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Jane's
 
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919
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Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/

A 1915-1916 Lloyd Two-Seater Biplane
A Lohner Type L Flying Boat
Самолет Феникс DIII с дополнительным наружным топливным баком, установленным на нижнем крыле / A Phonix D.III 1918 type Single-seater. A Phonix Two-seater is seen in the background
A Phonix Two-seater C.1 reconaissance biplane of 1917-18. (230 h.p. Hiero Engine)
General Arrangement Drawings of the 1918 Phonix C.1 reconnaissance Biplane
This machine, with the exception of the hull, was completely re-designed by the firm and fitted with Hispano-Suiza engine. It carried 4 1/2 hours' fuel, wireless gear, Lewis gun and ammunition, pilot and passenger, sea anchor, ground anchor, 40 fathoms of line, etc. It is believed to have put up new world's records for flying-boats m March, 1917.
Three-quarter Rear View of a Supermarine-built A.D. Flying Boat of 1917 (prototype), with gunner in tandem in front of pilot. Pemberton-Billing went on to construct 27 for RNAS.
Pusher seaplane, built to Admiralty design, fitted with 130 h.p. Smith. This machine was completed and flying eight weeks after receipt of drawings. The nacelle is boat-built, with the lightest wooden construction known, the whole nacelle weighing 85 lbs.
Three-quarter Rear View of a "Pusher" Seaplane, built by the Supermarine Co.
Three-quarter Rear View of the Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.3 (90 h.p. R.A.F. engine) This aircraft was one of the second batch of three hundred F.K.3s built by Hewlett and Biondeau.
Three-quarter Front View of the Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.3 (90 h.p. R.A.F. engine)
Derived from the F.K.9 but embodying considerable redesign, the F.K.10 two-seat fighter-reconnaissance quadruplane retained virtually no more than the basic wing structure of its immediate predecessor. A production contract for 50 F.K.10s was given to Angus Sanderson & Company of Newcastle-on-Tyne on 30 December 1916 on behalf of the RFC but only five of these were destined to be completed before the contract was cancelled, and three were ordered for the RNAS, two of these from the Phoenix Dynamo Manufacturing Company and one from Armstrong Whitworth, these eventually being completed and tested. The F.K.10 was normally powered by a 130 hp Clerget 9B rotary, but at least one was flown with a 110 hp Le Rhone, and armament comprised one fixed 0-303-in (7,7-mm) Vickers gun and one free 0-303-in (7,7-mm) Lewis.
  
  
Max speed, 84 mph (135 km/h) at 6,500 ft (1 980 m),
   74 mph (119 km/h) at 10,000 ft (3 050 m).
Time to 6,500 ft (1 980 m), 15 min 50 sec.
Endurance, 2 hr 30 min.
Empty weight, 1,236 lb (560 kg).
Loaded weight, 2,019 lb (916 kg).
Span, 27 ft 10 in (8,48 m).
Length, 22 ft 3 in (6,78 m).
Height, 11 ft 6 in (3,50 m).
Wing area, 390-4 sq ft (36,27 m2).
Three Armstrong-Whitworths - Two of the F.K.10 Type Quadruplanes and an FK.8 with a Sunbeam-Coataien "Arab" Engine. Eight F.K 10s went to the RNAS for fighting and bombing.
The F.K.8 Type Armstrong-Whitworth Biplane. With 120 h.p. Beardmore engine.
Three Armstrong-Whitworths - Two of the F.K.10 Type Quadruplanes and an FK.8 with a Sunbeam-Coataien "Arab" Engine. Eight F.K 10s went to the RNAS for fighting and bombing.
Один из последних экземпляров машины, произведенной по лицензии компанией "Ангус Сандерсон", с бортовыми радиаторами, длинной выхлопной трубой и упрощенной тележкой шасси. (Late production F.K.8 with modified vee undercarriage and long exhaust pipe)
The Armadillo, designed by F Murphy who succeeded F Koolhoven as chief designer to Armstrong Whitworth, was initiated late in 1917, and the construction of two prototypes began early in 1918 as a private venture, the first of these being flown in April of that year. Powered by a 230 hp Bentley B.R.2 nine-cylinder rotary, the Armadillo had provision for an armament of two synchronised 0-303-in (7,7-mm) Vickers machine guns, but flying characteristics were declared to be most unsatisfactory and flight testing was terminated in June 1918, the second prototype never being flown.
  
