Созданный талантливым конструктором Карлом Саберски-Муссигбордт, LVG С V был одним из наиболее удачных немецких двухместных разведывательных самолетов второй половины войны. Он поставлялся в строевые части в течение всего 1917 г. и вполне успешно справлялся с боевыми задачами в качестве легкого бомбардировщика, корректировщика артиллерийского огня и фоторазведчика среднего радиуса действия.
Несмотря на относительно небольшую мощность двигателя, это был достаточно большой самолет. От своего предшественника - разведывательного самолета LVG С II - он отличался увеличенным планером, чистыми аэродинамическими формами и был хорошо скомпонован. Шестицилиндровый рядный двигатель Бенц Bz.IV (200 л. с.) аккуратно вписывался в фюзеляж. Металлические панели капота прикрывали только низ цилиндров, оставляя открытыми головки. Большой оживальныи кок воздушного винта плавно стыковался с капотом. Аэродинамическое сопротивление немного увеличивал фронтальный радиатор, установленный по передней кромке центроплана верхнего крыла (на поздних сериях радиатор был убран в центроплан верхнего крыла). Хвостовое оперение было классическим и напоминало конструкцию "альбатросов". Бипланная коробка имела две пары стоек, нижнее крыло было короче верхнего. Для выработки электроэнергии, используемой для питания радиостанции, применялся генератор с небольшим пропеллером, который размещался на оси шасси.
К осени 1917 г. LVG С V были широко распространены на Западном фронте и пользовались большой популярностью среди летного состава. На начальном этапе боевого применения они несли значительные потери от истребителей противника, но постепенно тактическое мастерство летчиков увеличивалось и экипажи могли достойно постоять за себя. Известный британский ас Маккуден рассказывал, что в одном из боев с двумя С V он в течение пяти минут не мог прицельно атаковать активно оборонявшихся немцев и ему пришлось выйти из схватки, хотя еще месяц назад он легко сбил такой же самолет. Кок от него долгое время красовался в носу истребителя S.E.5, на котором воевал Маккуден.
Всего было произведено около 600 машин LVG С V.
Технические данные LVG С V
Двигатель 1 х Бенц Bz.IV (200 л. с.)
размах х длина х высота 13,62 х 8,07 х 3,05 м
Площадь крыльев 42,7 м2
пустого 1013 кг
взлетный 1535 кг
Максимальная скорость 164 км/ч
Скороподъемность 3,0 м/сек
Потолок 5000 м
Дальность 350 км
стрелковое 1 х 7,92-мм синхронный пулемет "Парабеллум" и
1 х 7,92-мм турельный пулемет "Шпандау"
бомбовое 110 кг
Экипаж 2 чел.
А.Александров, Г.Петров Крылатые пленники России
А вот, наконец-то, любимец красных военлетов начала двадцатых - "Эльфауге Ц. V". Он был любим и германскими экипажами, считавшими Машину весьма пригодной для воздушной разведки ближнего и среднего радиуса и корректировки артогня. Как и прочие аппараты данного класса, "пятерка" могла также выступать в роли легкого бомбардировщика, а для самозащиты и, при случае, нападения имела стандартное вооружение из двух пулеметов. Некоторые аппараты, у которых основной топливный бак под сиденьем летчика был защищен стальным листом, использовались даже в качестве "пехотных" аэропланов. Двигателем являлся "Бенц" 200-220 л. с, полностью капотированный металлическим обтекателем. Пропеллер снабжался коком, и только лобовой коробчатый радиатор до некоторой степени портил аэродинамику машины. Производимая двумя фирмами, с лета 1917г. модель поступала в боевые подразделения, где, как уже говорилось, это творение инженера Саберски-Мюссигброда (Sabersky-Mussigbrod) сумело показать свой далеко не спокойный норов. Так, например, 23 мая 1918 г. (н. ст.) экипаж одного из "Эльфауге Ц. V" из 263-го авиаотряда, состоявший из фельдфебеля Гунда и лейтенанта Эйзенменгера (Gund, Eisenmenger), сумел сбить во время одного-единственного вылета 4 британских скаута. Неизвестно, когда первые "пятерки" оказались русскими трофеями - скорее всего, во время Гражданской войны, но к декабрю 1920 г. 20 аппаратов "Эльфауге" разных типов значились в списках рабоче-крестьянского воздушного флота. Через 2 года их стало 14, включая самолеты Ц. V с номерами 38/139, 107, 116, 1040 и 1987. Они участвовали в боевых действиях на туркестанском и польском фронтах, как, скажем, этот аппарат из "отряда Братолюбова" с красной стрелой на хвосте, с пулеметом "Льюис" в задней кабине (64), или другой, летчика Б. К. Веллинга (65). Окраска варьировалась, как и наличие и расположение красных звезд (66, 67, а). В частности, у самолета из авиаотряда в Полторацке (Туркестанский фронт) звезды гордо красуются на нижних крыльях (67, б), а у аппарата, разбитого на Комендантском аэродроме в Петрограде (1922 г.), они там даже не "ночевали": кресты прежних владельцев закрашены черными многоугольниками, а полотно обшивки осталось в прежнем "текстильном" камуфляже (67, в). Фамилия забинтованного пилота Кулешов; по иронии судьбы фотограф запечатлел авиатора в тот момент, когда его палец был случайно направлен на второго участника сцены, как бы утверждая: "Это все он, товарищи!" Естественно, деятельность красных военлетов не обходилась без аварий, а вот и ее плачевные результаты: разбитые "Эльфауге Ц", 2 "Хальберштадта Ц. V", "Румплер Ц. V", ждущие своей участи в одном из ангаров Комендантского аэродрома (68).
