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Junkers F 13

Страна: Германия

Год: 1919

Junkers - J 6 - 1918 - Германия<– –>Junkers - R.I - 1919 - Германия

В.Шавров История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.

"Юнкерс" Ю-13 - всемирно известный пассажирский шестиместный самолет (4 пассажира). Двигатель - БМВ-IIIа в 185 л. с. на высоте 2000 м и с эквивалентной мощностью 240 л. с. у земли. Этот самолет, выпущенный в 1919 г., по своей схеме, компоновке и внешнему виду выделялся среди других самолетов 20-х годов, был экономичен и имел хорошие летные качества. При более мощных двигателях на нем был установлен ряд рекордов. Ю-13 появился в Москве в мае 1922 г. Несколько экземпляров Ю-13 эксплуатировались на аэролинии Москва-Нижний Новгород во время ярмарки в 1922 г., а также в 1923 г. В том же году было куплено 10 экземпляров этого самолета для "Добролета", который использовал их на воздушных линиях Москва-Казань, Ташкент-Алма-Ата, Ташкент-Бухара, Бухара-Хива и Бухара-Дюшамбе. Было выполнено несколько больших перелетов. Ю-13 применялись в школах и в сельскохозяйственной авиации. Всего было до 20 импортных экземпляров. Кроме того, в Центральном парке-складе "Добролета", где был налажен их ремонт и восстановление после крупных аварий, были построены из советского кольчугалюминия пять совершенно новых экземпляров.

Два Ю-13 были установлены на поплавковое шасси, подобное Ю-20. Один из них применялся осенью 1923 г. для платных полетов на Москве-реке у Сельскохозяйственной выставки. С 1926 г. Ю-13 стал заменяться самолетами типа Ф-13, которые при тех же размерах отличались формой хвостового оперения и меньшими размерами окон пассажирской кабины в связи с преимущественно грузовым назначением самолета. На нем был установлен двигатель Л-5 в 310 л. с. Было несколько экземпляров.

Самолет||Ю-13/Ю-13 гидро/Ф-13
Год выпуска||1919/1922/1924
Двигатель , марка||БМВ-IIIa/БМВ-IIIa/Л-5
   мощность, л. с.||185/185/310
Длина самолета, м||9,6/10,3/10,1
Размах крыла, м||17,8/17,8/17,8
Площадь крыла, м2||38,7/38,7/40
Масса пустого, кг||1150/1300/1200
Масса топлива+ масла, кг||200/150/400
Масса полной нагрузки, кг||650/600/900
Полетная масса, кг||1800/1900/2100
Удельная нагрузка на крыло, кг/м2||46,5/49/52,5
Удельная нагрузка на мощность, кг/лс||9,8/10,3/7
Весовая отдача,%||36,1/31,6/43
Скорость максимальная у земли, км/ч||155/150/180
Время набора высоты 1000м, мин||8/9/7
Время набора высоты 2000м, мин||17/20/15
Время набора высоты 3000м, мин||28/40/25
Время набора высоты 5000м, мин||?/?/60
Потолок практический, м||4500/3500/5000
Продолжительность полета, ч.||5/4/5

L.Andersson Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 (Putnam)

Junkers F 13 (Ju-13, F-13, PS-2)

