В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны
АНСАЛЬДО S.V.A.5 / ANSALDO S.V.A.5
Цельнодеревянный биплан со смешанной обшивкой. Фюзеляж покрыт фанерными листами, крылья и оперение - полотном. Вместо стоек бипланной коробки применены диагональные раскосы из стальных труб обтекаемого сечения. Первый одноместный вариант S.V.A.5 спроектирован летом 1917 года инженерами Савойя и Вердуццио. Выпускался крупной серией на туринской фирме Ансальдо, принадлежавшей концерну ФИАТ. Всего построено 1245 экземпляров машины.
С февраля 1918 года самолет активно и весьма успешно применялся на итало-австрийском фронте в качестве скоростного разведчика и легкого бомбардировщика. S.V.A.5 обладал значительным по тем временам радиусом действия. Несмотря на отсутствие защитного вооружения, "Ансальдо" совершали дальние рейды в глубокий тыл австрийской армии. Высокая скорость и большой потолок позволяли им не опасаться вражеских зениток и истребителей.
SPA 6a, 220 л.с.
На некоторые S.V.A.5 ставили синхропулемет "Виккерс", на S.V.A.10 - турельный пулемет "Ревелли". До 90 кг бомб.
Размах, м 9,10
Длина, м 8,10
Высота, м 3,20
Площадь крыла, кв.м 30,0
Сухой вес, кг 700
Взлетный вес, кг 1050
мощность, л. с. 220
Скорость макс., км/ч 220
Набор высоты, м/мин 1000/5
Дальность полета, км 1000
Потолок, м 6000
Экипаж, чел. 1
Вооружение 1 пулемет
90 кг бомб
А.Шепс Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
S.V.A.5 1917 г.
Одновременно с истребителем A-1 "Балилла" фирма выпустила под обозначением S.V.A ("Савойя Вердуццио Ансальдо" - филиал фирмы) серию разведчиков и легких бомбардировщиков, имевших аналогичную конструкцию и даже внешне похожих на него. Отличались они только большими размерами и увеличенным размахом крыла. Машины выпускались как одноместные, так и двух- и трехместные, что вело к изменению конструкции кабины.
Устанавливались различные варианты вооружения. Машины строились как в ходе войны, так и после ее окончания и поставлялись в ряд европейских и латиноамериканских стран.
S.V.A.5 - одноместный разведчик с двигателем SPA-6a (220 л. с.), двухстоечный биплан, конструктивно повторявший А-1 "Балилла".
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919
THE S.V.A. BIPLANE.
The famous engineering and shipbuilding concern, the Societa Gio Ansaldo of Genoa, is now making aircraft upon a very large scale. This firm, which is comparable in this country only with Vickers', Armstrong's, or Beardmore's, or in Germany with Krupps', is governed by the brothers Pio and Mario Perrone. These enterprising men, both of whom are but slightly past forty years of age, have shown enterprise in every department of engineering, and it is not surprising, therefore that their aeronautical products are equally original and successful.
The Ansaldo firm has incorporated the S.I.T. (Societa Italiana Transaerea, Turin) business, which holds the Bleriot and Voisin licenses for Italy, and the F.I.A.T. Saint-Georgio business for the manufacture of aero-engines at Muggiano. In addition an important aircraft works has been established at Borzoli, near Genoa, the whole establishment being raised upon green fields within eight months.
An aerodrome site was purchased about six miles from the works, the surrounding terrain being unsuited to this purpose. A number of houses were pulled down to clear the ground, and a first-class testing depot established.
Owing to the difficulty of procuring steel tube suitable for aircraft work, the firm laid down tube mills to work to make its own. And as first-class wing fabric was scarce, they installed a silk-weaving plant to make special fabric for themselves.
They then commenced to build S.V.A. 5 (Savoia-Verduzio-Ansaldo) aeroplanes, successful examples being single-seater land machines and seaplanes, whose most noteworthy feature is the use of triangularly arranged tubular interplane struts, much after the practice prevailing before the war in certain German biplanes and in the French Clement-Bayard biplane, the object in view being the elimination of unnecessary bracing cables.
On a land machine of this description the military .aviator Stoppani flew from Turin to Rome in 2 hr. 50 mm. This machine is regarded as a long-distance fighter, and can carry fuel for eight hours, in the course of which it will fly between 1,600 and 1,700 kilometres, which represents the distance from Rome to Paris. When some of the fuel carrying capacity is utilised for bomb loads the machine becomes a formidable raiding unit. The seaplane is a similar machine fitted with long, narrow twin floats of Howard Wright type.