O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)
L.V.G. C V
One of the most successful German two-seaters used during the latter part of the war on reconnaissance and artillery observation duties was the L.V.G. C V, introduced into the Fl. Abt. units during 1917. This machine, although not as powerful as its high-flying Rumpler contemporaries, adequately filled the need for a stable and sturdy "all rounder" for light bombing, artillery observation and medium-range photo-reconnaissance duties. For its power it was a relatively large aeroplane, with a wingspan of nearly 45 ft., being one of the biggest of the German two-seaters.
In spite of its size, the L.V.G. C V was neat and well proportioned and represented a vast improvement upon its C II forebear, both in appearance and construction. In the C V the braced box-girder type fuselage of the earlier machines was discontinued, and in its place was a framework of longerons and bulkheads covered with a thin layer of three-ply, with no internal wire bracing. The 220 h.p. Benz Bz IV engine was neatly installed and mounted on hefty timber bearers of rectangular section. The whole of the cylinder block was enclosed by metal panels, likewise the station between the first two bulkheads and the upper panels of the nose. A large streamlined spinner enclosed the propeller hub and made for a very clean nose-entry, although this was to some extent negatived by the large frontal radiator mounted against the leading edge of the upper centre-section. A "chimney" type manifold exhausted over the top wing. The remainder of the ply-covered fuselage was slab-sided, with rounded top decking, and tapered to a vertical knife-edge aft, where the built-in vertical fins (upper and lower) were also ply-skinned. The oval tailplane was of wooden framing with fabric covering. Reminiscent of the Albatros types, the one-piece balanced elevator and balanced rudder were of welded steel tube and fabric covered.
The fabric-covered, unstaggered two-bay wings were orthodox in construction, but differed from the "run of the mill" in profile. The upper wing was in two panels, of parallel chord, with the tips rounded from the leading edge in a wide radiused curve. The lower wing was of slightly less span and chord, had completely rounded tips and a slight positive curve to most of the trailing edge, giving a dragonfly-wing outline. All wing panels were based on two box-spars with four cable-braced steel-tube compression members, "C" section leading edge and the usual wire trailing edge. Ribs were of ply, unlightened and with softwood capping strips reinforced with glued fabric. False ribs (a mere wooden slat) were interspaced on the upper wing only. Dihedral was differential, with 1° on the upper and 2° on the lower panels. Ailerons, on the upper wing only, were of parallel chord with large overhung balance portions of semicircular shape and were of welded steel-tube framing.
Centre-section struts were of streamlined steel tube welded to form a trestle to which the upper wing panels were attached. These converging centre-section struts, together with the large frontal radiator and the cowling panels enclosing the cylinders, combined to produce poor forward visibility from the front cockpit, a major defect of the C V. The interplane struts were of hollowed wood throughout, a departure from the usual German practice of the period. The vee struts of the undercarriage chassis were again of wood, fabric wrapped for added strength. The axle was encased in a three-ply fairing, but not the spreader bar, which connected the two vees in front of the axle. On aircraft fitted with radio a small propeller-driven generator was mounted at the top of the front undercarriage strut. Shock absorbers were of coiled-steel springs wrapping the axle to the apices of the vees. A sturdy ash tailskid was hinged to the apex of the under-fin and the upper end bound in with elastic shock cord.
By the autumn of 1917 the L.V.G. C Vs were coming into widespread use alongside the contemporary D.F.W. two-seater. On artillery shoots they often fell victims to Allied scouts when their own protection flights were not immediately to hand. However, they were often able to give a good account of themselves, as witness an account by McCudden, who, on 23rd December 1917, was involved in a fight at about 17,000 ft. with two L.V.G. C Vs:
"I at once gave chase and they turned east. I fought them for about five minutes but could not gain a decision for they both co-operated well and soon I left them for I hadn't much more petrol. While I was fighting these two they were both using their front guns as well as the rear, and so I had a fairly warm time."
