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Wright B

Страна: США

Год: 1910

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Wright - Wright A - 1907 - США<– –>Wright - R Roadster - 1910 - США


M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)


Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing


L.Opdyke French Aeroplanes Before the Great War (Schiffer)


Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing


Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913


U.S.A. AEROPLANES.


WRIGHT BROS. Biplanes. The Wright Co., Dayton, Ohio. The original type of Wright machine was mounted on skids only, and started along a rail. Its special features were a biplane elevator forward, main planes with warpable tips to trailing edge, small keel in gap, 2 propellers, chain driven in rear of planes, double rudder in rear and no tail. Wilbur Wright flew a machine of this type for 2 h. 20 m. 23? s. in 1908. (Details of early Wrights see previous editions of this book.)

Model and date. B. C. EX. E.

Length......feet(m.) 31 (9.45) 29? (9) ... ...
Span........feet(m.) 39 (11.90) 38 (ll.58) 32 (9.75) 32 (9.75)
Area...sq. feet(m?.) 500 (47) 500 (47) ... ...
Weight,
   total...lbs.(kgs.) 1250 (567) ... ... ...
   useful..lbs.(kgs.) ... ... ... ...
Motor..........h.p. 30-35 Wright. 30-35 Wright. 30 or 50 30 or 50
   Wright. Wright.
Speed....m.p.h.(km.) 45 (75) 45 (75) ... ...

   1913 standard. For exhibition 1913
   This machine work only. For
   as a hydro is Single seater exhibition
   fitted with small duplicate work
   two 3 step of B. only.
   floats. Single seater
   duplicate of
   EX except
   fitted with a
   single pro-
   peller only.



GERMAN AEROPLANES.


WRIGHT. Flugmaschine Wright, G.m.b.H., Adlershof, bei Berlin. Company formed to trade in German rights for the Wright Bros.' patents. Considerable departures have been made from the U.S. pattern, and some have been built with a single propeller only. Capacity of works 100-150 a year.

   1912. 1913. 1913. 1913.
   Military. Sporting. Military. Military.
   4-seater.
Length.......feet(m.) 28 (8.50) 26? (8.20) 31? (9.65) ...
Sp...........feet(m.) 39? (12.20) 31 (9.60) 40? (12.50) 44? (13.50)
Area....sq. feet(m?.) 452 (42) 323 (30) 463 (45) 463 (43)
Weight,
   total...lbs.(kgs.) 992 (450) 837 (380) 1433 (650) 1653 (750)
   useful...lbs.(kgs.) ... ... ... 882 (400)
Motor...........h.p. 55 N.A.G. 55 N.A.G. 100 Argus or 100
   Mercedes
Speed,
   max....m.p.h.(km.) 50 (80) 60 (95) 60 (95) 60 (95)
   min....m.p.h.(km.) ... ... ... ...
Number built
   during 1912... 10 ? ... ...


Журнал Flight


Flight, October 15, 1910

AMERICAN NOTES.

Long Cross-Country Flight in U.S.A,

  USING a Wright biplane, A. Hoxsey, on Saturday last, made a successful trip from Springfield to St. Louis. On arrival at his destination he failed to recognise his landing place and flew five miles further on, where he came down successfully. As the crow flies the distance from Springfield to St. Louis is 86 miles, but it is claimed that as Hoxsey followed a circuitous route the total distance traversed by him was 104 miles.


Mr. Roosevelt Ventures Aloft.

  DURING a visit to the flying ground at St. Louis on Tuesday, Mr. Roosevelt accepted the invitation of Mr. Hoxsey to accompany him for a short trip in the "central blue." Three laps of the aerodrome were covered, the Wright biplane being in the air for just under 3 1/2 mins. It is a good testimonial for flying that the ex-President was so greatly pleased with the trip, which he said was the finest experience he had ever had, that he would have liked to have stayed up for an hour.


Flight, October 29, 1910

Thelen Flies over Berlin.

  USING his German-built Wright biplane, Thelen on the 19th inst., in the course of a demonstration before the military authorities, started off from Johannisthal flying ground, and made a successful trip to the military parade ground at Teglitz. The distance between the two points is about 40 kiloms., and this was covered in one minute over the hour.


Flight, January 7, 1911

THE BRITISH MICHELIN CUP.

  IN our last issue we were able to give brief particulars of Mr. Alec Ogilvie's splendid try for the British Michelin Cup, and it seemed then not improbable that his fine record would not be beaten. Both Mr. Sopwith and Mr. Cody were not to be so easily deterred, however, and on Saturday, the closing day of the competition, Mr. Cody secured the leading position, giving him the right to hold the trophy for 1911, as well as the cash prize of L500. Just as in France, the competition on the last day proved an exciting one, for the three British flyers we have mentioned were making simultaneous attempts to seem e the coveted trophy.

Mr. Alec Ogllvle's Second Try.

