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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

LVG C.I/C.II/C.III

Страна: Германия

Год: 1915

Two-seat reconnaissance and general duties

LVG - B.I/B.II/B.III - 1914 - Германия<– –>LVG - D 4 - 1915 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


LVG B-I/B-II/C-I/C-II/C-III/C-IV

  В 1912 году швейцарский инженер Франц Шнейдер стал главным конструктором новой немецкой фирмы Люфт-Веркерс Гезельшафт - LVG (Компания воздушного транспорта). Созданный им биплан D IV показал блестящие результаты в авиационных состязаниях и совершил ряд дальних перелетов.
  В 1914 году эту машину под индексом B-I приняли на вооружение германских ВВС. В течение последующих двух лет на ее базе создан целый ряд модификаций, также строившихся серийно, состоявших на вооружении и принимавших участие в боевых действиях.

  
МОДИФИКАЦИИ
  
  C-I - первый в мире аэроплан, оснащенный кольцевой пулеметной турелью Шнейдера, ставшей в дальнейшем стандартной огневой установкой для всех немецких многоместных боевых машин. Двигатель "Бенц", 150 л.с.
  C-II и C-III - однотипные аппараты, отличавшиеся только компоновкой кабин. В C-II наблюдатель размещался сзади, а в C-III - спереди. Двигатель "Мерседес", 160л.с. C-III выпущен малой серией, зато C-II стал в 1916 году одним из самых распространенных немецких фронтовых аэропланов. До десяти трофейных аппаратов использовала русская авиация. В российских документах их называли "Эльфауге".
  
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ
  
  1 турельный "Парабеллум" на всех С-модификациях.
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
  
   C-II
  Размах, м 12,85
  Длина, м 8,1
  Высота, м 2,93
  Площадь крыльев, м2 37,6
  Сухой вес, кг 845
  Взлетный вес, кг 1405
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 130
  Потолок, м 5040
  Продолжительность полета, ч 4
  Экипаж, чел 2


А.Александров, Г.Петров Крылатые пленники России


В числе первых фирма "Эльфауге" приступила к производству аэропланов класса Ц, и именно на ее первенце, движимом 150-сильным "Бенцем", было испытано важное усовершенствование: поворотная пулеметная турель, конструкцию которой инженер Франц Шнейдер запатентовал еще 16 сентября 1914 г. (н. ст.). Довольно скоро это новшество стало стандартной установкой на германских самолетах; по неизвестной причине оно отсутствует на трофейном аппарате (40), лишенном к тому же и пневматиков колес.


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


L.V.G. C I
  The L.V.G. C I of 1915 was the first German operational two-seater aircraft in which the observer was armed with a machine-gun. Although a quantity of machines were supplied to the Fl. Abt., the main production variant was the C II which was almost identical in size and construction. Engine, 150 h.p. Benz Bz III. Span, 14.5 m. (47 ft. 7 in.). Length, 8.61 m. (28 ft. 3 in.). Height, 3.27 m. (10 ft. 8 3/4 in.). Area. 41.5 sq.m. (448 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 835 kg. (1,837 lb.). Loaded, 1,373 kg. (3,021 lb.). Speed, 100 km.hr. (62.5 m.p.h.). Armament, one Parabellum machine-gun.


