range and excellent climbing capabilities, and is so familiar to our readers as a land machine, a description of which appeared in FLIGHT for December 6th last, that it is unnecessary to discuss it further here. It was upon a machine of this type that Raynham established a British height record during last month. The aeroplane shown will, however, be provided with floats, for sea service, and various minor improvements have been recently incorporated in the design, notably in regard to the springing of the undercarriage and the floats, so that it will be worthy of close inspection.
<...>
  Each of the above machines will be fitted with the Avro safety belt, concerning which there is ample evidence of the fact that it has been designed by a practical man. Its notable features are, that the aviator gets into and out of the belt by means of the quick-release devices, which are in duplicate - one on each side - thereby ensuring that it is in working order, and the ample depth of the front section of the belt, which precludes any possibility of internal injury resulting should the pilot be suddenly thrown forward.


Flight, March 21, 1914.

THE OLYMPIA EXHIBITION.

THE EXHIBITS.

AVRO (A. V. ROE AND CO.). (64.)

  THREE machines of different types, all representing considerable departures in design from previous models, whilst at the same time retaining the good qualities that have established such an enviable reputation for this enterprising firm. Keenly alive to the various requirements of the Army and Navy, Mr. A. V. Roe has designed three entirely different types, each for a different purpose, one being a military biplane of the pusher type, and built with a view to meeting the demand for a machine affording the observer an unrestricted view, and also possessing facilities for the mounting of a gun if desired. The second machine is a small, fast, single-seater, designed for scouting purposes, whilst the third and last is a hydro-biplane. All three machines are fitted with 80 h.p. Gnome engines.
<...>
  The 80 h.p. Seaplane is similar to the land machines as regards its wings and fuselage, but possesses some very interesting features in the method of springing the floats. These are carried on a structure of steel tubes, of which the outer members are bent downwards inside the floats, where they are attached to another tube by means of rubber shock absorbers in the manner shown in one of the sketches. The opening in the deck of the float through which the tubular strut passes is afterwards covered with a flexible cover made made of diver's twill, so that although the floats are free to move several inches up or down no water is admitted inside them.
  The main floats, of which there are two, are of the non-stepped variety, and are also covered with diver's twill, which has been found to be more satisfactory than fabric, as it does not tear go easily, although it is undoubtedly somewhat heavy. The floats are divided by bulkheads into 11 watertight compartments, so that should one of them spring a leak the remaining ones would still possess sufficient buoyancy to keep the machine afloat. The pilot's and passenger's seats are arranged tandem fashion, the pilot controlling the machine from the rear seat by means of the usual Avro controls.
  A small float protects the tail planes against contact with the water, whilst a small water rudder mounted just behind the tail plane on an extension of the rudder post enables the pilot to steer the machine at slow speeds on the water.
  Common to all the three machines is an extremely neat instrument board of Avro design, comprising altimeter, clock, compass, air speed indicator and revolution indicator, and all the machines are furthermore fitted with the Avro safety belt, the design of which is already known to the majority of our readers.


Flight, May 22, 1914.

THE AERIAL DERBY.

THE PILOTS AND HOW TO RECOGNISE THE MACHINES.

No. 13. The 80 h.p. Avro Biplane
  is of the tractor type, and has an all-enclosed fuselage. It may be recognized by its chassis, which has a single central skid and two wheels.

THE MACHINES AND HOW TO RECOGNISE THEM.

No. 13. The 80 h.p. Avro Biplane is very similar to the machine on which Mr. F. P. Raynham did his famous glide from Brooklands to Hendon. This machine is very fast and possesses a good speed range. The engine, which is mounted in the nose of the fuselage, is totally enclosed by an aluminium shield.


Flight, June 26, 1914.

Raynham and Salmet in Ireland.

  LAST weekend Mr. F. P. Raynham and Mr. Salmet were giving exhibition flights on behalf of the Daily Mail in the North of Ireland. On Thursday of last week they were at Lurgan. Mr. Kaynham, on the Avro machine which he flew at Brooklands last year, but now converted to a waterplane, started from a small pond, while Salmet on his Bleriot started from an adjoining field. In spite of the fact that the whole place was surrounded by trees, making it very difficult to get out, both pilots carried a good many passengers during the day. On Friday Raynham and Salmet were flying during the afternoon, while during the evening they flew the 25 miles to Warrenpoint. Raynham followed the canal from Portadown, and took exactly an hour, but during one half the journey his motor was only firing on five cylinders, and he flew low down between the hills; there was also a strong wind blowing. On Saturday flights were made at Warrenpoint, Salmet starting from the Golf Links and Raynham from the Bay.


Flight, January 8, 1915.


MILESTONES.

