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Lakes / Avro Water-Bird / Water-Hen

Страна: Великобритания

Год: 1911

Lakes - hydro-monoplane - 1914 - Великобритания<– –>Laking - No.1 biplane - 1909 - Великобритания


A.Jackson Avro Aircraft since 1908 (Putnam)


Avro Curtiss-type

  In the summer of 1910 A. V. Roe and Company declared its willingness to build aeroplanes to other people's designs and the first such aircraft was a Farman-type biplane for a Bolton business man. Bolts, fittings and bracing wires were also supplied to Miss Lilian Bland who built and flew the Mayfly biplane of her own design at Carnamony, Belfast. Each of these aircraft was fitted with one of the few examples of the 20 h.p. two cylinder, horizontally opposed, aircooled Avro engines. The Farman-type evidently did not meet with much success as 18 months later, at the end of 1912, the engine and airframe were advertised for sale in new condition for ?45 and ?60 respectively.
  A Curtiss-type, of the familiar outrigger-tail and front-elevator variety with 50 h.p. Gnome rotary, was built in 1911 to the order of Capt. E. W. Wakefield of Kendal. Neither this nor the Farman-type mentioned above was given an Avro designation. Mainplanes were of unequal span and lateral control was by four ailerons on the upper mainplane, the inner and larger pair having semi-circular trailing edges. It was built at Manchester and delivered at Brooklands for test flying on May 19, 1911. After a period with the Avro School during which it was flown by F. P. Raynham, R. C. Kemp, F. Conway-Jenkins and Louis Noel, the Avro-Curtiss was transferred to Lake Windermere where Capt. Wakefield replaced the wheels by a single 12 foot, three step, canvas covered mahogany float built by Messrs. Borwick and Sons of Bowness-on-Windermere. Small cylindrical floats were mounted below the wingtips and the aircraft made its first flight in marine form from Windermere as the "Lakes Water Bird" on November 25, 1911. The pilot was H. Stanley-Adams, a former pupil of the Avro School. Water Bird was the first consistently successful seaplane in the United Kingdom and during the next few months its fame spread quickly and a considerable waterborne joyriding business was done. Sixty flights were made in the first 38 days, the best being of 20 minutes duration up to a height of 800 ft. On December 7, 1911 Stanley-Adams flew the whole length of the lake at a speed of approximately 40 m.p.h. These operations continued throughout the winter, but the night of March 29-30, 1912 brought gales which demolished the lakeside hangar at Cockshott and damaged "Water Bird" beyond repair. Its float, tailplane and rudder (the last still proudly displaying the legend "A. V. Roe and Company, Manchester") are still in the possession of the Wakefield family at Windermere.
  Water Bird's successor, identical, but entirely designed and built at Windermere by Capt. Wakefield's Lakes Flying Company later in 1912, was known as "Water Hen". Its only Avro component was the airscrew and at first it could be distinguished from its Avro-built forerunner by the wingtip floats and straight trailing edges to the ailerons. These were mounted parallel to the chord line of the mainplanes instead of at a considerable angle to it. They were later remounted in the angled position but by that time more drastic modifications had been made and all similarity to Water Bird ceased.

SPECIFICATION AND DATA
  Manufacturers: A. V. Roe and Company, Brownsfield Mills, Great Ancoats Street, Manchester; and Brooklands Aerodrome, Byfleet, Surrey
  Power Plant: One 50 h.p. Gnome
  Dimensions:
   Span (upper) 41 ft. 0 in. (lower) 32 ft. 0 in.
   Length 36 ft. 5 in. Wing area 365 sq. ft.
  Weights: Tare weight 780 lb. All-up weight 1,130 lb.
  Performance: Maximum speed 45 m.p.h. Ceiling 800 ft.
  Production: One aircraft only, first flown as landplane 5.11; first flown as seaplane 25.11.11, damaged beyond repair at Cockshott, Windermere 30.3.12


H.King Aeromarine Origins (Putnam)


