В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны
ДЕПЕРДЮССЕН TT / DEPERDUSSIN TT
Цельнодеревянный расчалочный моноплан с полотняной обшивкой. Спроектирован в 1912 году главным конструктором фирмы СПАД (SPAD - Sosiete Provisoire des Aeroplanes Deperdussin) Луи Бешеро при участии голландского инженера Фредерика Кольховена. В том же году владельца фирмы Армана Депердюссена арестовали за незаконные финансовые махинации, и управление заводом перешло к другому знаменитому авиастроителю Луи Блерио. Под его руководством был налажен серийный выпуск машины.
Всего в 1913-14 годах во Франции построено около I00 экземпляров "Депердюссена TT". Самолет обладал неплохими для своего времени летными характеристиками. В нем хорошо заметно влияние одноместных гоночных "Депердюссенов", установивших в 1912 году несколько мировых рекордов скорости.
К началу войны "Депердюссенами" были вооружены две эскадрильи французских ВВС. Весной 1914 года на некоторые машины установили пулеметы "Кольт" или "Мадсен" на своеобразных высоких лафетах для стрельбы вперед поверх винта. Для ведения огня летнаб должен был вылезать из кабины на фюзеляж. Подобная "акробатика" не вызвала энтузиазма у летчиков, и о реальном боевом применении этих установок ничего не известно. Позднее на нескольких российских "Депердюссенах" появились более удачные стрелковые точки, для обслуживания которых уже не требовалось покидать кабину.
Несколько машин приняла британская морская авиация. Самолет применялся в качестве разведчика на западном фронте примерно до конца 1914 года, а затем - в учебных подразделениях. В 1913 г. "Депердюссен" участвовал в конкурсе военных самолетов для российских ВВС. Несмотря на то, что он занял лишь третье место, его приняли на вооружение и заказали постройку серии на заводе В.А. Лебедева. Завод выпустил 63 аппарата и еще некоторое количество поступило из Франции. Эти машины активно использовались на русско-германском фронте до середины 1916-го.
Ротативные "Гном", 80 л.с. или "Рон", 100 л.с., или стационарный звездообразный "Анзани", 60 л.с.
Изначально не предусмотрено.
А.Шепс Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Депердюссен тип D 1912 г.
Машина стала развитием самолетов типа B и с самого начала проектировалась как двухместный разведчик. Конструкция фюзеляжа, крыльев, оперения в основном повторяла конструкцию предшественника. Однако фюзеляж имел большой мидель. Емкость топливного бака была увеличена. Крыло имело гораздо больший размах и дополнительную пару расчалок. В отличие от типа B, крыло имело постоянную по всей длине хорду. Оперение также имело большую площадь. Шасси выполнялось из ясеневых дуг со сквозной осью. Кроме того, для лучшей аэродинамики фюзеляж имел сверху и снизу выпуклый гаргот. Двигатель 7-цилиндровый, воздушного охлаждения, звездообразный, ротативный "Гном" (80 л. с.), позднее "Рон" или "Клерже" мощностью 100 л. с.
Французское командование заказало самолет для разведывательных эскадрилий. Машина использовалась на фронте до начала 1916 года, хотя уже к середине 1915-го она считалась устаревшей.
В 1913 году самолет типа D участвовал в конкурсе военных аэропланов в Петербурге, где занял третье место. Военное ведомство заказало заводу Лебедева 63 машины. Эта машина отличалась уменьшенным размахом крыла и лучшими летными данными. В российской армии эти самолеты эксплуатировались до 1917 года.
Депердюссен D "Депердюссен конкурсный"
1912г. 1913 г.
Размах, м 11,6 10,6
Длина, м 7,15 7,15
Площадь крыла, кв.м 23,0 22,0
Сухой вес, кг 435 419
Взлетный вес, кг 720 812
Двигатель: "Гном" "Гном"
мощность, л. с. 80 80
Скорость максимальная, км/ч 95 106
Дальность полета, км 100
Потолок, м 3000
Экипаж, чел. 2 2
В.Шавров История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.