  MR. OGILVIE was the victim of very hard luck, because although his flight of 140 miles on the previous Wednesday gave him the leading position for the time being, he could have continued for very much longer but for the fact that a serious leak developed in the water system, while on Saturday last at Camber Sands he was compelled to come down owing to faulty ignition after covering 55 miles in about an hour and a half. Mr. Ogilvie's two flights are particularly interesting for those watching the all-British side, for the British built Short-Wright biplane used was fitted with the first of the new type two-stroke N. E.C. engines described in our issue of the 24th ult.


Death of Moisant and Hoxsey.

  THE closing day of the Old Year saw the names of two of America's foremost aviators added to the list of victims of dynamic flight, one of the two men being well known here by reason of his exploit in flying from Paris to London last year. At Harahan, on the banks of the Mississippi, not far from New Orleans, Mr. J. B. Moisant set out on a Bleriot monoplane in an attempt for the Michelin Cup, the flight being witnessed by an official representative of the Aero Club of America. The accident occurred during a preliminary trial to test the machine, when, after circling the ground twice, the monoplane was seen to dip its head and drop down from a height of 100 ft. The aviator was pitched out of the machine, and, when picked up, was still alive. He was hurried on a special train to New Orleans, but, unfortunately, died before reaching there. As to the cause of the accident nothing is known definitely; but it is pointed out that the position of the course is an extremely dangerous one, owing to the tricky air currents and the gusty winds.
  Mr. A. Hoxsey, who carried Mr. Roosevelt for a short aerial trip last autumn, was the victim of the second accident, which occurred at Los Angeles while the aviator was attempting to better his height record of the previous Monday. He had gone up to a great height and was descending in a series of spiral glides for which he was famous, when at a height of about 300 feet the machine was caught by a sudden gust of wind and overturned. In its rush to the earth the machine again turned over twice, but the aviator retained his seat and was apparently killed by the motor falling upon him. Here again the accident was probably caused by the tricky nature of the course, both Latham and Willard having given over flying for the day owing to the prevalence of dangerous air pockets.


Flight, January 28, 1911

MR. OGILVIE'S WRIGHT BIPLANE.