Among the earliest and most fervent of British 'water fliers' was Mr E. W. Wakefield, who, in 1911, formed the Lakes Flying Company at Cockshott, Windermere, Westmorland. A letter he sent to Flight early in 1912 has its own story to tell:
  'Canon Rawnsley has written to The Times and several other papers a poetic appeal calling on all lovers of the English Lakes to rise and protest against this new invasion of the charms of Windermere.... He does not tell you of the country's need for more trained flying men, and of better and more diverse machines; or how the United States Navy have adopted hydroaeroplanes, or how Germany and Holland are inquiring all about the new machine which he is so anxious to wipe off Windermere. He does not tell you that almost everyone who has seen it flying agrees that it adds to the great natural beauty, like a fine bird, between water and sky in the changing lights.'
  The aircraft which inspired this impassioned protest was the Waterbird, a Curtiss-type floatplane built by A. V. Roe. It was initially flown from Windermere on November 25, 1911 - only one week after the first British take-off from water by Cdr Oliver Schwann.


M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)


Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing


P.Lewis British Aircraft 1809-1914 (Putnam)


Lakes Waterbird

  The Waterbird was a two-seat pusher hydro-biplane of unequal span built during the summer of 1911 by A. V. Roe and Co., for Captain E. W. Wakefield of the Lakes Flying Co., Lake Windermere, Westmorland. A Curtiss-type float with three steps was fitted, and consisted of a fabric-covered frame of mahogany; the float was made by Borwick and Co., of Windermere. The ailerons were hinged from the trailing-edge of the upper wings and were inset from the wing-tips. The engine used was a 50 h.p. Gnome.
  Prior to the fitting of the floats, the machine was tested at Brooklands during May, 1911, with a land undercarriage. The Waterbird was flown from Lake Windermere on 25th November, 1911, and afterwards by H. Stanley-Adams, earning for itself the distinction of being the first entirely successful British seaplane designed as such.


Lakes Waterhen

  The Waterhen was constructed early in 1912 and was the outcome of Captain E. W. Wakefield's studies made at the flying-schools at Brooklands and Hendon. His conclusions were that it was safer to crash into water than on unyielding ground, especially after witnessing the crashes at the 1909 Blackpool Meeting, and also that an aircraft with a comparatively slow operating speed gave greater safety and comfort for the crew. The machine was intended as an improved version of the 1911 Waterbird, which had been built by A. V. Roe for training at Wakefield's Lakes Flying Company school at Cockshott, Lake Windermere, and which had proved itself to be a successful trainer.
  Oscar T. Gnosspelius was the designer of the new hydro-biplane, which was a two-seat pusher with the crew seated in tandem on seats set at an angle. Gnosspelius paid particular attention in the design to ensuring a good take-off at low speeds and, with this end in view, the wings-which were made by A. V. Roe and Co. - incorporated a deep camber for their high-lift section. Bamboo out-riggers fore-and-aft carried the control surfaces, a bamboo pole connected to the top of the joy-stick operating the front elevator. Split ailerons of constant-chord were replaced later by one-piece surfaces.
  A single central stepped float, much broader than that of the Waterbird, was fitted on a flexible suspension system of rubber shock cord and was provided with an aluminium bottom, duralumin sides and a top of Willesden canvas. Air-sacks, fitted with spring-board protectors underneath, functioned as wing-tip floats. The engine fitted was the ubiquitous 50 h.p. Gnome rotary, driving a two-bladed propeller, 8 ft. 6 ins. in diameter and made by A. V. Roe and Co.
  The Waterhen was tested by H. Stanley-Adams on 30th April, 1912, and commenced its flying career with the Lakes Flying Company on 3rd May, 1912, after which it was making trips daily over Windermere. During the first seven months it completed some two hundred and fifty flights and carried over one hundred different passengers on joy-trips piloted by Stanley-Adams. On 12th November, 1912, Lt. J. F. A. Trotter gained Royal Aero Club Aviator's Certificate No. 360 with the machine at Lake Windermere after training with the Lakes Company; the firm later changed its name to the Northern Aircraft Company.
  After a considerable amount of very successful flying had been carried out, the Waterhen was modified. Enclosed seating for the crew was provided by fitting a nacelle for them, and the single float was replaced by twin floats, which, at the same time, resulted in the removal of the air-bags under the wings. In this form the machine continued in use after the outbreak of the 1914-18 War and gave good service as a trainer at Windermere for the R.N.A.S.

