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Short S.34 / S.35

Страна: Великобритания

Год: 1911

Short - S.32 / S.36 / S.45 tractor biplane - 1910 - Великобритания<– –>Short - Tandem Twin / S.39 Triple Twin - 1911 - Великобритания


M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)


Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing


Журнал Flight


Flight, June 10, 1911.

THE SHORT BIPLANE, 1911 TYPE.

  CONSIDERING their position as pioneers of aeroplane construction in England, and the reputation that they have established for thoroughly reliable if particularly British workmanship, it is a matter of course that any production of Short Brothers should be regarded with special interest. The machine at present under review, which is the latest output of the Sheppey factory, reflects modern prejudice in favour of the Farman type biplane, a prejudice that is well founded, for шt is after all not surprising that pilots should prefer to fly those machines which have proved most successful. Moreover, it is often by taking a successful type as a basis in design that there is most scope for originality in detail development, and it is in this respect that Short Brothers' work has always been notable, in their earlier machines no less than in this. As a matter of fact, too, the general design of this machine differs considerably from the real Farman so soon as its construction is looked into with more than superficial interest. Even the casual observer, for instance, will notice some difference in the appearance of the tail, which includes a monoplane lifting member fitted with a trailing elevator attachment and a large divided rudder half of which is above and half below the horizontal plane.
  Particular attention may also be directed to the trussing of the tail outrigger, which is especially well stayed laterally by diagonal ties leading to the rear transverse boom of the main planes. The same system of trussing is applied to the elevator outrigger, which member is of the accepted triangular frame type. The elevator itself is a cambered monoplane, and is operated on the Farman system from a universally pivoted lever that is mounted vertically and centrally in front of the pilot. From this lever wires also pass laterally to the hinged balancing planes that trail behind the extremities of the upper main planes. A glance at the front view of the machine shows how these balancers are of exceptionally long span, and consequently have a relatively high aspect ratio.
  It will also be observed from this front view of the machine that it belongs to the extended upper plane or "military" type, the upper plane having a span 14 ft. in excess of the lower plane, and the overhanging extremities being supported by slanting stays attached to the extremities of the lower main spars. Altogether the machine is a neat and well thought out example of rather a large type of flyer, and by no means the least interesting or important of its features is the elaborate system of bracing that characterises the design. Two points of special importance in this connection are the struts in the gap of the panels on either side of the main central panel, and the fore and aft struts in the chord of both upper and lower main planes. The former struts join the points of intersection of the diagonal tie wires with the rear spar of the lower main plane, and their purpose is to add stiffness by resisting the bending that is apt to take place at this point when the machine lands. The nature of the stress induced is illustrated by one of the accompanying sketches, which shows how the principal mass represented by the engine and pilot tends to make the spar sag in the centre, while the same result tends to take place at the extremities, due to the mere weight of the planes. As a result a sinuous deflection is set up in the spar, which tends to bend up in those panels immediately adjacent the main central panel. The presence of vertical struts in this position thus tends to stiffen the entire spar by resisting deflection at the point where the tendency to bend is most pronounced. Similarly a V-frame trussed diagonally is introduced immediately beneath the centre of both main spars. The purpose of the fore and aft struts in the chord of the main planes is to provide a framework that is independent of the ribs or fabric of which the planes proper are constructed. In the Short biplane the ribs and fabric might be stripped off the machine, and the box-girder construction would still remain as a skeleton to which the planes might be refitted. This system of construction enables lighter rib sections to be used throughout, and in some respects gives greater latitude for the design of the planes as independent supporting members than can be considered apart from any subsidiary purpose they may play in the construction of the machine.
  Another interesting constructional detail of the same order is the axle of the under-carriage of this machine. It will be observed that the axle it stiffened by vertical struts adjacent to the wheels, which struts are tied together by a horizontal wire and are trussed down to the axle extremities by diagonal wires. The undercarriage itself belongs to the Farman type, inasmuch as it is a wheel and skid combination joined by rubber springs, the use of radius-wires and the arrangement of the radius-rods, as shown in one of the accompanying sketches, however, really puts the Short under-carriage quite in a class by itself.
  Some minor constructional details are shown in another accompanying sketch, which illustrates several of the special joints employed. Short Brothers have always had a marked preference for the use of manganese steel fittings, and the illustration in question shows a variety of ways in which this material is employed. Especially interesting are the U bolts and slotted ferrules, by means of which the struts are attached to the booms with a minimum reduction in the material of either. A detail that is sure to attract attention in our photograph is the use of straight ribs at the extremities of the main planes. Elsewhere the planes are cambered as usual.

M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
Short S.28. McClean had a Green engine fitted but trouble with this prevented his attempt on the Baron de Forest prize. A Gnome was refitted later and a nacelle as on S.35 was added.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
Short S.34. An instructional machine for the RNAS.(B.l, T.l and No.l).
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Short S.35 built for the Hon. Maurice Egerton in 1911. Side view, showing the enclosed car for the pilot and passenger. The horizontal rib in the extremities of the main planes, which are cambered elsewhere, is a curious feature of interest.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Front view of the Short biplane 1911 type.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
View from behind of the Short biplane, showing the Gnome engine in position.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
View of the tail on the latest Short biplane. In the view one of the balancers on the extremities of the upper main planes appears rather like a vertical keel in front of the rudder, due to an absence of proper perspective in the photograph.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Hanging on to the tail of a Short biplane before a trial at the Royal Aero Club's flying grounds at Eastchurch.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
View of the pilot's car on the latest Short biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
LIEUT. A. M. LONGMORE, R.N., Winner of the Mortimer Singer Navy Aviation Prize by his 172-miles flight at Eastihurch on March 11th, on a 70-h.p. Gnome-engined Short tractor biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Sketches illustrating some of the joints on the latest Short biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Diagrammatic sketch illustrating the special trussing of the lower main plane to resist the stresses imposed by a rough landing due to the concentration of the load In the centre of the plane and of the weight of the extremities of the planes acting through the leverage of a wide span.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Sketch illustrating the construction of the Short under-carriage and axle.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Short Improved S.27
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
THE SHORT BIPLANE, 1911 TYPE. - Plan and elevation to scale.