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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст


Страна: Великобритания

Год: 1913

RAF - F.E.3 / A.E.1 / F.E.6 - 1913 - Великобритания<– –>RAF - R.E.2 / R.E.3 - 1913 - Великобритания

P.Hare Royal Aircraft Factory (Putnam)


   The design of this neat and attractive two-seat tractor biplane appears to have been something of a joint effort, with Geoffrey de Havilland, Henry Folland and Edward Busk each having some involvement. It might have been begun under the designation B.S.2, although this was soon changed to Reconnaissance Experimental No 2, clearly indicating its intended purpose. Although its derivation from the B.E.2 was obvious, it was a smaller and more refined machine, its role requiring it to carry no more load than its crew and sufficient fuel for its mission.
   The staggered single-bay wings had warping for lateral control, and used a recently developed aerofoil section which allowed a greater depth of rear spar, eliminating a weakness discovered in tests upon the B.E.2. The fuselage structure made some use of steel tube, was fabric covered, and had deep coamings giving well-protected cockpits. A triangular fin was fitted, together with a rudder of similar shape to that of the B.E.2, and the undercarriage employed only four struts, two fewer than in the earlier aeroplane. Neat aluminium cowlings enclosed the 70hp Renault engine, which drove a four-bladed propeller. To facilitate transport by road, the wings could easily be removed and strapped to the fuselage sides.
   A large wheel on the control column operated the wing-warping mechanism, one of the machine's less successful innovations being the incorporation of the engine controls within the centre of this wheel.
   Two R.E.1s were built, the first, which became 607, being completed during May 1913. Following its initial flight tests it was used by Busk for a lengthy programme of development and test flying in connection with his investigations into inherent stability. Over a period of some months the dihedral angle was progressively increased from one degree to something in excess of three degrees. The fin area was reduced, that of the rudder increased, and a new tailplane of rectangular planform substituted for the original. These modifications gave longitudinal stability, but lateral stability proved impossible to achieve with warping wings, as their tendency to self-warp in gusts was too great. New wings incorporating ailerons were therefore fitted, and were rigged with their stagger reduced by four inches.
   On 25 November 1913 Busk was able to fly the machine for seven miles without touching the aileron control, relying on the dihedral to right the aeroplane in a gust. Turns were made on rudder alone, the machine automatically taking up the appropriate angle of bank.
   The second R.E.1 was completed by September 1913, and was allotted the serial 608. It differed from its predecessor in several ways; the fuselage was longer, the rudder included a curved balance area forward of the rudder post, and there was no fin. Later, four small rounded fins were fitted on the upper wing, one above each pair of interplane and centre-section struts. These were removed when new wings of increased span and incorporating ailerons were fitted early in 1914. In this form 608 was handed over to the RFC, which gave it the serial 362 on 6 March 1914, only to revert to 608 ten days later without the new number appearing on the machine.
   The aircraft was used by 6 Squadron up to the outbreak of the war, when it was reallocated to 2 Squadron to help bring the unit up to strength before it flew to France with the Expeditionary Force. On 1 September 608 suffered engine failure and was wrecked in the resulting forced landing.
   The first R.E.1 remained at Farnborough throughout its life, its stability making it ideal for testing various devices whose operation occupied much of the pilot's attention, most of them being connected with aerial photography or wireless transmission. It is not clear how many of the numerous modifications made to 607 throughout its life were designed to assist in achieving stability, and how many may have been intended to assess their effect upon what was already an inherently stable aeroplane.
   In the original design provision had been made for the installation of 1mm-thick armour plate on the forward fuselage, to afford the engine, fuel tank, and crew at least some protection against small-arms fire from the ground. This armour, which was to be made detachable, appears to have been fabricated during June/July 1913. Surviving records do not indicate to which machine it was actually fitted, how effective it might have been, or if and when the aeroplane was flown with it in place. However, its additional weight does suggest a logical explanation for the later increase in wingspan.
   The eventual fate of 607 is unknown, the last confirmed report of its existence being in February 1915, when it was still flying at Farnborough.

