L.Opdyke French Aeroplanes Before the Great War (Schiffer)
Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing
O.Thetford British Naval Aircraft since 1912 (Putnam)
NIEUPORT TYPE VI.H SEAPLANE
Twelve of these early seaplanes were used by the RNAS, the serial numbers being 3187 to 3198. Two of them, Nos.3194 and 3197, were employed for the training of seaplane pilots on Lake Windermere and others served at RNAS Bembridge, Calshot, Walney and Westgate.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913
NIEUPORT. Etablissements Nieuport, 9 rue de Seine, Suresnes (Seine). Established 1910 by the late Edouard Nieuport. Approximate capacity of works: about 100 machines a year. Chief designer during 1911 was Pagny, who has now joined the Hanriot firm.
Model and date. II N. II G. IV G. 1912-13. IV M, 1912-13. 1913. 1913. 1913. 1913.
Monoplanes. 1912. 1912. 2-seater. 3-seater. 2-seater. 1-seater. 1-seater. Hydro 3-seater.
Length........ feet(m.) 23-2/3 (7.20) 23-2/3 (7.20) 25-2/3 (7.80) 25-2/3 (7.80) 26-1/4 (8) 21-3/4 (6.60) 23 (7) 29 (8.80)
Span ........ feet(m.) 28-1/3 (8.65) 28-1/3 (8.65) 36 (10.9) 39-1/3 (12.10) 36 (11) 28-1/3 (8.70) 27-2/3 (8.40) 40 (12.20)
Area ......sq.feet(m?.) ... ... ... ... 231 (21-1/2) 140 (13) 156 (14-1/2) 242 (22-1/2)
Weight, machine lbs. (kgs.) 529 (240) 683 (310) 771 (350) 1058 (480) 771 (350) 573 (260) 573 (260) 1230 (558)
Weight, useful lbs. (kgs.) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Motor ... ... ... h.p. 30 Nieuport Gnome Gnome Gnome Gnome 50 Gnome 30 Nieuport 100 Gnome
Speed, max. m.p.h. (km.) 75 (120) 87 (140) 72 (117) 72 (117) 69 (110) 78 (125) 69 (110) 72 (117)
Speed, min. m.p.h. (km.) ... 75 (120) 69 (110) ... ... ... ... ...
Number built during 1912... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Notes.--Early types had a Hanriot style landing carriage; the 1913 models revert to a Bleriot type. Warping wings. Fuselage entirely enclosed, rectilineal with rounded nose.
Flight, November 9, 1912.
THE PARIS AERO SALON.
FOUR machines are shown on this stand - a standard 28-h.p. Nieuport monoplane of the school type, a standard 70-h.p. two-seater, a new racing model, and a 100-h.p. "Hydravion," similar in every respect to the one that hangs suspended from the roof above the exhibit of the French Minister of War. No special description of the first two models is necessary. They are quite standard; and, for that matter, very little need be said of the latter two, for in the case of the racing model the machine is simply a smaller edition of the standard machine with changes in the chassis, and, for the Hydravion, it is but the ordinary 100-h.p. three-seater model with a float chassis instead of a wheeled one.
As regards the Hydravion, it has three floats. Two-stepped floats, supporting the body through a construction of steel tubing, form the main landing organs, and a miniature egg-shaped float supports the tail. For the construction of the main floats cypress wood is employed. A peculiarity about these are the small fin-like projections that extend laterally from the front ends of each float. They are so designed for a double purpose - to prevent the floats burying in a heavy sea, and to protect the propeller from spray. The propeller, by the way, is further armoured at the tips. A change has been made in the building of the fuselage to strengthen it to withstand the heavier strains that landing in the water calls upon it to bear. In this machine, the vertical struts in the body are of steel tubing, although the longitudinals and other portions of the body are still made of wood.
Two passengers can be accommodated in a wide seat immediately behind the pilot. He, the pilot, has before him, in addition to his controls and instruments, a starting-handle, by which he can put the motor in motion without exterior help.
Flight, February 8, 1913.
WHAT THERE WILL BE TO SEE AT OLYMPIA.
Societe Anonyme des Etablissements Nieuport.
The well-known French Nieuport firm, who are represented in this country by M. Marc Bonnier, will be exhibiting a 100-h.p. Gnome-engined hydro-monoplane - the identical "Hydravion" that was to be seen on the Nieuport stand at the last Paris Aero Show. Since that function, by the way, this same machine has been on show at the Brussels Exhibition, and it will be coming direct from that show to Olympia. Four similar machines have been acquired by the French Navy, and within the last fortnight three identical models have been supplied to the Japanese Navy. These latter machines were, it may be interesting to remark, tested on behalf of the Japanese Government by M. Bonnier.
