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Armstrong Whitworth F.K.1

Страна: Великобритания

Год: 1914

Armstrong - monoplane - 1910 - Великобритания<– –>Armstrong Whitworth - F.K.3 - 1915 - Великобритания

M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)

Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing

O.Tapper Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft since 1913 (Putnam)

The first Armstrong Whitworth aeroplane to be designed by Koolhoven was a small single-seater. This aeroplane was known, probably correctly, as the F.K.I; the qualification arises because there is considerable uncertainty about the true sequence of the F.K. numbers. Koolhoven himself seems to have applied, in retrospect, F.K. numbers to all the designs with which he had been in any way concerned, and in one Dutch publication the F.K.I appears as the F.K.14. The uncertainty about the F.K. numbers is made worse by the secrecy concerning its experimental types which Armstrong Whitworth maintained even after the war.
   The F.K.I, originally planned as a monoplane, was altered in the design stage to a biplane. It was a simple, straightforward, single-seat aircraft with single-bay wings, no stagger and a large gap. The fuselage terminated in a horizontal knife-edge, and there were divided elevators but no fixed tailplane. When first flown, by Koolhoven himself, the F.K.I proved to be seriously underpowered, having been fitted with a Gnome engine of 50 hp in place of the intended 80 hp version. Later, the aircraft was given larger ailerons and a fixed tailplane and in this form was flown by B. C. Hucks and some naval pilots; but there was clearly no future for the type and its development was abandoned.

P.Lewis The British Fighter since 1912 (Putnam)

Yet another tractor scout had appeared within a month of the outbreak of war. This was the F.K.1, built by Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth and Co., and designed for them by a Dutch designer, Frederick Koolhoven, whose name was to be perpetuated by a prolific series of aircraft to appear under his signature for many years ahead. Before drafting the F.K.1, his first design for Armstrong Whitworth, Koolhoven had accumulated considerable experience through the successful Deperdussin monoplanes.
   In the new scout the monoplane formula was disregarded, despite its inherent quality of speed, and the F.K.1 made its debut in September, 1914. A relatively simple biplane in every way, it showed evidence of French practice in the horizontal knife-edge termination of the rear fuselage and in the omission of a fixed tailplane. The upper wings were taken over the fuselage at a considerable gap on inverted-V centre-section struts and this feature, combined with undercarriage legs spread wide apart fore and aft, gave the whole machine a rather gawky appearance. The 80 h.p. Gnome, around which the F.K.1 had been designed, was not obtainable so it flew instead with a 50 h.p. Gnome.
   The machine was modified after early tests and was given a normal fixed tailplane and larger, inversely-tapered ailerons. The F.K.1’s top speed of 75 m.p.h. on its low power reduced any chances that it might have had of competing with its counterparts from Bristol, Martin-Handasyde and Sopwith for orders and the design was abandoned.

F.Mason The British Fighter since 1912 (Putnam)

Armstrong Whitworth F.K.1

   The Aeroplane Department of the heavy engineering enterprise, Sir W G Armstrong, Whitworth & Co Ltd, came into being at the beginning of 1914, its first works manager and aircraft designer being the Dutch-born Frederick Koolhoven. A qualified pilot himself, who had already acquired design experience working on Deperdussin monoplanes, Koolhoven’s first aircraft for Armstrong Whitworth was a small single-bay unstaggered biplane designated the F.K.1.
   Of exceptional simplicity in the interests of possible future production orders as a military scout, the F.K.1 was intended to be powered by an 80hp Gnome rotary; however, as this engine was not immediately available, recourse was made to the 50hp version, with the result that the aircraft was substantially underpowered. Although the tail unit included a fixed fin forward of the rudder hinge-post, there was initially no tailplane, a balanced elevator being fitted.
   The F.K.1 was first flown by Koolhoven himself in September 1914. He was clearly dissatisfied with the longitudinal and lateral control, and the ailerons were replaced by much enlarged surfaces with inverse taper, and a fixed tailplane was added.
   Although no reliable design and performance figures appear to have survived, the aircraft was obviously inferior to such contemporary aircraft as the Sopwith Tabloid and Bristol Scout, and its development was not pursued.

   Type: Single-engine, single-seat, single-bay tractor biplane.
   Manufacturer: Sir W G Armstrong, Whitworth & Co Ltd, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
   Powerplant: One 50hp Gnome rotary engine driving two-blade propeller.
   Structure: Steel and wood composite construction; square-section box-girder fuselage, fabric covered. Twin-wheel, single-skid undercarriage.
   Performance: Max speed, 75 mph at sea level; landing speed, 30 mph.
   Armament: None.
   Prototype: One (first flown by Frederick Koolhoven in September 1914). No production.

J.Bruce British Aeroplanes 1914-1918 (Putnam)

Armstrong Whitworth F.K. 1

  THE original aircraft manufacturing firm which bore the name of Armstrong Whitworth came into existence in 1914 as the Aeroplane Department of the large engineering firm of Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Ltd. The first works manager was that great Dutchman, Frederick Koolhoven.
  The little single-seat scout which was designated Armstrong Whitworth F.K.1 was not Koolhoven’s first essay in aeroplane design, for he had earlier done much work on several of the Deperdussin monoplanes, but it was his first design for the Armstrong Whitworth company.
  The Armstrong Whitworth F.K.1 was a rather frail-looking little biplane which appeared in September, 1914. Even at that early date it showed evidence of having been designed with an eye to production, for its layout was essentially simple. The fuselage was reminiscent of the pre-war Morane-Saulnier monoplanes; so also was the plan-form of the wing-tips. The tail unit betrayed further Morane influence, for there was at first no tailplane but only a balanced elevator. The aircraft had been meant to have the to 80 h.p. Gnome rotary engine, but only a 50 h.p. Gnome could be obtained. There was no alternative but to install the lower-powered engine.
  The first flight of the F.K.1 was made by Koolhoven himself. The tail unit was subsequently modified, and a fixed tailplane and plain elevator were fitted. A further modification was the fitting of new, enlarged ailerons which had a pronounced inverse taper.
  The F.K.1 was underpowered with only the very nominal 50 h.p. of its Gnome engine, and its performance was no improvement on that of the more powerful contemporary Sopwith, Bristol and Martinsyde Scouts. No development was undertaken.

  Manufacturers: Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Ltd., Gosforth, Newcastle-on-Tyne.
  Power: 50 h.p. Gnome.
  Performance: Maximum speed: 75 m.p.h. Stalling speed: 30 m.p.h.

M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
Armstrong Whitworth FK1. Koolhoven's first design for this large armament company.
The completed F.K.l, also known as the Sissit, was originally designed as a monoplane. It was first flown by Koolhoven himself, probably in 1914.
F.Mason - The British Fighter since 1912 /Putnam/
The Armstrong Whitworth F.K.1 in its original form with parallel-chord ailerons and no tailplane.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
Armstrong Whitworth FK1 with modified ailerons.
J.Bruce - British Aeroplanes 1914-1918 /Putnam/
Armstrong Whitworth F.K.1 with enlarged ailerons.
J.Bruce - British Aeroplanes 1914-1918 /Putnam/
Armstrong Whitworth F.K.1 with its original ailerons.
O.Tapper - Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft since 1913 /Putnam/
B.E.2c aircraft on the assembly line at Gosforth during the early months of 1915. On the left is the fuselage of the F.K.I single-seat biplane.