It is perhaps of interest to point out that earlier McCudden had shot down an L.V.G. C V and had fitted the spinner from it to his S.E.5, and thereby increased the speed by some three miles an hour.
Some L.V.G. C Vs were used by Infanterie Flieger units, and these aircraft had the main fuel tank, which was underneath the pilot's seat, protected by a sheet of armoured steel.
Description: Two-seat reconnaissance and artillery observation.
Manufacturers: Luft-Vcrkehrs Gesellschaft m.b.H. Johannisthal (Lvg.).
Sub-contractors: Deutsche Flugzeug-Werke G.m.b.H.
Power Plant: One 200 h.p. Benz Bz IV 6 cylinder in-line water-cooled engine developing maximum 230 h.p.
Dimensions: Span, 13.62 m. (44 ft. 8 1/2 in.). Length, 8.07 m. (26 ft. 5 3/4 in.). Height, 3.2 m. (10 ft. 6 in.). Area, 42.7 sq.m. (464.16 sq.ft.).
Weights: Empty, 1,013 kg. (2,228 lb.). Loaded, 1,533 kg. (5,372.6 lb.). Empty, 2,188 lb. Loaded, 3,141 lb. (Captured aircraft.)
Performance: Maximum speed, 164 km.hr. (103 m.p.h.) at 2,000 m. (6,560 ft.), 150 km.hr. (93.75 m.p.h.) at 4,000 m. (13,120 ft.). Climb, 4,000 m. (13,120 ft.) in 35 min. Duration, ca. 3 1/2 hr. on 249 litres fuel.
Armament: One fixed Spandau machine-gun forward and one manually operated Parabellum machine-gun in the rear cockpit.
Flight, June 6, 1918.
THE GERMAN L.V.G. BIPLANE, TYPE C.V.
THE L.V.G. biplane, which is built by the Luft Verkehrs Gesellschaft, is a two-seater, belonging to the C class (general utility machine). It is slower than the C. IV type Rumpler, its climb is not so good (4,000 metres in 35 minutes), and its ceiling is lower (slightly over 5,000 metres). The speed is: At 2,000 metres, 164 kiloms.; at 3,000 metres, 160 kiloms.; at 4,000 metres, 150 kiloms.
The following are comparative tables of the different types of L.V.G.'s and the L.V.G. C. V and Rumpler C. IV :-
Type ." C.II C.IV C.V Type C. IV
Span (upper) 12.85 13.60 13.62 12.60
Span (lower) 11.35 12.00 12.85 12.10
Length overall 8.10 8.60 8.10 8.40
Height 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.25
Lifting surface sq. m. 37.60 40 42.70 33.50 sq. m.
Weight kilogs. 845 900 920 1.010
Engine power 175 h.p. 235 h.p. 225 h.p. 260 h.p.
Make Mercedes Mercedes Benz Mercedes or Maybach
Both upper and lower wings are set at a dihedral angle, that of the upper -wing being 1°, and that of the lower 2°. There is no stagger and no sweep-back. The trailing edge is flexible. The ribs are spaced about 40 cm. apart, with false ribs in between. The incidence has been found to be as follows: First and second ribs, 4 1/2°; third to ninth ribs, 5° ; tenth rib, 4 1/4° ; eleventh rib, 4 1/2° ; twelfth rib, 4° ; thirteenth rib, 3°.
In plan view the upper wings are of slightly trapezoidal form, with rounded corners. Their chord is 1.74 m. In the centre there is a semi-circular portion cut away. The wing flags project 34 cm. beyond the wing tip, and have rounded tips somewhat resembling those of the Gothas. Their total length is 2.61 m. Their chord varies from 53 cm. at the root to 75 cm. at the outer end. The wing flap hinges are parallel to the leading edge. The attachment is by means of keyed bolts, of which we give a diagram. This system was employed for the wing attachment on the Roland chaser D. II. It has the advantage of being easy to attach and dismantle.
The lower wings have, following present German tendency, rounded corners, with the trailing edge shorter than the leading edge, as in the D.F.W., Rumpler C. IV, and Albatros C. 10. The maximum chord is 1.59 m. The wing flap control cables pass through the interior of the lower planes. The inter-plane struts (two pairs on each side of the body) are of wood and streamline in section, the depth being 0.105 m., and taper towards the ends. Owing to the difference in dihedral angle the inner and outer struts are not of the same length. The length of the inner struts is 1.635 m., and of the outer 1.59 m. The gap is 1.74 m. at the body and 1.66 at the outer struts. The total wing surface is 42.270 m., the area of the top plane being 23.260 m., and that of the bottom plane 19.210 m. The cabane is composed of two pairs of N's sloping backwards and inwards.