In its design there is no great difference from the Nieuport monoplanes for overland work with which we are familiar in this country, excepting, of course, that the "Hydravion" is fitted with floats in place of its usual wheelbase. These floats - there are two main catamaran floats and an egg-shaped small float for the tail - are constructed to the designs of Lieut. Delage of the French Navy, and are peculiar in that each main float is fitted in front with miniature wings that prevent the nose of the float burying itself in the water and which assist in keeping spray clear of the propeller. The 100-h.p. Nieuport hydro-monoplane seats three - the pilot in front and his two passengers side by side behind. A self-starting device is fitted.
Flight, February 15, 1913.
SOCIETE ANONYME DES ETABLISSEMENTS, NIEUPORT.
ON exhibition on their stand, this well-known French firm of monoplane constructors have a 100 h.p. Gnome-engined hydro-monoplane, the identical machine that was shown at the last Paris Aero Show. As we remarked in last week's issue four machines similar to this one have been supplied to the French Navy and three to the Japanese Navy. This model has been very successful at various hydro-aeroplane meetings. At the St. Malo concours M. Weymann, flying one of these machines gained the Grand Prix of the meeting by his flight from St. Malo to Jersey and back. It also holds, we believe, the record for having flown the longest distance over water. At the close of the Tamise meeting in Belgium, Weymann flew his mount to Vernon in France, touching at Antwerp, Calais, and Le Havre en route.
The 100-h.p. Nieuport Hydro-monoplane. - In its general build this machine is not a great deal unlike the various Nieuport monoplanes that are at present flying in this country, excepting, of course, that it has floats in place of a wheeled undercarriage.
The body is 29 feet in length and of an approximate streamline shape, viewed from the side. In its construction it is slightly different from the bodies that are used on land machines, in that, whereas the bodies of the latter type are constructed entirely of wood, the body of the hydro-monoplane uses steel struts for the vertical members of the lattice girder. In front, mounted on triple bearers is the 100-h.p. Gnome motor direct coupled to an Integral propeller which has armoured tips to prevent it smashing if struck by spray. Immediately behind the motor sits the pilot, who controls the machine by a system of levers similar to those used on all Nieuport machines. The rudder and elevator arc operated by a single vertical central lever, while the wing warping is controlled by the feet. Before him, on a dashboard, is mounted a complete set of instruments useful in cross-sea work. Lower down in the cockpit there is a starting handle by which the pilot may put the motor in operation without exterior help. Behind the pilot are seats for two observers arranged side by side.
The alighting gear, designed by Lieut. Delage of the French Navy, consists of two main floats below and slightly forward of the centre of gravity and a small elongated egg-shaped float which supports the tail. Cypress is the wood used for the construction of the main floats, the tops of them being covered in with Willesden canvas. On either side of the nose of each main float, a curiously-shaped tin projects. They are designed to prevent the float burying in a heavy sea and also to assist in keeping spray clear of the propeller. The main floats have a single step which occurs about half way along their length. They support the body through a structure of steel tubing of streamline section.
The tail of the machine is of the usual Nieuport type, with the exception that, presumably to counterbalance the extra resistance to a side wind offered by the floats, two small vertical tail fins have been added, one above the stabilizer and the other below. There is no need to describe the wings in detail for, except that they span 40 ft., they are standard in every respect. The machine, without fuel or passengers weighs 1,230 lbs., travels at 65 miles an hour, and can be bought for L2,000.
Flight, April 19, 1913.
THE NIEUPORT HYDRO-AEROPLANE.
When the Nieuport monoplane was exhibited for the first time in England, at the 1911 Aero Show, it aroused great interest, chiefly, perhaps, on account of the extraordinary speeds it was said to h we attained with an engine of only 30-h.p.
Since then these machines have proved that they are capable of great speeds. Most notable among their successes is perhaps the Gordon-Bennett Race of 1911, when a Nieuport, piloted by Weymann, won the race for America.
The Nieuport brothers, whose tragic deaths within so short intervals is a great loss to the science of aviation, were quick in realizing the possibilities of the hydro-aeroplane, and it was only to be expected that they would be successful when they turned their attention to this branch of aviation.
At St. Malo, Weymann, piloting one of these machines, won the Grand Prix of the meeting by flying from St. Malo to Jersey and back. Later he created a record for the longest over-sea flight in a hydro-aeroplane, by flying from Belgium to Vernon in France, also on a Nieuport.