  THROUGH the courtesy of Mr. G. F. Mort, of the New Engine Co. (N.E.C.), we are able to publish this week a few very interesting photographs of Mr. Alec Ogilvie's Wright biplane, taken on the Camber sands near Rye, after his recent experiments with the new two-stroke engine that Mr. Mort designed. These trials, as our readers know, very nearly resulted in his winning the British Michelin Cup, for at one time he headed the list of competitors. The photographs in question were taken after the removal of the engine and happen to be the more interesting on that account, because they show, more clearlv than would otherwise be possible, the new features that have been introduced into the machine since Mr. Ogilvie's return from America, where he took part in the Gordon-Bennett Race on behalf of Great Britain.
  It will be observed, first and foremost, that the machine has been essentialy changed in type by the substitution of a tail for the front elevator. There still remain in front, however, a pair of "blinkers," which take the place of the half-moon panels formerly fitted between the panels of the elevator. These blinkers are situated at the front ends of the skids and fill the corners made between the skids and the oblique struts that truss them to the upper front spar. Their purpose is, of course, to make the machine sensitive to the rudder.
  The tail plane that substitutes the front elevator is a monoplane and is rigid for the forward portion of its chord. Through the action of the elevator lever its effective angle can be varied in order to control the machine in a vertical plane.
  One very interesting circumstance associated with this tail plane occurred when the new two-stroke engine was fitted. It is not generally recognised that the Wright motors run in the reverse sense to most engines, and the N.E.C. motor, following orthodox practice, consequently reversed the direction of rotation of the propellers on the Wright biplane. This caused a reversal in the trend of the spiral slip stream and upset the adjustment of the attitude of the tail plane to such an extent as to eventually necessitate a very material alteration before the effect was compensated. The new tail is far less sensitive in its action than was the old front elevator and Mr. Ogilvie tells how, when receiving instruction in the new control during his visit to America, the elevator lever was put hard over in each direction in order that he might be assured on this point. The machine stood on its head and then on its tail, as he described the effect of this manoeuvre, but remained under control; which certainly would not have happened with the old system. The elevator is still operated by a lever at the pilot's left hand, which lever is moved to and fro and is held in any desired position automatically by the action of a friction-brake embracing a drum on the shaft to which it is attached. The purpose of this constructive detail is to enable the elevator to be adjusted to a certain angle, say, for instance, for steady climbing, and to leave it there for any desired duration without attention.
  Another most important innovation on the machine is the Orville Wright type of control-lever for the rudder and warping movements. The operation of this lever is essentially different from that used in the Wilbur Wright system and we have even heard it said that Wilbur Wright himself can no longer fly since all the Wright machines are now being fitted with his brother's device. But we have heard stranger things than this of Wilbur Wright, and whilst telling a story of this sort it is perhaps even more appropriate to tell another that is touching on the same point, although it gees back to the beginning of time when Wilbur Wright was learning to fly at Le Mans. Most people never knew that he was learning to fly there, but it is the truth nevertheless, and the reason why is precisely the reason for which he is said to be unable to fly now. He was unacquainted with the control of his own machine. When the Wrights were developing their aeroplane they developed the details of control by degrees, and the two brothers, having different tastes in this matter, suited their own convenience in design. Wilbur Wright was not altogether satisfied with his own apparatus and just before going to France evolved the universal lever with its diagonal and elliptic motions as a scheme that seemed to him best suited to his requirements. He never had a proper opportunity of practising with this control before he started flying at Le Mans, and a great deal of the one step at a time procedure, which characterized his method at that date, was doubtless due to this circumstance.
  The Orville Wright system is simpler than the Wilbur Wright control, but necessarily confusing at first to those who have learned to use Wilbur's lever. On the other hand, Mr. Ogilvie very quickly accustomed himself to its peculiarities under ordinary flight conditions and now feels quite confident of doing the right thing unconsciously in an emergency.
  The lever in question is characterised by a hinged handle that is moved sideways by twisting the wrist when it is desired to operate the rudder independently of the wing warping. Normally the stem of the lever is moved to and fro with the handle vertical. This action balances the machine without causing it to swerve from its straight path, for the rudder and warping mechanism are connected so as to operate simultaneously and in the correct relative degree.
  For special manoeuvres that require a greater or less degree of rudder action for a given amount of warp, the handle s merely moved over to one side or the other, which may be done without disturbing the position of the lever itself. A glance at our illustrations shows how these interconnections are carried out.
  The handle carries a small bell-crank-lever that is connected to a free disc on the operating rock-shaft, by a rod. When the handle is moved independently of the lever, this disc is rotated independently of another similar disc alongside it and the rudder to which it is connected moves independently of the wing tips that are connected to the other disc.
  The other disc itself is attached rigidly to the stem of the lever and when the lever is moved to and fro both discs rotate in unison, for the connecting-rod already mentioned then locks the rudder disc to the warping disc, as may be understood by a glance at the accompanying sketch, which shows why it is obviously impossible for the warping disc to move without the rudder disc unless the handle is thrown over simultaneously and to an extent sufficient to exactly neutralise the lock.
  Speaking of warping, one of the most interesting photographs ever published of the Wright biplane is that among those herewith, which shows the maximum extent of warp possible. The position illustrated corresponds to the lever being pushed right forward with the handle vertical and it will be noticed that the rudder has been turned to an extent sufficient to show the number 20 on the face of one of its planes.
  Whilst on the subject of control, it is interesting to point out that the arrangement of the levers on the Wright biplane is such that the pilot may be either right or left-handed. Suppose, for the sake of example, that he sits in such a position as to use the warp and rudder lever with his right hand, then his pupil will be trained to use the same lever with his left hand, because there is only one such lever on any Wright machine, although the elevator levers are in duplicate. The reason for this is that the duplication of the warp and rudder lever would involve serious complication in the various connections, whereas the elevator connections are not altered in the least by the presence of another lever at the opposite end of the operating rock-shaft.


Flight, April 1, 1911.

Third International Aero Exgibition at Olympia - 1911.

THE EXHIBITS ANALYSED.

<...>
  The Wright biplane in its present form is characterised by the absence of any front elevator and by the use of a nonlifting tail. Practically, the machine is in balance about the centre of pressure with the pilot on board, and, indeed, the spiral draught from the propellers is enough to upset this balance through its influence on the tail plane.
<...>


Flight, October 7, 1911.

Captain Englehart Fatally Injured.

  ON Friday, owing to a disaster which accounted or the death of Captain Englehart, flying at the Johannisthal Meeting was stopped for the day. Piloting one of the German Wright machines, and carrying with him Herr Scdlemayr, another aviator, Englehart took the air at 3.21, in spite of a very treacherous and gusty wind. Flying low and finding the pockets very disconcerting, he rose to a height of 30 metres. At 4.26 it was noticed that something was wrong, and apparently one of the propellers had broken in somewhat similar manner to the accident which overtook Henn in the spring of last year. The machine turned over and crashed down to the earth with its two occupants. Captain Englehart was apparently killed almost instantaneously, but Sedlemayr, his companion, was more fortunate, and was at once taken to hospital, where ultimately his injuries were found to be not of an extremely serious nature, and it is hoped he will at least survive. Captain Englehart was one of the finest, although very daring, pilots in Germany. He was the third certificated aviator, dating from March of last year, and was the chief pilot of the German Wright school, having given up his position as Aide-de-Camp to the Prince Imperial for the purpose of devoting his efforts to aviation.


Flight, April 13, 1912.

Fatal Accident to Rodgers.