   On 25 June 1919 one of the most significant transport aircraft of all time was first flown - the Junkers F 13. Over 300 were built between 1919 and 1931 of this all-metal six-seat monoplane and they saw world-wide service in the absolute sense of that expression. Hugo Junkers had started to produce his revolutionary all-metal cantilever monoplanes covered with the typical corrugated duralumin for the German Air Service during the First World War. Designed by Otto Reuter, the F 13 was arranged from the outset to carry passengers comfortably. In contrast to all the converted military aircraft that were used as passenger transports immediately after the war the safe and robust F 13 had an enclosed cabin which accommodated four passengers in cushioned seats, with seatbelts, lighting and windows.
   Typical of the appearance of the F 13 and other early Junkers aircraft was the corrugated light duralumin skin, the thick wing and the water-cooled inline engine with a flat frontal radiator. Driving a wooden two-bladed propeller the engine had a 'chimney' type exhaust outlet projecting upwards through the engine cowling. The boxlike fuselage consisted of three main parts; the front section with the engine mounting, the mid-section with the 1.4m wide enclosed four-seat passenger cabin with a door in each side, and the tail section. The pilot and flight mechanic were accommodated in an open cockpit in front of the passenger cabin, the roof of the fuselage being rounded aft of their cockpit. The fuel tanks were located in the wing centre section.
   The wings were broadest and thickest at the outer ends of the centre section and the outer wing panels had dihedral and tapered both in chord and thickness. The wing structure was built up of nine duralumin tubular spars arranged round the periphery of the wing-section. The spars were staggered and tied together by diagonal bracing to form a girder and the centre section of the wing was built integral with the fuselage. The whole structure was covered with a load-bearing corrugated skin. The unbalanced ailerons had curved trailing edges in order to increase their area and effectiveness and the rudder and elevators were also unbalanced. The small fin was triangular and the tailplane was rectangular. The undercarriage had rubber shock absorbers.
   Many successive modifications were introduced but few changed the general appearance of the aircraft. The most significant were a new, more upright fin with horn-balanced rudder replacing two different earlier forms of triangular fins with unbalanced rudders, horn-balanced elevators replaced unbalanced ones, a redesigned undercarriage, larger wings for higher takeoff weights (span increasing from about 14.5 to 17.75m), more sweep on the outer wing panels (increasing from 3.5 to 8.5 degrees), and a lengthened fuselage (from about 9.7 to 10.8m) with a reinforced engine mounting. Many different types of engines were fitted, including a number of radials, but those usually installed were the 185hp BMW IIIa,' the 230hp Junkers L 2 and the 310hp Junkers L 5.
   The Junkers F 13 was used by airline companies and air forces in more than forty countries, the most important operators outside Germany were ABA in Sweden, Ad Astra Aero in Switzerland, Aero Express in Hungary, Aero O/Y in Finland, Danziger Luftpost, Dobrolet in the Soviet Union, Junkers-Luftverkehr in Persia and in the USSR, PLL in Poland, SCADTA in Colombia, Transadriatica in Italy, Union Airways in South Africa, the US Air Mail Service, OLAG in Austria and the VVS. In Germany Junkers put a large number of F 13s in service with the Junkers-Luftverkehr AG and many were later used by Lufthansa.
   The Soviet Union was the most important F 13 customer outside Germany. Referred to by the Soviet authorities as the Ju-13 with the 185hp BMW engine and F-13 with the Junkers L 5, more than sixty Junkers F 13s gave service in the USSR starting in 1922. They were all delivered from German production, but were for a short period serviced and repaired by the Junkers plant at Fili until the Dobrolet workshop in Moscow could take over this kind of work in 1924-25. A few of the F 13s used in the Soviet Union might have been assembled at Fili from Dessau-built sub-assemblies.