L.V.G. C II

  When the Allies introduced armed aircraft in 1915 the unarmed B type reconnaissance machines of the German Air Force soon began to suffer a prohibitive casualty rate and the introduction of defensive armament became imperative. This, in turn, made necessary the use of more powerful engines to carry the additional payload of gun(s) and ammunition, and gave rise to the C class designation, which was applied to armed two-seater aircraft of more than 150 h.p.
  Franz Schneider of the L.V.G. firm had already experimentally equipped one of his monoplane designs with both a fixed forward-firing machine-gun and a manually operated machine-gun on a ring mounting for the observer, although this machine was unfortunately lost, due to wing failure, while being ferried to the Front in June 1915. Consequently when the demand arose for an armed reconnaissance machine Schneider was quickly able to produce an L.V.G. biplane with a ring-mounted machine-gun for defensive purposes. The machine itself was little more than a strengthened L.V.G. B I airframe fitted with a 150 h.p. Benz Bz III engine, and duly became the C I. It was the first German operational aircraft to be fitted with defensive armament. It passed into limited production until a more specifically designed aeroplane could take its place.
  Such a machine, the C II, appeared towards the end of 1915 and came into widespread service with all types of unit, from the Kampfgeschwadern, where it was employed on light bombing duties, to Fl. Abt. units, where it was used upon tactical reconnaissance, photo reconnaissance and general "maid of all work" duties.
  The C II bore a considerable degree of similarity to the B II, and the two types are easily confused. Apart from the installation of the 160 h.p. Mercedes D III engine in the nose with only the crankcase covered by the curved metal decking, the C II was almost identical with the less powerful B II. A large collector manifold, which exhausted through a "chimney" pipe over the upper wing, was mounted to starboard. The radiator was now of the frontal type, rectangular in elevation and recessed into a cut-out in the centre-section to be flush with the leading edge. Apart from the curved top decking, which extended aft to encompass the cockpit section, the rest of the aircraft was of plain rectangular cross-section, side and underneath being ply-covered back to the rear cockpit, aft of which the fuselage was fabric covered. The basic fuselage structure was still a cable-braced box-girder of spruce longerons and cross-members, although from the cockpit area forward the longerons were now spliced with ash.
  The wings were practically identical to the B II, with the same type of "kinked" ailerons at the upper wingtips. All struts were now of streamlined steel tube including the inverted vee centre-section cabane. The gravity fuel tank, now torpedo shaped, was usually slung underneath the upper wing slightly to port of the centre-section, although sometimes it was attached to the upper surface.
  The tail surfaces were much the same as on the B II, except for a degree of curvature on the tailplane leading edges to give some additional area. The undercarriage was an orthodox vee-type chassis of streamlined steel tube with coiled-steel-spring shock absorbers. The tailskid was now hinged on the line of the lower longerons and sprung internally with elastic cord.
  Although initially armed with only a Parabellum gun for the observer, L.V.G. C IIs later had their armament strengthened by the addition of a fixed Spandau machine-gun firing forward, as was the case with most of the early C type two-seaters. Production quantities of the C II are not known, but the type was built under licence by both the Ago and Otto firms. According to the Inter-Allied Control Commission figures, some 250 aircraft of both C I and C II types were in service at the Front in the spring of 1916.

TECHNICAL DATA
  Description: Two-seat reconnaissance and general duties.
  Manufacturers: Luft-Verkehrs Gesellschaft m.b.H. Johannisthal (Lvg.).
  Sub-contractors: Ago Flugzeug-Werke G.m.b.H., Otto-Werke G.m.b.H.
  Power Plant: One 160 h.p. Mercedes D III 6 cylinder in-line water-cooled engine.
  Dimensions: Span, 12.85 m. (42 ft. 2 in.). Length, 8.1 m. (26 ft. 7 in.). Height, 2.93 m. (9 ft. 7 1/4 in.). Area, 37.6 sq.m. (406.1 sq.ft.).
  Weights: Empty, 845 kg. (1,859 lb.). Loaded, 1,405 kg. (3,091 lb.).
  Performance: Maximum speed, 130 km.hr. (81.25 m.p.h.). Ceiling, 13,120 ft. Endurance, 4 hr.
  Armament: One manually operated Parabellum machine-gun in rear cockpit at first; later forward-firing Spandau gun was additionally fitted.


L.V.G. C III
  This machine was virtually a standard L.V.G. C II with the observer transferred to the front cockpit, although in dimensions it did differ marginally. It remained only an experimental aircraft, and probably only the one machine was built. Engine, 160 h p . Mercedes D III. Span, 12.7 m. (41 ft. 8 in.). Length, 8.0 m. (26 ft. 3 in.). Height. 3.2 m. (10 ft. 6 in.). Area, 36 sq.m. (389 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 845 kg. (1,859 lb.). Loaded, 1,405 kg. (3,091 lb.). Armament, one Parabellum machine-gun in front cockpit.


Журнал Flight


Flight, June 22, 1916.

THE L.V.G. FIGHTING BIPLANE.
TYPE D.9.