  ALTHOUGH only scanty details are as yet to hand it would appear that the fatal accident to Galbraith Rodgers, who made a name for himself by flying across the United States from New York to California, was largely due to recklessness. He had been giving exhibition flights at Long Beach, California, on the 4th inst., and had been amusing himself by scattering a flock of gulls by diving into them. In the last dive the machine apparently failed to answer the controls and crashed to the beach 100 ft. below. The pilot had his neck broken and must have been killed instantly.


Flight, November 2, 1912.

BRITISH NOTES OF THE WEEK.

British Duration Records.

  FLYING for the British Michelin Cup No. 1 on the 24th ult., at Brooklands.on the Sopwith-Wright biplane fitted with a 40-50-h.p. A.B.C. engine, Mr. H. G. Hawker made a non-stop trip of 8 hrs. 23 mins., the flight only being terminated by the gathering darkness. Subject to the confirmation of the Royal Aero Club Committee, this performance secured the Cup to Mr. Hawker for this year as his time was unbeaten when the competition closed on Thursday last. A Bosch magneto was fitted, and the A.B.C. engine ran without a single misfire. Shell spirit was used and Wakefield's Castrol "R" was depended on for lubricant. Mr. Hawker started at 9.15 a.m. while Mr. F. P. Raynham was still going steadily round and round on the Avro enclosed military biplane, fitted with 60-h.p. Green engine. Raynham started at daybreak and remained in the air for 7brs. 3l?mins., the flight being terminated by the lubricant giving out. Last year's record for the cup was 5 hrs. 15 mins. by Col. Cody.


Flight, May 3, 1913.

FOREIGN AVIATION NEWS.

Fatal Accidents.

  Two accidents which ended fatally, occurred at Johannisthal on the 24th ult. The first occurred to a Wright biplane, which was being piloted by Princess Schakowskaja, with her instructor Abramovitch as passenger. While the machine was about 30 ft. from the ground, the Princess apparently tried to make it rise too steeply with the result that it capsized. The pilot sustained slight injuries, while Abramovitch was so badly hurt that he succumbed during the night. About a quarter of an hour after this accident another Russian pilot, Dunetz, was making a very steep vol pique, when at a height of about 250 metres the wings of his monoplane collapsed, and he was killed on the spot. On the 22nd the monoplane of Lieut. Eblers fell from a height of 40 metres at the Doeberitz camp and the pilot was instantly killed.


Flight, July 26, 1913.

WHY PILOTS SHOULD USE THE "STRING."