В России было три типа самолетов фирмы "Депердюссен" конструктора Бешеро, в том числе один военный.
"Депердюссен-разведчик", тип Д - двухместный расчалочный среднеплан, крыло - постоянного профиля, двухлонжеронное с перекашиванием, вырезанное у фюзеляжа для обзора вниз. Фюзеляж четырехгранный расчалочный, сверху и снизу снабженный у кабин круглым обтекателем (гаргротом). Двигатель - "Гном" в 80 л. с., позднее иногда ставили "Рон" или "Клерже". Проволочные расчалки фюзеляжа иногда заменялись тонкой фанерой, общей с обшивкой гаргротов. Такие экземпляры назывались "Депердюссен-монокок". Шасси были выполнены из ясеневых дуг со сквозной осью. Предполагалось бронирование снизу, под сиденьями.
Самолет обладал неплохими для 1913-1914 гг. данными. На конкурсе военных аэропланов 1913 г. "Депердюссен" занял 3-е место. После конкурса в русском военном ведомстве долго думали, заказывать ли этот самолет или же отечественный С-11, занявший 2-е место, - выбор пал на самолет французской конструкции. На заводе Лебедева их было построено 63 экземпляра. Самолет "Депердюссен" применялся на русском фронте до 1917 г., на французском - до 1916 г. В 1915 г. был его поплавковый вариант, построенный на заводе Лебедева в двух экземплярах.
"Депердюссен" одноместный - это более ранний тип той же схемы и конструкции с двигателем "Гном" в 50 л. с., но меньших размеров благодаря укороченным фюзеляжу и крылу. Был в одном экземпляре на выставке в Москве в 1912 г.
"Депердюссен-спорт" был выпущен в 1914 г. и приобретен в одном экземпляре, по которому впоследствии воспроизведен русский образец на заводе Лебедева в 1915-1916 гг.
"Депердюссен" поплавковый. Это вариант сухопутного разведчика тоже двухместного на трехпоплавковом шасси (завод Лебедева, 1914 г.). Поплавки были того же типа, что и под самолетами И. И. Сикорского типа С-10. Двигатель - "Гном" в 70 л с. или 80 л. с. Было два экземпляра, числившихся в 1915 г. в списках самолетов русской морской авиации.
Самолет||<Депердюссен>, тип Д/<Депердюссен>, конкурсный
Длина самолета, м||7,15/7,15
Размах крыла, м||11,6/10,6
Площадь крыла, м2||23/22,0
Масса пустого, кг||435/419
Масса топлива+ масла, кг||120/?
Масса полной нагрузки, кг||285/393
Полетная масса, кг||720/812
Удельная нагрузка на крыло, кг/м2||31,3/37,0
Удельная нагрузка на мощность, кг/лс||9/10,0
Весовая отдача, %||39/48
Скорость максимальная у земли, км/ч||95/106
L.Opdyke French Aeroplanes Before the Great War (Schiffer)
Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing
M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)
Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing
O.Thetford British Naval Aircraft since 1912 (Putnam)
This type, one of the earliest products of the French aircraft industry, was to be seen at most of the pre-1914 flying meetings. A number entered service with the Naval Wing of the RFC from 1912 and were used both as landplanes and seaplanes. NO.7 was acquired in July 1912 and flown from Lake Windermere: its engine was a 70 hp Gnome. Others were Nos.22, 30, 36 and 44, all with the 80 hp Anzani engine. The example illustrated has the early Naval Wing serial number M.I on its rudder.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913
DEPERDUSSIN. Armand Deperdussin, 19 rue des Entrepreneurs, Paris. School: Courey-Betheny (Marne). Established 1910. Capacity: about 150-200 machines a year.
E P T H
1912-13. 1912-13. 1912-13. 1912-13. Monocoque Mono.
school single 2-seater 3-seater 1913. 1913.
mono. mono. mono. mono. mono. 2-seater.
Length,feet(m) 24(7.30) 24(7.30) 24(7.30) 29(8.80) 19(5.75) ...
Span...feet(m) 29(8.85) 28(8.50) 35(10.65) 41(12.50) 29?(8.95) 36(11)
Area, sq.ft(m?.) ... 162(15) ... 310(28) 97 (9) ...