<...>
  Finally followed, in 1913, the latest type Avro biplane, which has proved by far the most generally successful of all the machines produced by this enterprising firm. In the latest type, the body has been redesigned, and, while retaining its rectangular section, is of a much more pleasing outline, as well as being possibly of a better streamline form. The main planes, which possess all the characteristics of the previous models as regards their plan form, are staggered, and the chassis, although being of a different form from that of the 50 h.p. type, is as flexible as was the old one and a more satisfactory proposition from a practical point of view, having telescopic tubes and rubber shock-absorbers.
  This, briefly, is, then, the history of the evolution of the Avro machines. True, Mr. Roe has produced other types, such as the enclosed monoplane, the all-enclosed biplane (which was never seriously considered by the authorities, although quite probably having in it the germ of the machine of the future), the "pusher" biplane exhibited at the last Olympia aero show, the small "arrow" type scouting biplane, and one or two others, but they are not, strictly speaking, part of the development of the Avros, being more to be considered as a side issue.
  What the next type of Avro will be like is a matter for conjecture, but one can safely trust the versatile designer to produce something that will be as far ahead of the present machine as that was ahead of the one preceding it. Probably Messrs. A. V. Roe and Co. are too busy at present turning out their standard type to find the time for experimenting with new designs or testing developments, but when the war is over we may expect to see new models emanate from the busy Manchester works.


Flight, October 29, 1915.

CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS.-VIII.

<...>
  In the double skid type of chassis illustrated in our last issue the suspension is generally fairly simple, since it is possible to sling the wheel axle by means of strands of rubber from the two skids. When a single, central skid is employed it is no longer possible to solve the problem of elastic suspension quite so simply. There are, however, two or three alternative ways of providing the necessary flexibility. One of these is to make the axle itself flexible. This is generally obtained either by building up the axle in the form of a transverse laminated steel spring which carries on its extremities the two wheels, or by mounting the wheels on two short stub axles, which are then in turn connected at their outer ends to a transverse spring mounted immediately above the axles. In one of the accompanying pages of illustrations will be found two examples of the transverse laminated spring axle. One is the French Nieuport monoplane, and the other the older type Avro biplane. These two undercarriages are similar in type, but differ somewhat in detail. The construction will, we think, be clear from the sketches without needing any explanation, except that in both cases the chassis struts are streamline steel tubes. In the Nieuport the central skid is a steel tube, whereas in the Avro this member is made of ash.
<...>
  When the shock absorbers take the form of rubber cord, several types are, of course, available. Two of these have been shown in the accompanying sketches. In the later Avro biplanes the members running from the axle to the body are three in number on each side. Two run from the axle to the shock absorbers, and one from the body to the shock absorbers. The two lower tubes carry on their upper ends a cross-piece, and a similar cross-piece is secured to the lower end of the upper single tube. The latter passes through an opening in the "Tee" piece of the two lower tubes, and rubber cords wrapped around the cross-pieces provide the springing. A rubber pad or cushion is interposed between the cross-pieces, and serves to take care of the shocks due to rebound.
<...>


Flight, March 20, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

The Avro Machines

  IN connection with this week's instalment of our Milestones series, dealing with the Avro machines, it may be of interest to mention that it was the machines built by this firm which first suggested to us the title "Milestones." An article under this heading was published in our issue of January 8, 1915, in which were briefly described and illustrated the Avro aeroplanes from the first and up to the end of 1914. The restrictions imposed by the censorship did not permit of continuing the series thus commenced, but with the present instalment on Milestones the Avro series is brought up to date, and our readers will, therefore, by looking back to the issue in question, have an unbroken series of machines ranging over a period of ten years. Needless to say there are few firms who can show such a "Family tree," having, to remain in the simile, its roots so deep down in aviation history as 1908, and with its newest branches reaching upwards into the present and near future. It is curious to note how nearly all the Avro machines retain a strong family resemblance to the earlier machines, much though they may differ in many respects. In a historical article like the present, it may not be out of the way to mention that it was Mr. A. V. Roe who pioneered the production of aeroplanes of the tractor type, a type which has proved itself superior in nearly every way to any other, and, with one or two exceptions, the designer of the famous Avro machines has remained faithful to his early ideal.
  As far as concerns this article, the machine which formed the foundation of the Avro house is the 80 h.p. tractor built in 1913, and with very slight modifications still used extensively as a training machine at the present day. Surely this is a record of which any designer may well be proud, and there can be little doubt that the famous 80 Avro was a most remarkable machine in those days. In our issue of December 6, 1913, we published a detailed description of the machine, with scale drawings and a few constructional details, and it will not, therefore, be necessary to do more than give a photograph of it here. The machine, as already indicated, has undergone slight modifications from time to time, but these have been of a minor character, and as will be seen from the accompanying photographs of some of the later models, the machine remains substantially as she was in 1913. Thus the type 504 J is to all outward appearances the same as the 1913 model, although she is fitted with a 100 h.p. Gnome monosoupape engine in place of the 80 h.p. engine of the older model. Another photograph shows the 80 h.p. tractor seaplane of 1914, the famous Daily Mail seaplane on which Mr. Raynham did so much good work by arousing interest in flying at various coast towns in 1914.
  With this brief reference to the models in existence just before, or in the earliest days of, the War, we can now turn our attention to the machines built in the interval between 1914 and the present time.