   At the beginning of 1920 the German firm Richard Michler & Co offered to deliver eight Junkers F 13s to the Soviet Government, to be flown to Vitebsk or Smolensk. The first attempt to fly a Junkers F 13 to Moscow in 1919 ended with a crash on take-off but in October one of two F 13s sent out reached its destination, probably Smolensk, according to a representative of the firm. The other F 13, D-322 Annelise piloted by Hans Hesse, had to make a forced landing in Lithuania on 15 October and was confiscated there. The proposed deal was never finalised.
   The first time the air-minded Moscovites got acquainted with the Junkers was probably when the May 1922 issue of the Vestnik Vozdushnogo Flota carried an advertisement for the 'Zavod Junkers' with a picture of the F 13. On 6 May an F 13, carrying the Danzig registration Dz32 (c/n 579) and piloted by Alfred Gothe arrived in Moscow. It was demonstrated at Khodynka on 7 May and a flight to Leningrad was made on 25 May. In July and August D-194 (c/n 590) and D-205 (c/n 589) arrived and with these aircraft the Junkers company, under the name of Aviakul'tura, ran a passenger service between Moscow and Nizhnii-Novgorod during the annual trade fair at the last-mentioned city. D-194 remained in Moscow during the winter and was registered to Junkers-Luftverkehr as R-RECA, but it was sold to an organisation called Mugmel'stroi (see later).
   In May 1923 Dz30 (c/n 569) became the second R-RECA and Dz31 (c/n 547) was registered R-RECB. This R-RECA was soon re-registered R-RECG, however, as the first R-RECA was not cancelled although it changed owner. Another six aircraft arrived in June and July; R-RECC (c/n 643), R-RECD (c/n 572), R-RECE (c/n 614), R-RECF (c/n 630), R-RECH (c/n 636) and R-RECI (c/n 651). With these machines a Moscow-Tiflis service was opened on 1 June. In 1924 R-RECG (c/n 569) was scheduled for sale to the ODVF and a new R-RECG (c/n 693) was put into service but the sale was cancelled and c/n 569 was re-registered R-RECK in August 1924.
   On 2 November 1924 R-RECE was transferred to Teheran and this was the first step in a future transfer of the Junkers-Luftverkehr fleet to Persia. The aircraft kept their Soviet registrations, however. Later the F 13s still based in Moscow were either sold or transferred back to Germany. R-RECD was sold to the German War Ministry to be used as a liaison aircraft at Lipetsk, R-RECE was sold to the Persian Air Force and R-RECF was obtained by the VVS. R-RECB and R-RECH were returned to Germany.
   The recently formed Dobrolet company hired two military Junkers F 13s (c/ns 586 and 637) in April 1923 before placing an order for fourteen similar aircraft on the 28th of that month. The order was later amended for the delivery of a total of twenty aircraft. Four of these were intended for Ukrvozdukhput' and the military authorities tried to persuade Dobrolet to deliver up to eight F 13 to the RKKVF. Eventually only two aircraft were taken over and the other eighteen remained with Dobrolet. They were registered R-RDAA to R-RDAW, except for R-RDAH and R-RDAI which were given to the RKKVF. The first, R-RDAA (c/n 649), arrived from Germany on 3 June. Most were financed by public subscription and named after the organisations that had collected the money. On 29 June R- RDAC Moskovskii sovet (Mossovet) was handed over and in July R-RDAA Mossovet II, R-RDAB Prezidium VSNKh, R-RDAC Chervonets, R-RDAE Prombank and R-RDAF ODVF followed. R-RDAN Nauka, R-RDAO Krasnyi kamvol'shchik and R-RDAP Pravda were presented to Dobrolet on 25 November 1923.
