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Nieuport Nieuport-IV

Страна: Франция

Год: 1911

Nieuport - Nieuport-II/III - 1910 - Франция<– –>Nieuport - Nieuport-IV Hydro - 1912 - Франция


А.Шепс Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты


"Ньюпор-II", "Ньюпор-IV" 1911 г.

  После успешных полетов в 1909 году своего первого самолета Эдуард Ньюпор под впечатлением успешного полета Луи Блерио построил свой новый самолет "НьюпорII" - расчалочный фюзеляжный моноплан с двигателем "Даррак" (20 л. с.). После ряда успешных полетов "двойки" Э. Ньюпор строит свой следующий самолет - "НьюпорII N" с двигателем собственной конструкции мощностью 27 л. с. (двухцилиндровый, воздушного охлаждения). Самолеты стали выпускаться небольшими сериями с различными двигателями. Простые и дешевые машины быстро завоевали популярность. Их покупали не только во Франции и европейских странах, но и на американском континенте, и на Дальнем Востоке. Дальнейшим развитием этих машин стал самолет "НьюпорIV" - двухместный учебный моноплан. Благодаря отличным аэродинамическим и весовым данным в 1911 году на нем были поставлены несколько рекордов. На дистанции 740,26 км была показана средняя скорость 125,53 км/ч. В одном из таких полетов Эдуард Ньюпор погиб, но его дело продолжил брат Шарль. Вскоре для французской армии фирма предложила самолет "НьюпорIV M". Последовал заказ на 10 машин, 5 самолетов заказало командование RFC и 12 - RNAS Англии.
  После смерти Шарля Ньюпора в 1912 году руководство фирмой перешло к шефконструктору Густаву Делажу. Производство машин продолжалось. По лицензии самолеты "НьюпорIV G" строила итальянская фирма "Макки", а также российские заводы "Дукс" и Щетинина. Именно на "НьюпореIV", построенном на заводе "Дукс", П. Н. Нестеров впервые выполнил "мертвую петлю".
  Все самолеты имели схему расчалочного среднеплана с тянущим винтом и оригинальным шасси.
  Фюзеляж прямоугольного сечения имел прямоугольную деревянную конструкцию и обтягивался полотном. Капот двигателя изготавливался из алюминиевого листа. Топливный бак размещался под местом пилота. Благодаря глубокой посадке пилота в потоке оставалась только его голова, что и определило отличные летные данные самолета. Крыло двухлонжеронное, с тремя вспомогательными лонжеронами, имело деревянную конструкцию и обтягивалось полотном, крепилось к пилону над кабиной и стойками шасси двумя парами растяжек (иногда тремя).
  Управление по крену осуществлялось перекашиванием задней кромки крыла (гошированием). На самолете "НьюпорIV" крыло было сделано съемным для перевозки самолета на автомобиле. Оперение имело каркас из труб и обтягивалось полотном. Стабилизатор, на который крепились рули высоты, имел значительную площадь. Руль поворота имел компенсацию. Киль отсутствовал. Самолет имел оригинальное шасси. К трем V-образным металлическим трубчатым стойкам крепилась противокапотажная лыжа, имевшая уширение спереди (поэтому иногда самолет называли "Ньюпор с ложкой"). К лыже на металлической рессоре крепились колеса мотоциклетного типа.
  Управление было оригинальным, присущим только этому типу машин. Перекашивание крыльев осуществлялось от педалей, а не от ручки управления, как на других самолетах, двигатель на машинах "НьюпорIV G" устанавливался в основном 7цилиндровый, воздушного охлаждения, звездообразный, ротативный "Гном" (70 л. с.). Винт деревянный, двухлопастной, типа "Интеграл". Топливный бак емкостью 170 л. Вооружение не ставилось. Во время войны машина использовалась в основном как разведчик (до 1915 года) и учебный самолет. Машины "НьюпорIV G" встречались в частях даже в начале 1920х годов.
  