The Type 504 K Training Machine

  The modern version of the original 1913 type is known as the 504 K, and is to all intents and purposes identical with the original. It has been strengthened up in places, it is true, and minor alterations have been made, but fundamentally the design remains unaltered. Of the alterations made, mention may be made of the engine mounting, which was, in the older machine, of the two-bearer type, the front bearer being in the form of a ball race supported on four tubular arms forming extensions of the fuselage longerons. This "spider," as it is usually termed, has been removed in the type 504 K, and the engine is supported on two bearer plates behind the crank case - in other words, is overhung. Also the power has been increased from that of the original 80 h.p. Gnome to more modern rotaries, such as the 100 h.p. Gnome monosoupape or the 110 h.p. Le Rhone. In the table of performances printed elsewhere the figures relating to the 504 K represent the performance of the machine when fitted with a 110 h.p. Le Rhone. Any standard rotary engine up to about 100 h.p. can be fitted without entailing any alteration in the machine, adapters being supplied to suit all engines. The A.B.C. Wasp can also be fitted if desired.
  Pilots who have flown the Avro 504 K all agree that it is an extremely comfortable machine, and that on it it is possible to do every kind of "stunt" imaginable. The machine appears to be extremely strong in spite of its light weight, and is so easy on the controls that it is not in the least surprising to learn that it has been adopted as the standard training machine for the Royal Air Force. In this capacity it has been built in huge numbers, and it is even probable that more machines of this type have been built than of any other type in the world.
  As an inexpensive touring machine for the owner-driver after the War this machine should have much to recommend it, since, even when fitted with an engine of 80 h.p. only, it has a very good performance, and the first cost, as well as the running cost, would not then be unreasonably great. As a matter of fact, we believe that the type is now undergoing further development, and that it is about to be issued in a slightly new form, probably to be known as the 504 M, in which it is arranged as a three-seater, with an enclosed cabin for the pilot and two passengers. This, however, is still a thing of the future, and no particulars can, therefore, be given at present.
  It may be remembered that in 1914 the Avro firm got out a tractor seaplane, 150 h.p. Sunbeam engine, for the circuit of Britain. Although the outbreak of War prevented the running of this race, this particular type of machine was proceeded with, and several were built early in 1915. The time between the outbreak of hostilities and May, 1916, was taken up with the construction, in addition to the standard 504, of 130 h.p. Clerget two-seaters, 130h.p. Sunbeam two-seater seaplanes, and several large single-engined bombers. The 504 was slightly altered in various respects for different jobs. Then in May, 1916, tests were carried out on a twin-engined bomber.

The Seaplane, type 504L. February, 1919.

  Quite recently, last month in fact, a further development of the famous 504 type has taken place. This takes the form of a tractor seaplane with 130 h.p. Clerget engine, very similar to the standard Avro 504 in general arrangement, except, of course, the undercarriage, which is of the twin-float type. This machine is known as the 504L, and is not greatly different from the 1914 type of seaplane illustrated at the beginning of this article. The figures in the table of performances, relating to this machine, are the calculated figures, and we are informed that the actual tests have given even better results. Thus the calculated speed was, as shown in the table, 80 m.p.h. at sea level, whereas the machine actually does 90 m.p.h. The machine, which is fitted with dual controls, can be looped, spun, side-slipped, stalled, etc., just like the standard land machines. The 504L will also be arranged as a three-seater, with single controls and the pilot in front. The airscrew shown in the photograph, and which was fused for the test, has Avro patent detachable blades. Finally, it might be mentioned that the machine will take all rotaries up to 150 h.p. and also the A.B.C. Wasp.


Flight, May 15, 1919.

CIVILIAN AVIATION
OPENING OF THE SEASON AT HENDON

  GLORIOUS weather attended the opening of the civilian flying season at the London Aerodrome, Hendon, on Saturday last. A very fair number of visitors managed to get down to the aerodrome in spite of transport difficulties. Both at Golder's Green and Cricklewood there were long queues waiting for trams and 'buses, and the patience with which these prospective visitors to the aerodrome awaited their turn is a fair measure of their interest in flying. All the same, it will not do to try such patience too severely, and better facilities must be provided before the old aerodrome regains the popularity it enjoyed before the War. Not, of course, that the management of the aerodrome can be held in any way responsible for the London traffic scandal, but in their own interest, and in t he interest of flying generally, it is essential that the large number of people who now are taking a keen interest in aviation should not have their enthusiasm damped by such irritating obstacles. It is not, we admit, a matter that can be remedied at a moment's notice, but something might be done to relieve the situation. For instance, as there is now a railway track laid on to the aerodrome from the main line, it should be possible to make arrangements for running trains out from St. Pancras on Saturdays. We are aware that the scarcity of rolling-stock is probably as great on the railway as elsewhere, and that, therefore, the number of trains available for this purpose might not be very great, but even a few would materially help to relieve the congestion at Golder's Green and Cricklewood.
  As regards the flying, the Grahame-White Co. had in commission four Avro two-seaters, 110 h.p. Le Rhone engines, which were kept as busy as could be, taking up passengers at 10s. 6d. and one guinea a time. The half-guinea flights were necessarily somewhat short, but even so they compared favourably with the flips made before the War, when a fee of two guineas was charged, and when machines seldom reached a height of more than a couple of hundred feet during a flip. With the Avros now in use, even on a half-guinea flight, the passenger enjoys a turning climb to quite a fair altitude, while in the guinea flights both altitude and duration are considerably greater. If desired, the passenger is treated to "stunts" such as loops, spins, rolls, etc. We noticed that on Saturday a good proportion of the passengers taken up were anxious to crowd into each flight as many thrills as possible, and all of them thoroughly enjoyed their experience. The machines were kept busy all the afternoon, and changed passengers with great dispatch, the pilots keeping their engines ticking over the while. Only when the fuel tanks required replenishing were the engines stopped.
  Among the pilots who were giving joy-rides we were pleased to discover our old friend Maj. R. H. Carr, who will be remembered as one of the G.W. pilots before the War, and who has now rejoined his old firm. We imagine that he found the joy-riding somewhat "tame" after his experiences in aerial fighting, but his usual good humour did not desert him, and he entered into the fun of the thing with great energy.
  Pre-War visitors to the aerodrome will meet several old friends at Hendon now. Mr. M. D. Manton has joined the Airco firm as test pilot, and is assisting Mr. Birchenough, another Hendon old-timer, in that capacity. Lastly, it is quite like old times when, on passing through the gates, one is met with the rotund, smiling face of Mr. Plant, who is still, as of old, "the St. Peter of the Aerodrome."
  There was not a large attendance on Sunday, but the presence of a line of cars showed that the Hendon habit is reviving. Apart from the passenger-flights on Avros, an excellent flight was made on the new Grahame-White "Bantam," probably the smallest machine yet made, and much interest was aroused by the arrival of three Blackburn "Kangaroos," which rumour has it have been purchased by the Grahame-White Co. for inclusion in their week-end programmes.
  During the week-end, too, the aerodrome at Hounslow has presented a very animated scene, and the Avro machines which are available have, been kept very busy taking passengers for "flips." Last week over 400 trips were made, the passengers ranging in age from an old lady of 84 to a child of 4. In response to the demand for nights of longer duration, Messrs. A. V. Roe and Co. are now arranging for a regular series of cross-country trips from Hounslow.
<...>