  
Max speed, 125 mph (201 km/h) at sea level,
   113 mph (182 km/h) at 10,000 ft (3 280 m).
Time to 10,000 ft (3 280 m), 6 min 30 sec.
Endurance, 2 hr 45 min.
Empty weight, 1,250 lb (567 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,860 lb (844 kg).
Span, 27 ft 9 in (8,45 m).
Length, 18 ft 10 in (5,74 m).
Height, 7 ft 10 in (2,38 m).
Wing area, 232 sq ft (21,55 m2).
Three-quarter Front View of the Armstrong-Whitworth "Armadillo" as originally flown (220 h.p. B.R.2 Engine). The F.M.4 Armadillo, of which only one was built, was designed to the A1(a) fighter specification.
The Armadillo was found to possess unsatisfactory flying characteristics and a second prototype was completed but never flown.
The Armstrong-Whitworth "Ara," although it was not produced until early this year, was designed as a single-seater fighter, but can be easily adapted as a sporting machine for one who desires something more than the low-powered, slow-speed machines which are being introduced by many firms at the present time.
  The fuselage is of square   An ordinary vee-type undercarriage is fitted. The upper plane is placed very low over the top of the fuselage thus giving the pilot an excellent view upwards.
  
  
  
Specification
Type of machine Single-seater Biplane
Name or type No. of machine "Ara" (1919).
Purpose for which intended Military and Sport.
Span 27 ft. 6 In.
Overall length 20 ft.
Maximum height 7 ft. 10 in.
Engine type and h.p. 320 h.p. A.B.C. "Dragonfly
Weight of machine empty 1,900 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 3 1/4 hours.
Performance.
   Speed at 1,000 feet 150 m.p.h.
   Landing speed 55 m.p.h.
Climb
   To 10,000 feet in minutes 5 1/2 minutes.
Front View of the Armstrong-Whitworth "Ara", F4971 (320 h.p. A.B.C. Engine).
Front View of the Austin "Ball" (200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza Engine).
Side View of an Experimental Austin Triplane
The Austin "Greyhound" represents one of the latest efforts to produce a fast quick climbing two-seater, fighting and reconnaissance biplane In general arrangement it follows standard practice. The fuselage carries in its nose a 320 h.p A.B.C.  Dragonfly " engine A conical cowling covers the engine in with the exception of the cylinder head>, the shape of the cowling being preserved throughout the length of the fuselage by fairing. There is almost equal fin area above and below the fuselage. The upper main plane trailing edge is cut away, and the lower plane is of lesser chord than the upper, thereby giving the pilot a good view. Accommodation is made for the machine to carry three guns, camera, wireless, oxygen apparatus and heating apparatus.
  
  
  
