А.Шепс Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Шорт S.184 1915 г.
В начале войны командование Royal Navy Air Service заказало фирме "Шорт" строительство поплавкового разведчика и патрульного самолета, способного патрулировать вдоль побережья значительное время. Воспользовавшись опытом создания опытных машин S.135, S.136 и S.137, фирма к концу 1914 года построила свой знаменитый S.184. Это был трехстоечный биплан. Фюзеляж прямоугольного сечения имел деревянную конструкцию и обтягивался полотном по стрингерам и шпангоутам. В носовой части фюзеляжа устанавливался 8-цилиндровый, жидкостного охлаждения, V-образный рядный двигатель Санбим "Майори" мощностью 380 л. с. Радиатор устанавливался над фюзеляжем перед крылом. За ним располагался главный топливный бак и кабины пилота и наблюдателя. Задняя часть фюзеляжа имела полукруглый гаргот. Крыло двухлонжеронное, с ферменными нервюрами, имело цельнодеревянную конструкцию и обтягивалось полотном. Элероны устанавливались на верхнем крыле. Стойки деревянные, растяжки - стальной трос. Оперение обычного типа имело конструкцию, аналогичную крылу. Машина с целью обеспечения устойчивости оборудовалась килем значительной площади.
Главные и хвостовые поплавки понтонного типа имели также деревянную конструкцию. Так как крыло имело большой размах, оно снабжалось подкрыльевыми цилиндрическими металлическими поплавками.
Вооружение состояло из 7,62-мм пулемета "Льюис" на шкворневой установке и подвешивавшихся под крылом бомб весом до 56 кг. В 1915 году под распорки поплавков подвесили 355,6-мм торпеду Уайтхеда и S.184 превратился в торпедоносец.
Эти машины базировались как на береговых станциях Royal Navy, так и на гидроавиатранспортах типа "Бен-Мэй-Кри", сопровождавших линейные эскадры и конвои. S.184 вели поиск германских подводных лодок в Северном и Ирландском морях, в проливе Ла Манш и в Северной Атлантике, но летные качества перестали удовлетворять флот, и машина подверглась радикальной модернизации.
Показатель S.184 1915г.
размах крыльев 19,36
Площадь крыла, м2 63,80
максимальный взлетный 2400
Двигатель: Санбим "Майори I"
мощность, л.с. 260
Скорость, км/ч 150
Дальность полета, км 400
полета, ч 4,5
Потолок практический, м 2560
Экипаж, чел. 2
Вооружение 1 (иногда сдвоенный) х 7,7-мм турельный пулемет "Льюис"
400 кг бомб или 355-м м торпеда
Шорт S.225 1916 г.
Развитием машин серии S.184 стали торпедоносцы S.225. Эти машины конструктивно мало отличались от своих предшественников. Для обеспечения необходимых летных характеристик были увеличены размах и площадь крыльев. Большую площадь имели и элероны. Для обеспечения необходимых маневренных характеристик удлинен фюзеляж, увеличена площадь стабилизатора. Изменена конструкция подкрыльевых поплавков: вместо цилиндрических устанавливались лодочного типа, с большим водоизмещением. Усилено крепление главных поплавков. Увеличение размаха крыльев вызвало установку дополнительной пары стоек и дополнительной системы растяжек.
Коробка крыльев складывалась вдоль фюзеляжа для обеспечения хранения в ангаре авианесущих кораблей. Вместо шкворневой установки пулемета в кабине наблюдателябомбардира монтировалась турельная установка. На самолете устанавливался более мощный и экономичный двигатель Роллс-Ройс "Игл" мощностью 250 л. с., 8-цилиндровый, рядный, жидкостного охлаждения, V-образный. Вместо одного радиатора, смонтированного над двигателем, устанавливались два бортовых сотовых радиатора.
Самолет мог нести либо 420 кг бомб, либо 355,6-мм торпеду "Уайтхед", либо 450-мм торпеду.