In its general appearance the hydroplane, which was exhibited at the last Olympia Show, resembles the land machines, with which our readers are familiar, excepting, of course, the chassis, which has been modified to accommodate floats instead of wheels. The two main floats, which have a single step about half way along their length, are set widely apart and support the body through a structure of steel tubes of streamline section. On either side of the rounded nose of each main float is a small metal wing, set at a comparatively great angle of incidence, the object of which is to keep the float from diving under in a rough sea. The material used in the construction of the main floats is cypress, the top of them being covered with canvas. Under the tail of the machine is a single, small egg-shaped float, connected to the fuselage by steel tubes.
The power plant consists of a 14-cylinder 100-h.p. Gnome engine, driving directly an Integral propeller of 8 ft. 6 in. diameter, which has armoured tips in order to prevent splitting in case of water sprays hitting the blades.
Behind the engine is the pilot's seat, which is of the bucket type. The machine is controlled by the usual Nieuport control system, which differs from most others in that the action of warping is carried out with the feet. A rocking shaft, sloping from the floor of the machine down to the lower extremities of the rear chassis struts, carries at its upper end a cross-bar on which the pilot rests his feet, and from a small crank lever on the lower end of the rocking shaft, warping cables are taken to the rear spar. When the machine tilts to the left the pilot presses the cross-bar down with his right foot, thereby pulling down the trailing edge of the left-hand wing.
A to and fro movement of the centrally pivoted hand lever operates the elevators, while a sideways motion actuates the rudder.
On a dashboard in front of the pilot's seat is a complete set of instruments, while lower down in the cockpit is a starting handle, which enables the pilot to start the engine without the help of a mechanic. Behind the pilot seats are provided for two passengers sitting side by side. The fuselage is of the same shape as that which characterises the land machines, the section around the cockpit being very deep and tapering to a knife's edge at the rear, where are attached the tail planes, which are of the usual Nieuport type, as are also the main planes.
Flight, May 3, 1913.
REFLECTIONS ON THE MONACO MEETING.
It is extremely difficult to formulate an opinion on the relative advantage of the Nieuport triple step keel float, when such a pilot as Weymann is at the wheel. Nevertheless, these machines unquestionably possess a special interest on account of this feature, and it seemed to us that the Nieuport did actually show to advantage when it came to a question of really skimming the water.
The subject of float construction and the use of steps is one that involves much study, and in our opinion hydro-aeroplane constructors will be wise if they call upon the experience of the boat builders who have been specially engaged upon hydroplane work. There are several enthusiasts in motor boating circles who could probably give waterplane constructors many a useful hint. The problem is evidently one of no mean difficulty, and if, as is likely, the waterplane built upon a boat-like foundation becomes a prominent experimental type, then there is no question as to the importance of regarding the subject from the boat builder's point of view.
The hydroplane, which is distinguished from the ordinary flat-bottomed racing boat by the presence of one or more steps in the boat bottom, was invented as long ago as 1782 by a clergyman named Ramus. Having been regarded at the Admiralty from the standpoint of large ships, it was deemed impracticable as a method of construction, owing to the speed that would have been required to have ensured the hydroplaning principle coming into action. It was only when high-speed motor boat racing had shown the possibility of unheard of speeds with short boats, that a serious effort was made still further to improve upon the high velocity qualities of racing craft. Curious little box-like hydroplanes were built by Lelas in France, and used to bounce over the water in a most exhilarating way, but it was Sir John Thornycroft who most seriously tackled the problem of building a hydroplane boat of reasonable weatherliness and more than nominal passenger accommodation.
Anyone who has been at speed in a hydroplane will have acquired an immense respect for the hardness of the water and the force of the blow that it can deal against the bottom of a high-speed boat. Indeed, it is amazing that any structure withstands the apparent strain. To lift the hydroplane out of the water on wings would be a highly desirable mode of continuing the journey, and the experiments of Curtiss and others suggest that this type of craft may play a prominent part in future development. On such machines there is small doubt that the stepped bottom will be a feature of design, but the question of using steps on comparatively small floats is less readily answered in the absence of experiment, and that is why the Nieuport monoplane at Monaco had an especial interest to us, for it was the only machine there with stepped floats.
Flight, July 12, 1913.
FROM PARIS TO LONDON IN A NIEUPORT WATERPLANE.
By JULIEN LEVASSEUR.