   Powerplant: 70hp Renault V-8
   span 34ft 0in (later 36ft 0in);
   chord 5ft 6in;
   wing area 316sqft.
   1,000lb (empty)
   1,580lb (loaded).
   max speed 78mph at sea level;
   stalling speed 48mph;
   initial climb 600ft/min.

M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)

Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing

P.Lewis British Aircraft 1809-1914 (Putnam)


   A two-seat tractor biplane built in 1913 by the Royal Aircraft Factory as an improvement of the B.E. design for reconnaissance use, the R.E.1 provided an early example of the use of models and mathematical calculations to ensure stability, an inherent quality of the design to which a great deal was contributed by E. T. Busk's test flying.
   Both of the R.E.1s built had warping wings, but No. 608 had a longer fuselage than No. 607. No. 607 was subsequently revised with wings of reduced stagger, with ailerons instead of warping and with a smaller fin. No. 608 had its fin removed and was fitted with a larger balanced rudder. It was flown for a time with four small vertical fins installed above the upper wings. Both fuselages were of welded steel tubing, unusual at a time when wooden structures were favoured. The R.E.1 design was very stable, recovering automatically from dives and banks. No. 2 Squadron, R.F.C., used one R.E.1 on the Western Front during the 1914-18 War. A 70 h.p. Renault engine was fitted, and wing-warping was employed in the design. Maximum speed, 78 m.p.h. Climb, 600 ft./min.

J.Bruce British Aeroplanes 1914-1918 (Putnam)


  BEFORE the outbreak of war, it was generally believed that if aeroplanes were to play any part in warfare it would be that of reconnaissance: the conception of aerial combat between opposing aircraft existed only in the more Wellsian imaginations of the time.
  For reconnaissance purposes, it was argued, an aeroplane ought to be as stable as possible. If a pilot needed to pay little attention to the flying of his aeroplane he would obviously be able to concentrate on his observations and the writing of his report. This was the philosophy of the time, and in 1912 the Royal Aircraft Factory set about the designing of an aeroplane for reconnaissance duties. The result was the first Reconnaissance Experimental, or R.E.1, which appeared early in 1913.
  As has been told in the history of the B.E.2c, E. T. Busk took up an appointment at Farnborough on June 10th, 1912. He had been interested in the problems of aeroplane stability, which had been theoretically investigated by Mr (later Dr) F. W. Lanchester and by Professor G. H. Bryan. At the National Physical Laboratory, Leonard Bairstow had done a good deal of practical work based on Professor Bryan’s investigations, and he and Busk collaborated in applying all the available data to the problem of making the R.E.1 inherently stable.
  Two R.E.1s were built in 1913, and were of interest from the structural standpoint because the fuselages were constructed of steel tubing at a time when wood was the almost universal material.
  Both R.E.1s were two-seat tractor biplanes with single-bay wings, but they differed in appearance. The first, No. 607, was distinctly the better-looking of the two. As originally built, the machine had pronounced stagger on the mainplanes, and lateral control was by wing-warping. The tailplane was somewhat similar to that of the B.E.2 and was mounted on top of the upper longerons; a fin was incorporated in the tail-unit at an early stage.
  The 70 h.p. Renault engine was installed without a cowling, and the exhaust pipes were led forward round the front of the engine and then downwards and rearwards. The undercarriage was a twin-skid structure generally similar to that of the B.E.2.
  Later in its career, No. 607 was given a new set of mainplanes which had ailerons for lateral control; the stagger was also reduced. At the same time the tail-unit was modified by reducing the area of the fin and fitting a larger rudder; a new tailplane of rectangular plan-form was fitted between the longerons.
  It seems that Busk did most of his work on the other R.E.1, No. 608. This machine had a longer fuselage than No. 607 and had no fin: there was a large, ugly, balanced rudder. At one time, four fin surfaces were fitted above the upper wing of this R.E.1; one was mounted directly over each pair of interplane or centre-section struts.
  Busk made exhaustive tests in the R.E.1. He flew it in all weathers in order to prove the soundness of the theories underlying its design, and took considerable risks in doing so. Having proved theoretically, with the aid of models, that the R.E.1 would automatically right itself from a dive, he climbed to a great height in the aircraft, put it into a dive and released the controls. As he had predicted, the machine recovered without assistance from him. The R.E.1 was so stable that it would bank automatically when rudder was applied, and automatically assumed the correct gliding angle when the throttle was closed.
  This state of automatic stability had been achieved by November, 1913, by which time Busk had made flights of several hours’ duration and in winds up to 38 m.p.h. without touching the controls, save for landing. On May 19th, 1914, he flew the R.E.1 before King George V on the occasion of the Royal visit to Farnborough: on that flight he took Major Clive Wigram as his passenger.
  It has been stated that one of the R.E.1s was fitted with a twin-float undercarriage and flown as a seaplane from Fleet and Frensham Ponds by Geoffrey de Havilland: the seaplane version was designated H.R.E. This reference may, however, have been a confusion with the H.R.E.2.
  Shortly after the R.F.C. went to France to join the British Expeditionary Force in the field, a request was sent on August 22nd, 1914, for any spare aeroplanes to be sent to reinforce the squadrons. One of the five machines that were sent in response was an R.E.1. It was given to No. 2 Squadron.