Машины этого типа базировались на гидроавиатранспортах "Бен-Мэй-Кри", "Мэнкомэн", "Виндекс", "Энгадайн", "Ривьера", "Импресс", "Арк Ройал". Каждый корабль нес четыре гидроаэроплана.
Гидроавиатранспорт придавался линейным эскадрам для поиска кораблей противника, обнаружения его подводных лодок, нанесения торпедных ударов по отдельным кораблям, прикрытия своих конвоев с воздуха. Особенно успешно применялись торпедоносцы S.225 в Дарданелльской операции и в операциях "Хоум Флита" в Северном море, в Ла-Манше и Северной Атлантике.
F.Manson British Bomber Since 1914 (Putnam)
Short Admiralty Type 184
When approached by the Admiralty's Air Department in September 1914 to tender proposals for a torpedo-carrying seaplane powered by the 225hp Sunbeam engine (as were Sopwith and J Samuel White), Horace Short proposed submitting a development of his abortive 1913 Circuit of Britain seaplane, which had been withdrawn owing to a lack of power from its 100hp Green engine. Within a few months two prototypes, Nos 184 and 185, were ordered from Short Bros.
The Short Admiralty Type 184 was not significantly larger than the former aircraft but, with more than twice the power available, could be strengthened considerably so as to lift a much greater weight. The equal-span, three-bay wings were of high aspect ratio and featured large-area, single-acting ailerons on the upper surfaces only. The wing folding arrangement was improved, the entire folding and locking operation being carried out by the pilot in his cockpit by means of a hand-operated winch and lever-controlled locking bar in the rear fuselage. The fuselage structure was the customary four-longeron box-girder of spruce members with wire bracing, the longerons extending forward to the front of the engine which itself was carried on pressed-steel cross frames.
The sprung floats were not mounted directly on the attachment struts but were slotted so as to ride vertically relative to the front and rear crossmembers, being retained by stout elastic cords. Wingtip and tail floats were fitted, the latter including a small water rudder linked to the main rudder, this being a balanced surface with large fin.
The upper wing was inversely tapered from the aircraft centreline to two-thirds of semi-span, and of parallel chord outwards thereafter; the lower wing was entirely of parallel chord. Apart from the front fuselage, the whole airframe was fabric-covered.
An evaluation batch of ten further Short 184s was ordered before the prototypes flew in about March 1915. Early flights by Nos 184 and 185 disclosed the need to improve the lateral control, the large-area single-acting ailerons making the seaplanes almost unmanageable while taxying downwind, with the result that rubber cords were fitted to retain the ailerons in the neutral position, except when actuated by the pilot; this did not prove to be a complete remedy, and ailerons were then added to the lower wings, being connected to the upper surfaces by cables. Trials with bombs and torpedoes were also carried out, and No 184 was at some point fitted with an unbalanced rudder, although this is said to have been 'an improvisation rather than a modification'.
Meanwhile, conversion of a number of Isle of Man packet steamers into seaplane carriers had been put in hand, and on 21 May 1915 one of these, Ben-my-Chree, sailed from Harwich for the Dardanelles with the two Short 184 prototypes embarked (as well as a spare airframe, unassembled, and two Sopwith Schneiders), arriving at her destination on 12 June. On 12 August Flt-Cdr Charles Humphrey Kingsman Edmonds (later Air Vice-Marshal, CBE, DSO, RAF), flying solo in No 184, torpedoed and sank a Turkish transport off Gallipoli - only to be told that the ship had already been damaged by a submarine; five days later this pilot torpedoed another Turkish transport, leaving it on fire, and on the same day Flt-Cdr George Bentley Dacre (later Air Cdre, CBE, DSO, RAF), flying No 186, had to alight in the Straits with a failing engine; however, he sighted a large enemy tug, which he torpedoed while taxying on the water. He was then able to fly back to Ben-my-Chree.