.lbs.(kgs.) 661(300) 782(355) 1212(550) 2050(930) 882(400) ...
.lbs.(kgs.) ... ... ... ... ... ...
Motor....h.p. 30 Anzani 50 Gnome 70 Gnome 100 Gnome 50 Gnome 80 Gnome
.....h.(km.) 50 (80) 69 (110) 65 (105) 69 (110) 113(180) 105 (170)
..m.p.h.(km.) ... ... ... ... 81 (130) ...
Endurance,hrs. ... ... ... ... ... ...
during 1912 2 5 27 3 2 1
Notes.--Wood construction. Lateral control by warping. Mounted on wheels without skids. Fabric: "Aviator" Ramie.
Principal Deperdussin records: 1912 Gordon Bennett (Vedrines) and a number of world records for speed and distance.
Principal pilots include: Busson, Prйvost, Vedrines, Vidart.
Flight, November 18, 1911.
FOREIGN AVIATION NEWS.
Rheims to Issy on a Deperdussln.
HAVING to go back to Paris at the end of last week, Vedrines, on the 9th inst., mounted his Deperdussin monoplane at Rheims and left the ground there at a quarter past seven. Two hours later he landed at Issy and reported having had an excellent trip, although the cold and rain had forced him to land at Meaux, where at the dirigible shed, however, he was able to find some comfort for the inner man. His actual flying time was 1 hr. 20 mins.
Five Deperdussins Flying in Company.
ON the 10th inst. five Deperdussin monoplanes flying in close order over the country round about Rheims, made a very fine spectacle. Three of the machines were part of an order from the French Military Authorities, and were being tested by Vidart, Prevost and Vedrines, while the other two had Lieuts. Tretarre and Briey at their helms. Starting from the Deperdussin Aerodrome at Courcy Betheny, the flyers made a wide circuit over Rheims, Mourmelon, Chalons, Vervins, Epernay, and Laon.
Flight, December 30, 1911.
PARIS AERO SHOW.
IN order lo exhibit their four types of monoplanes most effectively, the Deperdussin firm went to the extent of engaging two stands for that purpose. On one stand, situated under the centre dome of the Grand Palais, were exhibited the 100-h.p. Gnome-engined three-seater monoplane and the 50-h.p. single-seater cross-country machine. At the further end of the Show was the other stand, on which the 35-h.p. Anzani-engined popular- and the 70-h.p. two-seater military-types were exhibited. Very little need bу said of these excellent machines, as, in the main, they do not differ from the Deperdussin monoplane, as has already been described in FLIGHT, and demonstrated practically in England by such pilots as W. H. Ewen, Lieut. Porte and Gordon Bell, and on the Continent by Such men as Prevost and Vedrines. The latter model - the 70-h.p. military monoplane, however, is a new one, but its only difference lies in the fact that passenger and pilot are arranged tandem fashion in the fuselage in such a way that the former is so far forward that he can obtain an excellent view of what is directly beneath the aeroplane by glancing over the front of the wings. The importance of this feature for military requirements is readily apparent. Both in design and workmanship the machines are of the highest order, and reflect great credit on the Deperdussin firm, and more particularly on the firm's designer and works manager, M. Bechereau.
Principal dimensions, &c.:-
Length 26 ft.
Span 43 "
Area 350 sq. ft.
Weight 1,000 lbs.
Speed 65 m.p.h.
Motor 100-h.p. Gnome
Flight, April 20, 1912.
AEROPLANE DELIVERY TO NAVY BY AIR.
FIRST PASSENGER FLIGHT FROM PARIS TO EASTCHURCH.
PARIS TO ENGLAND IN ONE DAY.
