В.Обухович, А.Никифоров Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
В процессе производства самолет FF 33 был серьезно модернизирован. Так в 1917 г. был создан FF 39 - улучшенный вариант FF 33e несколько больших размеров с двигателем Бенц Bz.IV (200 л, с), Он дополнительно производился по лицензии двумя компаниями. В общей сложности было построено 235 машин. Самолеты обладали очень надежной конструкцией. Один из них, после вынужденной посадки на воду в Северном море, дрейфовал в неспокойном море более пяти суток и был обнаружен рыбаками в 60 км от Норвегии. Самолет почти не был поврежден.
Развитием FF 39 стал вариант FF 49с, созданный в середине 1917 г., отличавшийся усиленной конструкцией планера. Поверхности управления имели аэродинамическую компенсацию. На борту самолета устанавливалась радиостанция и вооружение. Произведено около 270 машин данной модификации, в том числе компаниями "Саблатниг" и LFG. FF 49с успешно использовались до конца войны. Вариант FF 49b с двигателем Бенц Bz.IV представлял собой бомбардировщик без оборонительного вооружения, Конструкция самолета была аналогична FF 33. Место пилота находилось в задней кабине. Было построено 25 таких машин.
В середине 1918 г. на базе FF 39 был создан еще один самолет - FF 59с. Новая машина имела измененное хвостовое оперение. Коробка крыльев стала безрасчалочной. Межкрыльевые стойки были сдвинуты к концам крыльев для того, чтобы была возможность вести огонь из турельного пулемета. Кроме того, было изготовлено по одному самолету модификаций FF 59а и FF 59b, которые отличались хвостовым оперением.
O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)
Friedrichshafen FF 39
Some fourteen machines of FF 39 type, which was virtually a refined FF 33e, were supplied from December 1915 onwards. It was used for reconnaissance patrol duties and carried a radio transmitter. Engine, 200 h.p. Benz Bz IV. Span, 17.1 m. (56 ft. 1 3/8 in.). Length. 11.6 m. (38 ft. 0 3/4 in.). Height, 4.3 m. (14 ft. 1 3/8 in.). Area. 68.4 sq.m. (739 sq.ft.) Weights: Empty, 1,438 kg. (3,164 lb.). Loaded. 2.102 kg. (4.624lb.). Speed 137km.hr. (85.625 m.p.h.). Climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 9 min. Duration 5 hr. Armament, one manually operated Parabellum machine-gun in rear cockpit.
Friedrichshafen FF 49c
As a successor to the FF 33j reconnaissance patrol seaplane the Friedrichshafen firm brought out, in May 1917, the FF 49c, although the two types were actually interspersed with a short production batch of FF 39, which amounted to only fourteen aircraft.
To obtain the required increase in performance more power was obviously necessary, and to this end the FF 49c was fitted with the 200 h.p. Benz Bz IV, another engine of proven reliability. A satisfying improvement resulted and, together with an all-round strengthening of the airframe structure, a more rugged and reliable aeroplane resulted. On more than one occasion 49cs made open-sea landings to rescue other crews and experienced little difficulty in taking off again with the double load.
In appearance the FF 49c was generally similar to the 33j, although larger. Balancing of all controls improved the handling qualities and lessened pilot fatigue, an important consideration on long patrols. It also enabled the aircraft to give a good account of itself if attacked, as the observer was now armed with a machine-gun, which had not previously been the case with the older FF reconnaissance types. Both transmitting and receiving radio-telegraphy equipment was fitted, which enabled the crews to receive instructions during patrols as well as to transmit their observations.
A special bomber variant of this machine existed, and was known as the 49b. This was almost identical except that the pilot was moved to the aft cockpit and the observer was not equipped with a machine-gun. Only twenty-five of this variant were built.
The FF 49c itself was found to possess such a degree of efficiency that it remained in service right up to the end of the war. About 235 aircraft were built by the parent firm and various sub-contractors.
Testimony to the ruggedness of the type is to be found in the experiences of FF49c No. 1874, which, early on 10th May 1918, was swung out from the seaplane carrier Santa Helena for a reconnaissance patrol over English coastal waters. With an N.C.O. crew - Hans Sommermann (pilot) and Georg Patzoldt (observer) - the Friedrichshafen took off in company with another 49c and commenced to map a new minefield they discovered when they eventually reached their patrol zone. This they continued to do until the fuel gauges indicated time for return; Patzoldt signalled the crew of the accompanying seaplane, whereupon they turned in the direction of Germany.
By 11.00 hours, after some six hours in the air, fuel was exhausted, the parent carrier ship nowhere in sight; both aircraft alighted on the water, radioing SOS calls as they glided down. On touching down, the sea anchors were streamed to avoid drifting, as surface rescue vessels from either Borkum or Norderney were expected to reach them before dark. However, night fell with no sign of rescue, and with it came a freshening of the wind. The pangs of hunger and thirst became manifest to the crews, but there was no water other than that in the radiators, which, having been mixed with glycerine, was barely palatable. Soon after midnight a strong sea came up and No. 1874 broke away from her sea anchor and rapidly started to drift.
