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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Breguet 3

Страна: Франция

Год: 1910

Breguet - No.1 / No.2 - 1909 - Франция<– –>Breguet - U2 - 1911 - Франция


В.Шавров История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.


До 1917 г. в России было несколько типов самолетов фирмы конструктора Луи Бреге.

   "Бреге-биплан" 1911 г. экспонировался на 1-й Международной выставке воздухоплавания в Петербурге в 1911 г. Приобретенные Россией два самолета этой фирмы применялись в Гатчинской школе как учебные. Это был своеобразный двухстоечный биплан, коробка крыльев могла складываться назад для перевозки самолета по дорогам на своих колесах. Шасси трехколесное оригинальной схемы. Двигатель - "Рено" в 70 л. с.

   "Бреге-биплан" военного типа ("Бреге-Сальмсон"). От предыдущего отличался несколько большими размерами и двигателем "Сальмсон" в 125 л. с. водяного охлаждения с двумя трубчатыми радиаторами. Запуск производился сжатым воздухом из баллона, установленного на самолете.

   На таком самолете во Франции 23 марта 1911 г. были подняты в воздух с рекламной целью 11 детей. Он был построен для французской военной авиации, участвовал, хотя и безуспешно, в русском конкурсе 1913 г.


Самолет||<Бреге-биплан>/<Бреге-Сальмсон>
Год выпуска||1911/1912
Двигатель, марка||<Рено>/<Сальмсон>
   Мощность||70/125
Длина самолета, м||9/10
Размах крыла, м||14,0(9,0)/15,5
Площадь крыла, м2||34,5/50
Масса пустого, кг||~580/750
Масса полной нагрузки, кг||300/?
Полетная масса, кг||~880/?
Удельная нагрузка на крыло, кг/м2||25,5/?
Удельная нагрузка на мощность, кг/лс||12,6/?
Весовая отдача, %||34/?
Скорость максимальная у земли, км/ч||~105/?


L.Opdyke French Aeroplanes Before the Great War (Schiffer)


Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing


M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)


Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing


Журнал Flight


Flight, December 17, 1910

AEROPLANE SILHOUETTES FROM THE PARIS SHOW.

THE BREGUET BIPLANE.

  CONSTRUCTED by Louis Breguet at Douai. Fuselage and framework of steel and wood. Planes double-surfaced throughout. The main planes are connected by four stanchions placed a short distance back from the leading edge. Well known for its weight-lifting powers. On one occasion M. Breguet carried five passengers beside himself, the total weight of the six persons being 420 kilogs. Beside the one described, a racing model with only 26 sq. metres bearing surface, and fitted with a higher-powered engine, is also made.
  General Dimensions. - Bearing surface, 38 square metres. Length, overall, 9.20 metres. Span of upper main plane, 13-20 metres; of lower main plane, 9 90 metres. Wings of normal type are 170 metres broad.
  Seating capacity. - Two seats, placed one behind the other.
  Engine. - 50-60-h.p. 5-cyl. semi-radial R.E.P. motor. Normal revs., 1,000. Any motor fitted.
  Propeller. - Breguet, of two blades. Diameter, 2.90 metres. Geared down, variable pitch. Normal revs., 600.
  Chassis. - Three wheels, one centrally in front of other two (which are each double); short skids in front of each wheel; front wheel is steerable by means of ordinary control wheel. The entire aeroplane is suspended on these three wheels, there being neither skid nor wheel under the tail.
  Tail. - Cruciform monoplane tail, mounted on universal joint.
  Lateral stability. - By the flexing of the trailing edges of the main planes.
  Weight. - About 475 kilogs. complete with motor.
  Speed. - 85 kiloms. an hour.
  System ofcontrol. - By a wheel placed on a lever. Rotation of the wheel steers the machine. Backward and forward movements of the entire column elevate and depress the aeroplane, and a sideways movement to the right or left depresses the opposite wing in either case.
  Price. - With 50-60-h.p. R.E.P. motor, 30,000 francs.


Flight, January 28, 1911

Advancing the Passenger Carrying Record.

  PROGRESS continues in practical work accomplished by aeroplanes. On the 19th inst., at Douai, Breguet on a military type Breguet aeroplane (R.E.P. motor), which has been acquired by the Russian Government, beat the world's record for passenger carrying by covering 50 kiloms. in 34 mins. 54 1/5 secs, and 100 kiloms. in 1h. 9m. 28 4/5s., giving an average of 86.368 k.p.h.