The tail plane resembles that of the Albatros chasers, but it will be noticed that the leading edge is much flatter and the plane of smaller chord. The two halves of the tail plane are attached to portions fixed to the body, and which, like the body, are covered with three-ply. The elevator is in one piece and has rounded corners. It is balanced by triangular forward projections at each end. The maximum span is 3.04 m., and the chord 0.65 m. The small triangles have a base of 0.39 m., and a height of 0.39 m. The balanced rudder is placed above the elevator, and forms with the fin an oval sloping backwards. The fin is of three-ply and is of trapezoidal form. The total height of the vertical tail members is 1.068 m. The chord is 0.675 m. (1.15 m. including balancing portion). The internal structure of the tail organs is in the form of metal tubes. The control cables pass into the body at a point 1.50 m. from the stern post. One of the elevator cables passes through the tail plane.
The body is entirely in three-ply wood, with flat sides and with deeply curved top and less curved bottom. The general lines of the body are less tapered than those of the Rumpler C. IV. The air screw is a "Garuda" of 3.04 m. diameter. The boss is encased in a "spinner."
The engine is a 225 h.p. Benz, of the same type as that employed on the D.F.W. and F.D.H.G. II. The motor is supplied with petrol from two tanks of a capacity of 249 litres. On the left top plane is mounted a service tank. The tanks contain fuel sufficient for a flight of 3 1/4 hours' duration. The upper portion of the engine is totally enclosed in a metal cover, which can be detached from the body. The exhaust is carried away upwards as in the Rumpler, but the exhaust collector is only slightly curved and is nearly vertical.
The radiator, which is of the honeycomb type, has a capacity of 35 litres. It is mounted in front of the top plane, on brackets from the front legs of the cabane. Its upper part is braced, by means of a small steel tube fork, to the upper plane. The shutter in front of the radiator is one of the best adopted on German machines. It is simpler than those of the slat system. It consists of a movable blind of strong fabric, which can be rolled up or unrolled at the will of the pilot, thus permitting of obstructing the passage of the air and varying the cooling.
The pilot's cockpit - behind the engine - is of oval shape, its greatest dimension being from front to back. Close to it is the passenger's cockpit, with a gun ring of 0.60 m. diameter, which carries a support from the Parabellum machine gun. This support resembles those employed on certain of our machines. In front, and on the right hand side, is a fixed machine gun of the Spandau type, fitted with the usual interrupter gear worked by the engine. The gun is fired via Bowden cable. A wireless outfit is carried on board.
The under-carriage is of the Vee type, with streamline struts of wood. There is one pair of wheels, measuring 0.810 m. by 0.125 m. The tyres are stamped "Harburg," of Vienna.
The track is 1.98 m. The axle is enclosed in a streamline casing of wood, having a width of 0.20 m. The shock absorbers are in the form of "Sandows." As in the Rumpler C. IV, the rear inner inter-plane strut is braced to the nose of the body by a cable.
The tail skid, which is mounted on a small fin under the body, is of wood, and terminates in four laminations of steel 0.002 m. thick. The last lamination is reinforced with a steel shoe.
The machine is camouflaged in light green and mauve as regards the upper surface of the planes and the tail plane. The lower surface of the wings is painted light blue. In the passenger's cockpit there is an opening in the floor accommodating a camera, and the machine appears to have been intended for photographic reconnaissance work. There is no bomb gear.
Flight, December 19, 1918.
THE L.V.G. TWO-SEATER BIPLANES
[Issued by Technical Department (Aircraft Production), Ministry of Munitions]
THIS report is concerned with two L.V.G. biplanes, of which one is of the C.V. type, while the other, a C.VI. type machine, is of later design, embodying certain alterations and improvements. The C.V. machine is allotted G/3Bde/5, and the C.VI. which was brought down near Proven on August 2nd by two S.E. 5's, piloted by Lieuts. Gordon and Gould, is alloted G/2 Bde/21.
Any description which follows and is not definitely stated to apply to either model, must be read as appertaining to the C.VI type.
The C.V. machine was only slightly damaged, and has been put into flying order, but the C.VI. has suffered severely, and it must be stated that on this account the G.A. drawings are not guaranteed to be of absolute accuracy in every respect. The greatest care has, however, been taken in their preparation, and only features of rigging such as dihedral and stagger (besides the tail planes, which are in a very fragmentary condition) are at all doubtful. In matters of detail the drawings are accurate.
Some leading particulars of both machines are given below :-
C.V. Type. C.VI. Type.
Weight empty 2,188 lbs. 2,090 lbs.
Total weight 3,141 lbs. 3,036 lbs.
Area of upper wings
(with ailerons) 238.4 sq. ft. 196.0 sq. ft.