Specification
  
Type of machine Two-seater Fighter, Reconnaissance Biplane
Name or type No. of machine "Greyhound"
Purposes for which intended Fighting and Reconnaissance.
Engine type and h.p. A.B.C. "Dragonfly", 320 h.p.
Span
   Top plane, 39 ft;
   bottom plane, 36 ft. 7 in.
Gap 4 ft 11 7/8 In.
Maximum height 10 ft 4 in.
Chord
   Top plane, 6 ft. 4.8 in.;
   bottom plane, 4 ft. 3 in.
Total surface of wings 400 sq. ft.
Span of tail 12 ft 9.5 In.
Total area of tail 47 sq. ft.
Total area of elevators 19.8 sq. ft
Area of rudder 9.9 sq. ft.
Area of fin
   Top, 2.76 sq. ft
   bottom, 2.3 sq. ft
Area of each aileron and total area
   Two top, 14.8 sq ft.;
   two bottom, 7.8 sq. ft;
   total, 45.2 sq. ft
Weight of machine empty 2,050 lbs.
Load per sq. ft 7.72 lbs. per sq. ft
Weight per h.p. 10.3 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 3 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons
   Petrol 66 galls.,
   oil 8 galls.
Weight of machine full 3,090 lbs. (Including guns, ammunition, &c.)
Performance (estimated).
   Speed at 10,000 feet 130 m p.h.
   Landing speed 45 m.p.h.
   Climb. To 10,000 feet 11 minutes.
Avro 504B Biplane, 80h.p. Gnome, about to start. This type of Avro was one of the successful machines in early days of the war, owing to its durability, speed, and climbing power. It is still one of the most efficient machines for its power, but is, of course, surpassed in actual performance by machines with bigger engines, so is very largely used to-day as a training machine for Service pilot practicising cross-country flying before passing on to the higher-powered war machines. It will be remembered that 504As carried out the first ever strategic bombing raid, on 21 November 1914, when three RNAS aircraft attacked the Zeppelin sheds at Friedichshafen.
Three-quarter front view of the Avro 504K Standard Training Machine
Side view of the Avro 504K Seaplane. This machine is the Standard Training Machine in all essentials, fitted with a float under-carriage.
General arrangement of the Standard Avro Type 504K.
Flown for the first time in May 1916, the Pike three-seat twin-engined biplane was designed primarily to meet an Admiralty requirement for a long-range escort and anti-airship fighter. The pilot was seated just ahead of the main-planes with gunners' cockpits, each with a free-mounted 0-303-in (7,7-mm) Lewis, fore and aft. Of wooden construction with fabric skinning, the first prototype Pike had two 150-hp Sunbeam eight-cylinder liquid-cooled engines mounted as pushers driving two-bladed airscrews via extension shafts. A second Pike, the Avro 523A, differed primarily in having two 150 hp Green six-cylinder liquid-cooled engines driving tractor airscrews, and a Scarff-type ring mounting for the forward Lewis gun. No production of the Pike was ordered following completion of official trials.
  
  
Avro 523
  
Max speed 97 mph (156 km/h) at sea level
   88 mph (142 km/h) at 10,000 ft (3 050 m).
Time
  to 5,000 ft (1 524 m) 9.5 min,
  to 10,000 ft (3 050 m) 27 min.
Endurance 7 hr.
Empty weight 4,000 lb (1 814 kg).
Loaded weight 6,064 lb (2 751 kg).
Span 60 ft 0 in (18,29 m).
Length 39 ft 1 in (11,91 m).
Height 11 ft 8 in (3,55 m).
Wing area 815 sq ft (75,71 m2).
Of relatively clean aerodynamic design by contemporary standards, and featuring a ducted spinner, the Avro 530 two-seat fighter was designed in 1916 to compete with the Bristol F.2A, but the first prototype was not flown until July 1917. Powered by a 200 hp Hispano-Suiza 8Bd eight-cylinder liquid-cooled engine, the Avro 530 was of wooden construction with fabric skinning, and mounted an armament of a single fixed and synchronised 0-303-in (7,7-mm) Vickers gun, and a Lewis gun of similar calibre mounted on a Scarff ring in the rear cockpit. Although performance of the Avro 530 proved to be good, it did not improve sufficiently on that of the Bristol F.2A to warrant production orders. Furthermore, priority in the supply of the Hispano-Suiza engine was being given to the S.E.5A. During 1918, one of the two Avro 530 prototypes was flown with a 200 hp Sunbeam Arab engine, revised undercarriage, an extended tail fin, and flapless wings of new section with long-span ailerons, but development was subsequently abandoned.
  