Flight, April 1, 1911.

Third International Aero Exgibition at Olympia - 1911.

THE EXHIBITS ANALYSED.

<...>
  On the Breguet biplane, where the relative positions of the engine and pilot are reversed, the tail becomes, practically speaking, a non-lifting member, although in actual practice the tail of the Breguet is a slightly cambered plane. Incidentally, of course, the Breguet system facilitates the use of a monoplane type body, because the propeller, being in front, does not interfere with the continuity of the longitudinal spars in the construction of such a member. The enclosing of the body so as to be more or less of stream-line form, which feature has already been discussed, is, of course, only a natural evolution as the outcome of taking a further step in detail design. While on the subject of the Breguet machine it should also be mentioned that quite apart from the question of type this model belongs to a class apart in any case, because it is constructed entirely of steel - timber being now, as formerly, the standard material for aeroplane framework. The Breguet-type aeroplane made by the British and Colonial Aeroplane Co. is constructed of wood.
<...>


Flight, April 29, 1911.

A Breguet Biplane for the Russian Army.

  ON the 20th inst. Capt. Alexandroff paid a visit to M. Breguet's headquarters near Douai, to witness a Breguet biplane built for the Russian Army put through its paces. With M. Breguet himself at the wheel the machine had no difficulty in passing the tests laid down, and Capt. Alexandroff expressed himself thoroughly satisfied with the result.


Flight, June 24, 1911.

Breguet Machines for French Army.

  AT the Douai Aerodrome on the 15th inst., Lieut. Ludmann and Lieut. Fequant, on behalf of the French military authorities, accepted delivery of five Breguet biplanes. Each one was put through a test flight by either M. Breguet or Debussy, and attained an altitude of 600 metres, a speed of 95 k.p.h., with a useful load of 305 kilogs. on board. Breguet, flying with the wind, attained a speed of 120 k.p.h.


Flight, July 22, 1911.

THE BREGUET AEROPLANE.

  AT a time when everything in aeronautics is virtually new it seems inappropriate to refer to any particular machine as out of the ordinary, but the stereotyping influence of the popularity of one or two leading makes has already had a marked tendency in fixing ideas in aeroplane construction so that it is, after all, a matter of necessity to say of the Breguet aeroplane that it is a machine of uncommon design and exceptional interest.
  In the first place it is built of steel throughout, whereas most aeroplanes are built of timber with minor metal fittings. The body of the Breguet aeroplane has, in fact, a frame built up with pressed-steel channel-section side members just like the frame of the chassis of a motor car, which point is worthy of immediate reference as it serves to emphasise the completeness of the steel structure and also happens to be invisible in the accompanying illustrations. Another important feature of the Breguet design, which is now becoming more common, is the monoplane type body in conjunction with biplane wings. This firm was one of the first to introduce the combination, and, indeed, M. Breguet was in the habit of describing his aeroplane as a double monoplane, but this definition is not in accord with our own terminology, and it seems to us impossible to regard the Breguet aeroplane as other than a biplane pure and simple, for the planes are unquestionably superposed and their only difference is one of span. The span of the upper plane is, as a matter of fact, very much greater than that of the lower plane.
  In the construction and mounting of the main planes the outstanding feature that is apparent from a glance at the accompanying illustrations is the use of a single row of struts, whereas most biplanes have their wings separated by a double row of struts. The presence of only a single row of struts is an indication of the presence of but one main spar and, indeed, the real feature of the Breguet planes is related to this fact. The surfacing material is stretched on ribs that are in themselves flexible and have in addition a flexible attachment to the tubular steel main-spar. (The constructive detail is mentioned in Patent No. 7209 of 1909.) The result is an automatically variable angle of incidence, which the makers also claim acts in the nature of a spring suspension, or, shall we say, "shock damper" in the air.
(To be concluded.)


Flight, July 29, 1911.

THE BREGUET AEROPLANE.
(Continued from page 625.)