Flight, June 26, 1919.

THE AERIAL DERBY

THE MACHINES

No. 4. - The Avro Biplane, 110 h . p . Le Rhone engine
  This machine was flown by Lieut.-Col. G. L. P. Henderson, as he could not, we understand, get permission from the Air Ministry authorities to use the Martinsyde F. 4 originally entered. The Avro two-seater is so well known as to need little description here. Suffice it to point out that to all intents and purposes she is the same machine - with an engine of higher power - as the original Avro two-seater of 1913, which had an 80 h.p. Gnome. Needless to say that, matched against modern machines of high power, the Avro had little chance of winning the Derby, although the somewhat hopeless position was, to a certain extent, mitigated by the fact that a sealed handicap was flown in connection with the Derby. Lieut.-Col. Henderson is to be congratulated upon his determination and perseverance in completing the course, and certainly was deserving of a more modern mount.


Flight, September 25, 1919.

COMMERCIAL AIR-TRANSPORT

WINDERMERE

  This week has been a record one for passengers at Bowness. The Avro seaplanes have carried out 32 flights, totaling nine hours of flying. Several people have had half-hour flights. Excellent views were obtained of Scawfell, Langdale Pikes, Helvelyn, Kirkstone Pass, Thirlmere, etc. In particular one lady and gentleman engaged a machine for a half-hour flight over Ulverston and Morecambe Bay, and from a height of between 3,000 and 4,000 ft. they enjoyed some especially splendid views of cloud effects.