These were the only successes with torpedoes achieved by Short 184s, principally on account of the difficulty they had in taking off with a heavy load in the hot, humid conditions of the Aegean. Instead, the seaplanes were employed, like the other Shorts, in bombing and gunnery spotting work. For the former, bombs were carried in tandem on a long beam attached beneath the fuselage which incorporated shackles for up to four 65 lb or two 100/112 lb bombs; with these loads the 184 could at least carry a two-man crew aloft as well as a somewhat greater fuel load. Indeed, on 8 November 1915 Edmonds and Dacre bombed a railway bridge at Maritza in Bulgaria, a round trip of over 200 miles.
By this date, and probably encouraged by the isolated achievements o f the Short 184s in the torpedo attack role, the Admiralty had placed what were, for the time, large orders for the aircraft. However, Shorts became fully extended after receiving a contract for 75 aircraft, and further orders, totalling 78 Type 184s, were placed with five other manufacturers. In addition to twelve ordered from Mann, Egerton of Norwich, a further ten two-bav derivatives of the basic Short 184 were built as the Mann, Egerton Type B.
At about this time it was a Short 184 that first dropped a 500 lb bomb during trials with the Short-built No 8052. On 8 May 1916 this weapon was dropped at Kingsnorth from 4,000 feet using a special bombsight designed by Lieut R B Bourdillon and Henry Thomas Tizard (later Sir Henry, GCB, AFC, FRS); it is said that the redoubtable Cdr C R Samson was the pilot on this occasion, before being posted to the Mediterranean.
In June 1916 Cdr Samson was given command of Ben-my-Chree as well as two smaller seaplane carriers, Anne and Raven II for operations in the Eastern Mediterranean. Realising that the Shorts of his small force were severely handicapped by the need to operate only in the cooler temperatures of the early morning and late evening, Samson had one of his aircraft extensively modified by reducing the lower wing span, removing the outboard interplane struts, replacing the cylindrical wingtip floats by small planing hydrofoils, and reducing the tail fin area. Samson, who claimed that these modifications resulted in a seven-knot speed increase, was ordered to Aden to locate and destroy the German raider Wolf at large in the Indian Ocean early in 1917. The modified Short made numerous search patrols until, at the end of March that year, the floats collapsed in a heavy swell and the seaplane sank.
Short 184s were despatched to Mesopotamia in February 1916 to serve with an RNAS detachment operating from the Tigris at Ora; at one time they were used to drop supplies to the beleaguered garrison at Kut, each aircraft being loaded with about 200 lb of containers.
In home waters 184s flew many patrols over the Channel and North Sea, and HM Seaplane Carrier Engadine embarked two Short 184s with the Battle Cruiser Squadron prior to the Battle of Jutland on 31 May 1916. One of the Shorts, flown by Flt-Lt F J Rutland RN, with Asst Paymaster G S Trewin RN, as observer, was used to shadow an enemy force of light cruisers and destroyers, their position and course being transmitted back to the British fleet. This was history's first occasion on which an aeroplane was used in a major fleet action.
Type: Single-engine, two-seat, three-bay biplane, twin-float torpedo-bomber patrol seaplane.
Manufacturers: Short Brothers, Rochester, Kent; The Brush Electrical Engineering Co Ltd, Loughborough; Mann, Egerton & Co Ltd, Prince of Wales Road, Norwich, Norfolk; The Phoenix Dynamo Manufacturing Co Ltd, Bradford; Robey & Co Ltd, Lincoln; Frederick Sage & Co Ltd, Peterborough; S E Saunders Ltd, East Cowes, Isle of Wight; The Supermarine Aviation Works Ltd, Woolston, Southampton; Westland Aircraft Works, Yeovil, Somerset; J Samuel White & Co Ltd, Cowes, Isle of Wight.
Powerplant: One 225hp, 240hp or 260hp Sunbeam engine; 275hp Sunbeam Maori III; 300hp Sunbeam Manitou; 250hp Rolls-Royce (Eagle IV); 240hp Renault.
Dimensions; Span, 63ft 6 1/4in; length, 40ft 7 1/2in; height, 13ft 6in; wing area, 688 sq ft.