The drift continued, all through a stormy and overcast Sunday and again through another anxious night. Every second hour the crew of No. 1874 fired Very lights in the hope of attracting the attention of some vessel. With the break of another day came the hope that as the drift had been towards the English coast, perhaps they might be picked up by the Royal Navy, but no vessels materialised, and so their ordeal continued. The wind now backed to the south-west, and the seaplane began to drift away from British waters out into the North Sea again.
On the fifth day a list developed which they sought to correct by hacking away part of a wing panel but were too weak to wield the axe. Fog obscured the view on the sixth day, but when eventually it lifted fishing vessels were sighted, but these ignored all signals. Eventually, well after midday, Patzoldt somehow managed to tear out a piece of rib to which he fastened his handkerchief, and at last a vessel moved in to pick them up. This was the Swedish fishing smack Argo II, whose master later explained that he had interpreted the red Very lights they had fired as warnings to keep away - had white lights been fired he would have immediately come alongside, but by then they had none left.
Sommermann and Patzoldt were rescued some 27 miles from the Norwegian coast, and, exactly a week after their ordeal began, were landed at the Swedish port of Marstrand. Here they learned that their companion FF 49c had been rescued on the fourth day by a Dutch boat whose attention had been ingeniously attracted by SOS bursts from the aircraft's machine-gun.
It was finally reckoned, when Sommermann and Patzoldt returned to Germany, that the FF 49c No. 1874 had drifted almost twice across the North Sea in a period of some 140 hours.
Description: Two-seat reconnaissance patrol twin-float seaplane.
Manufacturers: Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen G.m.b.H.
Sub-contractors: Luftfahrzeug Gesellschaft m.b.H.; Sablatnig Flugzeugbau G.m.b.H.
Power Plant: One 200 h.p. Benz Bz IV 6 cylinder in-line water-cooled engine.
Dimensions: Span, 17.15 m. (56 ft. 3 1/4 in.). Length, 11.65 m. (38 ft. 2 3/4 in ). Height, 4.5 m. (14 ft. 9 1/4 in.). Wing area, 71.16 sq.m. (768.5 sq.ft.).
Weights: Empty, 1.515 kg. (3,333 lb.). Loaded, 2,147 kg. (4,723.4 lb.).
Performance: Maximum speed, 139.5 km.hr. (87.4 m.p.h.). Initial climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 8 min. Duration, 5 2/3 hr.
Armament: One fixed Spandau machine-gun forward and one manually operated Parabellum machine-gun in rear cockpit.
N.B. Data is general. Many machines had slight detail differences from batch to batch.
Friedrichshafen FF 49 B
This seaplane, of which twenty-live examples were built, was a 49c modified solely for bombing duties. For this role the positions of the crew were reversed, with the pilot in the rear cockpit. No armament was fitted but radio transmitting gear was carried. Engine, 200 h.p. Benz Bz IV. Span, 17.35 m. (56 ft. 11 1/8 in.). Length, 11.525 m. (37 ft. 9 3/4 in.). Height, 4.25 m. (13 ft. 11 3/8 in.). Area, 71.16 sq.m. (769 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 1,432 kg. (3,150 lb.). Loaded, 2,097 kg. (4,613 lb.). Speed, 152 km.hr. (95 m.p.h.). Climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 91 min. Duration, 5 1/2 hr. Armament, none.
Friedrichshafen FF 59a, FF 59b
Two versions of the FF 59 with modified tail surfaces, which led eventually to the FF 59c, for details of which see following page, all general details being applicable.
Friedrichshafen FF 59c
Supplied from June 1918 onwards, the FF 59c reverted to the less powerful 200 h.p. Benz engine and was little more than a modified FF 39 fitted with both transmitting and receiving radio equipment. The inboard bracing cables were deleted, thus enabling the gunner to hazard a shot forward between the wings should the necessity arise. Span, 17.8 m. (58 ft. 4 7/8 in.). Length, 11.3 m. (37 ft. 1 in.). Height, 4.25 m. (13 ft. 11 3/8 in.). Area, 71.5 sq.m. (772 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 1,588 kg. (3,494 lb.). Loaded, 2,248 kg. (4,946 lb.). Speed, 142 km.hr. (88.75 m.p.h.). Climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 8.9 min., 3,000 m. (9,840 ft.) in 49.7 min. Duration, 5 2/3 hr. Armament, one manually operated Parabellum machine-gun in rear cockpit.