  WHEN at rest the planes have an angle of incidence of about 11°, the strength of the construction is such that under test a load of 20 lbs. per sq. ft. reduces the angle of incidence to about 2° without permanently distorting any of the constructive details. Tests made by loading the wings with sand have been conducted officially at the Douai works. Of the importance of a variable angle of incidence in connection with the problem of variable speed our readers are already acquainted through our discussion of the subject in a series of articles entitled ''Can we fly faster for less Power," which appeared in FLIGHT recently.
  An important outcome of the use of but one row of struts between the main planes is that provision can be made for folding the wings against the body of the machine as a means of reducing the bulk for transport. The manner in which this is done on the Breguet aeroplane is very clearly illustrated by the accompanying illustrations, one of which is a photograph of the machine with its wings thus folded. When we speak of a single row of struts it is necessary to observe that even this single row comprises only four struts in all, and of these four two are immediately adjacent to the body of the machine; thus there is but one strut that is in any way in a position to interfere with the folding of the wings, and this, as will be evident from the photograph, constitutes no sort of inconvenience in practice. The wings are attached to the body by a knuckle-joint that is itself anchored by an adjustment bolt as shown in one of the sketches. This adjustment affords a means of varying the normal angle of incidence, but it is a shop adjustment and users of the machine are not supposed to tamper with it. When disconnected the entire wing can be turned into a vertical position, that is to say, with an angle of incidence of 900, and in this position the knuckle-joint enables the wing to be folded back against the body of the machine. Both wings are rotated in this manner but the initial movement takes place in opposite directions, that is to say, the lower plane has its trailing edge raised, while the upper plane has its trailing-edge lowered. In this way the wings overlap and occupy a minimum of space.
  Whilst dealing with the constructive details associated with methods of attachment, it is interesting to observe the manner in which the tail is mounted on the frame by a universal-joint. The details of this joint are also shown in one of the sketches. The tail itself is somewhat uncommon, too, inasmuch as it is of the cruciform type and moves en bloc. The vertical plane is the rudder and the horizontal plane the elevator, but neither can move without the other. The whole structure is carried on the universal-joint already mentioned and is braced to the body by wires that contain fairly stiff compression springs in order that they may accommodate themselves to the movements of the control.
  The system of control on the Breguet aeroplane includes wing-warping for balancing and the use of the elevator and rudder already described. These operations are carried out by means of a universally pivoted lever fitted with a steering-wheel at its upper extremity. Rotation of the wheel moves the rudder and the to and fro movement of the lever which forms the steering-column operates the elevator. A sideways movement of the steering-column warps the wings. Either operation can thus be carried out separately or all can be carried out simultaneously. A minor point well worthy of notice is that the wing-warping wires are attached to the steering-column by springs so that the action of wing-warping is necessarily performed gradually.
  In addition to the tail already described there is a fixed tail plane situated beneath the body and in advance of the elevator. The object of this fixed tail plane is, of course, to stabilise the machine, and it is designed to carry the light load represented by the after part of the body and the movable tail members. Practically speaking the machine is in balance about the spars of the main wings, for the engine and propeller are situated well forward to balance the pilot, who sits rather to the rear of the trailing-edges of the main planes. In front of the pilot is the passenger, and as our readers know, the Breguet aeroplane has been successful in flying with exceptionally heavy loads.
  The undercarriage, like every other part of the machine, is of distinctly original design. It is a three-wheeled structure so arranged that the forward wheel of the three can be used for steering the machine over the ground. For this purpose it is inter-connected with the rudder. The struts by which the undercarriage is attached to the body of the, machine are telescopic and are fitted with compression springs, two of them also have oil shock-dampers. Short skids are provided as a protection against very rough landing, such as might damage the wheels, but lit will be noticed that the wheels themselves are unusually small in diameter and therefore unusually strong.


Flight, September 16, 1911.

Flying in Morocco.

  BREGI with a Breguet biplane has arrived at Casablanca where he is to be at the disposal of General Bonnier. He is shortly to carry out a flight with two passengers from Casablanca to Tangier via Rabat, Mequinez, and Fez.


Flight, September 23, 1911.

FLYING IN MOROCCO.