  THOSE who have watched Beatty evoluting at Hendon on the Wright biplane with the Gyro engine have probably provided themselves with a variety of reasons to account for the nonchalance with which this American pilot justifies his countrymen's contention that he is "some banker."
  Some may say - to the obvious benefit of the Company whose representatives have adopted this very practical method of calling attention to the Gyro engine - that it is all due to the motor, which probably develops about three times as much power as the machine requires for the purposes of straightforward flight. Others, with commendable respect for the genius of the greatest, no less than the first, of the pioneers, may say that it is all in the Wright biplane. Others again may give Beatty himself some little credit for the performance - or frankly fear that he is on his way to "collect it," according to their point of view.
  But very few, probably, have given any credit to the little piece of string that Beatty, in common with all Wright pilots, carries on the crossbar between the blinkers of his machine.
  We honestly believe that if "the string" were as universally employed as it should be by pilots that it would do more, in proportion to its intrinsic value, for the safety of flying than any other thing that it is possible to conceive.
  Wright pilots invariably use "the string." No matter how experienced they may become, they still continue to use it.
  Mr. Alec Ogilvie, the most accomplished of Wright pilots in England, uses it on his machine at Eastchurch. Mr. Beatty is using it at Hendon, and it is the secret of the nonchalance with which he performs his banks.
  The purpose of the string is to act as a warning of sideslip. So long as the string flies out good and straight parallel to the blinkers on his machine, Beatty knows that he has an axial relative wind. He is certain, in short, that his machine is not side-slipping either inwards or outwards.
  So long as he keeps the string parallel with the blinkers he cannot overbank. No matter how much he may appear to be overbanking, the fact remains that he is safe so long as the string tells him that he is so. Were he to overbank, his machine would immediately sideslip like any other machine; and the relative wind, in coming obliquely across the machine in consequence, would blow the string sideways.
  Now the pilot who has no string as a guide has to rely solely on his own discretion, which is the slow product of experience grafted upon a personal sensitiveness that characterises different people in varying degree. As a rule, the majority of pilots underbank when turning, that is to say they sideslip outwards more or less. As far as is known, there is no particular danger about side-slipping outwards and so the majority of pilots are on the safe side in thus manoeuvring.
  "Flying is a game of cards at which you only have one deal," as a pilot of great experience, and equal caution expressed it to us recently, and a man who overbanks his machine once may not have the opportunity of profiting by his experience. It is, therefore, something to be avoided, and so only those who have built up a very considerable confidence are ordinarily to be seen performing banked turns anywhere approaching the limit of what is possible and also safe. For the inexperienced to do what Beatty does without the guidance of the string would be to court disaster, notwithstanding all that may be said in favour of the Gyro engine and of the Wright machine. Nevertheless, we feel equally firmly convinced that by the guidance of the string any thoroughly qualified pilot might with comparative safety quickly learn to achieve what Beatty performs so easily and so well.
  Let it, of course, always be understood that a banked turn of any description tilts the wing pressure at an angle, and so deprives the aeroplane of a part of its support. Unless, therefore, the engine has a great deal of surplus power that can be brought into use at this moment the machine must descend while turning.
  The string gives instant warning of this.
  If the reserve power is sufficient to enable the machine to continue turning on its own level it suffices to bank the machine while flying horizontally and without previously tilting its nose down. But, on any machine that is not thus adequately engined, it is essential to put the machine into a descending attitude before the bank is commenced.
  If a piece of paper such as a foolscap envelope be held in the hand so as to represent the wings of an aeroplane in flight, the difference between banking first and dipping with the elevator afterwards, compared with dipping first and banking afterwards, is self-evident at a glance.
  If it is one's object to avoid sideslip in flying - and there can be no question that this is the safer principle of progress - then one's object in control must be always so to manoeuvre the machine that it tends naturally to follow an axial path through the relative wind. Having accepted this idea as a guiding principle, the point of immediate importance is to have a reliable indicator, which, if one accepts the evidence of the Wrights and all their pupils, is already available in "the string."
  Hitherto, we have not discussed the string and its possibilities for fear of leading astray those who might be flying other types of machines, notably of course those with a tractor screw. Quite recently, however, we have been informed by Eng. Lieut. E. F. Briggs, R.N., of the Naval Wing of the R.F.C., that he has tried the string on a tractor monoplane and that it seems to answer its purpose thoroughly. If this is so then we most strongly advise all other pilots to start using the string and to find out for themselves whether or no it does not tend to inspire them with increased confidence. When such experienced pilots as Mr. Alec Ogilvie and Mr. Beatty are not ashamed to be seen with it on their machines, no one else need presume to suggest that it appertains to the days of "the apron."
  Besides the string, one thing else is needed materially to increase the safety of flying, and we never cease to be amazed that so many pilots continue to fly without it.
  We refer, of course, to the air speed indicator, which tells the pilot his velocity through the relative wind. Flying takes place in the atmosphere, the motion relative to the ground is incidental and of no consequence to the aerodynamic principles involved. Every machine has a proper flying speed at which it will fly horizontally in the attitude for which it was designed. The range of speeds above and below the normal are acquired by tilting the machine out of its proper attitude under the influence of the continuous action of the elevator.
  Experienced pilots with a good ear for their engine, generally know more or less when they are flying at the proper speed under power, but there are a good many who do not know all the same, and even the experienced pilots are very often at a loss to judge the proper speed while gliding.
  Just as the majority of pilots underbank at the turn, so do they come down over steeply in the descent. If they worked by the air speed meter they could descend by a glide with the same precision that they fly horizontally. Also, they would be able repeatedly to make their climbs under the best conditions, because having once determined by experiment the speed at which the particular machine was able to climb most rapidly, they would in future merely pull away at the elevator until the machine was brought down to that speed, and under those conditions they would continue to climb as long as they desired.
  Air speed meters are already on the market and there is no excuse whatever for not fitting them. The pilots of the Royal Aircraft Factory carry out all their experimental flying by the aid of an air speed meter and they would never think seriously of flying a machine without one. The instrument in question which was designed at the R.A.F. - but which is not therefore necessarily useless, in spite of popular prejudice against factory products - is manufactured and sold by the well-known instrument makers, Messrs. Elliott Bros.
  Another form of air speed meter is the Eteve, for which the Aircraft Manufacturing Company hold the English rights. In fitting it, one flies one's machine horizontally at its normal speed and notes the position of the indicator. On alighting, the instrument is adjusted until the red mark on the scale is coincident with the position occupied by the needle in flight. Whenever the machine is going through the air at the speed that it was flown during the preliminary tests, the needle will stand on the red mark. Whenever the machine increases its speed the needle will move in one direction, and whenever it decreases its speed it will move in the other direction.
  It does not matter whether the pilot is gliding or flying straight, he is always able to tell at a glance whether he has his proper air speed or not. In short, the air speed meter gives him, just as the string gives him, a readymade knowledge that he might not satisfactorily acquire during a whole lifetime as a pilot.


Flight, August 28, 1914.

EDDIES.