  
Модификации
  "Ньюпор-II" - опытный моноплан с двигателем "Даррак" (20 л. с.).
  "Ньюпор-II N" - отличался более мощным двигателем "Ньюпор" (27 л. с.) и конструкцией крыла большего размаха. Строился серийно.
  "Ньюпор II G" - самолет серийный с ротативным двигателем "Гном" (50л. с.).
  "Ньюпор II А" - с двигателем "Анзани" (40л. с.). Серийный.
  "Ньюпор II В" - двухместный вариант с двигателем "Даррак" (30л. с.), отличался конструкцией кабины.
  "Ньюпор III A" - двухместный вариант "Ньюпор II А", развитие серии.
  "Ньюпор IV G" - первая серия машин с двигателем "Гном" (50л. с.), развитие серии "Ньюпор-II", больших размеров, конструктивно более совершенный.
  "Ньюпор-IV Эспанэ" - двухместный самолет с крылом V-образного профиля, с тем же двигателем. Более редкий шаг нервюр.
  "Ньюпор-IV Дукс" - опытный самолете двигателем "Гном" (70 л. с.).
  "Ньюпор-V G Дукс" - серийный самолет с двигателем "Гном" (70л. с.), отличался от французских машин размерами крыла.
  "Ньюпор-IV" завода Щетинина - с двигателем "Гном" (80 л. с.).


В.Шавров История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.


"Ньюпор-IV" ( "Ньюпор с ложкой"). Этот самолет был одним из популярных начиная с 1912 г., несмотря на то, что он не имел определенного военного назначения, редко нес стрелковое вооружение и имел несколько необычное управление. В военных действиях он применялся лишь как разведчик до 1916 г.; потом до 20-х годов самолет служил как учебный. Схема "Ньюпора-IV" - расчалочный среднеплан, одноместный, но с возможностью посадки второго человека непосредственно за спиной летчика ("в затылок"). Оба сиденья расположены были на бензобаке. Своеобразным было рессорное шасси, снабженное впереди противокапотажной "ложкой" под винтом.

   Управление самолетом было необычным и больше нигде не встречалось. Перекашиванне крыльев, заменявшее действие элеронов, производилось ногами; повороты - отклонением ручки в сторону, управление рулем высоты - той же ручкой. В 1911 г. такая система управления получила признание ввиду большого распространения "Ньюпоров". Была даже мысль ввести такую схему управления на всех самолетах, но позднее, когда элероны повсеместно вытеснили перекашивание, она потеряла свое значение.

   Первые экземпляры самолетов "Ньюпор- IV" с двигателем "Гном" в 50 л. с. появились во Франции в конце 1911 г. и прибыли в Россию в 1912 г. Здесь они строились и совершенствовались. Всего было выпущено около 300 экземпляров. Были следующие его модификации.

   "Ньюпор-IVГ" с двигателем "Гном" в 50 л. с. Самолет имел несколько иные очертания. В сложенном виде его габаритные размеры 7,1х1,8х2,8 м. Был в нескольких экземплярах. Отмечены случаи постановки на "Ньюпор-IV" двигателей РЕП в 50 л. с., "Гном" в 60 л. с. и "Кавалькини" в 60 л. с.

   "Ньюпор-IV-Эспанэ"- двухместный самолет французской постройки, отличался тем, что его крылья обычной для "Ньюпора-IV" формы в плане, имели S-образный профиль и более редкий набор нервюр (на две меньше в каждом крыле), благодаря чему их перекашивание требовало меньших усилий 1. В 1915 г. строилось 80 таких самолетов на заводе Щетинина и, кроме того, 50 пар крыльев было изготовлено заводом Анатра в 1915-1916 г.г, возможно, для замены крыльев обычного типа на других "Ньюпорах-IV". Обычно ставился двигатель "Гном" в 50 л. с., но в одном случае был установлен тот же двигатель в 80 л. с.

   "Ньюпор-IV" завода "Дукс" (Моноплан "Дукс") 1912 г. Этот вариант с двигателем "Гном" в 70 л. с. был построен специально для конкурса военных аэропланов 1912 г. Максимальная скорость, показанная на конкурсе, была 104,2 км/ч, минимальная 89,5 км/ч, разбег 95 м., пробег 77 м. Самолет занял третье место. В серии не строился, так как был принят указанный ниже типовой французский образец.