Weights: Standard Type 184. Tare, 3,500 lb; all-up, 5,100 lb. Improved Type 184. Tare, 3,703 lb; all-up, 5,363 lb.
Performance: Standard Tvpe 184. Max speed, 75 mph at 2,000ft. Improved Type 184. Max speed, 88 mph at 2,000ft; climb to 2,000ft, 8 min 35 sec; service ceiling, 9,000ft; endurance, 2 1/4 hr.
Armament: Single Lewis gun on rear cockpit, later provided with Scarff or Whitehouse ring mounting. A 810 lb 14in torpedo could be carried between the floats, or a bomb load comprising one 520 lb or 500 lb bomb, four 112 lb or 100 lb bombs or one 264 lb and one 100 lb bomb carried on external racks; single-scat bombers could carry nine 65 lb bombs internally.
Prototypes: Two, Nos 184 and 185, both probably first flown at Rochester in March 1915; both flown operationally at the Dardanelles.
Production: A total of 944 Short 184s, excluding prototypes, was built: Short, 115 (Nos 841-850, 8031-8105, N1080-N1099 and N1580-N1589); Brush, 190 (N1660-N1689, N2600-N2659, N2790-N2819, N9060-N9099 and N9260-N9289); Mann, Egerton, 22 (Nos 8344-8355 and 9085-9094*); Phoenix, 62 (Nos 8368-8379, NT 630-N1659 and N1740-NT759); Robev, 256 (Nos 9041-9060, NT220-NT229, NT260-NT279, NT820-NT839, N2820-N2849, N2900-N2949, N9000-N9059, N9140-N9169 and N9290-N9305); Sage, 82 (Nos 8380-8391,9065-9084, N1130-N1139, N1230-N1239, N1590-N1599 and N1780-N1799); Saunders, 80 (Nos 8001-8030, NT140-NT149, N1600-N1624 and N1760-N1774); Supermarine, 15 (N9170-N9184); Westland, 12 (Nos 8356-8367); White, 110 (1240-1259, N2950-N2999 and N9100-N9139). Orders for 159 further aircraft were cancelled at the end of the War.
(*) The latter batch often aircraft, being modified to the design of Mann, Egerton as Type B aircraft, is also listed under the entry for the Mann, Egerton Type B.
Summary of Service: Short 184s operated from the following seaplane and aircraft carriers: HMS Ark Royal, Anne, Ben-my-Chree, Campania, Empress, Engadine, Furious, Nairana, Pegasus, Raven II, Riviera and Vindex, and from HM Light Cruisers Arethusa and Aurora. They also served in the bombing, coastal patrol and anti-submarine roles at the following RNAS Stations in the United Kingdom: Westgate (becoming No 219 Squadron, RAF, on 1 August 1918), Dover (No 233 Sqn), Newlyn (No 235 Sqn), Cattewater (Nos 237 and 238 Sqns), Torquay (No 239 Sqn), Calshot (No 240 Sqn), Portland (No 241 Sqn), Newhaven (No 242 Sqn), Fishguard (No 245 Sqn), Seaton Carcvv (No 246 Sqn), Hornsea Mere (No 248 Sqn), Dundee (No 249 Sqn), and Bembridge (No 253 Sqn); and overseas at Alexandria, Egypt (Nos 202, 269 and 270 Sqns), Oudezeele, France (No 229 Sqn), Cherbourg, France (No 243 Sqn), Otranto, Italy (Nos 263 and 271 Sqns), Suda Bay, Crete (No 264 Sqn), Gibraltar (No 265 Sqn), Mudros, Aegean (No 266 Sqn) and Kalafrana, Malta (No 268 Sqn). They served on the East Indies Station, and with the RNAS Detachment, Basra, Mesopotamia, as well as the Torpedo Training School, Felixstowe.
