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Hansa-Brandenburg W.19

Страна: Германия

Год: 1918

Two-seat fighting patrol seaplane (long range)

Hansa-Brandenburg - W.25 - 1917 - Германия<– –>Hansa-Brandenburg - W.20 - 1918 - Германия

В.Обухович, А.Никифоров Самолеты Первой Мировой войны

В процессе производства W 12 был создан ряд различных модификаций этого самолета. Так, патрульный вариант W 19 с двигателем Майбах Mb.IV (260 л. с.) имел увеличенные размеры и запас топлива, что позволило в полтора раза увеличить продолжительность полета.

O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)

Brandenburg W 19

  With the expansion and reorganisation of the German Naval flying services in 1917 it was decided to concentrate the fighter establishments mainly at Borkum and Zeebrugge and to use Norderney chiefly as a reconnaissance station. By the end of that year, after the Brandenburg W 12 had been in use some six months, the need was found for a two-seat fighter machine of greater duration, and to serve this requirement the Brandenburg W 19 began operations in January 1918.
  Basically similar to the W 12, the W 19 was a considerably larger aircraft, spanning almost 10 ft. more and being about 3 ft. 6 in. greater in length. Increased fuel capacity gave it a greater radius of action. Although so much larger than the W 12, performance was not materially affected due to the installation of the more powerful 260 h.p. Maybach engine, which represented an increase of some 110 h.p. over the W 12. A neat spinner improved the nose-entry lines, and a frontal radiator was fitted adjacent to the centre-section leading edge. The remainder of the fuselage was like that of the W 12, maintaining the same proportions with the characteristic upward rake and plywood covering. The tail assembly differed little, apart from the profile of the tailplane, which was changed to a large semi-circular shape. The parallel-chord wings had their tips modified to a more bluntly rounded shape: the near semicircular centre-section cut-out was maintained. Due to the considerable increase in span, the wings were rigged with two sets of interplane struts and braced in all bays with stranded cables, although on certain aircraft bracing was omitted from the inboard bay to enable the gunner to shoot through the wings. Plain unbalanced ailerons were fitted at all four wingtips and connected with a link strut. The typical Brandenburg float chassis was retained, likewise the wooden floats with wedge bows and knife-edge stern.
  In patrol work Brandenburg W 19s would often reconnoitre ahead while their W 12 colleagues waited upon the surface - when conditions were suitable - and would return to collect them should surface or airborne targets be sighted. Frequently one of the large twin-engined F 2a flying-boats patrolling from Felixstowe or Yarmouth would be sighted on the water, having been forced to alight with engine trouble, and would be attacked. During 1918, combats between these big boats and the fighters from Borkum and Zeebrugge became fairly commonplace.
  On 4th June 1918 a patrol of live flying-boats made up of aircraft from both Felixstowe and Yarmouth (under command of Capt. Leckie of the latter station) set course for Borkum, and about 10 miles from Terschelling one boat had to alight with engine trouble. The now four-strong flight was soon attacked by some fifteen variously assorted Brandenburg W 12s, W 19s and W 29 monoplanes, and an exceedingly hot combat ensued. The living-boats, maintaining formation to concentrate their fire, managed to cut off three of the Brandenburgs and concentrate their attack upon these seaplanes, one soon succumbing to their fire, side slipping and spinning into the sea. In turn, one of the F 2as was forced down and eventually interned by a Dutch trawler; another boat had to alight with a broken petrol pipe, but after making a temporary repair was able to take off again. After losing another seaplane the Germans retired, and during the flight back to Borkum shot up the first F 2a, which had alighted with engine trouble before the combat took place. The crew of the surfaced flying-boat vigorously returned the fire and managed to bring down a Brandenburg, whereupon another alighted near by to rescue the crew. Shortage of petrol forced the enemy to withdraw, and the F 2a was able to resume taxi-ing towards Terschelling Island. However, when within only a few hundred yards of beaching, it was again attacked by a Brandenburg W 19 - No. 2239 - which at last managed to set it on fire. The crew of three nevertheless managed to get safely ashore.
  That chivalry existed between opponents over the North Sea is evidenced by an incident in June 1918 when a Felixstowe boat commanded by Lt.-Col. Robertson was shot down by live seaplanes from Zeebrugge. Crash landing, the boat tore off its wings and turned turtle: eventually Robertson was able to clamber upon the upturned hull. One of the German seaplanes alighted and taxied alongside to tell Robertson that he was near the Allied coast and ask him if he wished to be taken back to Zeebrugge or take a chance on being picked up by an Allied machine or vessel. The doughty colonel elected to remain with his wreck, whereupon his victor took a photograph of him, waved a friendly adieu and flew back to Zeebrugge. However, not a few Allied aircrews owed their lives, after being forced to alight, to being picked up by German seaplanes.

  Description: Two-seat fighting patrol seaplane (long range).
  Manufacturer: Hansa und Brandenburgische Flugzeug-Werke G.m.b.H.
  Power Plant: One 260 h.p. Maybach Mb IV 6 cylinder in-line water-cooled engine.
  Dimensions: Span, 13.80 m. (45 ft. 3 3/8 in.) Length, 10.65 m. (34 ft. 11 3/8 in.). Height, 4.10 m. (13 ft. 5 1/2 in.). Area, 57.8 sq.m. (624.25 sq.ft.).
  Weights: Empty, 1,435 kg. (3,157 lb.). Loaded, 2,005 kg. (4,411 lb.).
  Performance: Maximum speed, 150.5 km.hr. (94 m.p.h.). Climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 6.4 min.; 2,000 m. (6,560 ft.) in 18 9 min.; 3,000 m. (9,840 ft.) in 230 min. Endurance, ca. 5 hr.
  Armament: First three aircraft had one fixed Spandau machine-gun forward and one manually operated Parabellum machine-gun in rear cockpit. All remaining aircraft fitted twin Spandaus forward.
  Serial Numbers: Fifty-five aircraft delivered. Marine numbers 1469-1471, 2207-2216, 2237 fitted experimentally with cannon armament, 2238-2257, 2259-2278, 2537.

W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


  An enlarged W 12 developed to meet a demand for a two-seat fighter seaplane with greater endurance, the W19 was first committed to operations in January 1918. Appreciably larger than the W12, the W19 was of similar construction with fabric-covered wings and plywood-covered fuselage and floats, and was powered by a 260 hp Maybach Mb IVa six-cylinder water-cooled engine. The substantial increase in span necessitated the adoption of a two-bay arrangement, and, apart from the three prototypes, all W 19s carried an armament of two 7,92-mm LMG 08/15 synchronised machine guns and a single Parabellum of similar calibre on a flexible mount in the rear cockpit. One W19 was experimentally fitted with a 20-mm Becker cannon for trials. A total of 53 production W 19s was completed (one being retained for static tests).

Max speed, 93 mph (150 km/h).
Time to 3,280 ft (1 000 m), 6.4 min, to 6,560 ft (2 000 m), 18.9 min.
Empty weight, 3,164 lb (1435 kg).
Loaded weight, 4,420 lb (2 005 kg). Span, 45 ft 3 1/3 in (13,80 m).
Length, 34 ft 11 1/4 in (10,65 m).
Height, 13 ft 5 3/8 in (4,10 m).
Wing area, 622.17 sq ft (57,8 m2).

J. Herris German Seaplane Fighters of WWI (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 2)

Brandenburg W19

  Nearly identical to the W12 in configuration, the W19 was considerably enlarged to enable it to carry the greater fuel load needed for the longer range and endurance desired. Other than its larger size, the main visible difference was the W19 had two-bay interplane struts to support its larger wings instead of the single-bay struts of the smaller W12. Like late
production W12 aircraft, all W19 aircraft except the first prototype had ailerons on all four wingtips for enhanced maneuverability. With the exception of the first three W19 prototypes, which had a single fixed machine-gun for the pilot, all subsequent W19 production aircraft had two fixed machine guns.
  One early W19, Marine #2237 ordered in December 1917, had a flexible Becker 20mm cannon instead of a Parabellum for the observer. This seaplane apparently had an enlarged rudder and elevator, perhaps for greater stability with the cannon in the slipstream, although further details are lacking. After testing in April 1918, during which fifty rounds were rapid-fired with no installation problems, the only change requested was enlarging the observer's gun ring from 900mm to 1000mm diameter. After approval by front-line personnel, #2237 was send to the front for evaluation, where it was written off on 20 June. Apparently the evaluation was successful because in early June the Navy ordered the fourth W19 production series, Marine Numbers 2544-2563, armed with the Becker cannon. All 20 W 19s of this series were found at Warnemunde in December 1918 by the Allied Naval Armistice Commission, most still in their packing crates.
  Most W19 aircraft were powered by the 240 hp Maybach Mb.IVa, making the W19 much more powerful than the W12. This significant power increase compensated for its greater size and weight, making the W19 nearly as fast as the W12 while carrying more fuel, armament, and equipment. In April 1918 the first W19 arrived at Zeebrugge to supplement the W12 in the North Sea.

The W19 and the Maybach Mb.IVa

  All W19s used the Maybach Mb.IVa. W19s through the first three production batches were generally scheduled to receive the 240 hp Maybach Mb.IVa engine, but when struck off charge some individual airplanes had the high-compression 260 hp Maybach Mb.IVa engine. It is not known if the more powerful engine was installed during production or retrofitted after delivery. The fourth production series was scheduled to have the 260 hp Maybach Mb.IVa. On 12 August 1918 this series was allotted between Kofl F (North Sea) and Kofl Marinekorps (Flanders).
  Confusingly, both the Maybach 240 hp and 260 hp engines shared the designation Mb.IVa. The engine rated at 240 hp had cast iron pistons, produced a maximum of 245 hp, and weighed 400 kg. The engine rated at 260 hp had aluminum pistons, produced a maximum of 300 hp, and weighed 390 kg. Both engines had six cylinders of 165mm bore and 180mm stroke, providing 23.1 liters capacity and developed their rated power at 1,400 RPM. From these similarities it is apparent they were essentially the same engine with different pistons, power ratings, and compression ratios, but with little or nothing to distinguish between them externally.

Brandenburg W19 Production
Series Marine Numbers Qty Category Armament & Notes
Prototypes 1469-1471 3 C2MG 1 fixed, 1 flexible MG
Series 1 2207-2216 10 C3MG 2 fixed, 1 flexible MG
Series 2 2237 2238-2257 1 20 CK C3MG 2 fixed MG, 1 flexible 20mm cannon 2 fixed, 1 flexible MG
Series 3 2259-2275 2276-2278 2537 17 3 1 C2MGHTF CK C3MG 1 fixed, 1 flexible MG, wireless xmtr/rcvr 2 fixed MG, 1 flexible 20mm cannon 2 fixed, 1 flexible MG
Series 4 2544-2563 20 CK 2 fixed MG, 1 flexible 20mm cannon
Series 5 2683-2722 40 C3MG 2 fixed, 1 flexible MG

W19 Production Notes:
1. Marine Number #1469 was destroyed on its first flight in August 1917.
2. The engine for #1469 is not confirmed; #1470 & #1471 had the 240 hp Maybach Mb.IVa.
3. The engine for production series 1, 2, and 3 was usually the 240 hp Maybach Mb.IVa; some aircraft had the 260 hp Maybach Mb.IVa.
4. Marine Numbers 2208-2216 and 2237-2239 were accepted the second half of April/first half of May 1918.
5. Marine Number 2237, accepted in April 1918, was class CK; this was a test installation of the 20mm Becker in the W19.
6. Marine Number 2267, accepted in the second half of June 1918, had a 260 hp Maybach Mb.IVa.
7. The engine for production series 4 was the 260 hp Maybach Mb.IVa.
8. Completion of production series 5 is not confirmed, but #2687 and #2688 were handed over to Italy on 15 September 1920, so some aircraft of this series were produced.
9. A total of 115 W19s were ordered but it is not known if all of production series 5 were delivered. Production of at least 77 W19s is confirmed.

J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This unmarked W19 was certainly the first prototype. A key indication this was the first prototype W19 is the lack of ailerons on the lower wing; all other W19s had ailerons on both upper and lower wings for improved maneuverability. The horn exhaust extends horizontally from the engine cowling.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This front view shows the very clean lines of the W19 despite its two-bay wing bracing. The shape of the exhaust manifold is the same as in the photo of the unmarked W19. This could be that same aircraft after modification; unlike that aircraft, it has ailerons on both upper and lower wings. Alternatively, it might be the third prototype. The lack of a second fixed gun for the pilot on the port side is a key indication this aircraft is one of the first three prototypes.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This side view of Marine Number 1470, the second prototype W19, emphasizes its clean lines for a biplane. An actuating strut connects the ailerons on upper and lower wings.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Marine Number 1470 was the second prototype W19. The aircraft is painted and marked and the engine cowling appears to be designed for individual exhaust pipes. The float bracing appears very sturdy. Only the over-wing radiator spoils its clean lines.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The clean appearance and small spinner are shown in this view of Marine Number 2207, the first production aircraft. Compared to earlier airframes the exhaust manifold has been lengthened and angled nearly vertically to exhaust the gases over the wing, away from the crew.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This side view of Marine Number 2207 emphasizes the gunner's clear field of fire. The actuating strut between the ailerons on upper and lower wings has now been streamlined to reduce drag.
Using the 240-260 hp Maybach Mb.IVa, the Brandenburg W19 was an enlarged, more powerful derivative of the W12 for longer range and greater payload. Its larger size required two bays of struts for structural strength, and it used ailerons on all wings for improved maneuverability; the strut connecting the upper and lower ailerons is clearly visible in this view. Its excellent design and additional power gave it essentially the same speed and maneuverability of the smaller W12 and it was equally successful on operations early in 1918.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Front view, probably of Marine Number 2207, showing its over-wing radiator and twin forward-firing machine guns. The nearly vertical exhaust manifold is different that that of the aircraft in the other front view.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This view of Marine Number 2207 emphasizes its streamlined fuselage and the robust float bracing. The fairing over the pilot's left gun shows dedication to streamlining and protecting the gun mechanism from the airflow and especially salt-water spray. The three-color naval lozenge fabric covering the upper surfaces of the wings and fuselage are just visible; this camouflage fabric was also used on the top of the tailplane.
A.Imrie - German Naval Air Service /Arms & Armour/
Brandenburg W19 from Norderney showing the white chevron unit marking on the rear fuselage. This aircraft was an enlarged, more powerful version of the W12 with an extended radius of action, but before it reached the front in any numbers it, in its turn, had been outdated by the Brandenburg W29 monoplane.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Two W29s and a W19 photographed from another Brandenburg patrol over the North Sea in summer 1918.
Longer-range W19s would frequently patrol with W12s and W29s, which sometimes waited on the surface until the W19 found a target and returned to lead the flight to it.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
To maximize operational effectiveness the Brandenburgs typically flew offensive patrols in flights of five; here the fifth aircraft in the flight has photographed the others.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
W19 Marine Number 2237 photographed at Warnemunde on 25 April 1918 during ground firing of the 20mm Becker cannon. The gunner appears somewhat cramped, which led to the recommendation to enlarge the gun ring diameter from 900mm to 1000mm.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Another view of the 20mm Becker mounted in W19 Marine Number 2237 on 25 April 1918 showing details of the gun ring.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A modified 20mm Becker cannon mounted in W19 Marine Number 2237 on 25 April 1918. The cannon now has a shoulder stock and a bag to catch empty shells.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This view of the 20mm Becker cannon mounted in W19 Marine Number 2237 shows the gun elevation available to the observer.The hexagonal naval camouflage is clearly visible.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Brandenburgs did not have things all their own way; here a W19 burns on the water. It may have been forced down by combat damage or mechanical fault, but because the Marine Number for researching the records is not quite legible, the exact cause is unknown.
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Race for Life. This striking painting by Steve Anderson depicts the action on August 11, 1918 when Brandenburg fighters attacked six British Motor Torpedo Boats (MTBs) operating against German minesweepers. Three of the MTBs were sunk and the remaining three were damaged so badly they beached themselves in neutral Holland to avoid sinking. Brandenburg W19 Marine #2249 shown here was one of the fighters that sank an MTB.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
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J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Brandenburg W19
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Brandenburg W19
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Brandenburg W19
J.Herris - German Seaplane Fighters of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Brandenburg W19