L.Opdyke French Aeroplanes Before the Great War (Schiffer)
Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing
XX: Another fishtail design, also with the 50 hp Gnome, this single-seater was known initially as Le Poisson (fish), because of the small angular fins above and below the fishtail stabilizer. The lower fin was later removed. The design featured a new rectangular wing with flattened camber and special construction to make it more flexible and easier to disassemble. The trailing edges of the wing ribs could be uncovered for less surface and more speed.
XXI: This handsome side-by-side fishtail design of February 1911 came from both the XI-2bis and the XIV, and was bought by several different air services. It could be easily disassembled, and the crew sat aft of the inverted-V pylon instead of in front, making access easier than with the XIV. It had a single angular rudder surface set over the stabilizer. It also appeared on floats.
(Span: 11 m; length: 8.24 m; wing area: 25 sqm; empty weight: 350 kg; top speed: 90/95 kmh; 70 hp Gnome)
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913
BLERIOT Monoplanes. L. Bleriot, "Bleriot-Aeronautique," 39, Route de la Revolte, Paris-Levallois. Flying grounds: Buc Etampes and Pau.
L. Bleriot began to experiment in 1906, along Langley lines. By 1909 he was one of the leading French firms; and the first cross Channel flight was made by him.
Details of standard types:--
XI bis. XXI. XXVII. XXVIII. XXVIII. Monocoque
2-seater Military Single Single 2-Seater 2-Seater
mono side by seat seater
(1911 side mono. 1913. 1913. 1913.
onward) 2-seater 1912.
Length....feet(m) 27(8.40) 27? (8.24) 28 (8.5) 25 (7.60) 27 (8.20) ...
Span......feet(m) 36 (11) 36 (11) 29? (9) 29 (8.80) 32 (9.75) 40(12.25)
Area..sq.ft.(m?.) 349 (33) 268 (25) 129 (18) 162 (15) 215 (20) 270 (25)
........lbs.(kgs) ... 727 (330) 529 (240) 530 (240) 660 (300) 830 (375)
.......lbs.(kgs.) ... ... ... 286 (129) 550 (250) ...
Motor.......h.p. 50 Gnome 70 Gnome 70 Gnome 50 Gnome 70 Gnome 80 Gnome
.......m.p.h.(km) 56 (90) 56 (90) 78 (125) 62 (100) 71 (115) 75 (150)
Endurance...hrs. ... ... ... ... ... ...
during 1912 ... ... ... ... ... ...
Note.--The monos., as usual, are of wood construction; wheels only for landing. Rectangular section bodies. Warping wings, elevator in rear. Chauviere propeller. The monocoque has wood, steel and cork construction. Coque body. Skids to landing chassis. Levasseur propeller. Otherwise as the other monos.
Principal Bleriot flyers are or have been:--Aubrun, Balsan, Bleriot, Busson, Chavez, Cordonnier, Delagrange, Drexel, Efimoff, Gibbs, Hubert, Hamel, Moissant, Paulhan, Prevetau, Prevot, Prier, Radley, Thorup, Tyck, Wienzciers, and many others.
Flight, December 30, 1911.
PARIS AERO SHOW.
FOUR monoplanes are on view on this stand, the 70-h.p. two-seater, which Hamel has popularised in England, the familiar 50-h.p. cross-country model, a new 50-h.p. racing monoplane, and a new low horse-power monoplane, type XXVIII, designated the "Popular" type. Of these machines we are already familiar with the former two, and no description of them is necessary.
Principal dimensions, &c. :-
Length 27 ft.
Span 36 "
Area 275 sq. ft.
Weight 726 lbs.
Speed 60 m.p.h.
Motor 70-h.p. Gnome.
Flight, March 9, 1912.
By G. DE HAVILLAND.
Types of Undercarriage.
Bleriot Monoplane. - The two main rolling-wheels have a track of about 6 feet, and are allowed a vertical travel of 12 in., the suspension being by rubber cable. The wheels are arranged to swivel through about 45°, and are held in the normal position by light rubber cables. The tail of the machine is supported by a skid of bent cane, which carries a comparatively light load. The absence of any kind of front skid makes this type of undercarriage unsuitable for use on very uneven ground, as there is nothing to prevent the machine turning over should the wheels be suddenly retarded by an obstruction, or by sinking into soft ground.