General recognition that the Type 184 was a fundamentally sound aeroplane and popular with its crews, so long as it was required to fly in no more than fairly docile weather and water conditions, prompted the Admiralty to pursue development of the aircraft with progressively more powerful engines. Some aircraft were fitted with the 240hp Sunbeam, while one example, Short-built No 8104, was powered by a 250hp Rolls-Royce Eagle, but no wartime production with the latter engine followed (although some aircraft, supplied to Estonia after the War, were so powered). Short 184s also appeared in production with 240hp Renault 12-cylinder water-cooled in-line engines, and some were powered by the 275hp Sunbeam Maori III. However, the best and most popular version was said to be the 260hp Sunbeam Maori I-powered Dover Type 184, so called on account of it being used primarily at the Dover Patrol stations at Newhaven and Cherbourg. The engine installation of this version featured a flat frontal honeycomb radiator immediately behind the propeller. Full-travel, double-acting ailerons were fitted on upper and lower wings, and wingtip floats of improved shape were introduced. When rigged with Rafwires throughout, in place of stranded cables, the aircraft was officially referred to as the Improved Type 184, and was the subject of late production orders.
The Short Type 184 remained in service after the Armistice (even though 159 aircraft were cancelled at the end of the War), being widely used for mine-spotting over coastal waters, and a small number was embarked in the carrier HMS Pegasus for service at Archangel in 1919. A few were sold to Chile, Estonia, Greece and Japan,
O.Thetford British Naval Aircraft since 1912 (Putnam)
Short Type 184 Seaplane
In any history of the development of British naval aviation the Short Type 184 must occupy an honoured place. It was to the First World War what the Swordfish became in the Second World War; both types made history as torpedo-carrying aircraft and earned reputations in every theatre of war for solid reliability. More than 900 Short Type 184 seaplanes were built for the RNAS. They served at practically every coastal air station round Great Britain, as well as in the Mediterranean, the Aegean, the Red Sea, in Mesopotamia and on the French coast. The most important fact about the Short Type 184, however, is that it was the first aircraft in the world to sink an enemy ship at sea by means of a torpedo attack. It was also the only aircraft to play an active part in the Battle of Jutland.
As was the case with a number of key types of British naval aircraft, the Short Type 184 owed its existence to the fertile brain of Commodore Murray F Sueter (later Rear-Adm Sir Murray Sueter), who was Director of the Air Department of the Admiralty in the formative years of the RNAS. Commodore Sueter, from the earliest days a keen advocate of the torpedo as a RNAS weapon, had had his hand strengthened by the success of the experiment, on 28 July 1914, when a 14-in Whitehead torpedo of 810 lb had been dropped from a Short seaplane with 160 hp Gnome engine. With the outbreak of war, Commodore Sueter pressed his theories about the value of a powerful torpedo-carrying seaplane, and talked over his plans with Shorts. The outcome, early in 1915, was the Short Type 184. It took its designation from the curious Admiralty custom of those days whereby types were referred to by the number allocated to the first aircraft. Later, the type became known in general service by the more colloquial '225', which was the horse-power of the engine, though more powerful engines were subsequently fitted.
Some of the first Short 184s delivered to the RNAS (including the original No.184) went aboard the seaplane carrier Ben-my-Chree to serve in the Dardanelles campaign from June 1915. Within a few weeks it seemed that the optimism about the torpedo had been justified, for, on 12 August, FICdr C H K Edmonds made his historic flight, during which he sank an enemy ship. Flying from the Gulf of Xeros, he spotted a 5,000-ton Turkish merchant vessel, glided down from 800 ft to 15 ft, and launched his Whitehead torpedo at a range of 300 yards, striking the ship abreast the mainmast. On 17 August FlCdr Edmonds took his Short seaplane out again and repeated his success; his torpedo hit one of three steamers making for Ak Bashi Liman. The steamer was set on fire and had to be towed back to Constantinople, a burnt-out hulk. Meanwhile, FlLt G B Dacre in another Short 184 had succeeded in sinking a large steam tug whilst taxying on the water after a forced alighting due to engine failure. Afterwards he coaxed his Short into the air again under heavy Turkish fire.