  GENERALLY speaking, the various makes of German aeroplanes did not present, before the war, any great divergency, all being, practically without exception, of the tractor biplane type. Such differences as did exist were, speaking aerodynamically, divisible into three main types - those which had the wings sloping back as seen in plan, those with straight wings, and those in which the leading edge sloped back while the trailing edge was straight. The first-mentioned type could be subdivided according to the amount of backward slope, the machines built by the Deutsche Flugzeug Werke of Leipzig representing the maximum and the Aviatik biplanes the minimum slope. The best-known representative of the straight-winged type is perhaps the Albatros biplanes, while the third type, which forms, so to speak, a compromise between the other two, is confined solely to the biplanes constructed by the Luft-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft of Berlin. Since the outbreak of war the tendency has been towards even greater uniformity, the type with the sloping-back wings, or, to give its German denomination, Pfeil flieger, having, as far as we are able to ascertain, practically disappeared from the western sky. The only survival is the L.V.G. type, which has retained the backward slope of its leading edge. We do not mean to infer that those firms who were producing machines of the arrow type are no longer building, but that they have - whether from choice or necessity we are not in a position to say - discarded the arrow-shaped wings for the more orthodox straight ones. At least one of the representatives of the arrow biplanes has been described in our columns, i.e., the D.F.W., which was being constructed in this country before the war broke out. Last year we also gave fully illustrated description of two of the captured Albatros biplanes, thus bringing our readers' acquaintance with the straight-winged German type up to date. This week we supplement these with a description of the third remaining type - the L.V.G. biplane.
  One of the most successful German machines in the races of 1914 was the L.V.G. biplane designed by Mr. Schneider, who is, we believe, a Swiss by birth. It was a machine of this type which won the Prince Henry Race and the Ostmarken Race, and from what we can learn the L.V.G. biplanes have been no less successful as fighting machines than they were in the more peaceful contests before the outbreak of hostilities.
  Apart from the backward slope of the leading edge of its main planes, the L.V.G. does not differ very greatly from the Albatros biplanes, at any rate as far as outward appearances are concerned. The same rectangular section fuselage which characterises the Albatros is found in the L.V.G., carrying at the rear a flat stabilising plane of generous proportions, and in front a large water-cooled Mercedes engine. Constructionally, however, the LV.G. does not follow the lines of the Albatros, especially as regards the construction of the body. In the Albatros biplanes, it will be remembered, the body is built up of six rafts, one in each corner of the rectangular body and one half-way up each side. The L.V.G. approaches more to the practice followed in this country and in France, having only four longitudinal rails connected in the usual way by struts, and being braced by diagonal wiring. In our description of the Albatros biplanes we ventured to offer the opinion that the Albatros way of constructing a body had several points to recommend it from a military point of view, and there is, therefore, no need to enlarge on the subject here. There are, however, points in the construction of the L.V.G. body, which might be of some use to British constructors, and which will therefore be described in detail. In the girder type of body one of the first considerations is the choice of a suitable method of anchoring the diagonal bracing wires. In the majority of machines built in this country the fittings employed for this purpose are of two types - either a steel clip bent so as to surround the body rails and provided with lips for the various wires, or a simple socket into which the strut fits, and which is secured to the rail by cue or more bolts. Both forms have their advantages and drawbacks. The clip form of fastening has the advantage that it does away with the necessity of piercing the rail, but, on the other hand, from the pilot's seat back to the stem of the body each fitting is different from the one adjoining it on each side on account of the taper which it is usual to give the rail in order to proportion it at any point to the work it has to do. This means extra expense and trouble in the manufacture and erecting, and although attempts have been made to overcome this obstacle by keeping the rails the same thickness from front to back, this only lessens the trouble, but does not overcome it entirely, since it entails spindling the rail towards the tail. The other form to which reference was made is not affected by the taper of the rails, but it suffers from the very serious disadvantage that the rails have to be pierced repeatedly, a practice which we should never recommend, although we are well aware that it is employed in a number of types of official design.
  The fitting employed in the L.V.G. biplane has, it appears to us, an advantage over most of the clips or sockets that have come to our notice, in so far as it would seem to possess the good points of both forms without the disadvantages of either. The struts and cross members of the body are slotted at their ends to receive the flanges of the fitting. The latter consists of a Duralumin casting of the shape shown in the sketch. Anchorage for the five wires occurring at each joint is provided by holes in the casting, which is prevented from sliding along the rail by short small wood screws. It might be objected that piercing is not absolutely avoided, but it appears to us that although this is perfectly true the weakening of the rail due to the employment of two small wood screws for each fitting is in no way comparable in magnitude with that produced by one or more bolts that have to be of sufficient diameter to serve as an anchorage for the bracing wires. Owing to the shape of the L.V.G. fitting, it will be seen that a taper in the rail does not necessitate any variation in consecutive fittings since, if all are made of the same width as the rail at its thinnest end, the only difference will be that towards the front the struts will not have their axes in line with that of the rails.