AT three o'clock on Wednesday morning last week, on the banks of the Seine at Meulan, my passenger Rougerie and myself were giving the finishing touches to our 100 h.p. Nieuport waterplane, getting ready for the start at 4 o'clock.
A thick haze covered the river, and there was indication of a fog in the air, but this did not deter us in any case from starting, as we thought it would lift up pretty soon.
While surveying the filling of our tanks with 140 litres of petrol and 40 litres of castor oil, we were disturbed by a gentleman, whom we afterwards found to be a chemist in the town, and who, without any preliminaries, insisted upon our giving him testimonials to the effect that his tonic wine had been found very beneficial by us. In generous mood, we gave him a testimonial, without thinking that we had never tasted his wine, and, thanking us for the letter, he also in generous mood went so far as to promise to send us each a bottle of the famous wine upon our safe return.
We ultimately got ready, and started in fog at five minutes past four.
We climbed to about 3,000 ft. in a short time, and found that although we were above the fog, we could not distinguish the river at all, and had to plane down repeatedly to find our course following the river. When we reached Havre we hugged the coast until we got to decamp, where my brother was waiting for us and had seen that all the arrangements were made for replenishing our tanks.
The trip to Fecamp took us 1 hr. and 55 mins. We were at Fecamp 45 mins., and left at 10 mins. to 7. From thence we flew on to Calais, where a mechanic was waiting for us in charge of the petrol and oil arrangements, and where we had a much-needed rest from 9.5 until 10.35. The wind over the Seine and along the coast was extremely strong, and blowing in gusts, which called for continual work on my part. Fortunately, we left the fog behind at Havre, and the weather was beautiful when we left Calais, with a strong wind blowing across.
We took the long sea passage from Calais, and headed direct over to Margate. For over an hour we flew over the sea, and then went along the river Thames, and while doing so, innocently committed several offences in flying over prohibited areas, the first news of which we learnt when we reached our friends in London, as we had not the least idea that there was any trouble to be expected in flying over from France to England.
Descending at Woolwich - as we knew we should not fly over London, and there our knowledge of the law ended - we skimmed along, until we got to Blackwall, our Nieuport and Gnome working perfectly, and tried to moor along the pier, where we were helped by the River Police, to whom our thanks are due for the care with which they assisted us in mooring our machine.
We left our Nieuport there, and took a taxi with an inspector to help us find the way to our friends, Messrs. Picard and Worms in the City, where we arrived looking very disreputable, covered as we were with oil from head to foot. We hurriedly had some refreshments, bought new clothes, and came out of our hotel looking once more respectable.
Our friends were then rung up by the Thames Police, who had actually taken charge of the machine, asking us to help them to moor it to a safer place, as there was danger of the barges, going into the docks near by, fouling our craft.
We got down to lovely Blackwall through the East End at 10.30 p.m., and for two hours tried to manoeuvre with a dinghey between the crafts to moor the machine, which we towed into the Blackwall Thames Police Enclosure where it was protected on every side, and where it actually lies at the time of writing.
After a consultation at the Royal Aero Club with Mr. H. Perrin, whose courtesy we very much appreciate, we decided that, having broken several regulations which we did not know of, we would call and tender our apologies to the Home Office, which we did the first thing next morning. Although we think that the spirit in which our apologies were offered was appreciated, the same afternoon I received two summonses to appear the next day at Bow Street, where Sir John Dickinson emphasised strongly to me the meaning of these Aerial Navigation Acts, my friend Mr. Max Worms acting as interpreter of the words of the magistrate, and I had to pay the costs of the prosecution, and was bound over to come up for judgment if called upon within 12 months in the sum of 1,000 francs.
Thus ended my uneventful journey from Paris to London with my friend and passenger Rougerie.
After the night we had both of us for some hours afterwards the buzz of the engine in our ears. This was an obsession with both Rougerie and myself, so that while we wire lying in bed, tired and half asleep, it seemed to us that we were still flying and the engine was not missing, and the flight was progressing satisfactorily...
I have nothing but praise for the Nieuport machine which carried us, and which answered admirably upon any and every occasion, whether for rising from the water or landing, and we had, moreover, no trouble whatever with the Gnome engine from beginning to end.
As regards this latter point, we find that some daily papers had fanciful reports to the effect that we were obliged to come down owing to trouble with the engine, and afterwards disappeared.
To these reports, needless to say, we wish once again to give a most emphatic denial.
Flight, March 14, 1914.
WHAT THERE WILL BE TO SEE AT OLYMPIA.