These early successes with air-launched torpedoes were not to be repeated, but the Shorts from Ben-my-Chree were far from inactive. They performed a vital reconnaissance function, spotting for a naval monitor which shelled enemy transports, and bombing Turkish harbours. On 8 November 1915 Short seaplanes bombed the railway bridge over the River Maritza, and they were still hammering away at enemy communications as late as 27 August 1916, when Cdr C R Samson (who had taken over command of Ben-my-Chree the previous May) led a raid on Chikaldir Bridge, with FICdr England and Lt Clemson in the other Shorts. As Cdr Samson recalls in his book Fights and Flights, these raids were not without their difficulties; engines gave a lot of trouble due to overheating, as the coolant water boiled readily in the hot climate.
In February 1916 five Short 184s were sent to Mesopotamia, where they operated from the River Tigris. During the seige of Kut they dropped supplies to the garrison, each seaplane carrying about 250 lb of food.
In home waters Short 184s did a vast amount of routine anti-submarine patrol, and on one occasion (9 November 1916) even participated in a night-bombing raid on Ostend and Zeebrugge. For these operations they flew from coastal air stations, but they were also embarked in seaplane carriers, and it was one of these latter aircraft that achieved immortality in the Battle of Jutland. The Short 184 in question (No.8359, a Westland-built aircraft) was serving in Engadine and operating with the Battle Cruiser Fleet under Sir David Beatty. Piloted by FILt F J Rutland (who later pioneered the flying of Pups from gun-turret launching platforms), and with Assistant Paymaster G S Trewin as observer, the Short took off just after 3 p.m. on 31 May 1916. Within 40 min it had reported the presence and course of three enemy cruisers and ten destroyers. To make this observation, the Short had to fly low, under enemy gun-fire, as the clouds were at 900 ft and the visibility was poor. Continued bad weather made further air activity impracticable during the Battle of Jutland, and Engadine returned to Rosyth on 2 June. Limited as it was, the reconnaissance of 31 May was a milestone in naval air warfare equal in significance to the torpedo attack of the previous August.
The Short 184 was progressively improved throughout its career, some of the changes being introduced by the sub-contracting firms, of which there were many. In 1915, after only 12 Short 184s had been completed by the parent company, contracts were issued to S E Saunders Ltd, Mann, Egerton & Co Ltd, Westland, the Phoenix Dynamo Company and Frederick Sage & Co Ltd. Some of these firms had never previously built aircraft; nevertheless the first sub-contracted aircraft (from Sage) was ready in September 1915, and was followed by deliveries from Mann, Egerton in November 1915 and from Westlands and Phoenix early in 1916. Meanwhile the type continued in production at Shorts, and still more contractors were brought in later. As mentioned earlier, total production reached over 900, of which more than 300 were still in service in October 1918.
The power of the Short 184 was progressively increased from the 225 hp of the original Sunbeam to the 275 hp of the Sunbeam Maori III. This latter engine was fitted in some late production models, which could be distinguished by their twin exhaust stacks. Other standard installations were the 240 hp Sunbeam, the 240 hp Renault and the 260 hp Sunbeam.
The late production 260 hp Short became known as the Dover type; it differed from its fore-runners in having a car-type radiator immediately behind the airscrew and dispensed with the ugly box-type radiator above or at the sides of the engine which had characterised other Short 184s. Most of the later Short 184s had a bomb-beam below the fuselage, between the float struts, and a Scarff ring for the observer in the aft cockpit.
By late 1918 the 184s were being steadily replaced in the Grand Fleet at sea by Fairey Campania seaplanes and at shore stations by the Fairey IIIB, but they continued to form the sole equipment of Nos.235, 237 and 239 Squadrons based at Newlyn, Cattewater and Torquay. The 184 saw only brief post-war service and was mostly withdrawn during 1919. The last Short 184s in service were most probably those with No.202 Squadron at Alexandria which were retained until May 1921.