   R-RDAB (c/n 654) crashed on 16 July but was later rebuilt and R-RDAR (c/n 674) was sold to Zakavia. The first regular service by Dobrolet F 13s was the Moscow-Nizhnii Novgorod route opened in July 1923 by R-RDAE Prombank and run until September. R-RDAE was later fitted with floats imported from Dessau and based on the Moscow River during the Moscow Agricultural Fair of 1923. In 1924 it was based in Sevastopol. R-RDAM was sent on a propaganda tour around West Siberia and was named Sibrevkom during a presentation ceremony at Novonikolaevsk. R-RDAS was used on similar work in the Urals and was named Krasnyi Ural before being sold to Aviakhim. Three aircraft (c/ns 669, 670 and 672) intended for Dobrolet's Central Asian routes were taken over by the VVS in January 1924 when a local uprising started. R-RDAG Dekhan-Khlopkorob, R-RDAK Tashkentskii zheleznodorozhnik and R-RDAL Irregator were sent as re-placements and two new machines were acquired from Germany, R-RDAY Krasnaya Fergana (c/n 712) and R-RDAZ Pishchevik (c/n 713).
   R-RDAO (crew: N I Naidenov and V D Osipov) and R-RDAP (I K Polyakov and I V Mikheev) participated in the much publicised long-distance flight to Peking in 1925. They left Moscow along with four other aircraft on 10 June and arrived at Irkutsk on 26 June and at Ulan-Bator in Mongolia on 4 July. R-RDAP crashed at Laiotan on 9 July but R- RDAO completed the flight and arrived at Peking on 13 July. After a trip to Nanking it returned to Peking on 20 August and was sent by sea to Vladivostok. Still stored there in 1926 it was acquired by the VVS for delivery to the Canton Government in China. R-RDAP was returned to Moscow in 1926 and was put into service again after extensive repairs. R-RDAA Mossovet was rebuilt to 85% after a crash and another heavily damaged F 13 (c/n 692) was bought from Aviakhim, rebuilt and put into service as R-RDAT in March 1926.
   In March-April 1923 the Junkers-Luftverkehr F 13 R-RECA had flown to Teheran. It was then handed over to the Mugmel'stroi organisation. Azdobrolet, the Baku-based independent branch of Dobrolet, purchased an F 13 (c/n 668) from Germany, which was later registered R-RASA. This aircraft and that of Mugmel'stroi were soon handed over to the Tiflis-based Zakavia, who also bought R-RDAR (c/n 674) from Dobrolet. Named Azdobrolet, Mugmel'stroi and Bol'shevik these machines were put into service on a route between Tiflis and Baku. Zakavia ran into economic difficulties, however, and the aircraft were handed over to the VVS at Tiflis. They were returned to the company, but after R- RECA Mugmel'stroi had crashed in March the two remaining (c/ns 668 and 674) were again turned over to the VVS, this time definitively.
   Returning to Dobrolet, R-RDAA Mossovet, R-RDAE Prombank and R-RDAT MSNKh-Mostorg opened a new route between Verkhneudinsk and Mongolia in 1926. R-RDAA Mossovet was also used to transport furs in Northern Siberia, R-RDAE Prombank was sent to Arkhangel'sk to participate in a sealing expedition and R-RDAS participated in an expedition to Wrangel Island in 1927. Missions of this type were typical of the work performed by the F 13s when not engaged in passenger transport. In 1928 A S Demchenko took off with the float- equipped R-RDAA Mossovet on a proving flight along the Lena River and later a new route between Irkutsk and Yakutsk was opened. In the same year M S Babushkin used RR-DAS during the Nobile rescue operation.
   All the F 13s imported to the Soviet Union in 1923-25 were powered by the 185hp BMW engine. In 1924 Dobrolet had plans to acquire ten 220hp Siddeley Puma engines to be used in some of the F 13s but this was not done. The first Dobrolet F 13 with the 310hp Junkers L 5 engine was ordered on 21 April 1928 and delivered in May (c/n 2017). Another F 13, registered RR37, was also delivered but no trace has been found of this aircraft in Soviet documents. In addition to this a number of old BMW-engined F 13s were transferred to Dobrolet from the VVS in 1928-1930. Ukrvozdukhput' received an F 13 imported in 1928, RRUAZ (c/ n 2020). The Azerbaidzhan Red Crescent Society showed interest in obtaining an F 13 ambulance but no order was placed. A last pair of L 5- powered F 13s was purchased by Dobrolet in 1929 and eight of their old BMW-engined machines were also re-engined with the L 5.