SPECIFICATION

  Description: Two-seat pusher hydro-biplane. Wooden structure, fabric covered.
  Manufacturers: Lakes Flying Company, Cockshott, Lake Windermere, Westmorland; wings by A. V. Roe and Co., Manchester; floats by Borwick and Sons, Cockshott, Lake Windermere.
  Power Plant: 50 h.p. Gnome.
  Dimensions: Span, 42 ft. Length, 36 ft. 5 ins. Wing area, 365 sq. ft.
  Weights: Empty, 780 lb. Loaded, 1,130 lb.
  Performance: Maximum speed. 45 m.p.h. Landing speed, 33 m.p.h. Ceiling, 800 ft.


Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913


LAKE FLYING Co. Windermere. Established 1911, by E.W. Wakefield, with a view to hydro-aeroplane experiments. The first machine was a Curtiss type built by A.V. Roe, which flew in November, 1911. In 1912, a special biplane generally of Farman type but with more camber to the planes, was built.

Length.--36-1/2 feet (11 m.) Span.--42 feet (12.80 m.) Area.--270 sq. feet (25 m.?) Motor.--Gnome.
Speed.--45.33 m.p.h. (72.54 k.p.h.)

The single float is 6 feet wide, flexibly connected. Balancers mounted on a spring board. Water rudders for steering at slow speed. Fuller details see Flight, December 7th, 1912. Early in 1913, an Avro was purchased for further experiments.


Журнал Flight


Flight, June 8, 1912.

Good Progress with the "Water Hen."

  LAST week some very fine flights were made by Mr. Stanley Adams on Mr. Wakefield's hydro-biplane over Lake Windermere, and regular passenger trips are now being carried out On Monday week seven passengers, including two ladies, paid their fees, and were carried for trips over the lake. Although the wind was gusty on Tuesday and Wednesday, further passenger voyages were carried out, and on Thursday Mr. Adams made a solo flight to Bowness and Waterhead, alighting on the water at the latter point. A stop was also made at Henholme, on the way back to Hill of Oaks. The visit to Bowness was arranged in connection with the annual sports, and the spectators were greatly interested in the evolutions of the "Water Hen" over the lake. About 22 miles were covered altogether.


Flight, December 7, 1912.

THE "WATER HEN".