It is interesting to note that the unique historic remains of Short 184 No.8359 (built by Westlands), which served from the seaplane-carrier Engadine at the Battle of Jutland arrived on public display at the FAA Museum at Yeovilton on 27 January 1976.
Seaplane carriers: Embarked in Anne, Bell-my-Chree, Campania, Cily of Oxford, Empress, Engadine, Furious, Nairana, Pegasus, Raven n, Riviera and Vindex. Units at RNAS coastal air stations re-designated after formation of RAF as follows:- No.202 Squadron (Alexandria), No.219 Squadron (Westgate), No.229 Squadron (Great Yarmouth), No.233 Squadron (Dover), No.234 Squadron (Tresco), No.235 Squadron (Newlyn), NO.237 Squadron (Cattewater), NO.238 Squadron (Cattewater), NO.239 Squadron (Torquay), No.240 Squadron (Calshot), No.241 Squadron (Portland), No.242 Squadron (Newhaven). No.243 Squadron (Cherbourg), No.245 Squadron (Fishguard), No.246 Squadron (Seaton Carew), No.248 Squadron (Hornsea), No.249 Squadron (Dundee), No.253 Squadron (Bembridge), No.263 Squadron (Otranto), No.264 Squadron (Suda Bay), No.266 Squadron (Mudros and Petrovsk), No.267 Squadron (Kalafrana), No.286 Squadron (Kalafrana), NO.269 Squadron (Port Said), NO.270 Squadron (Alexandria) and No.271 Squadron (Taranto).
TECHNICAL DATA (SHORT 184)
Description: Two-seat reconnaissance, bombing and torpedo-carrying seaplane. Wooden structure, fabric covered.
Manufacturers: Short Bros, Rochester, Kent (Nos.184, 185,841 to 850,8031 to 8105, N1080 to 1099, N1580 to 1589). Sub-contracted by Brush Electrical Engineering Co Ltd, Loughborough (N1660 to 1689, N2630 to 2659, N2790 to 2819, N9060 to 9099 and N9260 to 9289); Mann, Egerton & Co Ltd, Norwich (Nos.8344 to 8355); Phoenix Dynamo Manufacturing Co Ltd, Bradford (Nos.8368 to 8379, N1630 to 1659 and N1740 to 1759); Robey & Co Ltd, Lincoln (Nos.9041 to 9060, N1220 to 1229, N1260 to 1279, N1820 to 1839, N2900 to 2949, N9000 to 9059 and N9290 to 9317); Frederick Sage & Co Ltd, Peterborough (Nos.8380 to 8391,9065 to 9084, N1130 to 1139, N1230 to 1239, N1590 to 1599 and N1780 to 1799); S E Saunders Ltd, Isle of Wight (Nos.800l to 8030, N1140 to 1149, N1600 to 1624 and N1760 to 1774); Supermarine Aviation Works Ltd, Southampton (N9170' to 9199); Westland Aircraft Works, Yeovil (Nos.8356 to 8367) and J Samuel White & Co Ltd, Isle of Wight (N1240 to 1259, N2950 to 2999 and N9100 to 9139).
Power Plant: One 225 hp or 240 hp or 260 hp Sunbeam; 240 hp Renault or 275 hp Sunbeam Maori III.
Dimensions: Span, 63 ft 6 1/4 in. Length, 40 ft 7 1/2 in. Height, 13 ft 6 in. Wing area, 688 sq ft.
Weights (with 260 hp Sunbeam): Empty, 3,703 lb. Loaded, 5,363 lb.
Performance (with 260 hp Sunbeam): Maximum speed, 88 1/2 mph at 2,000 ft; 84 mph at 6,500 ft. Climb, 8 min 35 sec to 2,000 ft; 33 min 50 sec to 6,500 ft. Endurance, 2 3/4 hr. Service ceiling, 9,000 ft.
Armament One free-mounted Lewis machine-gun aft and provision for one 14-in torpedo or various loads of bombs up to a maximum of 520 lb.