IT was a happy thought that prompted Mr. Lawrence Santoni, Manager of the British Deperdussin Aeroplane Co., Ltd., to decide to deliver the new 70-h.p. two-seater Gnome-Deperdussin destined for the Navy, by way of the air. The machine itself was the first to be turned out from the Deperdussin works, of a batch of ten that were being constructed to special design for the French Government. Our Admiralty must indeed be congratulated on obtaining the most up-to-date type of this make of monoplane that could be secured. The fact that the machine should yet be at the Deperdussin works in Paris receiving its finishing touches on the Friday morning of last week, be tested for the first time in the air at four o'clock on the same day, be safely delivered to the British Admiralty via the air soon after mid-day the following day, and two hours afterwards should be flying a thousand feet up under the sole control of Lieut. Longmore, who had never previously flown this type of machine, is a performance of which both the English and French Deperdussin firms in England have a just right to be proud. As an illustration of the practicability of the aeroplane at the present day it could scarcely be bettered.
Following the disclosures that have recently been made regarding the trussing of monoplane wings, particularly relating to the upper guy-wires, special attention has been paid to this most important point, and although in the past Deperdussin machines have never exhibited weakness in their upper bracing, yet, to completely comply with the edict lately issued by the French military authorities, this section of the machine has been still further strengthened.
On Thursday of last week Lieut. Longmore, one of our most excellent Navy pilots, was sent by the Admiralty to witness the resistance tests on the wings of this particular machine, as required by the naval authorities, they being loaded up with 2,500 lbs. of sand, as depicted in one of our photographs. Throughout the following morning the machine was yet at the Deperdussin factory receiving its final finish to the paint-work before being dispatched to Issy les Moulineaux later on in the day to be tested in the air. Prevost carried out this operation. He took the machine out soon after 4 o'clock, in spite of a wind so strong as to prevent any of the other aviators on the ground from bringing their machines from their sheds. After a flight of about 10 minutes' duration, at about a 1,000 ft. level, he descended to take up, Mr. Santoni, and the two flew away at a height of 2,000 ft. over Paris, circling the Eiffel Tower, and returning down wind at a terrific speed to the testing ground. M. Armand Deperdussin, his chief engineers, MM. Bechereau and Papa, and Capt. Ludmann, the Breguet pilot, as representative of the French War Office, were present to witness this splendid exhibition.
It was the machine's third trip in the air, when on Saturday morning, at 7 o'clock, it rose from the Issy grounds, with Prevost at the control and Mr. Santoni in the passenger's seat. Their destination was known by none on the ground with the exception of two or three friends, although from the fact that both wore life-saving jackets it must have been generally surmised that it was a cross-sea trip that was proposed. There was a strong northerly wind blowing, and over Paris was a fairly dense mist, which disappeared as the open country was reached. Amiens, 80 miles from Paris, was passed at 8.20, at an altitude of over 2,200 feet. It was Prevost's original intention to follow the route to Amiens, on to Abbeville, to strike the coast near Berck and to follow it to Calais, but as slight fog was experienced he thought it advisable to keep away from the coast line, and to maintain a course direct over land from Amiens to Calais. At Arrhes, ten miles from Calais, a descent was made at 9-45, to clean a sparking plug. So cold had the trip been that both were numbed; Prevost was bleeding from the lips, and Mr. Santoni's moustache had frozen stiff. The descent was made in a corn-patch, scarcely ten yards wide. Crowds of peasants gathered round, and after everything had been put in order, some of the local talent was made use of to cling on to the tail of the machine, Mr, Santoni swung the propeller, quickly clambered into his seat, and a re-start was made at 10.45. A short circle, meanwhile rising to about 1.000 ft., and the pair set out for Calais, where they landed at eleven o'clock. Prevost had arranged for his mechanic to meet him at the old European circuit aerodrome, but things had been so changed since, all the sheds having been taken down and the ground divided into various portions, that he could not recognize it. After circling for some time in a vain endeavour to discover the missing aerodrome, a descent was made in a very narrow stretch of ground.