   In 1929 Dobrolet's F 13s were re-registered СССР-125 to 147 and СССР-149, some with the URSS- prefix for use on international routes. URSS-145 Mossovet was tested with aerial dusting gear against forest pests near Lake Baikal. The equipment fitted had been designed by K Ivanov and built in the Dobrolet repair shop at Irkutsk. In 1930 СССР-133 and СССР-136 were carrying herring spawn from the Caspian to the Aral Sea and another Junkers F 13 was sent out to open the Sakhalin route from Khabarovsk. By 1 May 1930 seventeen Junkers F 13s, nine with BMW engines and eight with the L 5, were in service in Central Asia, six with BMW engines in East Siberia, three with L 5s in the Ukraine and one L 5-engined machine was in Moscow.
   At the end of 1930 the GVF took over Dobrolet's F 13s, including the one that Dobrolet had received from Ukrvozdukhput' at the beginning of the year. By December 1930 the GVF fleet list included twenty-seven F 13s. A year later twenty-six were in service but at the end of 1932 only thirteen remained. In the summer of that year three were based in Moscow, ten in Central Asia, six in Kazakstan, four in East Siberia, one in West Siberia and one in Transcaucasia. Most were used for passenger transport and other related tasks but one was used by the Nil GVF from late 1932. In 1933 the East Siberian Department had F 13s registered СССР-Л24, Л25 and Л92, while СССР-Л19, Л59, Л67, Л85, Л86, and Л714 were used in Central Asia and СССР-Л36 and Л56 in Kazakstan. By this time new designations were assigned to Junkers aircraft, presumably to conceal their German origin for political reasons, and the L 5-engined F 13s became PS-2s. The PS-1 designation was possibly reserved for F 13s with BMW engines. PS-3 and PS-4 were assigned to the W 33 and PS-5 was the former JuG-1 (K 30). In 1934 five PS-2s remained and three of these were still active in Central Asia in October 1935.
   Known 1931-type civil Junkers F 13 registrations: СССР-Л3, Л9, Л19, Л23, Л24, Л25, Л33 (c/n 637), Л34, Л35, Л36, Л56, Л58, Л59, Л61, Л62, Л63, Л67, Л85, Л86, Л89, Л92 and Л714.
   The Junkers F 13 entered Deruluft service on its Leningrad-Riga route in June 1928. The first two, RR40 and RR41 (c/ns 650 and 757), were handed back to Luft Hansa in June 1929 but in April the same year D-424, URSS- 307, URSS-308 and D-558 (c/ns 702, 723, 730 and 752) had joined the Deruluft fleet. One of these was replaced by URSS-320 (c/n 765) in 1930. Covered cockpits were introduced on the F 13s in 1932 and the passenger cabin was heated to enable the company to open winter services. The F 13s were flown with both wheels and skis. During the winter of 1930 a combined wheel/ski undercarriage was tested but not adopted. In May 1935 a new and larger airport was opened in Leningrad and the last F 13s were replaced by three- engined Ju 52/3ms.
   At an early stage the ODVF realised the potential of the F 13 as an instrument of aviation propaganda. The 'safe' looks of the aircraft was perfect for demonstrations and for taking people who had never seen an aircraft before on a short flight from small fields in the countryside. Two F 13s were acquired in September 1924, R-RODA (c/n 679) and R-RODB (c/n 692), which were both 'presented' to the ODVF on 11 January 1925 and named Sel'skosoyuz-Litsom k derevne and Krasnyi artel'shchik-Vse v ODVF respectively. R-RODB crashed on 16 February and was sold to Dobrolet and replaced by a second R-RODB (c/n 749), named Vse v Aviakhim, in June 1925. In 1927 both aircraft received new 'registrations', R-RODB becoming VKP/h-1 and R-RODA VKP/b- 2. Both were still in service in 1929.
   R-RDAS (c/n 671) Krasnyi Ural acquired by the Ural Aviakhim from Dobrolet in October 1925 was sold to the VVS in 1928. R-RSAA (c/n 645) Sibrevkom (ex-Dobrolet R-RDAM) purchased in 1924 by Sibaviakhim was transferred to the Leningrad branch of Osoaviakhim in 1929. Many propaganda tours and agitation flights were made around parts of the Soviet Union by these aircraft during the 1920s, often reported in detail in the Pravda and Izvestiya newspapers and the aviation press. To many the Junkers F 13s Vse v Aviakhim and Litsom k derevne were their first encounter with aviation. In 1931 Osoaviakhim had two F 13s and another two were received from the GVF in June 1932.