А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Разведчик/легкий бомбардировщик "Авро-504E" RNAS (1915г.)
А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
"Авро-504E" RNAS (1916г.)
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
AVRO 504K - RFC, 1915г.
А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Учебный самолет/легкий бомбардировщик "Авро-504K" RAF (1917г.)
А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Учебный самолет "Авро-504N" RAF (1922г.)
А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Поплавковый учебный самолет МУ-1 ("Авро-504L") авиазавода "Красный летчик" (1924г.)
А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Учебный поплавковый самолет "Авро-504O" (1930г.)
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
Avro Type 504 prototype at Hendon in September 1913.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
The prototype Avro 504 at Hendon, September 1913, in its original form with square cut engine cowling and warping 'ailerons'.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Avro 504 prototype which F. P. Raynham flew into fourth place at 66,5 mph during second Aerial Derby on 20th September, 1913, shown at Hendon with inversely-tapered, warping ailerons.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
THE 80 H.P. AVRO BIPLANE. - Three-quarter view from the front.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Avro 504 in its earliest production form in August 1914 after receiving constant-chord aileron in 1913. This was the original machine fitted with an 80 h.p. Gnome. It was on similar machines that a raid was carried out on the Zeppelin factories at Friedrichshafen, in which Commander Briggs was brought down and captured.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
THE 80 H.P. AVRO BIPLANE. - Three-quarter view from behind.
The founder of a dynasty, the original Avro 504. Powered by an 80hp Gnome rotary, this machine made its first flight in July 1913, piloted by F.P. 'Fred' Raynham. Destined to carve itself a prominent place in the annals of aviation, the redoubtable Avro 504 first served as both a bomber and a fighter during the first year of war, prior to being selected to serve as the RAF's standard basic training machine for most of the next two decades. The first military interest in the 504 manifested itself in a War Office order for twelve RFC machines, placed in the summer of 1913. No further orders were received until after the outbreak of war. The 504's top level speed was 82mph.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
THE 80 H.P. AVRO BIPLANE. - View from the front.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
THE 80 H.P. AVRO BIPLANE. - As seen from behind.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
THE YORKSHIRE AIR RACE. - The Avro biplane and the Blackburn monoplane in line just at the moment of getting away.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
A couple of snaps of the Blackburn monoplane, taken by Mr. H. V. Roe from the Avro biplane, piloted by Mr. F. P. Raynham in the Yorkshire Air Race between York and Doncaster on October 2nd. Both competitors were well up, and by the photographs it will be seen the weather was extremely wretched with a haze over everything.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Mr. F. P. Raynham on the remarkable new Avro biplane on which he made such splendid speed flights in the competition at Hendon on Saturday. Our picture shows Mr. Raynham at sunset, in the final for the Shell Trophy, which he only missed winning by a "head."
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Mr. Gordon Bell having a turn on the Avro at Hendon.
P.Jarrett - Pioneer Aircraft: Early Aviation Before 1914 /Putnam/
The Avro 504 prototype during the time it was flown by Henri Salmet on the Daily Mail tour of British coastal resorts in 1914. An alternative float undercarriage could be fitted. This was the aeroplane that made the company's fortunes.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Avro 504 prototype flown in modified form in 1914 Daily Mail tour.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Mr. Lusteed, accompanied by a passenger, on the Daily Mail 80 h.p. Avro just off for Shoreham from Brooklands.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Pilot: Mr. H. Blackburn.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
The Avro seaplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
General view of the Avro stand.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
The prototype 504 converted to a seaplane with modified cowlings and ailerons. Summer 1914.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Daily Mail Tour Avro 504 prototype at Paignton, Devon, in April 1914, with F. P. Raynham and George Lusted, rebuilt as a seaplane with rounded cowlings and constant chord ailerons.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
THE 80 H.P. AVRO SEAPLANE OF 1914. - This machine bears a strong family resemblance to the 504L, of which scale drawings are published elsewhere in this issue.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
F. P. Raynham and his Avro waterplane at Scarborough in connection with the Daily Mail tours.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
F. P. Raynham in flight at Scarborough on the Daily Mail Avro waterplane.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Production Avro 504 on 29th July, 1914.
O.Thetford - British Naval Aircraft since 1912 /Putnam/
Avro 504A of the type used in the RNAS raid on the Zeppelin sheds. 1914.
F.Manson - British Bomber Since 1914 /Putnam/
Shown at Belfort, the three Avro 504 single-seat bombers which attacked the Zeppelin works at Friedrichshafen on 21 November 1914, from left to right, Nos 873, 875 and 874. A fourth, No 179 (flown by Fit Sub-Lt R P Cannon) broke its tail skid and was unable to take part in the raid. Just visible under the fuselage of No 873 are its four 20lb bombs, carried for the attack.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
4034, a production Avro 504A.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
Production Avro 504B serial 1032, with cut-away cockpit sides and tail skid pylon.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Fig. 38. - Training machine. Avro.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Avro 504B Biplane, 80h.p. Gnome, about to start. This type of Avro was one of the successful machines in early days of the war, owing to its durability, speed, and climbing power. It is still one of the most efficient machines for its power, but is, of course, surpassed in actual performance by machines with bigger engines, so is very largely used to-day as a training machine for Service pilot practicising cross-country flying before passing on to the higher-powered war machines. It will be remembered that 504As carried out the first ever strategic bombing raid, on 21 November 1914, when three RNAS aircraft attacked the Zeppelin sheds at Friedichshafen.
K.Wixey - Parnall Aircraft Since 1914 /Putnam/