  A peculiarity in the design of the L.V.G. body is that from a point between the two cockpits to the nose the upper rails slope down in a straight line (as seen from the side; in plan they curve in the usual way). The reason for this feature of the machine, a feature that it has possessed for a number of years, is difficult to explain, unless one takes it for granted that the idea is to provide more clearance around the lower portion of the engine. The aluminium covering over the top of the body is detachable so as to facilitate access to the interior of the body in the vicinity of the engine.
  In the earlier machines of this make all the occupants were accommodated in a common cockpit, but in the latest models, of which the machine illustrated this week is an example, two distinct cockpits are provided, the front one of which is occupied by the pilot, while a gunner is installed in the rear. From this position he commands a fairly free view to rearward and upward, while for firing rearwards and downwards openings are cut in the top and bottom of the body through which the machine gun may be fired. This disposition of the artillery would seem to indicate that the machine is intended for defensive rather than for offensive purposes.
  The pilot, who is seated in the front seat, controls the machine by means of a foot bar and a lever terminating in a grip or handle, very similar to that of the Morane-Saulnier monoplanes. In front of him are a number of instruments almost identical with those illustrated in our description of the Albatros biplane. The engine, a 160 h.p. Mercedes, is mounted in the nose of the machine and is partly enclosed by the aluminium top cover of the body. The arrangement of the exhaust pipes is of a very simple form, consisting, as will be seen, of a short branch pipe from each cylinder running to a vertical collector pipe projecting upwards above the level of the upper plane. An unusual mounting of the radiator is employed, as will be seen from our illustrations. The radiator, instead of being mounted on the sides of the body as in earlier machines, is built into the top plane, tubes running from it down to the front and back of the engine. Whether this method of mounting is desirable for a military machine appears to us questionable. The pilot, being placed below and slightly to the rear of it, could hardly avoid being scalded should the radiator be damaged by projectiles.
  The main planes, which have, as we have pointed out, their leading edge sloping back towards the tip, do not present anything out of the ordinary, either constructionally or in the section employed. The lower one is attached to the sides of the body by a quickly detachable device, while the two halves of the top plane are bolted to a steel tube cabane composed of four streamline steel tube struts resting with their lower ends on the top rails of the body.
  The inter-plane struts are steel tubes of streamline section tapered at both ends to take a vertical bolt which passes through the main spar. The anchorage for the bracing cables is very similar to that employed on the Albatros machines, and consists of a hollow, cup-shaped steel shell slotted in places to accommodate the strainers of the cables. A quick-release device is employed, which allows of rapid dismantling and erecting without interfering with the adjustment of the wings. The inter-plane struts are so pivoted on the eye-bolt passing through the spar that when the cables are slackened off they can pivot sideways, and the upper and lower planes be brought to lie flat one on top of the other. The general arrangement as well as a detail drawing of the quick-release device are illustrated in two of the accompanying sketches, which are, we think, self-explanatory.
  In the photographs of the machine it will be noticed that the ailerons appear to be of a very peculiar shape, the impression being that they have a narrower chord at the tip than at the root. This is not the case, however, the break being due to the fact that the outer half of the aileron is set at a slight negative angle.
  In the earlier models the ailerons were similar, in that they consisted of two portions, of which the inner was in line with the trailing edge of the fixed portion of the wing, while the outer was set at a negative angle. In the new type, however, the gap between the two halves has been covered with fabric in order, presumably, to reduce end losses and thus render the aileron more effective.
  The tail planes follow fairly closely along the lines of other German machines, the fixed tail plane being of large area and the rudder hinged to the rear of a fixed vertical fin. A refinement is noticeable in the arrangement of the tail skid, which has in the type D.9 the rubber shock absorber placed inside the body to save resistance.
  The undercarriage is almost identical with that of the Albatros biplanes. In older models, it may be remembered, a third wheel was fitted on the lower ends of two struts sloping down from the front part of the body and braced by tubes running backwards and outwards to the apices of the Vees formed by the main chassis struts. This extra wheel has been omitted in the later model, having, in fact, always been detachable and chiefly used for school work in order to protect the propeller and prevent the machine from turning over on its nose in case of a bad landing.

