Самолеты (сортировка по:)
Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

LFG Roland C.II

Страна: Германия

Год: 1915

Two-seat reconnaissance and escort duties

LFG Roland - Taube - 1914 - Германия<– –>LFG Roland - G.I - 1915 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


РОЛАНД C-II / ROLAND C-II

  Цельнодеревянный одностоечный биплан. Фюзеляж - полумонокок эллиптического сечения с обшивкой, выклеенной из шпона. "Роланд" - первая в мире серийная машина с фюзеляжем подобного типа. В дальнейшем эта конструкция широко применялась (главным образом - в СССР) до конца тридцатых годов. Крылья и оперение покрыты полотном. Вырезы кабин экипажа размещены над плоскостями для улучшения обзора верхней полусферы и обеспечения кругового обстрела из турельного пулемета.
  Самолет разработан конструкторским коллективом фирмы Роланд (ранее - LFG) в октябре 1915 года. Выпускался серийно на заводах фирмы-разработчика и Линке-Хоффман. За характерную форму аппарат сразу получил кличку "Валь" - "Кит".
  К моменту поступления на фронт весной 1916-го С-П оказался лучшим немецким самолетом в своем классе. Очень аэродинамичный, с хорошими скоростными данными и эффективным вооружением, он применялся не только как разведчик и корректировщик, но и в роли истребителя. В летних боях 1916 года пилоты союзников считали "Роланд" самым грозным противником.
  Однако немецкие летчики относились к "Киту" неоднозначно. Высоко ценя его боевые возможности, они резко осуждали плохой обзор вперед-вниз, из-за которого сажать машину приходилось чуть ли не вслепую. Кроме того, несмотря на противокапотажную раму, опрокидывание "Роланда" грозило его экипажу гораздо большими неприятностями, чем на других германских бипланах.
  Тем не менее, самолет воевал на западном и восточном фронтах довольно долго. Отдельные машины можно было увидеть на полевых аэродромах еще осенью 1917-го.

  
ДВИГАТЕЛЬ
  
  "Мерседес"D.III, 160 л.с.
  
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ
  
  1 синхр. "Шпандау", 1 турельный "Парабеллум", 70 кг. бомб.
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
  
  Размах, м 10,3
  Длина, м 7,7
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 26,0
  Сухой вес, кг 764
  Взлетный вес, кг 1284
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 165
  Время набора высоты, м/мин 1000/6
  Потолок, м 4000