  The visitors to the Hendon Aerodrome on Saturday were treated to several very fine exhibition flights by Messrs. Beatty, Manton and Lillywhite. Beatty was first out, and gave some excellent demonstrations of steeply banked turns, spirals and switch-backs. He was followed a little later by Manton, who proved to have lost none of his skill in handling the bi-rudder 'bus. Shortly afterwards Lillywhite, who was on leave from the R.F.C., took up the same machine and executed some steep banks and dives, much to the delight of the spectators.


Flight, February 19, 1915.

EDDIES.

  A new Wright biplane of somewhat different design from the usual type has been completed recently at the Beatty school at Hendon. The new machine, which is fitted with a 50 h.p. Gnome, is intended for the use of pupils when making their test flights for their certificate. Those who have been fortunate enough to have a spin on her agree that she handles very nicely and wants very little attention, except in very rough weather. The chief departure from standard Wright practice is to be found in the arrangement of the struts and spars. Instead of joining the front row of struts to the leading edge of the main planes, they are joined to a front spar placed some distance behind the leading edge. In other respects the new brevet biplane follows standard Wright practice.

Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
In 1910 the Wrights began to experiment with doing away with the forward biplane elevator. This aircraft is being flown without it, though the booms which carried the surfaces are still evident. The skids have bungee-sprung twin wheels attached; the large simply positioned beneath the wings to facilitate ground-handling.
P.Jarrett - Pioneer Aircraft: Early Aviation Before 1914 /Putnam/
Daredevil Wright exhibition pilot Arch Hoxsey prepares to take off from Dominguez Field, Los Angeles, on 31 December 1910 in his Wright Model B, for what was destined to be his last flight.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Hoxsey, in his new type Wright biplane, travelling well in his start for the high altitude contest at Belmont Park (N.Y.).
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Mr. Alec Ogilvie making his flight of 140 miles in 3 hrs. 55 mins., for the British Michelin Cup on his British-built N.E.C.-engined Wright flyer, on Camber Sands last week.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Mr. Ogilvie's Wright biplane in flight, showing the "blinkers" in front.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913 /Jane's/
Burgess-Wright.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Mr. Alec Ogilvie, on his N.E.C. engined Short-Wright machine, flying well over the Camber sands during his recent fine flight for the Michelin Cup.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Mr. Alec Ogilvie flying his N.E.C.-engined Wright biplane at the Royal Aero Club's Eastchurch grounds last week.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Another view of Mr. Alec Ogilvie rounding one of the mark rowers during his flight for the Michelin Cup on his N.E.C.-engined Short-Wright biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
TWO REMARKABLE SNAPSHOTS OF WRIGHT MACHINES IN FLIGHT. - That on the left shows Walter Brookins in the course of making a complete circle in 6 2/5 secs., while the photograph on the right was taken of Hoxsey's machine during the fearful plunge, following a "trick" descent, which caused the aviator's death.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
A series of German aeroplanes at Johannisthal from photographs kindly sent to us by the Hon. Lady Shelley. - German Wright Biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
A "plan view" from beneath of Beatty, on his Wright, during one of his banked turns at Hendon.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Mr. Beatty making one of his banked turns on his Wright over the sheds at Hendon.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
TEA AT HENDON AERODROME WHILST WATCHING THE FLYING. - In the air is Beatty descending on his Wright machine.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
A REMINISCENCE OF HENDON. - Mr. Kenworthy, on a Beatty-Wright, returning to the Aerodrome after executing many thrilling evolutions just out of the range of the camera.
I
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
FLYING AT BROOKLANDS. - Raynham, with a passenger, making a fine turn on the Burgess-Wright biplane on Sunday at Brooklands.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
E. Baumann at Hendon Aerodrome passing over Pylon I on the Wright biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Miss Katherine Stinson on an exhibition flight on her Wright biplane in America.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Stormy air-work by Mr. Roche-Kelly on a Beatty-Wright at Hendon.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
LATE EVENING AT HENDON. A SUNSET AND CLOUD STUDY. - Mr. C B. Prodger on a Beatty Wright machine.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Mr. Beatty flying the Wright school biplane at Hendon recently.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
"FLYING AT HENDON," AS SEEN FROM ABOVE. - Mr. Roche-Kelly on the Beatty-Wright, taken from Mr. Prodger's Beatty-Wright.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
A snap of Rayham flying on the Burgess-Wright in connection with one of the contests - the Shell - at Hendon Aerodrome during the past season.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Raynham, on the Burgess-Wright and Lewis Turner putting up a fine finish in the order named for the "Shell" Speed Contest at Hendon on Aerial Derby Day.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
An incident between two biplanes in the recent race for the "Shell" Spirit Prize at Hendon. - Lewis Turner on Farman, and Raynham on the Burgess-Wright, travelling down the aerodrome.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