Some idea of the extent of the activities of the Perrone Bros, may be judged from the fact that they employ over 60,000 workmen in their various factories, an important proportion of whom are engaged upon aircraft construction.
During 1918, the firm absorbed the O. Pomilio Aircraft Company, of Turin, mentioned elsewhere in this work.
The principal outstanding work done by S.V.A. in the war was the pacific raid of 7 machines on Vienna, a 700 mile flight done in under 7 hrs. The firm are exclusively fitting the 220 S.P.A. 6-cylinder engines. During the early part of this year most of Italy's crack pilots were flying or in expectation of flying S.V.A. machines. The famous Baracca and Serenissima escadrilles are using them exclusively,
THE S.V.A. 4 BIPLANE
Type of machine Single-seater Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine S.V.A. (Savoia-Verduzio-Ansaldo).
Purpose for which intended Single-seater reconnaissance.
Span 29 ft. 10 in.
Overall length 26 ft. 7 in.
Maximum height 10 ft. 6 in.
Engine type and h.p. 220 h.p. S.P.A. 6A (Ansaldo).
Weight of machine empty 1,900 lbs
Weight per h.p. 13.2 lbs.
Tank capacity In gallons 75 gallons.
Speed low down 140 m.p.h.
Landing speed 45 m.p.h.
To 20.000 feet in minutes 30 mins.
Total weight of machine loaded 2,900 lbs.
THE S.V.A. 5 BIPLANE.
Type of machine Single-seater.
Name or type No. of machine S.V.A. 5 Primo.
Purpose for which Intended Daylight bomber and reconnaissance.
Span 29 ft. 10 In.
Length 26 ft. 7 in.
Height 10 ft. 6 in.
Total lifting surface 261 sq.ft.
Engine type and h.p. S.P.A. 6A 200 h.p.. 6 cyl., vertical. 225 h.p. at 1700 r.p.m.
Tractor screw Two-bladed.
Weight empty 1450 lbs.
Tank capacity In hours 6-7 hours.
Speed at sea level 143 m.p.h.
Landing speed 45m.p.h.
To 10,000 feet in minutes 10 mins.
To 20,000 feet in minutes 28 mins.
Useful load with tanks full About 450 lbs. has been flown with 650 lbs.
Total weight with tanks full and full load of bombs 2,315 lbs.
W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters
ANSALDO S.V.A. Italy
In the summer of 1916, Ingegneri Umberto Savoia and Rodolfo Verduzio of the Direzione Tecnica dell' Aeronautica Militare (Technical Directorate of Military Aviation), together with Ingegner Celestino Rosatelli, began designing a single-seat fighter around the 205 hp SPA 6A six-cylinder water-cooled engine. The task of supervising the development and production of the fighter was assigned to the Societa Ansaldo, and thus the prototype, first flown on 19 March 1917, was designated S.V.A. (Savoia-Verduzio-Ansaldo). The S.V. A. was a conventional biplane of wooden construction with interplane bracing of the Warren truss type and an armament of two synchronised 7,7-mm Vickers machine guns. It displayed exceptional speed but, inherently stable, was considered to lack the manoeuvrability demanded for fighter-versus-fighter combat. However, its excellent range rendered it suitable for the reconnaissance fighter role, and the Aviazione Militare decided to adopt the S.V.A. for this task. Deliveries of the initial production version, the S.V.A.2, had meanwhile commenced in the autumn of 1917, 65 being built by the year's end and this model being assigned to training.
Max speed, 137mph (220 km/h).
Time to 9,840 ft (3000 m), 11.35 min.
Endurance, 3 hrs.
Empty weight, 1,477 lb (670 kg).
Loaded weight, 2,100 lb (952 kg).
Span, 29 ft 10 1/4 in (9,10 m).
Length. 26 ft 6 7/8 in (8,10 m).
Height, 8 ft 8 1/3 in (2,65 m).
Wing area, 260.49 sq ft (24,2 m3).
ANSALDO S.V.A.3 Italy
Built under licence by the AER concern at Orbassano, the S.V.A.3 was a reconnaissance fighter production derivative of the S.V.A. fighter, and essentially similar to the S.V.A.4 built in parallel by the Ansaldo factories at Borzoli and Bolzaneto. In the spring of 1918 a special interceptor version was produced, this having wings of reduced span and area. Known as the S.V.A.3 ridotto (reduced), this model was used primarily for airship interception, and although standard armament remained two synchronised 7,7-mm Vickers guns, some examples were fitted with an additional weapon firing upwards at an oblique angle. Power was provided by an SPA 6A engine of 220 hp.