At Calais, M. Prevost and Mr. Santoni replenished their own vitality and that of the machine with food and petrol respectively. In spite of a warning of a thick mist in the Channel, they decided to proceed, trusting to their Monodep compass to lead them aright, and possibly to be guided by catching a sight of the midday boat crossing Dover to Calais. A start was made at 12 o'clock, and by the time the coast was reached the machine had attained a height of 2,000 ft., an altitude which it maintained throughout its trip over the water. The wind, which had caused some small amount of discomfort overland, entirely disappeared over the sea, and the machine maintained a plumb steady course. half-way across the Channel, closed in all around by a wall of white fog, and when Mr. Santoni was probably wondering if the course were true and feeling anxious for the safe delivery of his machine, a white light, as if reflected from a mirror, appeared below and in front of them. It proved to be Channel boat of which they had anticipated catching sight. Maintaining a course slightly to the east of his wake, they regained the cost over Deal, sighting Dover Harbour away to the left. The land regained, the wind was again felt, and the type of English wind was of a very noticeably different character from that encountered over French soil. Passing Canterbury to their left they caught sight of Sheppey island and were soon heading over the strip of water that divides it from the mainland. Here, as some of our Eastchurch pilots may well have expected, they came across a most malignant type of air-pocket, which caused the machine to drop with startling suddenness, and to unseat both pilot and passenger. They landed before their shed at 12.45. Commander Samson, Lieuts. Longmore and Gregory, Mr. Frank McClean and the rest of the Eastchurch pilots, with Mr. Harold Perrin, were there to greet them, and were no doubt surprised to find who the occupants were and from where they had come. Especially so was Lieut. Longmore, who had a difficulty in crediting that the machine he had seen descend was the identical one on which he had seen wing tests carried out in Pans two days previously. In Paris, witnessing the tests, he had anxiously enquired when he would get his machine delivered, and was rather uneasy at not seeing a packing case ready to receive it. Within two hours of the voyagers' arrival he himself was flying the machine over the Royal Aero Club's, flying grounds taking up with him Lieut. Spencer Grey as passenger, and afterwards flying solos at a height of 3,500 feet nearly an hour.
Flight, May 4, 1912.
Gordon Bell at Constantinople.
ON Sunday last, Mr. Gordon Bell was at Constantinople and made a fine flight over the Turkish capital and also over the troops which were being reviewed. The flights were, of course, carried out with a R.E.P. machine, several of which have been ordered by the Turkish Government in connection with their project for the establishment of an aerial corps. Starting from San Stefano, he followed the coast at a good height, passing over the Palace of Seven Towers, turning at Seraglio Point, and then along the Bosphorus. He returned to the Golden Morn, and so on to the Plain where the troops were being reviewed by the Sultan.
Flight, May 18, 1912.
Progress at R.E.P. School.
THE fine flying of Gordon Bell has been greatly missed at the R.E.P. School at Buc during his absence in Turkey, but some variety has been given to the daily doings by the Turkish officers, who are being taught to fly. On the 10th inst., Granel, the chief pilot, was flying over Versailles, and Lieut. Precardin made a flight of an hour and a-half's duration.
Flight, June 15, 1912.
Two Turkish R.E.P. Pilots.
Two Turkish officers Capt. Refik and Lieut Nouri, who have been studying aviation at the R.E.P. school at Buc, have now qualified for their certificates.
Flight, July 27, 1912.
THE MILITARY COMPETITION - THE MACHINES.
BY courtesy of Mr. Lawrence Santoni, managing director of the British Deperdussin Aeroplane Co., Ltd., we were able some days ago to secure a few advance photographs of the Deperdussin machines entered for the military trials now in course of construction. At the time of writing, however, they stand practically complete in the Company's excellently equipped works at Highgate. To-day will probably see one of them - the one fitted with the 100-h.p. Anzani motor - tested in flight at one of our large flying grounds.