The elongated fin is noticeable on this RNAS Avro 504B (9826), a version built under contract at Bristol by Parnall & Sons.
Famed for teaching at least two generations of RAF pilots to fly, the Avro 504 had enjoyed a previous life as both a bomber and fighter during the first year of war, being used by both the RNAS and RFC. Seen here is one of forty Avro 504B two seaters that were produced, all going to the RNAS. Powered by either an 80hp Gnome or Le Rhone and with a top level speed of 82mph at sea level, some of these machines were known to have been flown operationally from the Dunkirk area, being used to raid Zeppelin sheds and submarine bases set up by the Germans further east along the coast. Just how the demand for military aircraft was to grow is demonstrated by the fact that prior to the large scale production of the Avro 504K trainer, the total RFC and RNAS orders placed for the type between 1914 and 1915 amounted to a mere 68 machines.
O.Thetford - British Naval Aircraft since 1912 /Putnam/
Avro 504B (N5273) built by Sunbeam.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
The Avro 504 series was another ot the great First World War designs with operational and, more especially, training significance. This scene at Baileul in 1915 shows '398 with 5 Squadron.
K.Wixey - Parnall Aircraft Since 1914 /Putnam/
Included here for its rarity is this photograph of Parnall-built Avro 504B No.B396 (ex-N6027) at Spittlegate. The engine was an 80 hp Gnome rotary. The Parnall trade mark is aft of the serial number.
O.Thetford - British Naval Aircraft since 1912 /Putnam/
Avro 504C (No.1488) of the RNAS at St Pol.
F.Manson - British Bomber Since 1914 /Putnam/
No 3315 was an Avro 504C single-seat bomber, built by The Brush Electrical Engineering Co Ltd, Loughborough, and is shown carrying a 65lb bomb under the fuselage. Note the low aspect ratio fin and unbalanced rudder, favoured by the Admiralty on its later 504s.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The Avro 504C was the first variant of the basic design to be intended specifically for the interception of airships and the most important single-seat fighter variant of the basic Avro 504 and was employed in some numbers by the RNAS
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
A R.N.A.S. anti-Zeppelin Avro 504C.
O.Thetford - British Naval Aircraft since 1912 /Putnam/
One of the ten Avro 504E (No.9277) of the RNAS.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
The Avro 504J. with its 80hp Le Rhone or 100hp Gnome Monosoupape. entered service in the summer of 1917. With light yet powerful controls and capable of full aerobatics, the 504J was a superb training machine. This is a School of Special Flying example at Gosport.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
The Avro 504 saw operational service in several roles early in World War One, and later became one ot the most important training types used by the RFC and later the RAF. This particular example served with the Robert Smith Barry School ot Special Flying at Gosport.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Three-quarter front view of the Avro 504K Standard Training Machine
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
The Avro 504K, a slightly modified and strengthened version of the original 80 h.p. type. This machine has been adopted as the standard training aeroplane for the R.A.F.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Avro 504 A8515 at Harling Road; the Avro 504 series saw limited operational employment but extensive use as training aircraft throughout the war.
K.Wixey - Parnall Aircraft Since 1914 /Putnam/
Another extremely rare photograph showing Parnall-built Avro 504J B8593 at Newmarket in about 1917. The engine was a 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape.
K.Wixey - Parnall Aircraft Since 1914 /Putnam/
Another 504 variant built by Parnall was the J with a 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape engine. C4364 seen here was an Avro-built machine.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
Avro 504J C4451 on which H.R.H. Prince Albert learned to fly, showing the characteristic lobed cowling.
K.Wixey - Parnall Aircraft Since 1914 /Putnam/
Believed to have been photographed on Bristol Downs, this Parnall-built Avro 504K, E3254, was the first from a batch of 150 machines (E3254-E3403) produced by Parnall for the RAF after that service was formed on 1 April, 1918.
K.Wixey - Parnall Aircraft Since 1914 /Putnam/
This very rare picture is of Parnall-built Avro 504K E3345, on a training sortie during the early days of the RAF.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Despite the Admiralty's early initiative to employ their Avro 504s in the bombing role, albeit only carrying four 20lb Hale bombs apiece, the general adoption of the Royal Aircraft Factory BE 2c reconnaissance bomber by both the British services nearly ended the Avro 504 story in its infancy. Happily, someone in high places decided to give the old warhorse a further lease of life as the standard British military trainer. Fitted with a 110hp Le Rhone, the Avro 504K could reach a top level speed of 95mph at sea level and climb to 8.000 feet in 6.5 minutes. Including early 504 production, many of which were converted to 504Ks, around 5,440 examples were built under World War I contracts. After a pause in the immediate post-war years, more were to follow. Avro 504K, serial no E3404, seen here, was the first of a batch of 500 built by the parent company. Many more of the 504Ks built were produced by numerous sub-contractors.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
Avro 504K F2623 during a postwar instructional flight over Salisbury Plain.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
The Avro 504 series continued to be the most important of the training machines. This is Avro 504K F2623, one of those built by Sunbeam Motors.
K.Wixey - Parnall Aircraft Since 1914 /Putnam/
This Avro 504K (F8748) is believed to be one of the final batch of this type built by Parnall & Sons at Bristol during the First World War.
O.Thetford - British Naval Aircraft since 1912 /Putnam/
Avro 504K with 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape.
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
Soviet aircraft mere normally fitted with skis in the winter. The first U-1 trainer (Avro 504K copy) mas completed in 1923.
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
The U-1 and R-1 (in the background) were the standard VVS training types in the second half of the 1920s and early 1930s.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Восстановленный AVRO 504K. (современное фото)
O.Thetford - Aircraft of the Royal Air Force since 1918 /Putnam/
Avro 504K (J 8376) of No. 4 F.T.S., Abu Sucir.
O.Thetford - Aircraft of the Royal Air Force since 1918 /Putnam/
Avro 504N of Cambridge University Air Squadron.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
The Snapper, snapped. - One of the G.W. Avro biplanes, with a cinema operator on board, photographed by our photographer, from a de H. 9 (Airco) machine at Hendon at the week end