Max speed, 149 mph (240 km/h).
Time to 13,125 ft (4 000 m), 13min.
Endurance, 3 hrs.
Empty weight, 1,470 lb (667 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,965 lb (891 kg).
Span, 25 ft 5 1/8 in (7,75 m).
Length, 26 ft 6 7/8 in (8.10 m).
Height, 8 ft 8 1/3 in (2,65 m).
Wing area, 236.8 sq ft (22,0 m2).
The S.VA.4 was the first reconnaissance fighter development of the S.V.A. to be built in substantial quantities. It did not demand an escort in performing reconnaissance missions as it could accept combat with fighters on reasonably equal terms, and break off combat at will by utilising its high speed. It was powered by a 205 hp SPA 6A six-cylinder water-cooled engine, and normally carried two synchronised 7,7-mm Vickers guns, although the starboard gun was sometimes removed when a reconnaissance camera was carried. The S.V.A.4 entered service with the Aviazione Militare early in 1918.
Max speed, 134 mph (216 km/h).
Time to 9,840 ft (3 000m), 12 min.
Max endurance, 3.6 hrs.
Empty weight, 1,545 lb (701 kg).
Loaded weight, 2,150 lb (975 kg).
Span, 29 ft 10 1/4 in (9,10 m).
Length, 26 ft 6 7/8 in (8,10 m).
Height, 8 ft 8 1/3 in (2,65 m).
Wing area, 260.49 sq ft (24,20 m2).
Built in larger numbers than any other single-seat derivative of the S.V.A., the S.V.A.5 was a reconnaissance-fighter-bomber armed with two 7,7-mm synchronised Vickers machine guns and carrying two reconnaissance cameras or light bombs slung on the fuselage sides on special clips. Initial production examples were powered by the 205 hp SPA 6A engine, but later examples had the higher compression version of that engine rated at 230hp. Some S.V.A.5s were fitted with the 250 hp Isotta-Fraschini V6 engine with which a maximum speed of 149 mph (240 km/h) was attainable. The majority of the 1,248 S.V.A. aircraft built during 1917-18 were S.V.A.5s.
Max speed, 143 mph (230 km/h).
Time to 9,840 ft (3 000 m), 10 min.
Normal endurance, 3 hrs.
Empty weight, 1,500 lb (680 kg).
Loaded weight, 2,315 lb (1050 kg).
Span, 29 ft 1014 in
A single-seat float fighter version of the S.V.A., the I.S.V.A. (the "I” prefix indicating Idro or water) was built at La Spezia in 1918. Power was provided by a 205 hp SPA 6A engine and armament consisted of two synchronised 7,7-mm Vickers machine guns. A total of 50 I.S.V.A. fighters was manufactured and these aircraft were used both for the defence of naval bases and coastal reconnaissance.
Max speed, 121 mph (195 km/h) at sea level, 112 mph (180 km/h) at 6,560 ft (2 000 m).
Endurance, 3 hrs.
Empty weight, 1,936 lb (878 kg).
Loaded weight, 2,425 lb(1 100 kg).
Span, 29 ft 10 1/4 in (9,10 m).
Length, 30 ft 6 1/8 in (9,30 m).
Height, 12 ft 1 2/3 in (3,70 m).
Wing area, 263.72 sq ft (24,5 m2).
Flight, February 7, 1918.
FROM OTHER LANDS.
THE S.V.A. FIGHTING SCOUT.
A LITTLE while back we reproduced two views of the Italian S.V.A. Fighting Scout, and this week we are able, through the courtesy of our American contemporary Aerial Age, to give further illustrations and some particulars of this machine.
"The S.V.A. machines are manufactured by Gio. Ansaldo and Co., of Genoa, in a number of types quite similar to one another, the principal differences being in the wing spread and weight. In nearly all the types, the same propeller, motor and fuselage are used. With the exception of one of the types, the interplane strut bracing at either side of the body is arranged in the form of the letter N. The machine illustrated here is convertible for water use by replacing the landing gear with twin floats, as illustrated in one of the accompanying views.
"All the material used in the construction of these machines is tested in laboratories before being installed, and again rigidly inspected when the machine has been tested out in actual flight. The woods are tested for transverse and longitudinal tension and compression, &c. Cables are from eight to ten times as strong as calculations show them to be necessary under extreme conditions. The silk-linen covering is somewhat transparent, and after being treated with dope is practically untearable. Every piece of fabric and all the materials are submitted for examination by a staff of laboratory experts, and must have their approval before being turned over to the factory.