There are two British-built Deperdussins entered for the tests, the one of which we have just spoken, and another very similar machine fitted with a 14-cylinder Gnome of 100-h.p. Broadly speaking, they are of the same dimensions throughout. They may, however, readily be distinguished from each other, in that the Anzani machine has wings of "butterfly pattern," i.e., the wings are wider at the tip than at the shoulder - as were the wings of Vedrines' 100-h.p. Deperdussin racer, a machine we reviewed some few months since - whereas the wings of the 100-h.p. Gnome Deperdussin have parallel leading and trailing edges. There are one or two other minor differences. For example, the Gnome machine boasts regulation hockey-stick-like skids projecting in front. Those of the Anzani-engined monoplane are cut off short. The mountings of the motors, and the cowls that cover them, too, differ slightly. The 10-cyl. Anzani being nonrotary is very easily and conveniently fixed in place by bolting the crank-case direct to a vertical plate that caps the front of the fuselage. Through a large diameter circular hole cut in this plate, the oil pump and magneto of the motor project into the body, where they may be reached through aluminium inspection doors. The carburetor - a G. and A. - is fitted outside the body, directly under the crank-case, where, if it likes, it can drip petrol all day long without causing any very serious danger of fire. With an interior fitted carburettor, the regulation semi-cylindrical hull of the Deperdussin monoplane forms a much too convenient sump for stray petrol than is to our complete liking. This, of course, can easily be obviated, and is so in most cases, by the fitting of a funnel to collect the drips and conducting them away by a tube. Stray lubricating oil does not matter, except for the mess it makes.
After noticing the massive carburettors with which Renault engines are fitted, this little G. and A. seems remarkably tiny, and rather causes one to wonder how it can efficiently atomise sufficient petrol to keep the motor turning at 100-h.p. That it does so, however, there is not the slightest doubt. More than that, this particular engine gave a full 130-h.p. when tested on the bench for the first time at Anzani's Courbavoie works.
One or two points about the general construction may be new to most of our readers in this country. The tail surface, in this machine, is applied to the top of the fuselage instead of to each side, and is held there by four bolts and by two tubes that brace the rear. These tubes also serve to take the lift and depression of the elevators, which, by the way, are of very ample area to provide a sensitive control over a machine so short in overall length. The length of the fuselage is only 24 ft. as compared with its 41 1/2 ft. span of wing. A noticeable point regarding the tail is that the levers operating the elevator flaps and rudders are built up of ten laminations of wood. So strong are they that there is no necessity to brace these organs further with wire. Quite an appreciable amount of head resistance is avoided in this way.
Pilot and passenger sit in tandem. They are protected against the rush of air by a neat little coachbuilt body that is fitted to the top of the fuselage. It is made of three-ply wood, roughly to stieamline form, and only weighs about 8 lbs. The "run-off" of the body, behind the pilot's back, is used as a locker, in which may be stored away spare parts, a Thermos flask, or any accessories of a mechanical or personal kind that he may choose to carry.
A large petrol tank, holding 20 gallons, forms the pilot's windscreen - a 10-gallon oil tank protects the passenger. More petrol, 40 gallons in all, is stored away in tanks below the seats, from which place it is supplied by pressure to the main container.
One of our photographs illustrates this point well. Another shows how the trailing edge of the wings on each side of the body is cut away so that the pilot may see right down below him. The passenger is so far forward that he can see down over the leading edge and obtain a good view of all that is going on below him.
The control is fitted in duplicate and operates the elevators through a secondary shaft that does away with the necessity of passing the elevator wires round pulleys. This shaft is mounted some little distance behind the pilot, one of our pictures showing this clearly. The landing chassis and wings are perfectly standard. As for the unusual shape of the wings, the designers claim that it lends greater efficiency to the machine, and makes the warp much more powerful in action. Moreover, they say that it renders the warp to a very great extent automatic, at any rate, much more so than on machines, the wings of which taper towards the tips.
14-cyl. 100-h.p. Gnome (rotary)
10-cyl. 100-h.p. Anzani (radial)
Average chord 6 ft. 9 ins.
Useful load 800 lbs.
Area 270 sq. ft. approx.
Length 24 ft.
Speed 70 m.p.h.
Span 41 ft. 6 ins.
Flight, September 7, 1912.
IN the familiar abbreviation by which the Deperdussin monoplanes are known throughout the British world of flight, there is a great amount of friendly appreciation of their good qualities. Down at Salisbury Plain, Prevost on the "Dep." was the man of the moment when, with the full support of Mr. Santoni's organisation, he pushed his machine through the whole of the tests in such a businesslike style that he finished days in advance of the others, and thereby caused the public at large, which gathered its information indiscriminately, to remark, "I hear a French machine has won all the prizes." And when the army "also flew," as someone with an unconscious humour once remarked of the persistent and fine performances of the officers of the Royal Flying Corps, it was Capt. Hamilton on the "Dep." who did the lion's shate of the "also."