  THIS interesting hydro-biplane, which has been flying almost daily throughout the past year over Lake Windermere, may be said to have originated at Blackpool way back in 1909. This, perhaps, seems rather curious, since as far as our mind takes us back, power-driven flying machines to rise from water were scarcely even dreamt of at that time. It happened in this way. Most of those who now constitute the Lakes Flying Company were present at that memorable meeting. One of their number, Mr. E. W. Wakefield was more than usually struck by the amount of damage that was done through a machine, its pilot, or both, hitting solid ground. It occurred to him that if a machine could be made to rise from and alight on water and remain for the whole time over that liquid element, the chances of fatalities arising from accidents could be most effectively and materially reduced.
  But at that time everyone was sceptical. The whole thing was impossible! It stood to reason that the friction and resistance of a hydroplane-float skimming over water would be infinitely greater than that of wheels running over ground. Further than that, as soon as the motor was started, would not the thrust of the propeller, necessarily high up between the planes threaten to push the nose of the float under water?
  But, nothing daunted by general adversity of opinion, Mr Wakefield and a few of his personal friends decided, at any rate, to make a sporting effort at producing a successful water flying-machine. The experiments of M. Henri Fabre, at Monaco, with his extraordinary hydro-monoplane, and those of Glen Curtiss, in the United States of America, with his float-equipped biplane, were closely followed, and they taught many lessons. Then, again, Mr. Oscar Grosspelius had constructed a Bleriot-type monoplane on a broad float, which, being underpowered, had not, at that time, been successful in getting off the water. From it also many invaluable lessons were learnt, and so, having collected and tabulated a goodly collection of data by the summer of 1911, Mr. Wakefield commissioned Messrs. A. V. Roe and Co. to build for him a biplane of the Curtiss type. This was fitted with a single narrow float, much after the same style and shape as that fitted to the Curtiss machines in America. It, however, embodied several improvements that had resulted from the independent experiment.
  Although, unfortunately, the machine itself was not quite as efficient a flyer as it was hoped, it nevertheless succeeded admirably as far as things went. It was flying freely during November, 1911, and had the distinction of being the first successful British hydro-aeroplane.
  Meantime, representatives of the Company had been studying how things went on at Brooklands and Hendon, and, having picked up as many tips in construction as they could assimilate in the time, they returned to headquarters. As a result the biplane that we are describing in this issue came into existence. It was purposely designed to be a slow-flying machine in order that it might lift from the water at a low speed and be more comfortable for passenger carrying. The float fitted was of a new type, much broader and was stepped. The intended results were achieved at the first trial, and the machine has remained practically unaltered from that day to this.
  During the seven odd months it has been in use over Windermere, it has made about 250 flights, and has carried over 100 different passengers.
  As can be remarked from the photographs and sketches that accompany this brief description, the machine does not depart, in any great respect, from what is nowadays considered conventional practice. It has a Farman type of cellule, but the camber of its wings is considerably more marked than in that machine in order that it may lift all the more readily at slow speeds. The tail at the rear and the elevator in front are supported by triangular bamboo outriggers, and these surfaces are controlled from the pilot's seat by a typically Farman universal lever. Balancing is also carried out by the Farman system of aileron flaps.
  The biplane has a speed range of from 33 miles to 45 miles per hour.
  Undoubtedly the most interesting part of the whole machine is the gear that enables it to land and start off from water, for it must be remembered that at the time the machine was constructed, very little exterior knowledge of the subject was available. Unlike most water flying machines of to-day a flexible suspension is provided so that the float itself will not form too solid an abutment against the hammering of the waves. One of our sketches shows this point clearly. The float is built upon a latticed skeleton of silver spruce having three longitudinal bulkheads. Aluminium covers the bottom of the float, duralumin the sides, and Willesden canvas the top.
  It may fairly be asked whether this type of float and undercarriage is equally well adaptable to aeroplanes other than of the type that it was originally designed for.
  The Lakes Flying Company maintain that, excepting for minor modifications, their design of undercarriage can in every case be successfully used to convert a land flying machine into a water flyer. This, to some extent, they have themselves proved, for similar floats fitted to a monoplane and a tractor biplane have given every satisfaction in use. They had a share in producing, we believe, the first hydro-monoplane to lift passengers.
  With a single float, balance naturally became necessary. Following on numerous tests, the "Water Hen" was fitted with simple air sacks mounted on springboards, and they have proved so serviceable that there has been no reason to change them.
  Mr. Wakefield is characteristically modest when talking about the machine he has developed throughout these past three years. He claims that if the machine has done nothing else, it has at least proved his contention that it is better to get a ducking than to get badly smashed up. But, although he does not make a song about it, we know he has gone considerably farther than that.


Flight, August 2, 1913.

WATER FLIGHTS AT WINDERMERE.

  MR. STANLEY ADAMS is giving visitors to Windermere this year a very great deal of additional enjoyment by his able flying of the "Waterhen" and the more recently built tractor biplane that was described in FLIGHT the other week. Those anxious to enjoy passenger flights over the lake are numerous, and business on a fine day is brisk; besides, Mr. Adams is a cautious pilot, and gives confidence to the spectator. The surroundings of Windermere are beautiful to the eye, but from the pilot's point of view they often have an ominous look, for awkward eddies are not infrequent, and the more ideal the day from the visitor's standpoint the less sometimes is the air in a good state for flying.
  Last Saturday Mr. Adams did good service in the enthusiasm he aroused among members of the automobile industry in Lancashire and district who had come down at the invitation of Sir Kenneth and Lady Crossley to enjoy the afternoon at Pull Woods. When the "Waterhen" appeared, all other interests were forgotten, and the booking for flights ultimately kept the steamer waiting at the pier head for a quarter of an hour or more while the last on the list made his trip aloft.
  How long, we wonder, before the private air yacht daily spreads its wings in graceful flight above the lake? A silent engine and no castor oil would do more than most things to bring it to pass.