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


L.F.G. Roland C II

  Luftfahrzeug Gesellschaft (L.F.G.) was the successor of the Flugmaschine Wright G.m.b.H., an offspring of the L.F.G. Bitterfeld, which, in turn, had stemmed from the Motorluftschiff Studiengesellschaft founded for airship manufacture at the instigation of Wilhelm II in 1906. The Wright firm at Adlershof went into liquidation in 1912 after losing their patents claim. The firm was then revived by Krupp and other financiers for the manufacture of aircraft, as L.F.G, with Herr Kiefer as chief engineer. It was then that "Roland" was registered as a trade name to avoid confusion with the L.V.G. firm. The factory at Adlershof was gutted by fire on 6th September 1916, due, it is said, to action by the British Secret Service. The factory was then transferred to the exhibition halls at Charlottenburg, where manufacture continued.
  One of the most original trends of thought in aircraft design during 1915 was seen in the L.F.G. Roland C II, which had been evolved by Dipl. Ing. Tantzen, who had recently joined Luftfahrzeug Gesellschaft as a design engineer. Earlier the Albatros B I, B II and C I (Rol), which so patently typified current thought on two-seat reconnaissance machines, had been license-built by L.F.G.
  Tantzen's ambition was to present a drastically cleaned-up airframe, eliminating as much as possible of the "built-in" drag of interplane, centre-section strut arrangements and attendant bracing. He employed a deep fuselage which had the two-fold objective of eliminating the drag of centre-section struts and, by joining the top wing direct to the fuselage, presenting the crew with an unparalleled all-round field of view. There was some restriction of downward view, but cut-outs in the wing roots and the arrangement of the stagger mitigated this. A further refinement was the simplification of the bracing to a single-bay format and the utilisation of single I-type interplane struts.
  An interesting fact about the Roland C II is that the designer foresaw that the deep fuselage might precipitate difficulty in ensuring adequate control, and a series of experiments was conducted with the airframe mounted on a flat-topped railway wagon. Fast runs were made over a long, straight stretch of track between Schoneberg and Juterbog. The prototype appeared in October 1915 and was lost due to engine failure, but a second machine soon under test, and it was found necessary to revise the originally triangular-shaped horizontal fins. Still later it was found that the machine lacked directional stability, tending to hunt and demanding constant vigilance from the pilot; subsequent increase in the vertical fin area improved this shortcoming. The main deficiency of the C II was that the very thin wings tended to distort after any length of time on active service and the climb performance became very poor.
  C IIs began to equip the Fl. Abt. units for reconnaissance and also for escort duties by the beginning of 1916. Usually the reconnaissance machines were armed only with a Parabellum gun for the observer, and a radio transmitter also formed part of his equipment. Later a forward-firing Spandau gun was added to the armament.
  Eduard von Schleich, who later became well known as C.O. of one of the Bavarian Jagdstaffeln, for a time flew these Roland two-seaters when with Fl. Abt. 4. Frequently C IIs operated in considerable numbers, the reconnaissance machines being protected by the escorts. Capt. Albert Ball, V.C., often reported combats with large numbers of Rolands during the Battle of the Somme in the summer of 1916. Ball's first officially confirmed victory in fact over a Roland C II. Flying a Nieuport scout in company with four F.E. 8s during the late afternoon of the 2nd July, a formation of six Rolands was attacked at 10,000 ft. Immediately the German formation broke up, but after briefly manoeuvring for a favourable position to attack, Ball was able to put in a whole drum of Lewis at almost full deflection. The two-seater was seen to crash on the Mercatel-Arras road, and confirmation subsequently given by a Vickers Gunbus crew which happened to be in the vicinity.
  The story is told, probably apocryphal, that when the officials attended upon the trials of the C II one member was heard to remark, "Truly this machine is a whale!" and the type certainly became unofficially known as the Walfisch.
  Construction of the fuselage represented a revolutionary departure from standard practice, and was one of the first semi-monocoque structures. The shell was built up on a basic skeleton of ply formers and longerons, with main "key" formers positioned fore and aft of the pilot's cockpit. To this was pinned and glued the thin three-ply covering, which was applied in narrow strips and spirally wound on to the basic frame; this in turn was covered with linen fabric and doped. The root attachment fairings for both upper and lower wings were built integral with the fuselage. The 160 h.p. Mercedes D III engine was almost completely buried in the deep nose, only the first two cylinders being partially exposed. The exhaust pipes were led mostly into an occarina-shaped manifold, and "ear" type radiators were located on the fuselage sides just aft of the engine. Only the section of the fuselage immediately aft of the large spinner was of metal panelling, and this was generously slotted with cooling vents. Hinged metal access panels were fitted where necessary to facilitate servicing. In the vicinity of the cockpit were large celluloid-covered panels which considerably improved visibility. However, it is doubtful if they were large enough to serve as escape hatches, as has often been claimed. The pylon on the centre-section was a safeguard against decapitation of the crew in the event of a capsized crash-landing.
  Of composite construction, the empennage featured wooden, fabric-covered fins, while the unbalanced control surfaces were of steel tube with fabric covering. When later the area of the vertical fin was increased it was braced to the tailplane with two light steel struts in addition to the usual struts underneath.
  Construction of the wings was orthodox in that they were based on two hollow box-spars - with the rear (main) spar at approximately mid-chord - and three steel-tube compression members to each panel. Ribs were of ply webs, with softwood capping and reinforcing strips. They were interspersed with false ribs, which extended right back to the rear spar. All four panels were of identical span and chord, with angularly raked tips and wire trailing edges which gave the characteristic scalloped profile. The unbalanced ailerons were inversely tapered, and their oblique mounting preserved the straight trailing edge. They were of steel tube construction: actuation was through cables attached to a crank and connected to a torque tube which ran through the forward edge of the lower wing. In a later model this torque tube ran through the top wing. The unique I interplane struts were covered with a double layer of three-ply and connected all four wing spars in ball-and-cup joints.
  The conventional undercarriage chassis consisted of streamline steel-tube vees with tubular axle and twin spreader bars. Wheels were sprung with elastic shock cord. On aircraft fitted with radio an airscrew-driven dynamo was attached to the top of the front starboard undercarriage strut. A large hockey-stick type tailskid of ash completed the landing gear.
  Although exact figures are not known, several hundred C IIs were built, and the type was also manufactured under licence by the Linke-Hofmann concern.