Whether swivelling wheels as adopted by Bleriot are desirable, is a very debatable point. When flying in a side wind, the machine naturally has a lateral motion relatively to the ground and, unless it can be brought head to the wind when landing, the undercarriage and wheels are subjected to severe side strains. Swivelling wheels obviate this trouble, but are attended by certain disadvantages which probably outweigh their useful feature. These are - extra weight, head-resistance, and complication, and also difficulty in steering on the ground because, if it is anything but level, the machine always tends to run down hill. The more useful practice of making wheels with wide hubs sufficiently strong to withstand side strains and do away with swivelling devices enables the machine to be steered on the ground with certainty, and makes for a cleaner and lighter design. It is interesting to note that in the latest type of Bleriot the undercarriage has been greatly simplified by the adoption of non-swivelling wheels. These are shown in the sketch. The head-resistance and weight are both rather high in the early types.
Flight, July 13, 1912.
THE MILITARY COMPETITION - THE MACHINES.
OF the two monoplanes for the War Office competitions entered by L. Bleriot one is of the same type as that which first appeared in England at the time of the last Aero Exhibition at Olympia, in March, 1911. In this machine pilot and passenger sat side by side. The other machine is a replica of that with which both Hucks and Hamel have done much flying of late in England. Accommodation in this latter machine is provided tandem fashion. For the present it is to the former machine that we propose to devote a few lines.
Its fuselage serves a double purpose; not only, as in other monoplanes, is it used as the backbone of the machine, but its after portion is splayed out horizontally, and covered with fabric forming a fan-shaped tail. To the rear is hinged a semi-elliptic flap, which governs the machine for ascent and descent. The fuselage itself is of the customary box-girder type, cross-braced in conventional Bleriot fashion. It is covered in with fabric throughout its whole length, to improve its ability to penetrate the air with little disturbance.
In front, under a cowl specially designed to protect the pilot from oil, is the motor, a 70-h.p. Gnome, slung on both sides of the crankcase.
The landing gear is essentially the same as that which was fitted to the first Bleriot monoplane that startled the world by its flight across the English Channel. One slight peculiarity it has, however, that the top horizontal wooden member of the chassis-frame is, in the machine under review, applied to the base of the fuselage instead of to the top, as in previous machines. By this means the overall height of the chassis is considerably lowered, and this contributes to give it increased robustness. Although the chassis is considerably reduced in height, yet this method of applying it to the fuselage allows the front section of the machine to be lifted well above the ground, thus providing clearance for a propeller of ample dimensions and giving the wings, when at rest, a large angle of incidence, a feature which materially helps the machine in stopping within a reasonable distance after landing. The tail is supported by a double bent skid of rattan cane.
Well forward in the body, so near to the leading edge of the wings that they may obtain a clear view of the ground below and in front of them, are the seats for pilot and passenger arranged side by side. The pilot sits on the right-hand side, and it is in front of him that the controls are arranged. The passenger, too, may take control of the machine, for at his feet he has a foot-bar working in duplicate with that of the pilot by which he can operate the rudder. He has merely to lean to his right and to grip the cloche to obtain control of the whole machine. Below the aluminium scuttle-dash in front of them are arranged two fuel-tanks which feed down to the engine by gravity. A third tank, of much greater capacity, is stored away below the seats, from which position it is fed under pressure to the other tanks. The wings are of customary Bleriot shape and construction, and span 36 ft. 4 ins. Each wing does its share of supporting the fuselage through three stranded steel cables running from the front spar to the base of the chassis, and by three further cables, which also actuate the wing warping, running from the rear spar to the lower pylone. Steering is effected by a balanced fin-shaped rudder mounted above the tail.
Motor 7-cyl. Gnome, 70-h.p. rotary
Net weight 770 lbs.
Useful load 550 lbs
Overall length ... 27 ft. 3 in.
Capacity of petrol tank 24 1/2 galls.
Span 36 ft. 4 in.
Capacity of oil tank 7 3/4 galls.
Area Approx. 275 sq. ft.
Speed 60 m. p. h.