  LAST week Bregi on his Breguet machine succeeded in flying with a passenger from Casablanca to Fez, a distance of about 300 kiloms. The idea was started by the Petit Journal, which offered to pay the expenses of the expedition, while the Breguet firm co-operated by lending one of their three-seated machines. Bregi happened at the moment to be doing his military service, so he was sent with the machine to General Moinier in order that he might assist him in the operations which were taking place. After making several flights in the neighbourhood of Casablanca, Bregi, on the 14th inst., set out with M. Lebaud, of the Petit Journal, to fly to Fez. They carried on board their arms and provisions as well as camping equipment, the latter including a cover for the machine in case it should be necessary to land during a storm. The pilot, passenger and baggage represented a load of about 350 kilogs. Bregi on starting from Casablanca made for Rabat, stopping on the way at Feldha in order to deliver a message to his uncle who is in command of a regiment of Zouaves. On the following day he continued on his way and reached Fez safely.


Flight, September 30, 1911.

The Casablanca-Fez Flight.

  BREGI did not actually complete his flight to Fez quite so quickly as was reported in our last issue, the mistake being due to a telegraphic error. He was detained at Rabat for five days mainly owing to the sand storms, and it was not till Tuesday morning last week that he was able to get on from Rabat to Mequinez, covering the 81 miles in 1 hr. 35 mins. Delay was experienced there owing to the scarcity of petrol, but on Thursday morning the journey was resumed and Fez reached safely, the aviator and his companion being given a hearty welcome by the European colony at the Moorish capital.


Flight, October 7, 1911.

AIR EDDIES.

  HENRI BREGI has undoubtedly had a much better time touring on his Breguet biplane in Morocco, where the natives have been prostrating themselves to the ground before his mechanical bird, than he would have had as a simple sapper in the French military manoeuvres. It is not generally known that the machine on which he has carried out these splendid flights is the same one as that used by de Montalant in breaking the world's record for altitude with a passenger at Brooklands some six weeks ago.


Flight, December 16, 1911.

A Medal for Bregi.

  FOR his services in Morocco, and especially for his flight from Casablanca to Fez, Bregi, the Breguet pilot, who is also a sapeur aerostier in the Third Regiment, has been awarded the military medal by the French Minister of War.


Flight, January 6, 1912.

PARIS AERO SHOW.

Breguet.

  AMONGST the biplanes present at the Salon there is no doubt that the productions of the Breguet firm must be given pride of place by virtue of the excellence of their performances of the various military trials of the past year. One of the machines on view was the identical machine with which the pilot Moineau obtained second place in the final classification of the machines at the French military trials at Rheims. The machine with which Bregi carried out his flights in Morocco from Casa Blarica to Fez, which machine was previously used by de Montelant at Brooklands in beating the British height record with passenger, was given a place of honour in the gallery. The third was a standard type biplane fitted with a 75-h.p. six-cylinder Chenu motor, driving through reduction gearing a three-bladed Breguet-Regy propeller. In order to preserve more effectively the natural torpedo-like outline of the Breguet fuselage, the engine is covered in by a neat housing of sheet steel. Further improvements had also been made in the bodywork itself, a miniature side-entrance door and light steel ladder being provided to facilitate ingress and egress.

Principal dimensions :-
Length 30 ft. Weight 1,430 lbs.
Span 45 ,, Speed 55 m.p.h.
Area 363 sq. ft. Motor 75-h.p. Chenu.
Price L1,400.


Flight, March 16, 1912.

AEROPLANE UNDERCARRIAGES.
By G. DE HAVILLAND.

  Breguet Biplane.-The Breguet undercarriage is a distinct departure from the ordinary type. In this machine the designer has successfully provided a real shock-absorbing device in place of the usual rubbers or springs. The rolling wheels are only 15 in. diameter, with 3 1/2 in. tyres, and therefore well adapted to withstand side strains, at the same time they are comparatively light. No skid is fitted to the rear part of the machine, but the rudder is designed to perform this function should it come in contact with the ground. The weight is normally taken by the two rolling wheels, which are placed under the centre of gravity, and the propeller thrust is sufficient to pull the machine on to the single front wheel, which is steerable, and is coupled up to the hand wheel that operates the rear rudder. By this device the machine can easily be manoeuvred on the ground. This undercarriage has a very short wheel base, and, as might be expected, this does not make for easy rolling on uneven ground. Reference will be made to the Breguet shock absorber later on.