Area of lower wings 190.4 sq. ft. 160.0 sq. ft.
Total area of wings 428.8 sq. ft. 356.0 sq. ft.
Loading per sq. ft. of
wing surface 7.3 lbs. 8.5 lbs.
Area of aileron, each 13.6 sq.ft. 11.2 sq. ft.
Area of balance of
aileron 0.4 sq. ft. 0.0 sq. ft.
Area of tail plane 21.6 sq. ft. 28.0 sq. ft.
Area of fin 5.2 sq. ft. 5.2 sq. ft,
Area of rudder 6.8 sq. ft. 6.8 sq. ft.
Area of balance of
rudder 0.6 sq. ft. 0.6 sq, ft.
Area of elevators 20.8 sq. ft. 16.0 sq. ft.
Area of balance of
elevator (one) 1.2 sq. ft. 0.8 sq. ft.
Total weight per h.p. 13.7 lbs. 13.2 lbs.
Crew 2 - Pilot and observer.
Armament 1 Spandau and 1 Parabellum
Engine 230 h.p. Benz.
Petrol capacity 52 1/2 gals. 52 1/2 gals.
There are several important differences between the arrangement of main planes of the two models, as will be seen by referring to the G.A. drawings.
The wings of the C.V. L.V.G. are without stagger, and are not swept back, but both upper and lower planes are set at a dihedral angle, this being 1° for the upper, and 2° for the lower wings. The lower planes are smaller all round than the upper, and have rounded tips. The upper planes only have ailerons, which are of equal chord throughout their length, and are balanced. These planes also follow what was, until recently, the usual enemy practice, by being joined at their roots to a central cabane. There is, therefore, no horizontal centre section in this aeroplane, except for the 3-ply box (about 4 in, wide), which surrounds the horizontal tube of the cabane. For improving the view, the upper plane is cut away over the pilot's cockpit. Relative to the crankshaft the upper wing has a constant angle of incidence of 5°. That of the lower wing is the same, except at the tip, where the angle is washed out to 4°, and at the root to 4 1/2°.
Both upper and lower wings are attached to the body by the same general means, this being adapted to the particular positions and conditions of each joint. In the case of the upper planes, the cabane has lugs welded to its upper side at both ends. Fig. 1 shows the fitting at the forward end, and the pierced lug on the wing spar (see Fig. 2) fits into the fork. The same type of hinge pin is used for all wing joints, and for the aileron hinges also. It consists of a short length of steel tube, carrying at one end some form of stop, and at its other end a slot in which a short rectangular piece of steel is free to rotate, the steel piece being pivoted at its centre. Thus, when the steel piece is placed parallel to the tube, the whole fitting can be passed through any hole which will accommodate the tube, but when the piece is placed at right angles to the tube axis, the tube cannot be withdrawn through a small hole. A helical spring ensures that the steel piece shall be pressed against the hole, and not be free to slip into the parallel position.
The lower wing attachments are very similar, as will be gathered from Figs. 3 and 4, which show respectively the front and rear joints, and this plan has not been changed on the C.VI. type of L.V.G., except that the lug on the wing spar is now fashioned as shown in Fig. 5.
In the later model - the C.VI - the planes are of the same general shape, but important changes are remarked. The radiator has been moved from the position it occupied on the C.V. (see G.A. drawings), and is now built into the horizontal centre section. It is, of course, common German practice to build the radiator into the upper plane, and such a position is not incompatible with the cabane type of centre section strutting. This is particularly true when-as is the case in the. L.V.G.-a service petrol tank is supported by the upper plane, and can be made to balance the radiator. It is clear, therefore, that the alteration in design from the cabane system to the centre section system has not been made solely to accommodate the radiator.
So far as may be judged from the machine in its present condition, the C.VI has a positive stagger of 10 in., and both upper and lower planes have a similar dihedral angle, viz., 1°. Ailerons are still fitted to the upper plane only, but are not balanced in this model. The upper and lower wing sections of the C.VI. model are shown in Fig. 6, and Fig. 7 gives the C.VI. upper wing section with the R.A.F. 14 section superimposed. The R.A.F. 14 section is dotted.
(To be concluded.)
Flight, December 19, 1918.
THE L.V,G. TWO-SEATER BIPLANES
[Issued by Technical Department (Aircraft Production), Ministry of Munitions.]
(Concluded from page 1431.)
(THESE details were all noticed in the C.VI. machine, as in the earlier type the planes are still covered with fabric.)
Both front and rear spars are of the box type, and wrapped with fabric. Sections drawn to scale are given in Fig. 8, but these drawings do not show internal construction, as the spars have not yet been divided.