   "Ньюпор-IV" с двигателем "Гном" в 70 л.с. (Моноплан "Дукс") стал основным, строившимся серийно на заводах "Дукс" и Щетинина. На таком самолете П. Н. Нестеров выполнил 27 августа 1913 г. первую в мире мертвую петлю ("петлю Нестерова"). После П. Н. Нестерова на нем петель не делали. Применялся как военный в 1912-1915 гг. и использовался в учебных целях до 1925 г. На нем совершили перелеты Нестеров, Дыбовский, Андреади и другие летчики.

   На нескольких самолетах завода "Дукс" был установлен двигатель "Гном-Моносупап" в 100 л. с.

   "Ньюпор-IV" с двигателем "Гном" в 80 л. с. или "Клерже" в 80 л. с. - самолет "увеличенного типа завода "Дукс" 1914 г. Несмотря на большую мощность и увеличенный размах крыльев, этот вариант получился не лучше, чем с двигателем "Гном" в 70 л. с. Строился также на заводе Щетинина.

   Кроме этих модификаций было еще четыре более радикальных, сделанных русскими конструкторами, в одном экземпляре каждая. На всех стоял двигатель "Гном" в 70 л. с. Это были "Ньюпор-IV" П. Н. Нестерова (1913 г.), В. В. Дыбовского (1913 г.), В. А. Слесарева (1914 г.) и В. В. Слюсаренко (1916 г.). В 1920 г. была еще одна аналогичная модификация, выполненная на заводе в Симферополе конструкторами А. А. Крыловым и Д. Д. Федоровым. В двух последних самолетах были сделаны элероны, ручка управления ими и педаль. Все самолеты хорошо летали.


Самолет||<Ньюпор-IV>/<Ньюпор-IVГ>/<Ньюпор-Эспанэ>/<Ньюпор-IV Дукс>/<Ньюпор-IV>/<Ньюпор-IV>
Год выпуска||1911/1912/1912/1912/1912/1912
Двигатель, марка||<Гном>/<Гном>/<Гном>/<Гном>/<Гном>/<Гном>
   мощность, л.с.||50/50/50/70/70/80
Длина самолета, м||7,5/7,5/7,5/8/7,8/7,8
Размах крыла, м||11,5/11/10,7/12,3/12/12,3
Площадь крыла, м2||23,5/23,5/22/22,5/23,5/23
Масса пустого, кг||325/325/320/422/420/145
Масса топлива+ масла, кг||100+20/23+17/23+17/64+26/64+26/96+36
Масса полной нагрузки, кг||275/200/200/238/240/275
Полетная масса, кг||600/525/520/660/660/720
Удельная нагрузка на крыло, кг/м2||25,6/22,3/23,6/29,3/28,1/31,3
Удельная нагрузка на мощность, кг/лс||12/10,5/10,4/9,4/9,4/9
Весовая отдача,%||40/38/38/36/36/38
Скорость максимальная у земли, км/ч||90/95/105/104/110/110
Время набора высоты 1000 м, мин||20/17/16/15/15/12
Время набора высоты 2000 м, мин||?/?/?/?/?/40
Потолок практический, м||2000/2000/2000/2000/2000/2300
Продолжительность полета, ч.||6/2/2/3/3/2,6


L.Opdyke French Aeroplanes Before the Great War (Schiffer)


Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing


Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913


NIEUPORT. Etablissements Nieuport, 9 rue de Seine, Suresnes (Seine). Established 1910 by the late Edouard Nieuport. Approximate capacity of works: about 100 machines a year. Chief designer during 1911 was Pagny, who has now joined the Hanriot firm.

Model and date. II N. II G. IV G. 1912-13. IV M, 1912-13. 1913. 1913. 1913. 1913.
Monoplanes. 1912. 1912. 2-seater. 3-seater. 2-seater. 1-seater. 1-seater. Hydro 3-seater.

Length........ feet(m.) 23-2/3 (7.20) 23-2/3 (7.20) 25-2/3 (7.80) 25-2/3 (7.80) 26-1/4 (8) 21-3/4 (6.60) 23 (7) 29 (8.80)
Span ........ feet(m.) 28-1/3 (8.65) 28-1/3 (8.65) 36 (10.9) 39-1/3 (12.10) 36 (11) 28-1/3 (8.70) 27-2/3 (8.40) 40 (12.20)
Area ......sq.feet(m?.) ... ... ... ... 231 (21-1/2) 140 (13) 156 (14-1/2) 242 (22-1/2)
Weight, machine lbs. (kgs.) 529 (240) 683 (310) 771 (350) 1058 (480) 771 (350) 573 (260) 573 (260) 1230 (558)
Weight, useful lbs. (kgs.) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Motor ... ... ... h.p. 30 Nieuport Gnome Gnome Gnome Gnome 50 Gnome 30 Nieuport 100 Gnome
Speed, max. m.p.h. (km.) 75 (120) 87 (140) 72 (117) 72 (117) 69 (110) 78 (125) 69 (110) 72 (117)
Speed, min. m.p.h. (km.) ... 75 (120) 69 (110) ... ... ... ... ...
Number built during 1912... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...


Notes.--Early types had a Hanriot style landing carriage; the 1913 models revert to a Bleriot type. Warping wings. Fuselage entirely enclosed, rectilineal with rounded nose.


Журнал Flight


Flight, October 7, 1911.

THE NIEUPORT TWO-SEATER MONOPLANE.

  IN the process of evolution of his present machine from its extremely primitive prototype, M. Edouard Nieupoit, who has for years been known to the motoring community as a manufacturer of ignition specialities, has kept the three features of simplicity, efficiency and speed as keystones of his design.
  He has been eminently successful, for the Nieuport monoplane of to-day is an embodiment of all these features in a most original design. It is in fact, perhaps, the simplest-looking aeroplane that has yet been produced.
  To illustrate its speediness, it is only necessary to recall Weymann's victory in the Gordon-Bennett race on a machine of this make. Its efficiency is vouched for by the fact that at one time a Nieuport held the speed record with a 30-h.p. twin-cylinder motor, the speed itself being higher than that made by Grahame White with a 100-h.p. monoplane at Belmont Park last year. As for its simplicity of construction, this can be gathered, in a measure, from the following description, but better still from a glance at the actual machine.
  Nieuport's study of the reduction of head resistance has contributed largely to the efficiency of his machine. The wings are double-surfaced, of a section closely analagous to that advocated by Horatio Phillips, and they taper towards the tips.
  The under surface about the entering edge has a convex curve where it passes the main spar. The trailing edge, too, is given a slightly upward turn, instead of forming a more or less tangential continuation of the cambered portion of the plane, as in the Bleriot and most other wings. The maximum camber is about 3 3/4 ins.
  It is this particular wing curve, together with the fact that the machine has little head resistance, and flies with an extremely small angle of incidence, that decide its great speed.
  Steel enters largely into the construction, the undercarriage, with its central skid and leaf-spring "axle," being made entirely of this material, while the tail members, all of which are perfectly flat, consist of steel tubular frames covered on both sides with fabric.
  The body is of wood on the ordinary square girder principle, a few struts in the fore part, however, being steel tubes similar to those used in the undercarriage. The body is unusually deep in the region of the pilot's seat, in order that his whole body may be enclosed, while its shape is such that it can cleave through the air with a minimum of resistance.
  A slight dihedral angle is given to the wings, and an interesting feature in their construction is that the I-section main spars of ash are not of even section along their entire length, but vary in thickness according to the strains imposed. Thus it has been found that the greatest strength is necessary at a point situated a few feet from the inner end of the spar, the tie wires being taken into account in this calculation. The main spars are braced well forward to the skid, and stranded-wire cables, previously subjected to a 3-ton test, are employed for this purpose. Above the planes, the tie wires are solid and, of course, much lighter, as there is not so much strain.
  On the particular machine here described, which belongs to the two-seater military type, the control is unusual, in that wing-warping is accomplished by the feet, the rudder movement as well as the action of the elevating planes being under the control of a hand-lever. This application of foot-control to the wings is not new, but is decidedly uncommon, and in the opinion of Mr. Maurice Ducrocq, the well-known aviator who represents the Nieuport machines in this country, it is, perhaps, a more natural action on the part of the pilot in an emergency. It is, of course, arranged that an upward tilt of one plane is corrected by pressure on that side of the foot-lever. Exactly how this movement is transmitted can be gathered from a reference to the accompanying sketches, wherein it will be seen that a cross-bar is permanently fixed to the upper extremity of a rock-shaft which passes diagonally through the floor of the body to the skid, terminating in a small crank to which the two sets of warping-wires are attached. The movement is thus effected in a simple manner without the use of pulleys and with the minimum amount of friction.
  The hand-lever is mounted by a swivel-joint on a short shaft that lies along the floor inside the body, having bearings in two tubular cross-members. A forward and backward movement of this lever operates the elevator through the agency of wires passing round pulleys at both ends of the short rock-shaft. A lateral motion of the lever actuates the rudder wires by means of a crank, which is really formed by an extension of the rear pulley sheave, and is, of course, fixed permanently to the rock-shaft.
  It might easily be supposed, owing to the great depth of the body and the low portion of the seats, that the pilot's view would be somewhat restricted; but in this connection it must be remembered that the pilot's seat is very little behind the leading edge of the wings, and that the machine flies with the tail unusually high.
  A 50-h.p. Gnome motor coupled to an 8 ft. 4 in. Integrale propeller is fitted, and with this power-plant the machine is capable of maintaining a speed of 63 m.p.h.


Flight, October 21, 1911.

CLAUDE GRAHAME-WHITE IN THE UNITED STATES.

To Miss B. Grahame-White, the famous aviator's sister, who has just returned from America, where she has accompanied her brother on his tour, we are indebted for the following interesting information :#
On their arrival in New York, the first four days were spent in the company of Commodore Benedict, who had invited them to join a cruising expedition on his 400-ton steam yacht. Unfortunately this pleasant interlude had to be cut short owing to the urgency of being present at the commencement of the Boston meet at Squanturn, whit her his 70-h.p. two-seater Nieuport had been shipped direct from France.
The weather during the week was so utterly impossible # there was no flying whatever for the first four days # that an extension of a further seven days was decided upon. For the reason that the arrival of Grahame-White's "Baby" biplane had been delayed by the dock strikes in Liverpool, he was unable to compete in the bomb dropping and alighting events.
However, there was not another machine that could approach his where speed and rate of ascent was concerned, so he had little difficulty in capturing those prizes. His first real flight on the Nieuport was the double trip around the Boston Light, a course for the most part above the waters of Boston Harbour. Before starting he had only made two short trips on the new machine, and so was far from being absolutely au fait with the pedal-controlled wing warping and lever-operated elevator and rudder peculiar to the Nieuport control. Probably owing to his minute attention to the new controls, and, perhaps, to the fact that in the same competition in the previous year no preliminary circuit of the aerodrome was conditioned, Grahame-White set straight off for the Light and completed two laps, each of 33 miles. He was accompanied by his engineer, Reginald Carr.
On his return to the Squanturn field, he found the alighting ground impeded by the presence of two biplanes, and to indicate the necessity of their removal he continued to circle the aerodrome, signalling the while. No one seemed to understand his signals, and he was obliged to land on unsuitable marshy ground, into which the machine promptly buried its nose, with disastrous results to the latter. In addition to this mishap, he had the misfortune of learning that, although he had made fastest time over the course, he had been disqualified for not making a preliminary circuit. Somewhat reminiscent of the Statue of Liberty trouble!
At the Boston meeting the trick "stunts" were performed by Beachey and Ely, Grahame-White leaving these items severely alone. As he wisely remarks, "It's better to be a live man than a dead hero." It is a good sign to see that the Americans are losing their desire for sensational flying, and are becoming more appreciative of that steady kind of flying work which really does further the science, for at the Nassau Boulevard meet at New York such dangerous flying was definitely forbidden.
During the meet he cabled Nieuport for speedier wings, and the latter replied in what was probably the last cablegram he ever sent, declining to make them, as their use would probably introduce some danger. Within 24 hours poor Nieuport met with his fatal accident.
Up to the present time Grahame-White has not made a feature of passenger flights, and the only flights he has yet given were to his personal friends, Mr. James Blake and Baron von Hechwaechter, and also to his engineer, Carr. As a matter of fact, the latter nearly always accompanies him, as Grahame-White finds the machine considerably steadier with two up.
The "Baby" had arrived in time for the Nassau Boulevard meeting, and it proved slightly faster than the Wrights'. This miniature biplane's quickness and latitude of control was as much admired as the Nieuport's blunt-nosed spark-like appearance and enormous speed.
Grahame-White had the misfortune to incur a second mishap while starting away to visit the scene of Sopwith's accident. The latter, accompanied by a passenger on his Wright biplane, had, while wanting to alight on the beach, misjudged his distance, with the result that he feel into the sea, happily without personal injury. As for Grahame-White, he in getting away from the aerodrome ran foul of another machine, and was obliged to make for a ditch, 10 ft. deep, at such a speed that the resultant impact did little to improve the appearance of the machine.
However, he suffered no injury beyond a bruise on the lip, for his sister had that morning sent him a thick pad to fix over the edge of the metal wind screen.


Flight, November 11, 1911.

AEROPLANES AT TRIPOLI.

  MR. QUINTO POGGIOLI, who will be remembered by our readers as having taken his pilot's certificate in England under the Royal Aero Club's regulations, sends us some interesting details of the practical work being carried out in Tripoli in connection with the Italian-Turkish War. Mr. Poggioli writes :-
  "On the 25th Oct. Capt. Piazza with his Bleriot, and Capt. Moizo on his Nieuport, observed three advancing columns of Turks and Arabs of about 6,000 men. The Italians, after receiving this information, could successfully calculate distances and arrange for their defence.
  "On the day following, the 26th Oct., the battle of Sciara-Sciat took place, resulting in the loss to the Turkish Army of 3,000 men. During the battle two aeroplanes, Lieut. Gavotti with his Etrich and Capt. Piazza, were circling the air. The flights took place above the line of fire, so as to be able to direct the firing of the big guns from the battleship 'Carlo Alberto,' and also of the mountain artillery. The aeroplanes were often shot at by the guns of the enemy, but with no result. The only difficulty they had was caused by the currents of air caused by the firing of the big guns.
  "Previously, on the 22nd Oct., Capt. Moizo when reconnoitering passed over an oasis, and, in order to observe better the movements of the enemy, descended to an altitude of about 200 metres, and in consequence the wings of his machine were pierced by bullets in six or seven places, and also a rib was broken.
  "On November 1st Lieut. Gavotti (Etrich) flew over the enemy, carrying four bombs, carried in a leather bag; the detonator he had in his pocket.
  "When above the Turkish camp, he took a bomb on his knees, prepared it and let it drop. He could observe the disastrous results. He returned and circled over the camp, until he had thrown the remaining three bombs. The length of his flight was altogether about 100 kiloms.
  "The bombs used contained picrato of potassa, type Cipelli."

  THE first official communication by one of the belligerents, in regard to the use of aeroplanes in actual warfare, has been issued by the Italian authorities, dated November 5th, from Tripoli. As a matter of historical record we reproduce the text in extenso as follows :-
  "Yesterday Captains Moizo, Piazza, and De Rada carried out an aeroplane reconnaissance, De Rada successfully trying a new Farman military biplane. Moizo, after having located the position of the enemy's battery, flew over Ain Zara, and dropped two bombs into the Arab encampment. He found that the enemy were much diminished in numbers since he saw them last time. Piazza dropped two bombs on the enemy with effect. The object of the reconnaissance was to discover the headquarters of the Arabs and Turkish troops, which is at Sok-el-Djama."


Flight, January 6, 1912.

PARIS AERO SHOW.

Nieuport.

  OCCUPYING one of the central stands in the Grand Palais were three Nieuport monoplanes, a 28-h.p. twin-cylinder school-type machine, and two 50-h,p. two-seater military machines. One of these latter was the identical machine on which the celebrated pilot Helen won the Coupe Michelin. No new features are evident in the machines on exhibition, they being similar in every respect to the models which have competed so successfully in all the contests of the past year.

Principal dimensions :-

School-type monoplane-
Length 24 ft.
Span 28 ,,
Area 176 sq.
Weight 550 lbs.
Speed 70 m.p.h.
Motor 28-h.p. Nieuport
Price L720.

Two-seater military -
Length 26 ft.
Span 36 "
Area 250 sq. ft.
Weight 700 lbs.
Speed 70 m.p.h.
Motor 50-h.p. Gnome
Price L1,040.


Flight, February 17, 1912.

242 Miles by Barrington-Kennett.

STARTING from Bulford Camp, Salisbury, on Wednesday, Lieut. Barrington-Kennett, on his Nieuport monoplane, more than doubled his previous record for the Mortimer-Singer Army prize by covering 242 miles. He was accompanied by Corporal Ridd.


Flight, March 16, 1912.

AEROPLANE UNDERCARRIAGES.
By G. DE HAVILLAND.

  Nieuport Monoplane.-As the keynote of this machine is high aerodynamic efficiency, the design of the undercarriage has naturally been governed by the same principle, therefore head resistance has been reduced to a minimum. This is accomplished by the use of oval steel struts rigidly fixed to a centre steel tube skid, while the wheels are mounted at the end of a transverse laminated spring, which is attached to the skid in a position well forward of the centre of gravity. The result is a very rigid construction, while tie wires are almost entirely dispensed with, and the various parts likely to be damaged can easily be replaced. The wheels are fairly small in diameter, and have a comparatively narrow track, and this sometimes causes the machine to cant over laterally until the wing tip comes into contact with the ground. The ends of the wings, however, are constructed to withstand these strains, and therefore, materially assist the duty of the undercarriage, without adding extra head resistance or weight. The after end of the central skid takes the place of the more usual tail skid, but carries a large proportion of the total weight. A short base of support is generally to be discouraged, as it does not make for good fore and aft stability on uneven ground, but in this case some advantage is gained by the breaking effect given by the heavily loaded skid when pulling up after landing. When starting away, the propeller thrust is sufficient to take most of the weight off the skid, so that the speed is not seriously damped. As regards simplicity and cleanness of design, the Nieuport gear is probably ahead of any other, and from this point of view will no doubt have influence on future designs. The use of the wings themselves as lateral skids may also lead to development in further simplifying the main under carriage.
  The efficiency of its primary function as a landing gear has often been doubted, but from practical results it would seem to be better than usually supposed. I have to thank Lieut. Barrington-Kennett, of the Air Battalion, R.E., for some of the notes on this machine.


Flight, October 29, 1915.

CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS.-VIII.

<...>
  In the double skid type of chassis illustrated in our last issue the suspension is generally fairly simple, since it is possible to sling the wheel axle by means of strands of rubber from the two skids. When a single, central skid is employed it is no longer possible to solve the problem of elastic suspension quite so simply. There are, however, two or three alternative ways of providing the necessary flexibility. One of these is to make the axle itself flexible. This is generally obtained either by building up the axle in the form of a transverse laminated steel spring which carries on its extremities the two wheels, or by mounting the wheels on two short stub axles, which are then in turn connected at their outer ends to a transverse spring mounted immediately above the axles. In one of the accompanying pages of illustrations will be found two examples of the transverse laminated spring axle. One is the French Nieuport monoplane, and the other the older type Avro biplane. These two undercarriages are similar in type, but differ somewhat in detail. The construction will, we think, be clear from the sketches without needing any explanation, except that in both cases the chassis struts are streamline steel tubes. In the Nieuport the central skid is a steel tube, whereas in the Avro this member is made of ash.
<...>