L.Opdyke - French Aeroplanes Before the Great War /Schiffer/
The 1910 Breguet No 3. Note the "diffuseurs."
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
General view of the Bregnet biplane from in front.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
The military-type Breguet biplane upon which M. Louis Breguet, accompanied by M. Pierre Chaussier, recently put up a fine record for 50 kiloms. in 34m. 54 4/5s. and 100 kiloms. in 1h. 9 m. 28 4/5s. This machine is now being introduced into Great Britain by Mr. Arthur Turner of 173, Piccadilly.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
View from behind of one of the new Military Breguet Biplanes which have been employed during the French Manoeuvres. - The three officers on board are able to dispose themselves quite comfortably in the body of this machine.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
Breguet Type U.l biplane. One of a small number built by the British factory.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
The Breguet biplane, an example of the monoplane-type body applied to biplane construction. The engine is in front, and the entire body is enclosed from head to tail. The passenger sits in front of the pilot, and being approximately on the centre of pressure, his presence does not seriously affect the balance of the machine.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
UNDERCARRIAGES AT OLYMPIA. - The Breguet mechanism.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Close view of the prow of the Breguet biplane, showing the very characteristic armour-plated appearance of the body. The entire framework of this machine is made of steel.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
THE LATEST BREGUET. - View showing the bows of one of these machines fitted with a Breguet flexible propeller gear-driven at slow speed from a Gnome rotary engine.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
GEAR DRIVING A PROPELLER FROM A GNOME ROTSRY ENGINE. - Detail view of the latest Breguet, showing how a Gnome rotary engine is used to drive a Breguet flexible propeller at reduced speed. The blades of the Breguet flexible propeller are hinged to the boss, and are anchored by springs so arranged as to allow the blades to fold back a little towards the engine under exessive pressure. The purpose of this mechanism is to diminish the stress due to gyroscopic and centrifugal force resulting from sudden changes of the attitude of the machine in flight.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Undercarriage of the Breguet biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
One of the results of the French aviation tests has been the increase ia popularity of the four-bladed propeller. The above photograph illustrates a four-bladed propeller fitted to a Breguet biplane, and driven by a 100-h.p. Gnome engine through reduction gearing. Use is also made of a similar propeller on a 100-h.p. Nieuport monoplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
AT THE PARIS AERO SALON. - The current trend of design towards the torpedo type of body is well illustrated by these photographs: the Aero Torpedo on the left is the two-seater Breguet, with Chenu motor, and on the right is the unfinished Morane-Saulnier war monoplane; it is constructed entirely of steel, including the wing skeletons.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Bathiat flying on the new Breguet biplane at Rouen Meeting.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
AT DOUAI. - A Breguet biplane in the air.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
A souvenir from Henri Bregi, dated from Rabat, Morocco, where be arrived with his Breguet triplane recently, and remained for about five days owing to the violent sand-storms.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Henri Bregi's Breguet machine in Morocco.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Tail of the Breguet biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
The Breguet military biplane packed for conveyance by road by car. - On the right the machine is seen with wings closed for easy transport for short distances.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
The Breguet biplane with its wings folded for transport.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
AVIATION AT THE FRENCH ARMY MANOEUVRES. - Some of the Bessonneau hangars at Vesoul, and the military aeroplanes which are giving such a splendid account of themselves.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
The pilot's seat and the passenger accommodation on the Breguiet biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
M. Henri Bregi, one of the chief pilots of Breguet machines, taking instructions as a sapper from Lieut. Ludmann, aviation officer in command at Douai, in connection with a military aerial reconnaissance.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Sapper Henri Bregi, who has recently flown with a passenger and spares and tools from Cassablanca to Fez on a Breguet machine.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
MONOPLANES AND BIPLANES IN THE DAILY MAIL CIRCUIT ROUND GREAT BRITAIN. - From these every machine can be readily identified either in flight or on the ground.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
PARIS-MADRID RACE. - Diagrammatic sketches of some of the machines entered in the race.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Fig. 4. - Breguet Biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Swivelling fore part of the under-carriage on the Breguet biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Diagram illustrating the suspension of the undercarriage on the Breguet biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
On the left is a view of the knuckle-joint attachment of the wings to the body; in the centre is the universal-joint supporting the tail, and on the right is shown the method of anchoring the tie-wires to the base of a strut on the main plane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Sketch illustrating the attachment of the rudder control wire to the elevating-plane of the tail on the Breguet biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
THE BREGUET BIPLANE. - Plan and Elevation to Scale.