H.King Armament of British Aircraft (Putnam)
Type 184. This type - the 'Short 225', by reason of its original horsepower - was designed in 1914 specifically for operation with a 14-in torpedo, with which it achieved an early, spectacular and variously chronicled success in the Dardanelles campaign of 1915 (Fit Cdr C. H. K. Edmonds and Fit Lieut G. B. Dacre). Aircraft of the type were also employed in pioneering experiments with heavy bombs and operated with various forms of bomb installations and gun mountings.
The first examples had arched cross-bracing tubes to accommodate a torpedo, as on the early Type 166s. The release-strop was at the centre of the rear tube. One experimental Type 184 had the rear cockpit faired over, and standard RAF torpedo aircraft were to be single-seaters until the adoption of the Blackburn Ripon and Hawker Horsley.
In the early phases of the war at least, bombs were sometimes carried loose, for example, one of 16 lb plus six petrol bombs plus one incendiary bomb in addition to two bombs of 65 lb on carriers. A number of 16-lb bombs were in one instance carried loose in addition to three of 65 lb on carriers. Experiments were made with an installation of four 65-lb bombs under the wings, in line with the inner pair of interplane struts, but the carriers were normally installed in tandem on a long bomb-beam slung well below the fuselage. Identified loads include the following: four 65-lb, 100-lb or 112-lb; three 100-lb + one 112-lb; two 230-lb + one 100-lb; one 500-lb or 520-lb; and - aimed at the German cruiser Goeben when a Type 184 had failed to leave the water with a complete torpedo - an 18-in torpedo warhead. In May 1916 a 500-lb bomb was dropped experimentally at Kingsnorth, being aimed with a C.F.S. sight, and there appears to have been some intention of carrying such a bomb internally. In the Type D single-seat bomber variant, nine 65-lb bombs were slung nose-up internally, forward of the cockpit.
Mountings for a Lewis gun were improvised, but a Scarff ring-mounting was eventually standardised. A number of aircraft had a Whitehouse mounting. As in the usual installation of the Scarff mounting this was set considerably below the top line of the fuselage. It appears that the gun-arm was associated with a semi-circular bow, and, although the precise characteristics of the mounting are not known, they were apparently such that a recommendation was made that aircraft having this type of mounting should have a sliding panel in the floor to permit downward fire under the tail float. From one machine, in April 1916, tests were made with a 2-pdr Davis gun fitted with a Hamilton sight.
R.Mikesh, A.Shorzoe Japanese Aircraft, 1910-1941 (Putnam)
Navy Short Reconnaissance Seaplane (Short 225 Seaplane, Type S.184)
Recognizing the capability of the Royal Navy's Short 184 seaplane, the japanese Navy dispatched Capt Shiro Yamauchi to England to purchase one, as well as a Sopwith fighter seaplane. The Short arrived in Japan in November 1916 and was referred to as the Short Reconnaissance Seaplane, even though the British used it as a torpedo bomber from 1915 to the end of the First World War.
The japanese Navy used the aeroplane extensively for testing various engines such as the 230hp Salmson A9, 220hp Renault V8, 225hp Sunbeam V 12, and the 200hp Peugeot V8. As an experiment, the Aeroplane Factory, Department of Ordnance, Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, built a few of these aeroplanes with various engine installations but it was not put into quantity production.
Single-engine twin-float reconnaissance three-bay biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Auxiliary floats beneath wingtips and tail. Rearward folding wings for stowage. Crew of two in open cockpits.
One dorsal flexible 7.7mm machinegun. Bomb load: Maximum 235kg (518Ib), or one 14in torpedo.
Various engines driving two-bladed wooden propellers. The data here are for the 230hp Salmson powered aircraft.
Span 19.50m (63ft 11 3/4in); length 12.735m (41ft 9 1/4in); heIght 3.76m (12ft 4in); wing area 63.9sq m(687.836 sq ft).
Empty weight 1,472kg (3,245Ib); loaded weight 1,976kg (4,356Ib).
Maximum speed 63kt (72.5mph); climb to 1,000m (3,280ft) in 11 min 20sec.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)
Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing