Самолеты (сортировка по:)
Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Hansa-Brandenburg W.29 / W.33 / W.34

Страна: Германия

Год: 1918

Two-seat sea monoplane fighter

Hansa-Brandenburg - W.27 / W.32 - 1918 - Германия<– –>Hanuschke - biplane - 1909 - Германия


В.Обухович, А.Никифоров Самолеты Первой Мировой войны


Во второй половине войны в морской авиации Германии возникла острая потребность в современном поплавковом истребителе. Английские разведывательные летающие лодки и патрульные дирижабли все активнее действовали в Северном море и у берегов Франции. Многоцелевой гидросамолет W 12 уже не справлялся в полном объеме с возложенными на него обязанностями по перехвату воздушных целей, и в начале 1918 г. командир базы гидросамолетов в Зеебругге Фридрих Христиансен предложил Хейнкелю модернизировать его.
  Новый поплавковый истребитель Ганза-Бранденбург W 29 был разработан на базе W 12, что было продиктовано необходимостью скорейшего ввода самолета в боевую эксплуатацию. Второй немаловажной причиной для принятия такого решения была очень удачная конструкция предшественника. Конструктор Дорнье, возглавивший этот проект, оставил почти без изменения фюзеляж и хвостовое оперение. Их форма позволяла обеспечить стрелку достаточно большой сектор обстрела. Поплавки остались прежними. Коренной переработке были подвергнуты несущие плоскости. С целью максимального облегчения веса планера и уменьшения аэродинамического сопротивления бипланная коробка была заменена монопланным подкосным крылом довольно толстого профиля. Его площадь осталась примерно такой же, как у W 12, что было вызвано необходимостью сохранения приемлемых взлетно-посадочных характеристик. Законцовки крыла приобрели прямоугольную конфигурацию. Самолет был оснащен двигателем Бенц Bz.III (150 л. с.) с лобовым радиатором автомобильного типа. На машинах последних серий устанавливался двигатель Бенц Bz.IIIa (185 л. с). Первые сорок самолетов были вооружены одним синхронным пулеметом "Шпандау", а остальные - двумя. У стрелка был турельный "Парабеллум". Многие машины имели радиостанцию. Христиансен, приглашенный опробовать новый самолет в полете, оценил его очень высоко.
  В апреле 1918 г. первые истребители-гидросамолеты Ганза-Бранденбург W 29 были переданы в строевые части морской авиации. Самолет показал отличные данные: высокую скорость полета и хорошую маневренность. W 29 стал лучшим в мире для самолетов такого класса и грозным противником морской авиации Антанты. Однако пилоты обращали внимание на недостаточную дальность полета машины. Чтобы как-то преодолеть этот недостаток, был придуман оригинальный тактический ход, правда, осуществлять его можно было только в хорошую погоду. Группа W 29 приводнялась в заданном районе Северного моря, а разведку окружающей акватории вели W 19, имевшие большой радиус действия, Координаты обнаруженных воздушных целей передавались по радио и группа взлетала на перехват.
  11 августа 1918г. группа из четырнадцати W 29, возвращавшаяся из патрульного полета на базу в Боркум, обнаружила шесть британских летающих лодок и атаковала их. Только трем экипажам лодок удалось уйти от преследования и приземлиться в Голландии, где они были интернированы.
  Летом 1918 г. появился увеличенный вариант W 33, оснащенный двигателем Майбах Mb.IV (245 л. с).
  До окончания войны было произведено 190 машин двух вариантов. После войны самолеты выпускались в Норвегии, Финляндии, Дании, Японии. Всего было построено 482 самолета.


Двигатель 1 х Бенц Bz.III (150 л. с.)
Размеры:
  размах х длина х высота 13,50 х 9,36 х 3,00 м
Площадь крыльев 32,2 м2
Вес:
  пустого 1000 кг
  взлетный 1494 кг
Максимальная скорость 175 км/ч
Время набора высоты 2000 м 13 мин
Потолок 5500 м
Продолжительность полета 4 ч
Вооружение:
  стрелковое 1 (или 2) х 7,92-мм синхронный пулемет "Шпандау" и
   1 х 7,92-мм турельный пулемет "Парабеллум"
Экипаж 2 чел.


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Brandenburg W 29

Without doubt the most notable of Heinkel's designs to come from the Brandenburg factory was the W 29 sea monoplane, which came into operation in April 1918.
In the early days of that year Christiansen had mentioned to Heinkel that a successor to the W 12 would soon be needed to maintain the edge in superiority over the Allied types then being encountered over the North Sea. Within the limits of the engines and material available # not to mention time # Heinkel concluded that only a monoplane, with its reduced drag and frontal area, could achieve the required results.
To conserve valuable time, the Brandenburg W 29 became what was virtually a monoplane version of the W 12. The fuselage, with the 150 h.p. Benz Bz III engine installation and car-type nose radiator, remained practically the same; the exhaust manifold was dispensed with and stub pipes fitted on the port side. As before, the whole of the fuselage raked upwards aft of the engine and remained a ply-covered wooden structure; the whole of the tail assembly, except for a slight alteration in tailplane shape, was the same as the W 12. The flotation gear and chassis arrangement also remained unchanged.
The monoplane wing was increased in span and chord until its area approximated that of the W 12. In plan form it was almost rectangular, there being only 1 1/2° of taper on both leading and trailing edges. The tips were blunt with rounded corners, and the horn-balanced ailerons were set within the contour; there were quadrant cut-outs at the roots of the trailing edges. The wings were rigged with 3° 20' dihedral in each panel and differed in depth and section throughout their length. At the root the section was thin and had some of incidence, the wing section then being gradually thickened until at the point where the float-chassis bracing struts were located it reached its maximum depth and was almost twice as thick as at the root, having been developed from a high-speed to a high-lift section. From then on towards the tip it again reduced in thickness, eventually becoming almost the same as the root section. Construction was conventional in being based on two wooden main spars with the ribs built up of ply and soft wood, the whole being fabric covered.
Armament of the Brandenburg W 29 varied. Of the seventy-eight machines supplied, forty were fitted with only one forward gun but carried radio equipment; the remaining aircraft were fitted with twin Spandaus and dispensed with the radio gear. Christiansen, on testing the prototype at Brandenburg, has been reported as being so pleased with the aircraft that he insisted on flying it back to Zeebrugge the next day for operational use!
Although not possessed of great range, it proved possible to evolve tactics to circumvent this shortcoming. When surface conditions were favourable the W 29 seaplanes would sit upon the waters of the North Sea while aircraft of greater range (W 19s, etc.) scouted ahead and then returned for # or called up # the W 29s as necessary.
A unique victory of the Brandenburg W 29s from Borkum seaplane station was the sinking of three British motor boats on 11th August 1918, the same day that Lt. Cully took off in his Sopwith Camel from a lighter in the North Sea to destroy the Zeppelin L. 53. A patrol of fourteen W 29s returning to Borkum encountered a flotilla of six C.M.B.s (Coastal Motor Boats: the equivalent of M.T.B.s in current nomenclature), which had earlier been lowered from larger surface craft to search for German mine sweepers. The W 29s immediately dived in to attack. The C.M.B.s, capable of some 40 knots, split up in twisting evasive action, but the seaplanes had every advantage, their machine-guns stabbing through the light ply superstructure of the boats with effortless ease. The boats crews returned the fire with their Lewis guns, but with little effect against such devastating odds, and one C.M.B. soon hove to with a silent engine-room. The Brandenburgs instantly concentrated upon this hapless target, literally ripping it apart with their machine-gun fire, so that it rapidly began to founder. Immediately a sister boat crashed alongside, taking off all the crew and wounded. Yet two more of the torpedo boats were destroyed by the seaplanes, the crews being taken off in turn by the surviving boats. A long rearguard action was fought by the three survivors, which, in parlous condition, eventually managed to reach the coast of Holland, where they were interned by the authorities.
Earlier in the year 1918, on the night of 22nd/23rd April, the famous raid on the Zeebrugge Mole by the Royal Navy had taken place. It is of interest to relate how little the seaplane operations from that location were affected. With typical German thoroughness the railway sheds on the Mole had a layer of reinforced concrete laid over them and had been converted into a seaplane station. When not in use the seaplanes were shackled to flat-top railway wagons under this cover, and when required for action the wagons were shunted on to the quay, where quayside cranes offloaded the aircraft directly into the water. A locomotive was constantly kept "in steam" ready to withdraw all aircraft-loaded wagons to the mainland should at any time a Naval assault take place. Consequently, when the Royal Navy raided the Mole and blocked the harbour the seaplanes were all withdrawn to the shore and were able to resume operations almost immediately.
At this time Oblt. R. Christiansen was commanding the Zeebrugge station with some fifty pilots under his control, and was not slow to exact revenge when, two days later, leading a flight of seven W 29s, he attacked two F 2a flying-boats from Felixstowe, shooting one down in flames.

TECHNICAL DATA
Description: Two-seat sea monoplane fighter.
Manufacturer: Hansa und Brandenburgische Flugzeug-Werke G.m.b.H.
Power Plant: One 150 h.p. Benz Bz III six cylinder in-line water-cooled engine.
N.B. Last four aircraft to be built were fitted with uprated Benz Bz IIIa of 185 h.p.
Dimensions: Span, 13.5 m. (44 ft. 3 1/2 in.). Length, 9.36 m. (30 ft. 8 1/2 in.). Height 30 m. (9 ft. 10 1/8 in.). Area, 32.2 sq.m. (347.75 sq.ft.).
Weights: Empty, 1,000 kg. (2,200 lb.). Loaded, 1,494 (3,286.8 lb.).
Performance: Maximum speed, 175 km.hr. (109.375 m.p.h.). Climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 6 min.; 2,000 m. (6,560 ft.) in 13 min.; 3,000 m. (9,840 ft.) in 23 min. Ceiling, 16,400 ft. Endurance, ca. 4 hr.
Armament: Forty aircraft with one fixed Spandau machine-gun forward (on starboard side) and one manually operated Parabellum machine-gun in rear cockpit. Thirty-eight aircraft fitted with additional Spandau forward.
Serials: Marine numbers of the seventy-eight aircraft delivered were: 2203-2206, 2287-2300 (1), 2501-2506(1), 2507-2536, 2564-2583(1), 2584-2587.
(1) One forward gun only.


Brandenburg W 33
  Twenty-six W 33s had been delivered by the end of the war and were mostly in use at the North Sea air stations, augmenting the W 29, of which the W 33 was a larger and more powerful variant. Although spanning over 50 ft., it was remarkably clean, as may be seen from the illustration. This depicts a machine brought over to the Isle of Grain for evaluation after the Armistice, and the R.A.F. roundels may just be discerned below the wings. Engine, 245 h.p. Maybach Mb IV. Span, 15.85 m. (52 ft. 0 in.). Length, 11.10 m. (36 ft. 5 1/8 in.). Height, 3.37 m. (11 ft. 0 5/8 in.). Area, 44 sq.m. (475 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 1,420 kg. (3,124 lb.). Loaded, 2,050 kg. (4,510 lb.). Speed, 173 km.hr. (108.125 m.p.h.). Climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 5.4 min. Armament, one Parabellum and two Spandau machine-guns. One aircraft, No. 2543, fitted with cannon. Naval Nos. 2538-2563.


R.Mikesh, A.Shorzoe Japanese Aircraft, 1910-1941 (Putnam)


Navy Type Hansa Reconnaissance Seaplane

  After the First World War, the Japanese Navy received from Germany a Hansa-Brandenburg W 33 reconnaissance seaplane as part of war reparations. By 1922, the Navy decided to adopt this aeroplane as standard equipment and placed orders for their production with Nakajima and Aichi. The original Hansa seaplane, designed by Dr Ernst Heinkel, was considered to be very advanced structurally and have excellent performance. To make it better suited to Japanese needs, modifications were made in the Nakajima production model.
  The Type Hansa was adopted to replace the Navy Type Yokosho Ro-go Ko-gata Reconnaissance Seaplane. This was the Navy's first low-wing ship-based monoplane. They were easily identifiable by their unusual tail configuration, having the vertical surfaces below the tail plane. Pilots who flew these aeroplanes disliked their water-handling because of poor directional control and inadequate downward visibility. They also had other shortcomings.
  These were the first reconnaissance seaplanes to be carried on the battleship Nagato, beginning in 1926. Many remained in Navy service until around 1927 and 1928 when they were replaced with the Yokosho and Nakajima-built Type 14 and Type 15 Reconnaissance Seaplanes.
  When the Hansas became surplus the Ando Aeroplane Research Studio and Japan Air Transport Research Association converted some of them into cabin passenger aircraft with three to five seats.

  Single-engine twin-float low-wing monoplane. Wooden structure with fabric covered wing and tail, with ply-covered fuselage. Crew of two in open cockpits.
  170-210hp Mitsubishi Type Hi twelve-cylinder water-cooled vee engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
  One dorsal flexible 7.7mm machinegun.
Span 13.57m (44ft 6 1/4in); length 9.287m (30ft 5 1/2in); height 2.996m (9ft 10in); wing area 31.3sq m (336.921 sq ft).
  Empty weight 1,470kg (3,240Ib); loaded weight 2,100kg (4,629Ib); wing loading 67.1kg/sq m (13.7Ib/sq ft); power loading 10.5kg/hp (23.1lb/hp).
  Maximum speed 91 kt (104. 7mph); climb to 3,000m (9,843ft) in 23min; service ceiling 4,500m (14,763ft).
  Approximately 310 built with 160 by Nakajima 1922-25 and 150 by Aichi.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


BRANDENBURG W 29 Germany
  
  Evolved from the W12 two-seat patrol fighter biplane in parallel with the W 27, the W 29 was essentially a monoplane derivative of the former powered, in prototype form, by the 195 hp Benz Bz IIIbo eight-cylinder Vee engine. The span and chord of the monoplane wing approximated in area to the biplane wings of the W12, and the wing itself was a two-spar wooden structure with fabric skinning. The 150 hp Benz Bz III six-cylinder inline water-cooled engine was standardised for the production model of the W 29, which began operations with the German Navy in April 1918. Over 150 W 29s are known to have been delivered to that service in two basic versions, one equipped with radio and fitted with a single synchronised 7,92-mm LMG 08/15 machine gun plus a Parabellum on a flexible mount in the rear cockpit, and the other having two forward-firing LMGs and lacking radio equipment. The W 29, operating from Zeebrugge, Borkum and Norderney, achieved considerable operational success during the closing stages of World War I. In 1921, licence production of the W 29 was initiated by the Danish naval dockyard, 15 being built and these continuing in Danish Navy service until 1931.

Max speed, 109 mph (175 km/h).
Time to 3,280 ft (1000 m), 6.0 min, to 6,560 ft (2 000m), 13.0 min.
Endurance, 4 hrs.
Empty weight, 2,205 lb (1000 kg).
Loaded weight, 3,294 lb (1494 kg).
Span, 44 ft 3 1/2 in (13,50 m).
Length, 30 ft 8 1/2 in (9,36 m).
Height, 9 ft 10 1/8 in (3,00 m).
Wing area, 346.6 sqft (32,2 m2).


BRANDENBURG W 33 Germany
  
  Ordered in April 1918, the W 33 was basically a larger and more powerful development of the W 29 and, augmenting the smaller fighter seaplane, saw service from North Sea air stations during the closing months of World War I. The W 33 was powered by a 260 hp Mb IVa six-cylinder inline water-cooled engine and armament normally comprised two forward-firing 7,62-mm LMG 08/15 machine guns and one Parabellum in the rear cockpit. One aircraft was experimentally fitted with a 20-mm Becker cannon in the rear cockpit, and several aircraft were fitted with radio and had one of the LMGs removed. Only a handful of W 33s had been taken into the German Navy’s inventory when hostilities terminated, but the Norwegian Naval Flying Boat Factory built 30 under licence and the Norwegian Army Aircraft Factory built a further 11. The Finnish Aviation Force's Aircraft Factory assembled two W 33s as pattern aircraft in 1922, and licence-manufactured a further 120 during 1923-26.

Max speed, 107 mph (173 km/h).
Climb to 3,280 ft (1000 m), 5.4 min.
Empty weight, 3,130 lb (1420 kg).
Loaded weight, 4,519 lb (2 050 kg).
Span, 52 ft 0 in (15,85m).
Length, 36 ft 5 in (11,10m).
Height, 11 ft 0 2/3 in (3,37 m).
Wing area, 473.63 sqft (44,0m2).


BRANDENBURG W 34 Germany

  Continuing the line of two-seat patrol fighter monoplanes initiated with the W 29, the W 34 was the final WWI development of the series of float seaplanes designed for the Hansa- und Brandenburgische Flugzeug-Werke by Ernst Heinkel and Hans Klemm. Essentially a scaled-up W 33 intended for the 300 hp Basse und Selve BuS IVa six-cylinder water-cooled engine, only one prototype of the W 34 had been completed by the end of the War. Additional examples powered by the 300 hp Fiat A 12bis engine were built after the termination of hostilities.

Max speed, 109 mph (175 km/h).
Empty weight, 3,382 lb (1 534 kg).
Loaded weight, 5,004 lb (2 270 kg).
Span, 55 ft 5 1/2 in (16,60 m).
Length, 36 ft 5 in (11,10 m).
Wing area, 527.45 sq ft (49.0 m2).

W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
Skis could replace the regular floats of the W 33, as seen on this Finnish-built example flown by No 1 Detached Maritime Flying Squadron.
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Brandenburg W 29 (Marine number 2204).
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
A front view of the Brandenburg W.29 Sea Monoplane of late 1918.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Brandenburg W 29 with Marine number 2292.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Side view of the Brandenburg W.29 Sea Monoplane.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
Essentially a monoplane derivative of the W 12 biplane, the W 29 was produced in time to serve with the German Navy from 1918.
A.Imrie - German Naval Air Service /Arms & Armour/
Three Brandenburg W29s of Christiansen's IC Staffellanding back at Zeebrugge. The Mole, a mile-long 80yd-wide curved breakwater of solid concrete, jutted out into the sea and afforded the necessary protection to the twin piers (seen in the background) that guarded the entrance to the inner basins and the Bruges Canal. Seaplane operations took place in this sheltered area, and regardless of the state of the outer sea, it was unusual if seaplanes could not operate when required.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
In all, 80 of these Hansa-Brandenburg W 29s were to be delivered to the navy between December 1917 and July 1918, when production switched to the far higher powered W 33. Initially powered by a 150hp Benz Bz III, later built W 29s had the up-rated 185hp Benz Bz IIIa, giving this two seat reconnaissance fighter a top level speed of 109mph. Climb to 3,280 feet took 5.9 minutes and the W 29's patrol duration was a respectable 4 hours. The twin white diagonal bands on the rear fuselage of this W 29 identify it as belonging to the Starboard Watch of the Norderney naval flying station.
A.Imrie - German Naval Air Service /Arms & Armour/
Brandenburg W29 2532 was from a 30-aircraft production batch ordered in April 1918. Powered by a 150hp Benz engine and fitted with two forward-firing machine-guns, it was accepted by the Navy in late July and is shown wearing the double white bands on the rear fuselage that denoted the Starboard Watch of Norderney Naval Air Station.
A.Imrie - German Naval Air Service /Arms & Armour/
Christiansen in Brandenburg W29 2512 (left) over the naval air station at Kiel-Holtenau en route to Zeebrugge. As soon as aircraft of this type had passed their acceptance trials, Christiansen journeyed to Warnemunde with his crews and flew the machines to Zeebrugge. The first five seaplanes collected in this manner landed at Zeebrugge on 1 July 1918 and were used operationally the following morning.
A.Imrie - German Naval Air Service /Arms & Armour/
Fighting seaplanes operated alone initially, but the emergence of Allied formations over the sea and the example provided by the fighter formation work in the German Army Air Service led to the establishment of the 'C-Staffeln' which operated in strengths of 3, 5 or 7 machines. These units did not confine themselves to pure aerial fighting but undertook reconnaissance work in all its forms. This is a C-Staffel of five Brandenburg W29 monoplanes from Borkum, identified by the white oblique band carried on the fuselage ahead of the tail unit.
A.Imrie - German Naval Air Service /Arms & Armour/
On 6 July 1918 Christiansen's IC Staffel flying five W29 monoplanes caught the British submarine C-25 on the surface off the British coast and immediately attacked it. During the action some 5,000 machine-gun rounds were fired at the boat and it was sufficiently disabled to prevent its being able to submerge. By now out of ammunition, the W29s were forced to return to Zeebrugge. During this action Leutnant Ehrhardt was able to secure some remarkable photographs; this one taken over the pilot's shoulder shows the low altitude used on the seaplanes's firing passes.
A.Imrie - German Naval Air Service /Arms & Armour/
Close-up of the nose of a Brandenburg W29 showing details of radiator, cowling and the forward-firing LMG 08 with its ammunition chute. The instability of phosphorus cartridges caused the weapons section of the SVK to investigate the internal ammunition stowages on forward-firing seaplane guns. It was found that the W29 installation raised the temperature of the ammunition by 15°C due to the proximity of the engine mass. At outside air temperatures of 25°C the final temperature was sufficiently below the 50° danger point that induced spontaneous combustion of the unreliable cartridges, and the W29 was given a clean bill of health.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Brandenburg W 33
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
Developed from the smaller W 29, the W 33 was built in Norway and Finland after production in Germany was halted by the Armistice.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The sole wartime prototype of the Brandenburg W 34 was essentially a scaled-up W 33 fighter seaplane.
R.Mikesh, A.Shorzoe - Japanese Aircraft, 1910-1941 /Putnam/
Navy Type Hansa Reconnaissance Seaplane.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
Essentially a monoplane derivative of the W 12 biplane, the W 29 was produced in time to serve with the German Navy from 1918.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
Developed from the smaller W 29, the W 33 was built in Norway and Finland after production in Germany was halted by the Armistice.