  
Max speed 114 mph (183 km/h) at sea level,
   102 mph (164 km/h) at 10,000 ft (3 048 m).
Time
  to 10,000 ft (3 048 m) 15 min.
Endurance 4 hr.
Empty weight 1,695 lb (769 kg).
Loaded weight 2,680 lb (1 215 kg).
Span 36 ft 0 in (10,97 m).
Length 28 ft 6 in (8,69 m).
Height 9 ft 7 in (2,92 m).
Wing area 325.5 sq ft (30,23 m2).
An unsponsored private-venture single-seat fighter designed by Roy Chadwick and flown for the first time in April 1918, the Spider made use of a number of Avro 504 components and had a fabric-covered wooden structure with a system of Warren-girder steel-tube interplane struts. The upper wing was mounted close to the fuselage and directly above the cockpit. In its original form, the Spider was powered by a 110 hp Le Rhone 9J nine-cylinder rotary engine, and proved to possess exceptional manoeuvrability, but overall performance was not sufficiently in advance of the contemporary Sopwith Camel to warrant quantity production. Armament comprised one fixed synchronised 0-303-in (7,7-mm) Vickers machine gun, and a 130 hp Clerget 9B rotary was later fitted, and the following details relate to the Spider fitted with this power plant.
  
  
Max speed 120 mph (193 km/h) at sea level
   110 mph (177 km/h) at 10,000 ft (3 048 m).
Time
  to 10,000 ft (3 048 m) 9.5 min.
Empty weight 963 lb (473 kg).
Loaded weight 1,517 lb (688 kg).
Span 28 ft 6 in (8,68 m).
Length 20 ft 6 in (6,25 m).
Height 7 ft 10 in (2,38 m).
Wing area 189 sq ft (17,55 m2).
Front view of the Avro "Spider" showing the wing bracing system (110 h.p. Le Rhone)
Side view of the Avro "Spider" (110 h.p. Le Rhone)
The Spider was an unsponsored private-venture fighter which proved extremely manoeuvrable.
Истребитель "Бэнтэм" со стационарным мотором ABC "Уосп" / Side View of the B.A.T. "Bantam" (A.B.C. 200 h.p. "Wasp" engine).
A small dual control two-seater, designed for training purposes.
  Very great attention has been paid in design to ease of manufacture and interchangeability of parts.
  As an instance of this it may be noted that ailerons, rudder and elevators are all identical and interchangeable.
  The following are the leading particulars.
  
Specification.
Type of machine Two-seater Biplane (dual control).
Name or type No. of machine B.A.T. F.K.24 "Baboon"
Purpose for which intended Training.
Span 25 ft
Chord 5 ft. 7 in.
Gap, maximum and minimum 4 ft. 8 1/2 in.
Stagger Nil.
Dihedral 2 deg. upper and lower planes.
Overall length 22 ft. 8 in.
Overall height 8 ft. 10 in.
Total area of planes 259 sq. ft.
Ailerons On upper and lower planes.
Area of each and total area of ailerons
   Each 6 sq. ft.
   Total 24 sq. ft.
Span of tail 9 ft. 10 in.
Total area of tail 27.75 sq. ft. (including elevators).
Area of elevators 12 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 6 sq. ft.
Area of fin 5.25 sq. ft.
Max. cross sectional area of body 7.5 sq. ft.
Side area of body 52 sq. ft.
Engine (type and B.H.P.) 170 A.B.C. Wasp I.
Revs, at nominal b.h.p. 1850 r.p.m.
Propeller (make and type, etc.) B.A.T. 2 blade Tractor dia. 7 ft. 10 in., pitch 5ft.
Weight of machine empty 950 lbs.
Load per sq. ft 5.2 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 7.95 lbs.
Tank capacity In hours 2 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 12 gallons.
Disposable load, apart from fuel 400 lbs.
Armament.
   Weight of Instruments 12 lbs.
   Total weight of machine fully loaded 1350 lbs.
Performance.
   Speed (at ground level) 90 m.p.h.
   Landing speed 40 m.p.h.
Climb to 10,000 feet 12 mins.
The B.A.T. "Baboon" Two-seater Training Machine (170 h.p. A.B.C. "Wasp")
Опытный экземпляр истребителя "Бэзилиск" / Side View of the B.A.T. "Basilisk" (320 h.p. A.B.C. "Dragonfly" engine).
This was a large two-seater bomber, from which the typo W.B.1a was developed later. The following gives the main particulars of this machine:
  