The overall height and width of each spar, taken respectively parallel and perpendicular to the vertical walls, are :- Upper plane, front spar, height 3 1/4 in., width 1 7/16 in.; rear spar, height 3 in., width 1 15/16 in.; lower plane, rear spar, height 3 in., width 1 11/16 in.; front spar, height 2 7/8 in., width 1 11/16 in.
It has been possible to draw a section of the front spar of the C.V. machine, and the result is given in Fig. 9. There is every reason to believe that all the other spars of the L.V.G. are of similar construction. Fig. 10 shows a crude but effective method of repairing a broken spar. The repair was carried out by the enemy, probably in the field.
The leading edge is of the customary C section, and is followed at 7 in. interval by the front spar. The space between the two spars - 25 3/4 in. wide - is braced with cables and piano wire, and contains four ash compression struts of I section, which are simply butted into sockets obviously intended to carry steel tubes. (These compression struts are steel in the C.V. model.) The distance from the rear spar to the wire trailing edge is 2 ft. 6 3/8 in. The ribs, of which a section is shown, are of the usual type, and are spaced at intervals of 16 3/4 in., centre to centre. They are unlightened. Equally between them are placed two false ribs - mere strips of wood let into the leading edge and tacked to the spars. These false ribs have floating ends 7 1/2 in. behind the rear spar.
The construction of the lower plane does not differ from that of the upper plane just described, except that the false ribs are not found in it.
The ailerons of the L.V.G. no longer possess the peculiar step in the trailing edge that has for so long been associated with the design, and the ailerons are rather different in the two types. The C.V. model has ailerons which are balanced while those of the C.VI. are not. The respective areas are given on the first page of the report. With regard to the constructional features, only those of the later type can be described. The whole construction is of wood, with the exception of the aileron lever, a sketch of which is given (Fig. 11). This is of the usual curved type in the C.V. machine (see Fig. 12), but is made to serve as a rib also in the C.VI. type. The wooden ribs, together with the wood leading and trailing edges, form a structure which is very light. Both machines have the ailerons hinged to a false spar some distance behind the rear spar, and the hinges are all of the type that has already been described in connection with the wing attachments (see Fig. 13).
The L.V.G. is one of the few enemy aeroplanes that employ interplane struts of wood. They are of the shape shown in, Fig. 14, and are of streamline section (2 1/4 in. x 1 9/16 in.), slightly hollowed out for lightening purposes. Fabric is wrapped round the strut in three places, and the form of the strut sockets is made clear in the sketch (Fig. 14), which shows one of the C.V. struts.
The types of strut socket employed in the C.VI. machine is shown in Fig. 15, while Fig. 16 shows how the strut is attached to the spar. The socket is held in place on the strut by simply inserting a suitable length of steel tube through a drilled hole in socket and strut and riveting over the ends.
As has already been mentioned, the centre section struts are different in the two types. In the C.V. machine the cabane, the shape of which is made clear by the G.A. drawings, is made of streamline steel tubing. This has been changed, and the C.VI. model has parallel centre section struts of wood, which are like the letter N when seen from the port side. Fig. 17 shows the pint between the spar of the centre section and the strut. The unusual arrangement of the cross-bracing of this centre section should be noticed in the front view, G.A. drawings.
The line of the front limb of the N is carried on by the third fuselage bulkhead, and finishes at the front joint of fuselage and undercarriage. The angle between the rear two limbs of the N is practically bisected by the line of the fifth bulkhead, which finishes at the rear joint of fuselage and undercarriage. This is shown by a diagram, Fig. 18. The C.V. machine has a sloping steel tubular strut between engine bearer and rear undercarriage attachment (see Fig. 19), but by the rearrangement of bulkheads the necessity for this has vanished, and the strut is not found in the later model.
The earlier types of L.V.G. had bodies built on the cross-braced girder system. Both the machines described possess the same type of fuselage, totally different from the girder system, viz., a framework of bulkheads and longerons, covered with a thin layer of 3-ply and totally without wire bracing. Fig. 20 gives the number of shapes of the bulkhead in the C.V. machine, and incidentally reveals the shape of the fuselage. The C.VI. type has generally the same arrangement, but the third and fifth, bulkhead are no longer vertical in this model, and the tail part of the body has been strengthened by the insertion of another cross piece.
Although the fuselage of the L.V.G. biplane ends in a vertical wedge, the provision of a centre section for the tail plane gives a cruciform appearance to this part. This is shown clearly by Fig. 21, where the two sides of the tail plane centre section are drawn in thin lines. The 3-ply covering to the fuselage rounds off the joint of body and tail plane in the neat way that is found in so many German aeroplanes. (See Fig. 22.)