The "Dep." monoplane, which is now made in England as well as in France, the works at Highgate being under the management of M. Koolhoven, is a machine of the utmost grace in appearance. Its design and construction leave nothing to be desired in their proportions and finish. The scale drawing, which accompanies this brief note on the second prize winner, shows the latter better than words, while the little sketch illustrating the fastening of the tail plane to the machine's backbone will serve as a characteristic example of the former remark. The backbone of the machine is surfaced from head to tail, and the tail plane itself is let in flush with the upper surface of the rectangular girder, an arrangement that certainly adds to the smooth finish of the whole. The "Dep." tail plane, moreover, is one of its most interesting features, being heavily cambered, of large area, and intended to carry its share of the weight. On the ground the position of the chassis wheels is such that the machine is extremely tail heavy, three men having to exert much force to lift it. In flight, of course, there would not be this disproportion in the balance, but, in any case, before rising the tail plane cum elevator have to lift the tail into its flying attitude. Incidentally, the weight on the tail skid when landing causes that member to serve effectively as a brake, for on soft turf the pressure is sufficient to gouge out quite a deep rut.
The undercarriage is an interesting example of A frame construction, in which the side panels are braced by diagonal struts that in some machines are extended to form "hockey stick " skids under the propeller. The wing spars are trussed above and below by six wires to each, a seventh wire being carried from the back of the undercarriage to the extremity of each front spar in order to provide, between them, for a lift-resisting component in a truly vertical plane. The presence of the chassis wheels, which are spanned by these wires, to some extent limits their position, but in any case the duplication of the wire in question makes for rigidity, by the triangular arrangement of the truss system.
The camber of the wings, although somewhat greater near the shoulder than elsewhere, is still well maintained at the tip, but although not very clear to see, it is probable that some degree of "wash-out" is obtained from a slight elevation of the rear wing-spar. That the wing itself does not flatten in flight, however, is obvious to anyone who watches the flying of these machines, the well-cambered profile of the wing-tip being quite a marked feature of them when seen in certain aspects.
Flight, January 11, 1913.
"SOLDIER AND AVIATOR - A TRIBUTE."
"WHAT a long time ago Easter Day, 1911, seems! That was the day my brother Patrick came home from India on leave. In a letter received from him just before, he wrote: 'I have a great scheme in my mind, and want you to help me.'"
These are the opening words of a little volume written by Miss Ethel Hamilton, sister of the late Capt. Patrick Hamilton, who was killed by the fall of his monoplane during the Army manoeuvres in September last - a little volume in which the authoress reveals something of the inner feelings of one brother who met his end in the service of his King.
Every page of this simply-written memoir has a pathetic interest. It tells of the good nature of the brother, the courage of the soldier, and the enthusiasm of the aviator. And it touches the heart all the more when, in her closing words, Miss Hamilton gives the names of her brothers, "who counted not their lives dear unto themselves," but gave them at the call of King and country. They were :-
Alastair, Royal Irish Fusiliers
Kenneth, Ceylon Contingent
Ernest, Bethune Mounted Infantry
Killed in South Africa.
Patrick, Royal Flying Corps.
Killed on manoeuvres.
The "great scheme" her brother Patrick had in his mind, Miss Hamilton goes on to tell, was that he would learn to fly. At first he was persuaded not to, but his mind was made up, and nothing would deter him. Yes, there was one thing that would have influenced him. Had his mother asked - but that was not her way, for "she said that no one's personal feelings ought ever to interfere with any man's career provided it was an upright and honourable one to follow." Was not the mother as courageous as the aviator in thus expressing her opinion?
Readers will remember the late Capt. Hamilton learning to fly, how he met Mr. G. M. Dyott, and how they decided to go over to America to fly, taking with them two Deperdussin monoplanes, a 60-h.p. two-seater, and a little 28-h.p. single. During his tuition he had the misfortune to hurt his knee, and it was hardly well again when the time arrived for him to sail.