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
CIVILIAN FLYING AT HOUNSLOW AERODROME: Looping the loop in an Avro with three up. Photographed from another Hounslow Aerodrome Avro. An untouched negative
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
A REMARKABLE PAIR OF PHOTOGRAPHS: Last week we published some Flight photographs taken at Hounslow Aerodrome, and reference in the text was made as follows: "With the co-operation of Messrs. A. V. Roe, we were able to obtain some fine photographic records from the air of looping - taken from the 'looper' by the 'loopee,' and from a sister Avro accompanying the looper. Two of these photographs are of special interest in that one was taken during a loop, showing the ground appearing below the tail." These unique photographs, which, as must be obvious, were taken simultaneously, but independently, from the two machines, are now, by request, reproduced above.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Hounslow Aerodrome as seen from above by the eye of "Flight's" Camera
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
AT HENDON AERODROME: Racing on Whit Saturday. The two Avros flew evenly together in a remarkable way. The left-hand machine in our photograph, piloted by Mr. G. R. Hicks, won Saturday's race. On the Monday, Maj. Carr, who is flying the other Avro, had a mishap, but without serious consequences
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
RACING AT THE LONDON AERODROME, HENDON: First heat on Saturday as seen from No. 1 Pylon. High up in the air, Capt. Chamberlayne (final winner), below Capt. Gathergood (21), first in the heat, followed by Lieut. Park (4)
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
THE CROSS-COUNTRY HANDICAP AT HENDON AERODROME ON WHIT-MONDAY: The five starters lined up for the race, at the other side of the aerodrome
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
RACING AT THE LONDON AERODROME, HENDON: Line-up of the machines before Saturday's race of the day
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
RACING AT THE LONDON AERODROME, HENDON: Start on Saturday of the first heat. Capt. Gathergood first away on an Airco, followed by Lieut. Park on an Avro, Capt. Robertson (Avro) and the winner of the final, Capt. Chamberlayne, on a G.W. Bantam.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
STARTERS IN HENDON'S AIR RACE ON SATURDAY: Left to right - B.A.T., piloted by Major Draper (winner; Avro, pilot Capt. D. H. Robertson, A.F.C.; Avro, pilot Major R. H. Carr, A.F.C., D.C.M. (second); G.-W. Bantam, pilot Capt. P. R. T. Chamberlayne (third); and Avro, pilot Lieut. G. R. Hicks, D.F.C.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
THE AERIAL DERBY. - Competitors lined-up at the start of the 1919 Aerial Derby at Hendon, with Lieut-Col G. L. P. Henderson's Avro 504K H2586 in the foreground.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
No. 4. - The Avro Biplane, 110 h . p . le Rhone engine, flown by Lieut.-Col. G. L. P . Henderson, in place of the Martinsyde F 4, Rolls-Royce Falcon engine, originally entered.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
A two-seater Avro about to start for Suvla the day alter the evacuation. On the pilot's return he reported that the Turks were still shelling the empty trenches for all they were worth.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
The Lord Chancellor, Lord Birkenhead, has a "joy-ride" on an Avro. After the flight, from left to right: Mr. Parrott (Messrs. Roe and Co.'s Southampton Manager), Captain Hamersley, Lord Birkenhead's son, Lord Birkenhead, Commander Chillcott.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
OPENING OF THE SEASON AT HENDON. - A youthful visitor is taken for a flip. In the background is seen the new club-house. Inset is one of the Avros starting off.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
AT HOUNSLOW AERODROME: A quick service incident. A visitor and his wife arrived in their car, with only a very short time to spare for getting to Folkestone to dinner. In a few minutes they were en route for their destination, and before dark had returned to the aerodrome
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
AT HOUNSLOW AERODROME: Civilian Flying: A trio of Avros filling up with passengers
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
The Avro "Aerodrome" on the sands at Southport for the flying meeting
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
AVRO FLIGHTS AT SOUTHPORT: Captain Collison landing after a popular guinea circuit of the town
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
THE OPENING OF THE CENTRAL AIRCRAFT AERODROME AT NORTHOLT ON SATURDAY. - A quartette of the Avros used for passenger flying. "Au revoir" to baby by two passengers taking a flight with Lieut. Castleman, and, on right, Mr. Sykes returning from an exhibition of stunting on an Avro.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
"GOING AWAY" BY AEROPLANE. - The wedding of Miss Standen and Mr. Hamilton at Chorley Wood last week, when the bride and bridegroom travelled by aeroplane for their honeymoon to Fowey, Cornwall. In the photograph the Avro is just about to depart.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
Avro 504J B.3103 of the C.F.S. Communication Flight al Lopscombe Corner, Salisbury, in 1918 with modified undercarriage.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
A high altitude Home Defence Avro 504K single seater with Lewis gun on the top centre section.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
The Avro 540, a postwar gunnery trainer version of the Avro 504K.
Форум - Breguet's Aircraft Challenge /WWW/
Avro 504 experimentally fitted with a four-bladed propeller and experimentally fitted with ailerons on the upper and lower wing.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
F8940, one of the Avro 504Ks modified at the R.A.E., Farnborough, in 1922 for low speed lateral control tests.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
The Golden Age of barnstorming - Martin Hearn riding the top wing of Aviation Tours' Avro 504K G-EBYW circa 1933.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
The Navarro Aviation Co.'s Avro 504K D9304 G-EAF.A joyriding at Whitstable, Kent in 1919. Like so many contemporary civil aeroplanes, it flew in drab military green with R.A.F. serial.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
Avro Transport Company joyriding 504K E4359 JG-EABJ, Fleet No. 3, on the beach at Blackpool in 1919.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
G-EAGI, one of the Central Aircraft Co.'s Northolt-based instructional 504Ks, retained the Vee-type undercarriage of the Home Defence fighter version.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
At the E.L.T.A. Aerodrome: One of the Avros which are kept busy all day and every day carrying passengers. Note the registration letters on the fuselage
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