CIRCLING AT HENDON. - Mr. Marcos D. Manton in the G.-W. Scout. In the distance one of the Beatty-Wright.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
AT THE BEATTY SCHOOL, HENDON. - Mr. Roche-Kelly on a Beatty-Wright "jumping" over a similar machine on the ground.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
A selection of photographs of the Brooklands flight colony secured by Mr. P. Raynham, piloting a Burgess-Wright biplane. - 1. The sheds as seen from above the sewage farm. 2. As they appear from above the railway straight. 3. The sheds against the Byfleet banking. 4. The Club House, paddock, and tennis courts.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
What terra firma looks like from an aeroplane with a 45 deg. bank on. From a photograph by C. M. Vought, when flying in a Lillie-Wright at Cicero, Ill., U.S.A.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
SAN FRANCISCO AVIATION MEETING. - On the left general view of the flying grounds in front of the Grand Stand, with T. Radley's Bleriot and Brookins' Wright biplane ready for flying. On the right Radley at the wheel of his car, with Hubert Latham by his side and U.S. Army officers in the tonneau.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Full warp on Mr. Ogilvie's Wright biplane. Note the position of the rudder. The combined movements are the result of a permanent interconnection between the two mechanisms, and are effected by simply pushing the control lever forward.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
View showing the position of the rudder on Mr. Ogilvie's Wright biplane when the handle of the control lever is turned over as illustrated.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
View of the warp and rudder-control lever on Mr. Ogilvle's Wright biplane. On the right is the elevator-lever controlling the tail, and by its side is the friction-brake that holds it in position.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
The late Capt. Englehard, who was recently killed at Johannisthal, looking over his German-Wright machine before making a flight at the German aerodrome.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
PARIS FLIGHT SALON. - General view of the centre of the Grand Palais. On the right is seen the Wright biplane, on the left the Maurice Farman biplane, just beyond being the Henry Farman machine, whilst in the foreground, in the centre, is the two-seater Antoinette monoplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Mr. Beatty's Wright biplane, with Gyro motor, at Hendon.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
G. W. Beatty with the Gyro-Wright with 50hp Gyro engine, which he flew into second place at Hendon in the Speed Handicap on 24 July, 1913.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
Beatty-Wright. One of the Wright-type biplanes built by Beatty at Hendon (with Wright engine).
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Two views of the new Beatty Wright biplane, which is now becoming very popular as a brevet machine.
L.Opdyke - French Aeroplanes Before the Great War /Schiffer/
The Astra-Wright Type E. The nacelle holds 2, and the Renault is cowled with a large circular ring.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913 /Jane's/
Armoured war aeroplane.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913 /Jane's/
BURGESS-WRIGHT as a hydro (the U.S. Navy has two of these).
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Engineer Thelen, with Frau Direktor Worner as passenger, on his Wright biplane during the Berlin Aviation week this month.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Ex-President Colonel Roosevelt in the passenger seat with Hoxsey on the Wright biplane on which Mr. Roosevelt had his flight at St. Louis on October 11th last.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
AMERICAN FLYING MEN AT BELMONT PARK MEETING. - Archie Hoxsey.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
AMERICAN FLYING MEN AT BELMONT PARK MEETING. - Walter Brookins.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
AMERICAN FLYING MEN AT BELMONT PARK MEETING. - Ralph Johnstone.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Cal Rodgers, the first American cross-Continental aviator, who was killed at Long Beach on April 22nd. On the right is a photograph of the wrecked machine showing where it fell to the edge of the surf.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Miss Katherine Stinson, a lady pilot who recently obtained her brevet in America at Cicero Field, where she passed for her certificate on a Wright biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Abramovitch, the famous Russian aviator, and Princess Schakowskaja, who, on a German-built Wright biplane, last week met with an accident at Johannisthal, Abramovitch being so badly injured that he afterwards succumbed. Princess Schakowskaja herself, also a well-known pilot and a pupil of Abramovitch, was at the time acting as pilot. She was not seriously hurt.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Misses Marjorie C. and Katherine Stinson, two American pilots. The former is aged 18, the latter 20, and both fly Wright machines. Miss Katherine Stinson has been flying for a long time past, her sister joining her last year, and they are continually giving demonstrations in the United States.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Captain Tyrer, who probably holds the record for passenger flights in various aeroplanes, starting for a flight at Hendon with Mr. Beatty in his Wright flyer. Note the position of the Gyro motor.
P.Lewis - British Racing and Record-breaking Aircraft /Putnam/