The shape of the fixed tail planes is shown in the G.A. drawings. The main box spar (see dotted section in Fig. 21) passes right through the body. The rear spar, to which the elevators are hinged, is of rectangular section wood, hollowed on its rear face to take the steel tube which serves as the elevator spar. The tail is so badly damaged that detailed analysis is impossible, but the fixed tail planes are of wooden construction, with the usual ribs and semicircular leading edge. It will be noticed that the tail plane is not set parallel to the crankshaft line, but is raised through an angle of 5°, and it has a symmetrical streamline section.
The elevator, which is balanced and undivided in both models, is a welded structure of light steel tubing, and presents no unusual feature. There is a small protecting horn provided on the tail plane, to prevent damage to the corner of the balanced portion of the elevator - Fig. 23 gives a clear idea of this example of thoroughness.
The tail skids are both of the same general type as that of the Pfalz Scout, i.e., the member is entirely exposed, and does not project into the fuselage. It is of ash, and the upper end is so shaped as to avoid the necessity for any metal link or fitting. Both machines also have a small triangular fin on the underside of the fuselage which serves the double purpose of providing fin area and of adapting the shape of the fuselage to the slope required for the tail skid. (See Fig. 22.)
It will be seen from the sketch (Fig. 24) that the skid of the C.V. machine carries a four-leaved fiat spring bolted a little to the rear of the pivot. In the later model this has been discarded. The shape of the lower triangular fin also differs slightly - that of the C.VI. has been simplified and strengthened. The workmanship of the sheet steel angle piece on the C.VI. machine gives one the impression that it is a "squadron fitting." It is of fairly heavy gauge, and may have replaced a weaker part fitted by the manufacturer.
The landing gears of both machines are similar, and in general arrangement conform to the practice that is now practically standard. The vee struts are of streamline section, and constructed of fabric-covered wood. The practice of using wood for undercarriage struts is, of course, unusual in enemy machines, but is in conformity with the other struts - interplane and centre section - on this machine.
The major and minor axes of cross section of one of the front struts (and all four, front and rear, are of equal dimensions) are respectively 2 9/32 in. and 4 7/8 in.
The upper and lower extremities are capped with steel sockets, which allow of attachment to the fuselage at the upper extremities and at the lower ends serve to connect the two limbs of the vee, and are provided with accommodation for the shock absorber. Figs. 25 and 26 show respectively the component parts of the attachment to the fuselage, and the socket at the lower part of the vee. From Fig. 25 it will be noticed that the ball at the head of the strut beds into a hemispherical socket attached to the fuselage. The lower half of the ball articulates with a curved surface on the ferrule, and the ferrule next slipped over attachment. In assembling this joint - and this is a matter of seconds only - the ball is first passed through the opening provided on the ferrule, and the ferrule next slipped over the body lug and pinned in place. All four body attachments are of this type in the C.VI, machines, but in the C.V. model the joint was made by simply pinning the ball to its socket, without the refinement of a ferrule.
The shock absorber is of the coil spring type, with three small diameter springs lying side by side, as indicated in Fig. 26. A loop of cable limits the amount of axle travel, and between the lower extremities of the vees is a steel compression tube, of 1 1/2 in. O.D., and behind this lies the axle, which is encased in a 3-ply fairing. It will be noticed that the compression tube is not included in the fairing, and when the axle is raised as the machine lands, the fairing travels with the axle. This method allows of good accessibility to these components, but is not quite so good an arrangement from the streamline point of view as the common method of allowing the axle to lift out of a fixed fairing.
The schedule of principal weights, given at the end of this report, is of considerable interest as regards the undercarriage.
The wheels are 810 x 125, and the track 6 ft. 7 in. The cross bracing does not start from either front or rear fuselage attachments, but from the front spar joint on the fuselage.
As is the case throughout the design, the controls of the two aeroplanes are generally similar, but differ in detail. In the C.V. machine, the control lever, at the head of which is the usual two-handed grip, operates two rocking shafts which axe perpendicular to one another. The transverse tube, which actuates the elevators, is cranked in the middle and supported on four brackets, marked a, b, c, and d, in Fig. 27, which act as bearings. To the middle point is pinned the front half of the jaw which is found on the bottom of the control lever. This pin A, always points directly to the centre of the pin B, which passes through the rear half of the jaw and is itself always exactly in line with the bearing of the transverse shaft. This somewhat complicated arrangement allows the transverse shaft to be rotated round axis a, b, B, c, d, and at the same time permits the other shaft to rock on its own bearings. A simple contracting band brake controlled by a Bowden lever and cable serves to lock the elevator controls in any desired position. This brake is found in both types.
The C.VI. controls are rather different, and are shown in Fig. 28, which clearly explains their operation. The naked aileron control cables pass through the lower wing near the rear spar, and run over the aluminium pulleys illustrated in Fig. 29. The upper extremities of these cables are attached to the welded control lever which works in a slot in the upper plane. The differences between the two types in the matter of the aileron lever has already been commented upon.