А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Разведчик "Ньюпор-IV G" 13-го авиаотряда русской армии (1914г.)
А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Разведчик "Ньюпор-IV M" французских ВВС (1914г.)
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
THE TWO-SEATED NIEUPORT MONOPLANE BUILT TO COMPETE IN THE PARIS-MADRID RACE. - It will be observed that the framework of this machine is entirely covered so as to present minimum resistance to the air, while the chassis is made amply strong in view of landings which might have to be made unexpectedly and on rough ground.
L.Opdyke - French Aeroplanes Before the Great War /Schiffer/
The Type IVM Concours Militaire 2-3-seater of 1911.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Lieut. H. B. Barrington-Kennett, of the Air Battalion, and his passenger, Corpl. Ridd, R.E., taking olf on Wednesday of last week at Salisbury Plain for the Mortimer Singer Prize, when he covered 249 miles 840 yds in 4 hrs 51 mins.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Capt. Gerrard on the military Nieuport at the Royal Aero Club's Eastchurch flying ground.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
C. T. Weymann, who, on his Nieuport machine, secured the Gordon-Bennett Cup for America in last Saturday's race at the Royal Aero Club's flying grounds, Hastchurch.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Mr. Weymann just before the signal to start from Rheims on his Nieuport monoplane for the final cross-country speed test in the Military Aviation Contest, in which he has been adjudged the premier position, he having covered the 300 kiloms. in the net time of 2 hrs. 34 mins.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
MR. CLAUDE GRAHAME-WHITE IN AMERICA. - At the moment of starting on his 70-h.p. Nieuport monoplane at Boston, U.S.A. From a photograph supplied by Miss Grahame-White.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Mr. Claude Grahame-White passing some of the stands on his 70-h.p. Nieuport monoplane at the Boston Meeting, U.S.A.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
A fine piece of steering round a mark tower, at 67 miles per hour, by Mr. Grahame-White on his Nieuport monoplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
PARIS AERO SALON. - Another general view, showing the Astra-Torres dirigible. The Roger Sommer exhibit is to the front of the photograph, while behind it is the Nieuport stand.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
The Nieuport stand.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
The tandem-seater military Nieuport.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
THREE HISTORIC MACHINES IN LINE AT HELIOPOLIS. - In the centre is Marc Pourpe's 60 h.p. Gnome-Morane-Saulnier, which he flew from Cairo to Khartoum and is now flying back - this is the identical machine on which Garros crossed the Mediterranean on the left is Vedrines 80 h.p. Gnome Bleriot which was flown from Paris to Cairo; while on the right is Bonnier's 80 h.p. Gnome-Nieuport, which has also been flown from Paris to Cairo.
В.Шавров - История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.
Самолет "Ньюпор-IV"
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Aviation in Japan. - A 100 h.p. Nieuport at the Tokorozawa Aerodrome.
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
A Nieuport-type Monoplane, built in Siam.
L.Opdyke - French Aeroplanes Before the Great War /Schiffer/
The Nieuport X 2-seater.
L.Opdyke - French Aeroplanes Before the Great War /Schiffer/
Espanet's 50 hp Gnome Nieuport IV.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Grahame-White in his 70-h.p. Nieuport, at Boston. U.S.A., waiting to start for the race round the Boston Light.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
TROPHIES OF WAR. - 1. Fuselage of a Russian monoplane (Nieuport) brought down by the Germans. 2. The remains of a Russian Nieuport. 3. Wreck of a Russian aeroplane being carted away by Germans. 4. Nacelle of a captured French Voisin biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Mr. Richards' scale model Nieuport.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
SCALE MODEL MADE BY MR. W. M. BUNCE FROM "FLIGHT" DRAWINGS - Nieuport.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
PARIS-MADRID RACE. - Diagrammatic sketches of some of the machines entered in the race.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Fig. 3. Nieuport monoplane, 1910-1911.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Sketch illustrating the control system on the Nieuport monoplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Sketch illustrating the Nieuport undercarriage.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
The leaf spring of the Nieuport tandem two-seater.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
Engines mounted between double bearers, and their housings.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Fig. 2. - Sections of tail planes: A, Avro tail, 1910-11. B, Nieuport tail, 1910-11. C, B.E. tail, 1911. D, B.E. tail, 1912.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
THE NIEUPORT TWO-SEATER MONOPLANE. - Plan and Elevation to Scale.