   The RKKVF received their first Junkers F 13 (c/n 586) in 1922. It was assigned to the 1st Higher School of Military Pilots at Khodynka but was soon transferred to the so-called Otryad tyazheloi aviatsii (OTA), or Heavy Aviation Squadron, also at Khodynka, which by then had already received another pair of F 13s (c/ns 637 and 647). On 20 May 1923 B K Veiling and flight mechanic Grunin took took off from Moscow in Junkers c/n 647 to fly A A Znamensky, Commander-in-Chief of the RKKVF, to Tashkent via Khar'kov, Rostov, Tiflis, Baku, Askhabad and Bukhara. On the return journey they passed Khiva, Kazalinsk, Orenburg and Borisoglebsk and the total distance covered amounted to 10,567km. On 18 November Veiling crashed with c/n 647 in Moscow and was killed. Another three F 13s were added to the RKKVF inventory in 1923, one came from Germany (probably c/n 658) and two were from Dobrolet (c/ns 661 and 666).
   The initial trio of F 13s was transferred to the Training eskadril'ya in Moscow before Veiling crashed but c/n 637 later followed the 1st OTA when this unit received Farman F.62 bombers and moved to Leningrad, where it became the 55th Aviaeskadril'ya in 1927. The 2nd Otdel'nyi razvedivatel'nyi aviaotryad at Tashkent had disposed of its LVG aircraft and re-equipped with six Junkers F 13s early 1924. Three of these were those taken over from Dobrolet (c/ns 669, 670 and 672)-one marked 1 was ex-R-RDAT. The Dobrolet machines were converted into makeshift bombers by removing two of the passenger seats and mounting a Lewis machine-gun in the rear window on each side. Bomb racks were fitted beneath the wings. Based at Khiva together with a number of D.H.9As the F 13s were immediately put into service for reconnaissance, bombing and transport in one of the campaigns against the so-called basmachi insurgents. On 1 October 1924 one of this unit's machines (c/n 666) was flown to Kabul and handed over to the Afghan Government.
   Early in 1925 three F 13s were acquired from Junkers (c/ns 677, 691 and 753) and two of these were assigned to the 4th Otdel'nyi razvedivatel'nyi aviaotryad, a Ju 21-equipped unit based at Tashkent. The three taken over briefly from Zakavia by the 47th (later 7th) Otdel'nyi razvedivatel'nyi aviaotryad at Tiflis were given back to the company, but two of them (c/n 668 and 674) were returned to the VVS inventory in May 1925. They remained with the 7th Otdel'nyi razvedivatel'nyi aviaotryad, later the 44th Aviaotryad until 1928. At the end of 1925 another three were purchased from Junkers: c/ns 630, ex- R-RECF of Junkers-Luftverkehr, 733 and 767. Two went to the 4th Otdel'nyi razvedivatel'nyi aviaotryad and one became a personal transport for the VVS Commander in the Central Asian Military District. Krasnyi Ural (c/n 671) of Ural Aviakhim and an F 13 that had been in China (c/n 648) were added to the VVS inventory around 1928.
   The F 13s based at Tashkent were later used by the Ju-21-equipped 35th and 40th Aviaotryady. One crashed in 1930 but the other two were handed over to the new 95th Transportnyi otryad at Tashkent in 1931-32. This unit had a total of three F 13s. The 5th Otdel'naya Razvedivatel'naya Aviaeskadril'ya (later the 22nd Aviapark) at Khar'kov, the 84th Training aviaotryad and the Nil VVS also used single F 13s. Ten of the military F 13s were transferred to Dobrolet between 1927 and 1929. About twenty different F 13s were used by the VVS altogether but the number on charge at one time never exceeded about a dozen. By January 1934 only one remained. The following F 13s saw VVS service: c/ns 586, (590), 630, 637, 647, 648, (658), 661, 666, 668, 669, 670, 671, 672, 674, 677, 691, 733, 753 and 767.
   Some of the Soviet Junkers F 13s were exported to other countries. Afghanistan received one on 1 October 1924 (c/n 666), Persia was supplied with two on 22 May 1924 (c/ns 675 and 676), Mongolia got one on 30 May 1925 and two were sent to the Canton Government in China in May 1926 (c/n 648 and 677).