TECHNICAL DATA
  Description: Two-seat reconnaissance and escort duties.
  Manufacturers: Luftfahrzeug Gesellschaft m.b.H. Berlin-Charlottenburg (Rol.).
  Sub-contractors: Linke-Hofmann Werke A.G. (Li.).
  Power Plant: One 160 h.p. Mercedes D III 6 cylinder in-line water-cooled engine.
  Dimensions: Span, 10.3 m . (33 ft. 9 1/2 in.). Length, 7.7 m. (25 ft. 3 1/4 in.). Height, 2.9 m. (9 ft. 6 1/8 in.). Area, 26 sq.m. (280.8 sq.ft.).
  Weights: Empty, 764 kg. (1,680.8 lb.). Loaded, 1,284 kg. (2,824.8 lb.).
  Performance: Maximum speed, 165 km.hr. (103.12 m.p.h.). Climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 6 min., 2,000 m. (6,560 ft.) in 12 min., 4,000 m. (13,120 ft.) in 45 min. Duration, 4-5 hr. according to fuel load carried.
  Armament: One manually operated Parabellum machine-gun in rear cockpit. Later a Spandau machine-gun firing forward was additionally fitted.


L.F.G. Roland C III
  Development of C II Walfisch with orthodox two-bay wings. All-wooden aircraft with ply-covered fuselage. This machine existed as a prototype only and was destroyed when the Adlershof factory was burnt out on 16th September 1916. Engine, 200 h.p. Benz Bz IV. Armament, one Spandau and one Parabellum machine-guns.


Журнал Flight


Flight, July 12, 1917.

SOME 1917 TYPE GERMAN AEROPLANES.

The Roland Two-seater.

  Since the early days of German aviation the L.F.G. (Luft-Fahrzeug-Gesellschaft) firm have named their machines "Roland," this being the name of their chief designer. The modern Roland two-seater biplane is similar to the single-seater already described. It is considerably smaller than the other German two-seaters, the span being only 30 ft. Both wings are perfectly straight, the top one resting on the roof of the body. On each side is a single inter-plane strut made of ply wood and of streamline section. This member serves the dual function of the usual pair of struts and of incidence wires. The planes are heavily staggered, so much so that the rear spar of the top plane is vertically above the front spar of the bottom plane. Ailerons are fitted to the upper wing only, and are peculiar in that they are hinged along a false spar, forming an angle with the two main spars.
  The body is of three-ply wood, rounded section, and is so deep in front that windows have been provided for the pilot and gunner (who occupies the rear cockpit). The engine is a 175 h.p. Mercedes, and the armament consists of two machine guns and under the body four bombs placed longitudinally.

В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Роланд" C-II, 8 эскадрилья, 2 бомбардировочная эскадра ВВС Германии, май 1916г.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
A curious Roland C.II reconnaissance and escort two-seater biplane of 1916-17, with pilot and passenger above the upper plane. It will be noted that the "single strut" idea is not new in Germany. The engine is a 160 h.p. Mercedes D.III. Its body arrangement recalls Mr. R.F.Macfie's design of 1911.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
The Roland (L.F.G.) C ll 160 h.p. Mercedes
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
The LFG Roland CII, of which several hundred were built, entered service in early 1916 as a reconnaissance aircraft but was also used as an escort fighter.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
The LFG Roland C II of exceptionally clean appearance made its debut in October 1915 and stayed in front-line service until the autumn of 1917. Powered by a 160hp Mercedes D II, the C II's top level speed was 103mph at sea level. Thanks to its relatively short span, low aspect ratio wings, its high altitude performance was limited to a modest ceiling of 13,100 feet. This said, it should be noted that the RFC ace, Albert Ball cites this machine as being the best of the German two seaters with very effective fields of fire to the front and to the rear. This is an early production example, serving with Fl Abt A 227 at Lille in the autumn of 1916. The crew members are Lt Stuhldreer, pilot, sitting on the inboard upper wing, along with Lt Allmenroder, observer, astride the port wheel.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Rear aspect of a late production LFG Roland C II that complements the front view opposite. The salient difference between early and late machines is the increase of both fin and rudder area. The machine seen here belonged to the Bavarian Fl Abt 292 and was photographed in early 1917.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Курсовой пулемет был установлен между трубами предохранительной пирамиды, возвышаясь над фюзеляжем, а на ее верхушке крепилось зеркало заднего вида.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
L.F.G. Roland C II.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
L.F.G. Roland C III
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
The Roland two-seater.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Роланд" C-II