А.Александров, Г.Петров Крылатые пленники России
В сентябре 1917 г. дальнейшее совершенствование конструкции привело к созданию моделей ФФ.49б и ФФ. 49ц, выпуск которых составил соответственно 25 и около 240 единиц. Обе модели были оснащены двигателями "Бенц" 200 л. с., но если первая вооружалась лишь 1 подвижным пулеметом "Парабеллум" кал. 7,92 мм, то вторая несла вдобавок еще и неподвижный "Шпандау" в носовой части. Несколько таких трехстоечных бипланов-тракторов были брошены немцами при уходе из Севастополя в 1918 г., в частности, аппарат с флотским номером 1544 (47, а из коллекции Т. Дарси), и один из них, принадлежавший белым, а потому с привычной трехцветной русской кокардой на фюзеляже, изображен на фотографии 47, б (из коллекции Т. Дарси).
Flight, October 16, 1919.
SOME FRIEDRICHSHAFEN "MILESTONES"
PROBABLY no other German aircraft firm can show such a series of seaplanes as that produced by the Friedrichshafen Aircraft Works (Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen) during the War, and for this reason a brief reference to the various types, illustrated by photographs, may not be without interest to readers of FLIGHT. The illustrations have been published in Flugsport, and the following is a translation of the descriptive matter accompanying the photographs :-
"The Friedrichshafen Aircraft Works is the oldest German firm which has devoted its energies almost exclusively to the production of seaplanes. The firm was founded in 1912 and has produced a great number of seaplane types, under the efficient leadership of its founder and managing director, Dipl. Ing. Theodor Kober, who has been ably supported by his associates, in close co-operation with the Naval authorities and with various scientific institutions. The main sphere of activity of the firm was the construction, testing, and quantity production of seaworthy single-engined seaplanes of the types used by the German Navy for reconnaissance flights over the North Sea and the Baltic. That the firm was successful in this is proved by the fact that they have been able to supply practically all the requirements of the German Navy, and that a number of other firms have built their machines under licence. Among these may be mentioned the Luftfahrzeug Gesellschaft, the Sablatnig Aircraft Works, the Gothaer Waggonfabrik and the Warnemunde Aircraft Works. As the seaworthiness of a machine depends not only on the right shape of float, but also upon the strength of the floats and undercarriage, on the correct amount of buoyancy and on controllability when alighting, it will be seen what an abundance of experience has to be collected in order to fulfil the specifications for a seaworthy seaplane. A large proportion of the experiments was formed by tests on floats, of which over 100 types were produced. The F.F. machines, which have been well proved during the War, are all of the twin-float type, although before the War single-float machines and flying boats were also tried.
"One object of the experiments was, among other things, to determine the number and placing of steps which best suited the different types of machines for starting and landing, and what float shape gave the best results for taxying. At the same time the floats should combine small air resistance and great rigidity with small weight, while the most suitable, strongest, and lightest construction of float details also required much work and very many experiments. The following are the most important types of seaplanes produced by the Friedrichshafen Aircraft Works :-
"The F.F. 39C.
"As a result of the ever-increasing military demands, the reconnaissance machine type F.F. 33J, which was fitted with a 150 h.p. Benz engine, and which had already done extremely good work, had to be replaced by the F.F. 39C, which was fitted with a 200 h.p. Benz. Generally speaking the construction of the 39C was similar to that of the 33J, but on account of the larger engine, the dimensions were increased. Also the floats were of a different form (Fig. 19). The stagger was somewhat greater than that of the 33J, and various details were different so as to combine light weight with small resistance.
Flight, October 23, 1919.
SOME FRIEDRICHSHAFEN "MILESTONES"
"The F.F. 49C
represented a considerable improvement on the type F.F. 39. It is shown in Figs. 28 to 30. The main data relating to it are :- Weight empty and without water, 3,260 lbs.; load, 1,430 lbs.; total weight, 4,690 lbs.; length o.a., 38 ft. 2 in.; span, 55 ft. 6 in.; float volume, 80 cub. ft.; speed, 80-87 m.p.h.; taking-off speed, 50 m.p.h.; climb to 6,600 ft. in 30 minutes; duration, 5 1/2 hours.
"This machine gives a very robust impression and is at first sight even somewhat clumsy. There is nothing "streamliny" or light about it, but everything is heavy and strong. It is clearly seen that in the construction of this machine not only the aerodynamical expert but also the sailor has had a say. The object which the constructor had to attain was to produce an aircraft which, with a 220 h.p. engine and a load of about 1,430 lbs., should have the greatest possible seaworthiness, and an experience extending over more than two years has shown that this object has been attained in a most complete manner.