   185hp BMW IIIa (310hp Junkers L 5)
   Span 17.75m; length 9.6 (9.8) m; height 3.3; wing area 43 nr
   Empty weight 1,160 (1,415) kg; loaded weight 1,800 (2,300) kg
   Maximum speed 165 (208) km/h; cruising speed 135 (170) km/h; landing speed 80 (90) km/h; climb to 1,000m in 7min; ceiling 4,300 (5,000) m

A.Jackson British Civil Aircraft since 1919 vol.3 (Putnam)

Junkers F.13

   All-metal, low wing transport for four cabin passengers and two crew in an open cockpit, powered by one 385 h.p. Junkers L.5 and built by Junkers Flugzeug und Motorenwerke A.G. at Dessau, Germany from 1919. One model F.13fe aircraft, G-EBZV, imported 1928 for Rt. Hon. F. E. Guest, Hanworth, was re-engined in 1930 with one 450 h.p. Bristol Jupiter VI. Four 1929 model F.13ge aircraft with enclosed cockpits were imported by Trost Bros. Ltd., Croydon for air taxi work 1929-30.
   Span, 58 ft. 3 in. Length, 31 ft. 6 in. Tare wt., 3,330 lb. A.U.W., 5,960 lb. Max. speed, 123 m.p.h. Cruise, 106 m.p.h.

J.Stroud The World's Airliners (Putnam)

In the pioneering period of air transport most aircraft manufacturing countries persisted with the biplane, generally with wood or metal structure covered with fabric or in some cases partly with plywood. Germany also built transport biplanes but made two major contributions to the development of the transport aeroplane - the design of all-metal structures and the use of the cantilever monoplane, that is an aircraft whose wing has no external bracing.
   By far the biggest producer of German transport aircraft was Junkers, and as early as 1909 Professor Hugo Junkers had made drawings of a thick-wing cantilever monoplane. The first Junkers all-metal aeroplane appeared in 1915 and during 1917 there appeared for the first time a Junkers cantilever low-wing monoplane with corrugated metal skin.
   As soon as the war ended, Junkers began design of the first all-metal transport monoplane which was destined to be put into production and enter airline service. This was the J 13, soon to be redesignated F 13, and it made its first flight on 25 June 1919.
   In layout the F 13 was a single-engined low-wing monoplane with semi-enclosed cockpit for two crew and a completely enclosed cabin for four passengers. Originally the water-cooled engine was a 160/170 hp Mercedes D.IIIa but the early production aeroplanes had the 185 hp BMW IIIa. The F 13 remained in production until 1930, a total of 322 was built, they had a wide variety of engines and there were some sixty to seventy variations on the basic design. F 13s operated on wheel, float and ski undercarriages and played a big part in establishing air transport in Europe and many other parts of the world.
   The F 13 led to a whole series of transport aeroplanes all using the same basic layout and structure although they became progressively bigger, heavier and faster as well as more reliable.

Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
THE JUNKERS (GERMAN) TOURING MONOPLANE: Three-quarter front view. This machine, which is built of metal throughout, is of the "wireless" type, having no external lift bracing. The wings are built up of tubes and covered with corrugated aluminium sheet, as is also the fuselage. On September 13 last this machine is said to have reached an altitude of 6,750 metres (about 22,200 ft.) with eight people on board. The engine is a 185 h.p. B.M.W. ("Bavarian Motor Works").
The pilot sits in front of the cabin, immediately behind the engine
P.Jarrett, K.Munson - Biplane to Monoplane: Aircraft Development, 1919-39 /Putnam/
The Junkers F 13 was the first aIl-metal airliner to be put into production. Luft Hansa's Nachtigall (Nightingale) is seen at Berlin-Tempelhof. D-1 is believed to have been the first F 13, although originally registered D-183.
P.Jarrett, K.Munson - Biplane to Monoplane: Aircraft Development, 1919-39 /Putnam/
A Junkers F 13 of Swiss airline Ad Astra Aero displays the distinctive Junkers corrugated metal skinning, retained throughout the interwar years. The loss of a British registered F 13 in a crash at Meopham, Kent, on 21 July 1930 was one of the first recognised cases of structural failure due to metal fatigue.
A.Jackson - British Civil Aircraft since 1919 vol.3 /Putnam/
Junkers F.13
P.Jarrett, K.Munson - Biplane to Monoplane: Aircraft Development, 1919-39 /Putnam/
Prevented by the Treaty of Versailles from producing military aircraft, Germany turned instead to civil aviation. The Junkers F 13 was one of the most widely used civil transport aircraft in the world during the 1920s.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
THE JUNKERS TOURING MONOPLANE: Three-quarter rear view
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
The Junkers Touring Monoplane: The cabin and the eight passengers with which the machine reached 22,200 ft.
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
Junkers F 13 O.T.A. (c/n 637) of the Otryad tyazheloi aviatsii (Heavy Aviation Flight), Moscow 1925. A total of about twenty F 13s served with the VVF in the transport, training and auxiliary bombing roles.
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
Military personnel with the pilot P M Zakharov (centre), below the propeller of a VVS Junkers F 13. Zakharov was later employed by Deruluft.
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
R-RDAE Prombank (c/n 656) was one of the first twenty Junkers F 13s ordered by Dobrolet and delivered in 1923.
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
Dobrolet's R-RDAO Krasnyi kamvol'shchik (c/ n 648) was presented to the company with two other Junkers F 13s on 25 November, 1923.
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
Two Dobrolet Junkers F 13s participated in the Moscow-Peking flight in the summer of 1925. R-RDAP Pravda (c/n 673) was flown by V B Kopylov.
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
Junkers F 13 R-RDAA (c/n 649) Mossovet, probably during a flight made by V L Galyshev from Krasnoyarsk to the north in March 1926.
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
Junkers F 13 R-RODB Vse v Aviakhim (c/n 749) was acquired by Aviakhim in 1925 to replace the earlier R-RODB (c/n b92), which had crashed.
В.Шавров - История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.
Самолет "Юнкерс" Ю-13
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
In May-June 1929 Junkers F 13 URSS-145 Mossovet (c/n 649) was equipped for aerial spraying and tested in the vicinity of Lake Baikal (Pilot S V Lyalin).
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
Starting in 1922 more than sixty Junkers F 13s saw service in the Soviet Union. R-RECB (c/n 547) was registered to Junkers-Luftverkehr in Moscow in 1923.
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
Dobrolet opened its Central Asian network with nine Junkers F 13s. R-RDAC, R-RDAK and R-RDAL were named Dekhan-Khlopkorob, Tashkentskii zheleznodorozhnik and Irregator and presented to Dobrolet at Tashkent on 1 May, 1924.
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
Two different aircraft were registered R-RECG (c/ns 569 and 693). Junkers-Luftverkehr used a total of ten Junkers F 13s in the Soviet Union before the company moved its activities to Persia.
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
The first aircraft on the Khabarovsk-Sakhalin route in the Far East of the USSR was Junkers F 13 CCCP-127 (c/n 670), seen here in January 1930.
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
Junkers F 13 R-RDAM Sibrevkom (c/n 645) was acquired by Sibaviakhim from Dobrolet in 1924 and was later re-registered R-RSAA. Photographed somewhere in the Altai mountains, July 1925.
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
Junkers F 13 D-257 (c/n 647) was delivered to the RKKVF in May 1923 and is seen here with both German registration and red stars.
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
Junkers F 13 R-RASA (C/n 668) was the only aircraft acquired hy Azdobrolet and based at Baku in Azerbaidzhan. At the end of 1923 it was taken over by Zakavia, a company based at Tiflis.
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
These two Junkers F 13s (c/ns 675 and 676) were delivered to Persia in May 1924. Note the machine-gun stands. One of the five D.H. 9As delivered at the same time is seen in the background.
J.Stroud - The World's Airliners /Putnam/
One of Ad Astra Aero’s Junkers-F 13 twin-float seaplanes.
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
The air force of the Chinese Kuomintang Government at Canton received two float-equipped Junkers F 13 transports from the Soviet Union in 1926.