В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
LVG C-II, 8 эскадрилья, 2 бомбардировочная эскадра ВВС Германии, май 1916г.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
L.V.G. C I
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
L.V.G. C II.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
Three-quarter front view of a captured L.V.G. biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
Three-quarter rear view of an L.V.G. biplane, type D.9.
A.Imrie - German Naval Air Service /Arms & Armour/
Two-seater crew of an LVG C I of Il Marine Feldflieger-Abteilung at Mariakerke in Flanders. The observer at right with the 25cm hand-held camera is Leutnant Theo Osterkamp, who later became one of the top-scoring naval fighter plilots; he was credited with 31 victories and was awarded Germany's highest military decoration, the Ordre Pour le Merite on 2 September 1918.
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
An L.V.G. C.II biplane, 160 h.p. Mercedes engine of 1916 type. Note the radiator built into the centre sections of the wings.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
CHASSIS AND ENGINE OF AN L.V.G. BIPLANE. - Note how the radiator is built into the top place.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
LVG C-II, захваченный русской армией в Галиции, зима 1916-1917 годов
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
A good illustration of the restricted view of pilots in many of these early designs is given by this LVG CII. However, this type was one of the first to be armed with a forward-firing Spandau machine gun and a parabellum gun for the observer. The aircraft entered service late in 1915 for a variety of roles.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
In British markings, this LVG CII was photographed by Capt. D.S. Glover when it was under test with the RFC. The CII had first appeared in late 1915 and by 1916 was in widespread use.
Форум - Breguet's Aircraft Challenge /WWW/
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Captor and Captive. - A German L.V.G. biplane forced to descend by the French aviator, Adjudant N., who was flying the little fast single-seater Morane-Saulnier monoplane seen in the photograph beyond the German machine.
A.Imrie - German Bombers /Arms & Armour/
BAO returned to the Western Front in mid-1915 and was equipped with armed aircraft of the C category. Some of its LVG C II machines, in a variety of finishes, are seen here on Ghistelles aerodrome in December. Shortly afterwards BAO's designation was changed to Kampfgeschwader der Obersten Heeresleitung (Kagohl) (Fighting Squadron of the Army High Command) I and its aircraft were reorganized into six Kampfstaffeln (Fighting sections) - Kasta 1 to 6 - each having a strength of seven aeroplanes. At the same time BAM became Kagohl II with Kasta 7 to 12. Both formations were to have been used in the offensive against Verdun, in concentrated bombing attacks on targets behind the French lines, but this plan suffered attrition because the aircraft were used instead on fighting patrol work.
A.Imrie - German Bombers /Arms & Armour/
On 20, 21 and 22 May 1916 Kagohl I and III mounted concentrated attacks against Dunkirk. Shown are Kampfstaffeln of Kagohl I, equipped in the main with LVG C II two-seaters (Rumpler C I machines of Kasta II in the foreground) and assembled in take-off order on Ghistelles aerodrome, near Ostend, on 21 May. A strict count-down procedure was maintained; all engines of a Kampfstaffel were started at the same time and machines were broght into line at the edge of the manoeuvring area before the previous unit had taken off. As soon as the last aircraft was airborne, the leader of the following Kasta started his take-off run, the other six machines following within a few seconds of each other. It was thus possible to get the whole Kagohl away in landing was achieved with similar despatch, and surprisingly few accidents accompanied these high-density movements.
A.Imrie - German Bombers /Arms & Armour/
This aerial view of the same scene shows the specially prepared take-off area, to combat the Flanders mud, that allowed the heavily laden machines of each Kasta to depart in rapid succession. Once airborne, individual aircraft formed up easily on their leader's machine, which flew at reduced speed in a specified direction. Units then adopted their prearranged position in the 40-aircraft-strong formation, and climbed to operating height (generally above 10,000ft) before setting course for the target.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
Some snaps of the Lord Mayor's Procession: - 1. Fuselage of captured German LVG.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
L.V.G. C III
А.Александров, Г.Петров - Крылатые пленники России
(КПР 40)
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
The gun-ring and cockpits of L.V.G. C.II reconnaissance and general purpose biplane of 1916-17 use, captured by the French. 160 h.p. Mercedes D.III engine, allowing 81 miles per hour.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
Diagrammatic sketch of the peculiar stepped ailerons of the L.V.G. biplanes.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
Sketch showing attachment of struts to body rails in the L.V.G. biplanes.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
Inter plane strut socket and quick-release device on the L.V.G. biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
The quick release device employed in the wing bracing of an L.V.G. biplane.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
LVG C-II
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.