M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
The first person in the British Empire to make true flights from water was Herbert Stanley Adams, who made two sucessful flights of this seaplane, the Avro-Curtiss later named the Lakes Waterbird, on 25 November 1911.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
Lakes Waterbird was a Curtiss-type and was built by Avro in 1911.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
HYDRO-AEROPLANES AND LAKE WINDERMERE. - Mr. E. W. Wakefield's Avro machine just rising from the waters of Lake Windermere.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
HYDROAEROPLANES AND LAKE WINDERMERE. - Mr. E. W. Wakefield's Avro biplane at the moment of alighting on the water of Lake Windermere after a long flight.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
HYDRO-AEROPLANES AND LAKE WINDERMERE. - Above is a photopraph of Mr. E. W. Wakefield's hydroaeroplane in flight across this great lake, the floats being well seen from underneath. The aeroplane is the construction of Messrs. A. V. Roe and Co., and the float and balancers of Messrs. Borwick and Son of Bowness.
H.King - Aeromarine Origins /Putnam/
Capt. E. W. Wakefield's Avro-Curtiss seaplane flying over Windermere, January 1912. '... this new invasion of the charms of Windermere ...' (Canon Rawnsley in a letter to The Times) - the Waterbird of Mr E. Wakefield, who stoutly rebuffed the Canon.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
Lakes Waterhen was a modified copy of the Waterbird built by the Lakes company at Windermere in 1912. Shown here with single float.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
THE "WATER HEN" ON LAKE WINDERMERE. - Above, the machine being launched from the slipway that leads down to the water from the hangar. Below may be seen the machine, with a passenger up, just about to leave the water.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Mr. Stanley Adams bringing a passenger home in the "Waterhen," under her own power, on Lake Windermere. This hydro-biplane, with the exception of the propeller, which is an Avro, and the 50-h.p. Gnome engine, has been entirely designed and constructed at Lake Windermere by the Lakes Flying Co., of which Mr. E. W. Wakefield is the moving spirit.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
THE "WATER HEN" WELL UP OVER LAKE WINDERMERE. - Inset, the machine just after leaving the water.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
The "Waterhen" flying with passenger over Windermere.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Lakes Waterhen was later fitted with twin floats and a nacelle.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
With the Lancashire Branch of the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders at Lake Windermere. - On the left Sir Kenneth Crossley just taking his seat in the Waterhen as a passenger, and on the right in flight over Lake Windermere.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
THE WATER BIPLANE OF THE LAKES FLYING CO. A T WINDERMERE. - On the right the machine is just seen before being taken back into the shed. These photographs were taken by Geoffrey Sleath, of Ukley, Yorks, a little cripple-boy of twelve, who is able to hold a camera. The lad is a keen follower of the model section of FLIGHT, the photographs being taken with a "Brownie" camera.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
AT THE N.A.C. SCHOOL ON LAKE WINDERMERE. - Two of the machines in use for pupils. Left: The N.A.C. 80 h.p. Gnome biplane just "off"; and, in the foreground, the 100 h.p. Anzani-Blackburn monoplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
A snap of the Hill of Oaks aviation sheds at Lake Windermere, taken from Mr. E. E, Wakefield's hydro-aeroplane "Waterhen" when in flight.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Bowness and the Belsfield Hotel, Lake Windermere, taken from the Lakes Flying Co.'s 50-h.p. Gnome-engined " Waterhen."
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Mr. D. S. C. Macaskie, who has recently obtained his certificate at the Northern Aircraft Company's school, Bowness, Lake Windermere.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
The gale which swept the country on Friday and Saturday accounted for the demolition of the hangar sheltering Captain E. W. Wakefield's two hydro-aeroplanes on Lake Windermere. In its collapse both machines were damaged, part of one of the planes being seen in our photograph of the wreckage protruding from the side. This incident, we presume, will be regarded as a score in their favour by the anti-aeroplanists of Windermere.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
DETAILS OF THE "WATER HEN". - (1) The front section of the machine, showing the float ant its flexible connection to the cellule. (2) One of the outrigger fittings. (3) A balancer, an air sack mounted on a spring board. (4) Mounting of the oil tank. (5) Water rudder, working in con junction with the air rudder so that the biplane may be readily steered at slow speeds on water.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913 /Jane's/
WATER HEN.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Lakes Waterhen
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
THE LAKES FLYING CO.'S HYDRO-BIPLANE "WATER HEN." - Plan and elevation to scale.