Recalling his departure in the boat-special from King's Cross, Miss Hamilton writes: "It wrung my heart to see him, such a slight, solitary figure he looked on his two sticks, being pushed and hustled by a noisy American crowd; but even there I saw him help some woman with her parcels," - a little incident which beautifully illustrates the kindly trait in his character.
Some few months after his arrival, it will be remembered, he had an accident while flying in Mexico, which might easily have cost him his life, for on the little single-seater he was caught in an eddy which turned him completely over and brought him down 100 ft. heavily to the ground. Writing to his sister after the accident he said: "Don't be alarmed, as I have not so much as a scratch, but I have had about the limit in smashes." He went on to describe the details that led up to the fall. Later he resumed: "The propeller was not even good for matchwood, the tip of the skids went like paper. One wing is as good as a sick headache and the other we can repair. When we struck my legs were caught in the bridge (the control bridge) and luckily kept me there, and I watched the oil and petrol pouring out of the tank, and wondered if it was going to fire, but nothing happened, and by the time I realized I was not in another world, I crawled out and started looking over the wreck. Then I began to realise I'd had about the most wonderful escape anyone could possibly have."
His only fear was that, following on such an accident, he might be afraid. Anyone who has personal acquaintance with a pilot will readily understand this. But he found himself not afraid. All the time he seemed to realise the importance of military aviation in a serious way, thinking it necessary strength for our nation. He said "It has got to come, and we have got to do it."
For his keenness, it is but necessary to recall a remark he once made. "If I have to go absolutely broke," he said, "I am going to take out a machine to India."
Returning to London from America, an article in the Daily Mail attracted his notice, and caused him to reconsider his decision to go to India. He would be more use, he thought, in England with his machine. And eventually he was able to get the necessary permission from the Foreign Office to stay in England.
It is a curious point that right up to this time the late Capt. Hamilton had not taken his certificate. He immediately set out to obtain it, and passed for his credentials on March 16th.
The story goes on to tell how he had his machine, which was at Southampton, overhauled and reinforced; how eventually he obtained his flying orders from the War Office and how he flew over to South Farnborough from the Beaulieu aerodrome, to which flying ground he had had his monoplane taken. This was the same machine - a 6o-h.p. Deperdussin - that he used for so long at Lark Hill, Salisbury Plain. He took his superior brevet on July 13th, being the sixth to qualify.
"On the 13th August my brother came home for the last time."
"It was during this visit that I asked him if he was at all afraid of death. He seemed quite surprised and replied 'Why should I be?' It made me feel almost ashamed of having asked. Indeed why should he be? There was no reason that could possibly cause him to fear. We little thought death was so near. I asked him what he thought came after this life, and he said he had no idea, except he was sure it was something better. And now he knows! He had such a wonderfully beautiful mind."
"Pat left us on 18th August with a light heart, perfect confidence, and no fear. His joy was in his duty, and he hoped he might help to demonstrate the use of aeroplanes in the manoeuvres. He laughingly remarked the last day, 'Now look out for machine No. 158, because that will be mine, and with any luck, perhaps even the King may hear my name mentioned.' And, indeed, this came true in a way we little thought of." His last letter here ran:
"My dear Ethel.
"Many thanks for yours. I am off to Wallingford about 5.30 a.m. (September 3rd). The 100 Gnome-Dep. is going very strong. She is a wonderful machine, climbs like a rocket. Yours in haste. Love to all,
The machine he referred to was the one that Prevost had successfully flown in the Military Trials. Four days later, Capt. Hamilton and his passenger Lieut. Wyness-Stuart were killed on that machine, falling from 1,500 ft. near Graveley. For the machine on which he learnt to fly he had previously mentioned in a letter - "...I hope never to fly any other machine except a Deperdussin. They are absolutely marvellous."
He never did fly any other machine. He met his end on that machine. But it was not the machine's fault, nor yet his own.
So he went to his rest - a soldier and a man of whom we were always proud. And we are prouder still now we have read the little memoir his sister has given us.