C.Jerzy Polish Aircraft 1893-1939 (Putnam)
Monoplane of the 'Three'
Three Lwow teenage students, Aleksander Sokalski, Kazimierz Baszniak and Wlodzimierz Semiula, built an exceedingly primitive tractor monoplane in the second half of 1910. The airframe was completed in November of that year and stored in the Rubczynski garage in Lwow for the winter. The young designers hoped to equip their machine with an engine and begin trials during the following spring, but this never happened.
The aircraft of the 'Three' was a light single-seat open-frame wire-braced high-wing monoplane. Its framework was built entirely of wood and its controls appeared to consist of a rudder and movable horizontal tail surfaces, which acted either in unison like elevators, or differentially, like ailerons. No details regarding the structure are available, but the general configuration and salient features of the design are apparent from the photograph reproduced here.