For over a decade three of the greatest names in joyriding were those of Surrey Flying Services Ltd., the Cornwall Aviation Co. Ltd. and the Brooklands School of Flying Ltd., represented here by G-EBDP (1922-1930); G-EBIZ (1924-1935); and G-AAEM (1929-1931).
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
The Dyak engined 504K c/n D.l (later G-AUBG), built at Mascot by A.A.E.C. Ltd. from imported parts in 1920.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
The special Avro 504K with modified undercarriage and tail assembly, believed G-AUDM, showing the revised side cowlings of later Dyak powered machines.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
C1502, second of the two Avro 504Ks built at Toronto by Canadian Aeroplanes Ltd. and incorporating a third undercarriage strut.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
Danish Navy Avro 504K H2023/104 at Kastrup in 1923.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
Det Danske Luftfartselskab's first Avro 504K G-EAJE in Danish marks as T-DOLM in 1921.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
The Finnish Air Force ski-equipped Avro 504K AV-57 was supplied by the Aircraft Disposal Co. Ltd. in 1926 as G-EBNU (visible under lower mainplane).
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
201, first of the 1929 N.Z.P.A.F. Avro504Ks, after being converted to ZK-ACN in 1931 and repaired with the wings of 206/ZK-ACS.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
The Avro 504K 29 at Manchester prior to delivery to the Portuguese Government in May 1925.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
N-37, the Avro 504K filled with 140 h.p. Hispano-Suiza HS 8Aa and cabin top for Lt. Christian Hellesen in 1929.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
The Avro 504M three seat cabin machine K-134/G-EACX at Hendon in July 1919.
P.Jarrett, K.Munson - Biplane to Monoplane: Aircraft Development, 1919-39 /Putnam/
The uncovered airframe of the Avro 504K, a typical wood-and-fabric braced biplane of the 1912-30 period. This form of structure remains in use for light aircraft today.
R.Mikesh, A.Shorzoe - Japanese Aircraft, 1910-1941 /Putnam/
Japanese Navy Avro 504L Land-based Trainer.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
The prototype Avro 504L two seater C4329 on the beach at Hamble early in 1919, showing the original four-strut undercarriage.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
The Avro Seaplane, Type 504 L.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Side view of the Avro 504K Seaplane. This machine is the Standard Training Machine in all essentials, fitted with a float under-carriage.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
K-144, F-EAFB, first of the Kaslbourne Aviation Co. Ltd.'s joyriding 504Ls (three individual cockpits), taxying out at Hove, Sussex, in August 1920.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
Canadian Air Board forestry patrol Avro 504L G-CYAX, showing the revised undercarriage strutting used on the majority of conversions.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Homing at Dusk. - the last flight of the day, on an Avro waterplane off Brighton
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
AVRO SEAPLANES AT BOWNESS, WINDERMERE: The pilot in charge is Capt. Howard Pixton, who won the Jacques Schneider Trophy at Monte Carlo in 1914.
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
An MU-1 (c/n 2253) of the Military School of Naval Pilots at Sevastopol, circa 1930. The MU-1 was a float-equipped copy of the Avro 504K.
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
The float-equipped version of the U-1 was called MU-1 and was used at the Military School of Naval Pilots at Sevastopol.
R.Mikesh, A.Shorzoe - Japanese Aircraft, 1910-1941 /Putnam/
Nakajima Navy Avro 504 Trainer.
R.Mikesh, A.Shorzoe - Japanese Aircraft, 1910-1941 /Putnam/
Navy Avro 504S Seaplane Trainer.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Пулемет "Льюис" над верхним крылом AVRO 504K.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
AT HENDON AERODROME: On the right Gen. Fitzpatrick, Chief of Army Aviation in U.S.A. On left, Einer Petersen of the "Politiken," Denmark, has a joy-flight with Pilot Hicks
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
WOUNDED FLYER. - Squadron-Commander Briggs' Avro biplane, captured by the Germans at Friedrichshafen. Note the bullet holes In the fuselage.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
An Avro mascot on a car at Hendon on Aerial Derby Day.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
PASSING A PYLON AT HENDON AERODROME. - From an original drawing by Mr. Roderic Hill.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
An impression of Raynham gliding on the 80 h.p. Avro. From an original drawing by Mr. Roderic Hill.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
General arrangement of the Standard Avro Type 504K.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The Avro 504C was the first variant of the basic design to be intended specifically for the interception of airships.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Sketch showing the neat engine housing and the chassis of the 80 h.p. Avro biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
The tall skid, one of the shock absorbers, and an aileron hinge on the Avro biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Attachment of inter-plane struts to spar on the Avro biplane, and on the right attachment of lower plane to fuselage.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
A fuselage joint on the Avro biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
The 80 h.p. Avro seaplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Chassis and main floats of the Avro seaplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
The water rudder on the Avro seaplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Detail of springing the floats on the Avro seaplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Various types of single-skid undercarriages.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Front Elevations of the Avro Machines.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Side Elevations of the Avro Machines.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Plan Views of some of the Avro Machines.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Some more Plan Views of Avro Machines.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
AVRO 504
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
THE 80 H.P. AVRO BIPLANE. - Plan, side and front elevation to scale.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Avro 504 prototype
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
Avro 504A
O.Thetford - British Naval Aircraft since 1912 /Putnam/
Avro 504A
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
Avro 504K
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
U-1 (AVRO 504K)
O.Thetford - Aircraft of the Royal Air Force since 1918 /Putnam/
Avro 504N