Specification.
Type of machine Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine W.B.1.
Purpose for which intended Bomber.
Span 61 ft. 6 in.
Gap, maximum and minimum 7 ft.
Overall length 32 ft, 10 In.
Maximum height 14 ft. 9 in.
Chord 7 ft.
Total surface of wings,
   including ailerons 796 sq. ft.
Span of tali 18 ft.
Total area of tail 106 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 40 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 20 sq. ft.
Area of fin 14.2 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron 28.32 sq. ft.
   and total area 113.26 sq. ft.
Maximum cross section of body 15.2 sq. ft.
Horizontal area of body 88 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 81.6 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. 240 h.p. Sunbeam or 230 h.p. Beard more Adriatic.
Airscrew, diam., and revs 10 ft. 6 in. dia., 1,075 revs. (with Sunbeam).
Weight of machine empty 3,410 lbs. (with Beardmore).
Load per sq. ft, 7 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 23 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 7.3 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 187 gallons.
Performance.
   Speed low down 91 m.p.h.
   Landing speed 48 m.p.h.
   Climb.
   To 5,000 feet in minutes 26 minutes
   To 10,000 feet in minutes 44 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 1,100 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 5,600 lbs.
  
  
  
THE BEARDMORE BIPLANE W.B.1A.
  
  The Beardmore two-seater biplane W.B.1a was designed as a long-distance bomber equipped with a 500 h.p. Beardmore Atlantic engine. The main planes are heavily staggered, are of large span, and have four pairs of interplane struts at either side of the fuselage. The pilot and observer are placed very much in rear of the main plane, the pilot being midway between the main and tail planes and the observer is immediately in advance of the fixed fin which emerges from the fairing round the observer's cockpit.
  
Specification.
Type of machine Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine W.B.1a.
Purpose for which intended Bomber.
Span 70 ft
Gap, maximum and minimum 7 ft.
Overall length 32 ft. 10 In.
Maximum height 15 ft. 8 in.
Chord 7 ft.
Total surface of wings,
   including ailerons 946 sq. ft.
Span of tail 19 ft.
Total area of tail 110 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 33.5 sq.ft.
Area of rudder 20 sq. ft.
Area of fin 14.2 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron 29.5 sq. ft.
   total area 118 sq. ft.
Maximum cross section of body. 22.5 sq. ft.
Horizontal area of body 105 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 131 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. Beardmore Atlantic 500 h.p
Airscrew, diam. and revs. 14 ft, 900.
Weight of machine empty 4,537 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 9.4 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 17.3 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 6.5 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 214 gallons.
Performance.
   Speed low down 110 m.p.h.
   Speed at 10,000 feet 101 m.p.h.
   Landing speed 65 m.p.h.
   Climb
   To 5,000 feet in minutes 12 minutes.
   To 10,000 feet in minutes 27 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 2,700 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 8,900 lbs.
Side View of a Beardmore Type W.B.1 "Adriatic" (230 h.p. B.H.P. Engine).
The Beardmore W.B 2 is a conventional two-seater fighter equipped with а 230 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine. The main planes are heavily staggered. The pilot is situated under the trailing edge of the top plane and the observer over the trailing edge of the bottom plane, giving both an excellent view all round.
  The type W.B 2a. is a modified version of this machine fitted with a Beardmore " Adriatic " engine of 230 h.p and with increased tank capacity.
  The following tables give the details of both machines:
  
  
Specification.
  Vertical area of body 75 sq. it.
  Engine type and h.p. Beardmore Adriatic, 230 h.p.
  Airscrew and revs. 10 ft. 1,350 r.p.m.
  Weight of machine empty 1,650 lbs.
  Load per sq.ft. 7.6 lbs.
  Weight per h.p. 11.7 lbs.
  Tank capacity in hours 4.5 hours.
  Tank capacity in gallons. 75 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 125 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10.000 feet 117 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 50 m.p.h..
  Climb
   To 5,000 feet in minutes 5 minutes.
   To 10,000 feet in minutes 12 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 460 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 2,700 lbs.
Front View of an early Beardmore Single-seater Biplane.
THE BEARDMORE BIPLANE W.B.III.
  