Nieuport (England) Ltd. (65.)
ON this stand there will be two machines, one a single-seater monoplane and the other an 100 h.p. hydro-aeroplane, both of which are, of course, tractor machines. These machines will be similar in design to those exhibited at the Paris Aero Show in December last, and the hydro-aeroplane will, in general, follow the usual construction embodied in the Nieuport monoplanes, that have set up such excellent performances in the past, concerning which we would venture to mention the long-distance flight of Helen for the Michelin prize, and the height record established by Legagneux. But the single-seater machine will depart somewhat from Nieuport practice, principally, however, in regard to the landing chassis, and in the shape of the wing surfaces, to which, however, we referred in our report on the Paris Exhibition. The standard type of hydro-aeroplane is fitted with an 80 h.p. Le Rhone engine, and the prices at which the two machines are listed are L1,080 and L2,000 respectively.
The skimmer, which will complete the exhibit, is fitted with a 160 h.p. engine, and a propeller having a diameter of 3 metres, which are mounted on a tubular steel framing. The buoyancy apparatus is in three parts, formed by a central hull and two side floats - the angle of incidence of the steps on the latter being capable of variation by means of gearing. The side floats are more deeply immersed than is the hull, so that when a speed of about 32 miles per hour is attained, the central hull is lifted clear of the water, and, consequently, a great increase of speed is permitted, the angle of incidence of the steps being made to correspond with the speed at which the craft is moving.
Flight, March 28, 1914.
THE OLYMPIA EXHIBITION.
NIEUPORT (NIEUPORT (ENGLAND), LTD.).
OF the two machines shown on the Nieuport stand the 100 h.p. seaplane follows fairly closely the lines of the seaplane exhibited at Olympia last year, whilst the second machine, a 60 h.p. military scout, differs considerably from usual Nieuport practice.
The 100 h.p. Seaplane is fitted with a 9-cylinder 100 h.p. Gnome engine mounted on overhung bearings in the nose of the fuselage. The latter is built up in the usual way of longerons of ash, with struts and cross members of spruce, and is entirely covered in as in previous Nieuport machines. Inside the very roomy cockpit are arranged the pilot's and passenger's seats, tandem fashion, the pilot occupying the rear seat. The controls are of the usual Nieuport type, with the exception that the warp is now connected up to the hand lever, whilst the rudder is operated by a foot-bar. It will be remembered that in the earlier models the warp was operated by the foot-bar, whilst the rudder was actuated by swinging the hand lever from side to side.
The usual set of instruments is fitted, and in addition there is an engine primer which is operated from the seat and a special retarded magneto for starting the engine. As soon as the engine starts firing this magneto is automatically de-clutched, and the ordinary magneto brought into action. When the engine has been primed it is started by means of a hand lever in front of the passenger's seat.
The wings are built up of ribs having three-ply webs and ash flanges over steel tube spars. The front spar fits into a tubular socket on the fuselage, whilst the rear spar is hinged. The ribs have a slight amount of play, thus allowing them to rotate slightly round the spars when the wings are warped, thereby considerably reducing the strains on them. The lift and drift wires take the form of very stout stranded cables attached to a pylon underneath the fuselage. The top pylon consists of a pyramidal structure of steel tubes. By means of the bolt shown in one of the accompanying sketches, the upper bracing wires are tightened or slackened, so that once the wings have been properly adjusted all that is necessary in order to dismantle them is to undo the bolt until the cables are sufficiently slack to allow of their being removed. Thus the wings can be erected or dismantled without interfering in the slightest with their adjustment.
The main floats, of which there are two, are of a peculiar shape, having a wide three-stepped keel, from which the bottom slopes outwards and upwards, whilst close to the tides of the boat it returns to the horisontal. The floats are built up of three-ply bottoms and two-ply sides, whilst the top is covered with canvas. All the chassis struts are streamlined steel tubes, of which the upright ones we internally reinforced.
The tail planes are of the usual Nieuport type, consisting of a semi-circular stabilising plane to the trailing edge of which are hinged the two semi-circular elevator flaps. The rudder is hinged to an extension of the sternpost of the fuselage, and vertical fins are fitted both above and below the fuselage in order to counteract the large side area in front. An egg-shaped metal float supports the tail planes when the machine is at rest. The fuel capacity of this machine is 3 1/2 hours, but we understand that the Nieuport firm is bringing out another seaplane, also a two-seater, which has a capacity of five hours' flight, and a single-seater carrying sufficient fuel for a flight of six hours' duration.