"The principal characteristics of this machine are as follows :-
Span, upper plane 9.100 m. (30 ft. 2 ins.)
Span, lower plane 7.600 m. (25 ft.)
Chord, both planes 1.650 m. (5 ft. 5 ins.)
Gap 1.800 to 1.500 m. (5 ft. 11 ins. to 4 ft. 11 ins.)
Overall length 8.100 m. (26 ft. 7 ins.)
Overall height 3.200 m. (10 ft. 6 ins.)
Weight, empty 640 kg. (1,411 lbs.)
Weight, loaded 900 kg. (1,984 lbs.)
Motor, S.P.A. 210 h.p.
Maximum speed 232 km. (125 miles) p.h.
Minimum speed 82 km. (45 miles) p.h.
Climb in 14 min.4,000 metres (13,123 ft.)
"The main planes are in four sections. The top plane is a flat span, but the lower plane sections are set at a dihedral angle. The wing curve has a negative tendency at the trailing edge, and the planes are given but a slight incidence angle or angle of attack. As in most of the fast Italian machines, the trailing edge is flexible, tending to flatten out the owing curve as the speed of the machine increases. A single set of ailerons are hinged to the upper plane. The steel-tube interplane bracing is of the streamline section, and attachment to the wing spar is by a pin running through the end of the brace, parallel to the line of flight. The bracing method employed is such that both the lift and landing stresses are taken by the struts, eliminating the wire bracing cables. Drift and anti-drift cables are used in the usual manner. Main planes have a surface area of about 24.25 sq.m.; the loading of the machine is about 36.700 kg. (about 81 lbs.).
"At the forward end of the fuselage, the motor is entirely covered in, and the cowling runs back in a straight line as far as the pilot's seat. The rear curves of the under side of the fuselage are composed of a series of straight lines, and not a continuous curve. A noticeable feature of the fuselage is its narrowness in the vicinity of the tail plane, and its exceptional depth forward. The interplane struts sloping outward from the fuselage are not connected to the upper longerons, but are carried part way down the vertical spacing members between the upper and lower longerons. Evidently a compression member is located at such points, running from one side of the fuselage to the other. Veneer is used for covering in the body, except at the front end, where the aluminium cowling covers in the engine.
"The leading edge of the tail plane is located at the level of the centre of the propeller thrust, as indicated on the drawing, and the plane is fixed at a negative angle. It will be noticed on the plan view that the tail plane, or horizontal stabilising surface, is exceptionally small, its area being only slightly more than half the area of the elevators. The elevators are worked with short control tillers located close to the body. A pair of steel struts support the tail from the fuselage. The familiar triangular fin or vertical stabilizer is used, with the rudder hinged to its trailing edge. The lower end of the rudder is carried in a cupped metal fitting attached to the underside of the fuselage termination. Control wires run into the body through protective metallic plates with friction reducing guides.
"Steel tube chassis members carry the floating axle, cross-wired in the usual manner. The shock-absorbing rubber elastic is covered in to reduce skin friction. The tail skid is unusual inasmuch as it relies upon a steel leaf-spring skid for its shock-absorbing effect. The upper end of the spring is rigidly clamped to a metal container, from which supports are run to the upper longerons of the body, and to the tail plane.
"The engine is a 6-cylinder S.P.A. developing 210 h.p. at 1,600 r.p.m. The propeller is a 2.750 m. (about 9 ft.) in diameter, with a 2.100 m. (6 ft. 11 ins.) pitch. Petrol is carried for an endurance of 3 hours, weight of petrol being 105 kg. (231.48 lbs.) and of oil 15 kg. (33.06 lbs.).
"In the empty machine the weights are distributed as follows: Machine unequipped, 300 kg. (661.38 lbs.); motor, propeller and radiator, 315 kg. (694.45 lbs.); fuel tanks and necessary piping, 25 kg. (55.11 lbs.). Total weight 640 kg. (1,410.95 lbs.). The useful load consists of oil and petrol (120 kg. or 264.55 lbs.), and an additional useful weight of 140 kg. (308.65 lbs.). The loading of the machine per b.h.p. is about 9 lbs.
"This type of S.V.A. machine is also manufactured in what is called the "reduced size," in which the wing span is shortened to 7.570 m. (24 ft. 10 ins.), but otherwise preserving the lines of the "Normal" type. In the smaller machine the total weight is 875 kg. (1,929.04 lbs.), so that with the same powered motor and a change in the angle of incidence of the planes, a much greater speed is obtained."