  Manufacturers: The Royal Aircraft Factory, Farnborough, Hants.
  Power: 70 h.p. Renault.
  Performance: Maximum speed: 78 m.p.h.; stalling speed: 48 m.p.h. Initial rate of climb: 600 ft/min.
  Service Use: Western Front: No. 2 Squadron, R.F.C.
  Production: Two R.E.1s were built in 1913.
  Serial Numbers: 607-608.

J.Bruce - British Aeroplanes 1914-1918 /Putnam/
The first R.E.1, serial number 607, in its original form with warping wings.
Only two of these machines were built in 1913.
P.Hare - Royal Aircraft Factory /Putnam/
The first R.E. 1 following its modification to include ailerons.
P.Hare - Royal Aircraft Factory /Putnam/
R.E.I 608 with new wings, incorporating ailerons, photographed on Jersey Brow in company with a Sopwith three-seater and a Farman.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
R.E. I No. 607 in its original form.
J.Bruce - British Aeroplanes 1914-1918 /Putnam/
R.E.1. No. 607, modified to have ailerons and smaller fin and rudder.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
The Army aeroplane, R.E. 1 which was flown before the King and Queen, on Tuesday last, by Mr. E. T. Busk, with Major Clive Wigram as passenger. It was this machine that was referred to by Col. Seely at the Wright Memorial Banquet, and by Dr. Glazebrook in his lecture on Wednesday before the Aeronautical Society, on the "Development of the Aeroplane." In general appearance the R.E. 1 resembles the B.Es., and its stability is not due to any radical departures in design, but must be explained, we think, by careful scientific proportioning of surfaces and distribution of weights. From the accompanying photograph it will be seen that ailerons are fitted to both planes, presumably more in order to inspire confidence on the part of the pilot than because they are actually needed.
P.Hare - Royal Aircraft Factory /Putnam/
The R.E. 1 in flight, with short-span warping wings.
P.Hare - Royal Aircraft Factory /Putnam/
E T Busk seated in his first stable aeroplane, the R.E.I, seen here with experimental fin surfaces above the upper wing.
J.Bruce - British Aeroplanes 1914-1918 /Putnam/
The second R.E.1, serial number 608, with Edward Busk in the cockpit. Note the four fin surfaces above the upper wing and the balanced rudder.
P.Hare - Royal Aircraft Factory /Putnam/
The R.E.I fuselage before covering.
P.Hare - Royal Aircraft Factory /Putnam/
An assortment of Royal Aircraft Factory designs in front of the RFC sheds on Farnborough Common. Aircraft 206 was built as B.E.6, 239 and 329 are B.E.2as, and behind them is the R.E.I.
P.Hare - Royal Aircraft Factory /Putnam/