The rudder bars of the two types are of the same general design, but the problem of leading the cables round the base of the large petrol tank immediately behind the rudder bar, is solved in different ways. In the later type, a semicircular extension to the rudder bar avoids the necessity for the two extra pulleys and bearings found in the C.V. type. Reference to Fig. 30 will make this point clear.
Engine Mounting and Control
The 230 h.p. Benz engine is mounted on wooden bearers of rectangular section, 1 5/8 in. wide and 3 1/4 in. deep, supported on the cross bulkheads found in the front of the fuselage. In the C.V. machine there is a steel tubular strut on each side which is in compression between the rear portion of the engine bearer and the front undercarriage joint (see Fig. 19). As has already been mentioned, the rearrangement of the fuselage bulkheads allows this strut to be dispensed with in the C.VI. model.
The throttle lever is of the familiar ratchet-quadrant type, and in the C.V. machine there is no interconnected throttle lever on the control stick. Although the C.VI. control lever is missing, it is fairly certain that this is true of this type also. Those bulkheads which are likely to receive oil drippings from the crankcase are protected by aluminium strips employed in the manner shown in Fig. 31.
Oil and Petrol Systems
Both machines have a main petrol tank under the pilot's seat and a gravity tank attached to the upper plane. In the C.V. machine this tank is placed on the upper surface of the port plane, alongside the narrow centre section. The later type has the tank beneath the port upper plane, as will he noticed from the scale drawings. In this case the filler passes through the plane, and has the cap on the plane's.
The C.VI. main tank has a capacity of 47 gallons, and the gravity tank a capacity of 5 1/2 gallons, thus giving a total petrol capacity of 52 1/2 gallons. There is a hand petrol pump which allows the pilot to fill the gravity tank from the main tank, and an engine petrol pump which draws fuel from the main tank and passes it on under pressure to the small cylindrical compartment of the main tank, whence it flows to the carburettor. This is, of course, the usual Benz system, and has been fully reported upon.
The exhaust pipes are of welded sheet steel, and are carried higher than is usual in the C.VI. model (see Fig. 32).
The positions respectively occupied by the radiators of the two models are quite different; though both are in conformity with enemy practice. Reference to the scale drawings will make it clear that the C.V radiator is supported in front of the leading edge of the upper plane on struts clamped to the cabane, while that of the C.VI. occupies the middle part of the centre section and is flush with the curvature. The construction also differs. The vertical (C.V.) radiator is composed of flat vertical films, which are crimped and set "staggered" so that their appearance is similar to that of a honeycomb radiator. The C.V. type has the usual oval section brass tubes running perpendicular to the chord of the wing. Fig. 33 gives a sketch of the earlier radiator, and of its supports. The shutters work on different systems, as will be noticed from the sketches. The vertical shutter of the C.V. machine is of the roller blind type, with cables which operate positively, one to unroll and the other to roll up the blind. This shutter puts out of action approximately one-third of the radiator area. The C.VI. shutter effect is obtained by moving a handle which alters the slope of nine parallel hinged flaps, as illustrated in Fig. 34.
The pilot's cockpit is not provided with a dashboard, but the instruments are distributed chiefly on the left-hand side of the pilot. They comprise the usual Bosch starting magneto and key switch; an oil-pressure gauge calibrated to 4 kg. per sq. cm.; a petrol-pressure gauge to 5 kg. per sq. cm.; a Maximall petrol gauge to the main tank, a grease pump, and throttle and ignition levers of the usual type.
The observer's cockpits of both machines are provided with circular camera holes in the flooring, and each hole is fitted with an aluminium cover, but these covers are manipulated differently. The aperture of the C.V. machine is about 9 in. in diameter, and the type of cover is clearly shown in Fig. 35. That of the C.VI. model is 12 in. in diameter, and is covered simply by an aluminium sheet which slides in parallel grooves outside the fuselage. The C.VI. biplane was fitted with a complete wireless outfit when captured, but of the internal fittings only the aerial and reel remain, and these m entirely standard. The current was obtained from a dynamo attached to the undercarriage strut, which is still in situ, though its propeller is missing. This dynamo is shown in Fig. 36.
The fitting shown in Fig. 37 was found on the starboard side of the C.V. machine; and is obviously a release for some light object. Its precise function is unknown. Fig. 38 shows the C.VI. gun ring, and it will be noticed that the padded clip is not in its usual vertical position.
Fabric and Dope
The usual printed fabric with a design of coloured polygons is used - and nothing regarding fabric or painting calls for comment
Both of these aeroplanes are at present at the Enemy Aircraft View Room, Islington. Passes may be obtained on application to :- The Controller, Technical Department, Ap.D. (L.), Central House, Kingsway, W.C. 2.