"By seaworthiness is understood the capabilities of the seaplane to start, land and taxi under certain conditions of wind and sea with full load, and piloted by an average pilot. As, in spite of the fact that the designer chiefly aimed at seaworthiness - the machine had a very good performance - it shows how thoroughly the construction has been thought out. A speed of 87 m.p.h. and a climb of 6,600 ft. in 25 to 30 minutes must be considered exceptionally good for a seaplane; especially is the latter satisfactory in view of the fact that seaplanes are usually flown at fairly low altitudes. In the air the machine is very comfortable and easy to fly. The manoeuvrability is extraordinarily good, considering that the machine weighs over 2 tons and has a span of 55 ft. 6 ins.
"As already mentioned the machine had an opportunity of proving itself during the latter part of the war. It might be further pointed out that on several occasions the crews of other seaplanes have been rescued with this type, and that even with the extra load of the rescued crew the machine has started from a fairly rough sea. Or another example: A machine of this type has floated about in a high sea for seven days at the end of which time the crew - which long ago had been given up as lost - were rescued. The FF. 49C was also used as a reconnaissance machine with one movable machine gun and wireless apparatus.
"The F.F. 49B
was used purely as a bomber (Fig. 31). In general dimensions and design, the 49B is similar to the F.F. 49C, but in the 49B the pilot occupies the rear seat, while the observer sits in front with the telescopic bomb sights.
"The F.F. 59B
"As a result of the requirements for reconnaissance machines to be capable of defending themselves against attack, and even under suitable conditions to go over to attack, the F.F. 59C shown in Figs. 32 and 33 was so designed that with the rear machine gun the gunner could fire forward between the first pair of interplane struts and the propeller disc, whilst the fixed machine gun was worked by the pilot. In order to give as large a field of fire as possible to the rear machine gun, the inner front interplane strut was moved outwards slightly farther than the corresponding rear strut, and the wing bracing of the inner bay was entirely omitted.
"As a result of the very extensive experience of seaplane construction for War purposes, the Friedrichshafen aircraft works on Lake Constance and its branch factory at Warnemunde are in a position to, and are making every effort to, take up the construction of seaplanes for commercial purposes. As the firm has up till now chiefly devoted its energies to the construction of seaworthy seaplanes, it will be seen that it is in a better position than many other firms to construct seaworthy commercial and sporting seaplanes of all types. Especially suitable for this purpose would be the types which have proved themselves during the war, such as F.F. 49C, 33J(S), 33L, 41A, and 64. The type F.F. 49C is, it will be seen from the particulars given above, especially suitable for commercial work. The useful load of 1,430 lbs. may be divided up in different ways, according to the purpose for which the machine is intended, between crew, fuel passengers and mail. For instance, with sufficient fuel for 3 1/2 hours over 600 lbs. of useful load could be carried. For passenger carrying it would be easy to provide seating accommodation, either open or closed, enabling the machine to carry two or possibly three passengers in addition to the pilot.
"Seaworthiness means safety. Safety is one of the chief considerations for a commercial aeroplane. Since the seaworthiness of this type has never, in spite of the greatest efforts, been beaten by the machines of any other firm, it would appear that also in post-war competition it will be one of the most suitable types and difficult to beat. Much the same may be said about the lower-powered machines FF. 33J, F.F. 33S and F.F. 64. Especially would the latter machine offer great advantages for commercial work to ship-owners for carrying on board as a ship's 'plane. For instance, it would be possible without going into port, or in other words without any appreciable loss of time, to put ashore or to take on board single passengers or mail. Or, before arriving at the port of destination an officer could be sent ashore in the machine with the ship's papers, thus not only saving time but possibly also making a considerable profit on goods carried through being first in. Also the passenger who is in a hurry can be sent on ahead in the machine, thus shortening his time of crossing by as much as 10 hours. On the other hand, the machine can fetch mail from ashore so that the mail can be on board the ship several hours before she reaches port. The machine can be employed to assist in navigation on approaching the coast in bad weather, and it can also be utilised for flying ahead of the ship, spotting for floating mines. In case of accident it may possibly be used for obtaining assistance quickly. Also from the land, the machine can be used with advantage. For instance, a merchant could be flown out to meet the incoming ship, which is carrying an agent, so that all the business could be transacted by the time the ship arrived in port, thus beating the competitors who have remained ashore. For use by salvage companies it would be possible to use the seaplane for taking an engineer to the place of the stranding in the shortest possible time, where he could photograph the stranded ship and even, if the sea is not too rough, alight and go on board the wrecked ship, so that the salvage contract could be completed before a competitor could arrive by steamer in the ordinary way. F.F. 33L is very suitable for practice flying for young pilots, and would make a good sporting machine. It is light and very comfortable to fly and requires little storage space, while being easy to dismantle and erect. All of which are qualities that make it specially suitable as a sporting machine for the private owner.
"If it is a question of carrying relatively great loads at lower speeds, a machine similar to the type F.F. 41A or to the type F.F. 33, with two 260 h.p. Mercedes engines, would be suitable."