Two racing pilots of 1913 at Hendon - Marcel Desoutter, left, and G. W. Beatty, right, seated in the 50 hp Gyro-Wright biplane.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Chance Milton Vought, the son of a prominent boatbuilder, was born in New York City on 26 February 1890. At the age of 20 and with a strong technical bias to his education, the impatient young Vought, who had already restyled himself Chance, from Chauncey, left college in 1910 to join an engineering firm in Chicago. It was during these early days in Chicago that Chance Vought was to be bitten by the 'aviation bug'. Vought learnt to fly on a Wright Model B of the Lillie Aviation Company, in which he is seen here, gaining FAI Licence No 156 on 14 August 1912. Despite having risen to head the Experimental Development Department of the company he had joined in 1910, Vought's love of things aeronautical lead him to join the Lillie Aviation School in 1913 as their maintenance engineer, ground school lecturer and instructor pilot. While here, Vought masterminded the conversion of a Wright Model B into the 1913 two seat Lillie-Vought Tractor. Once again, this work clearly did not stretch him sufficently, with Vought moving on, in 1914, to become Editor of the weekly Aero and Hydro magazine. In parallel with his editorial duties, Vought got his first real design opportunity, when he drew up and supervised assembly of the two seat PLV biplane, first flown in August 1914. By now tiring of journalism, Vought joined the Curtiss Aeroplane Company in the summer of 1915, having spent some of his early 1915 months drawing up the plans and supervising the building of the Mayo-Vought-Simplex two seat trainer, first flown in May 1915. In the autumn of 1915, the footloose Vought moved from Curtiss to join the Wright Company as Chief Engineer. Vought retained this job title after Orville Wright and Glenn Martin came together to form the relatively short-lived, but prestigious-sounding Wright-Martin Company in August 1916. Wright-Martin then acquired the Simplex Motor Car Company and the Mayo Radiator Works, producers of the earlier Mayo-Vought-Simplex machine. This provided Vought with the opportunity to develop his earlier 90hp Mayo design into the sole 150hp Wright-Martin Model V two seater, first flown in September 1916. An admirable enough aircraft in itself, the Model V was to flounder in a morass of Franco-American politics and corporate skulduggery, that involved the non-delivery of 700 licence-built Hispano engines to France and brought about the breakup of the Wright-Martin enterprise. However, happily for Chance Vought, before the Wright-Martin breakup occurred, the company had sent him to Europe for five months, where he had an opportunity to inspect the latest European design practices at first hand. Thus, when America entered the war in April 1917, the 27 year old Vought, intent on forming his own company, went looking for a partner with money and the contacts to complement his technical expertise. Thus, on 18 June 1917, was formed the Lewis and Vought Corporation, with Chance M. Vought as Chairman and President. Incidentally, the Lewis in the company's title, referred to Birdseye B. Lewis, an independently wealthy sportsman, pilot and playboy, who shortly after the corporation's foundation, left for France as part of General Pershing's staff, only to be killed in a flying accident. Back in Long Island, Vought was busy creating his two seat VE-7 advanced trainer, the aircraft that established the Chance Vought name in the annals of 20th Century aviation. In 1922, the company became the Chance Vought Corporation, going on to produce the US Navy Corsair biplanes of the 1920s and '30s, the F4U Corsair fighter of World War II and the Mig-killing F8U Crusader carrier jet of 1957. Tragically, Chance Vought died of scepticaemia, still only 40 years of age, on 25 July 1930.
P.Jarrett - Pioneer Aircraft: Early Aviation Before 1914 /Putnam/
This Wright Model B, now in the Musee de l'Air, Paris, has a two-lever control system.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
The dual control and power plant of the Wright flyer at the Beatty School, Hendon Aerodrome.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
THE DUAL CONTROL ON MR. BEATTY'S WRIGHT BIPLANE. - As Mr. Beatty is accustomed to and prefers the original Wright control, the school machines are equipped with this type for the instructor, whilst the pupils' controls are similar to those most favoured by European designers, consisting of a hand wheel for the warp, mounted on a steel tube structure to which is connected the elevator, and a foot bar for the rudder. These are ingeniously interconnected with the Wright control so that both act simultaneously.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
A batch of pupils and instructors (60 h.p. Wright) at the Beatty School, Hendon. - From left to right: (back row) Messrs. Fox, Hoskier, Crossman, Eaton, Lieut. Ross, Prodger (instructor), Arbon, Theo and Delves; (front row) Messrs. Jones, Kenworthy (Instructor) and King.
P.Jarrett - Pioneer Aircraft: Early Aviation Before 1914 /Putnam/
After he failed to come out of a spiral dive, Hoxsey lost his life in the resulting crash. He was not the only Wright pilot to defy the entreaties of Orville and Wilbur by performing dangerous stunts.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
THE COUNTRY, AS SEEN FROM AN AEROPLANE. - View of Mill Hill, at an altitude of 1,000 ft. from a 50 h.p. Gnome-engined Wright biplane. From a sketch actually made during the flight by the artist, Mr. Roderic Hill. Below can be seen the town of Mill Hill and the Midland Railway curving away into the distance. Mr. Roche-Kelly, the very popular exponent of the graceful Wright machine, was Mr. Roderic Hill's pilot.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Sketch illustrating the control of Mr. Ogilvie's Wright biplane,
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Sketches illustrating the position of the string as used on the Wright biplane, and as it can be used on a tractor monoplane. A piece of worsted about 12 ins. in length will serve the purpose.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913 /Jane's/
Wright. Model B.