  
  The Beardmore W B. III. was evolved from the Sopwith "Pup" in an effort to turn this machine into a ship-plane, the principal modifications being folding planes and a retractable under-carriage. in order to simplify stowage on board ship. The fuselage and tail unit arc practically of Sopwith design, the overall length being only slightly increased.
  Instead of four short centre-section struts, four long struts, two on cither side of the fuselage, are fitted with a short horizontal strut connecting them with the upper longeron of the fuselage. The main planes are unstaggered and hinged at the main rear spar close up to the fuselage.
  Two sets of interplane struts are fitted to each set of main planes one set being placed at the inner edge of the plane in order to preserve the truss when the wings are folded.
  Ailerons are fitted to upper and lower planes and are operated on the Nieuport principle, the upper and lower ailerons being inter-connected by a strut.
  An ordinary Vee-type under-carriage is fitted, the front members of the Vee being hinged, and the rear members equipped with a release device operated from the pilot's seat which allows the under-carriage to collapse into the fuselage, leaving half the wheels exposed. The armament consists of a Lewis gun fitted on a special mounting in front of the pilot's cockpit to allow it to fire through an opening in the centre section.
  Particulars of this machine are given in the following table:
  
  
Type of machine Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine W.B.III.
Purpose for which intended Ship's Scout.
Span 25 ft.
Gap, maximum and minimum 4 ft. 9 in., 4 ft. 9 in.
Overall length 20 ft. 2.5 in.
Maximum height 8 ft. 1.25 in.
Chord 5 ft. 1.5 in.
Total surface of wings,
  including ailerons 243 sq. ft.
Span of tail 10 ft. 1 in.
Total area of tail 34.5 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 11.5 sq.ft.
Area of rudder 4.5 sq. ft.
Area of fin 3.5 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron 5.75 sq. ft.
  total area 23 sq. ft.
Maximum cross section of body 4.6 sq. ft.
Horizontal area of body 17 sq, ft.
Vertical area of body 39 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. Clerget or Le Rhone 80 h.p.
Airscrew, diam. and revs. 8 ft. 6 in.; 1,200 r.p.m.
Weight of machine empty 880 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 5.3 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 16.1 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 2.75 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 18 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 103 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10,000 feet 88 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 40 m p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 feet in minutes 9 minutes.
   To 10,000 feet in minutes 24 minutes
Disposable load apart from fuel 300 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 1290 lbs.
Прототип SB3 в положении для хранения в ангаре авианосца.
The Beardmore Type W.B.III Folding Ship plane (80 h.p. Le Rhone Engine) with wings and chassis folded for stowage.
The aeroplane which has suffered 'compressibility' is the first Beardmore W.B.III (modified Pup No. 9950) which is the subject of a note in the text and which led to a new Service type (S.B.3D).
The Beardmore W.B.IV. is a single-seater ship's scout designed with flotation gear in the fuselage and a dropping under-carriage. In order to keep the size of the flotation gear which is actually built into the fuselage, down to a minimum, the power unit is placed under the centre-section and over the centre of gravity, the pilot being seated in front astride the airscrew shaft in a watertight cockpit.
  The under-carriage is of the Vee type and is so arranged that by means of a control in the pilot's cockpit the whole undercarriage can be released.
  Two wing-top floats are fitted as additional stabilizers when the machine is resting on the sea.
  
Specification
Type of machine Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine W.B.IV.
Purpose for which Intended Ship's Scout.
Span 35 ft. 10 in.
Gap 4 ft. 9 in.
Overall length 26 ft. 6 in.
Maximum height 9 ft. 10.5 in.
Chord Top 6 ft. 3 in., bottom 4ft. 9 in.
Total surface of wings,
  including ailerons 850 sq.ft.
Span of tail 11 ft. 9 in.
Total area of tail 50.5 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 24 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 12 sq. ft.
Area of fin 8 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron 18.8 sq. ft. each
  total area 37 ft. 6 In. total.
Maximum cross section of body 12.5 sq. ft.
Horizontal area of body 73 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 51 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. Hispano-Suiza 200 h.p.
Airscrew, diam. and revs. 9 ft., 1,500 r.p.m.
Weight of machine empty 1,960 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 7.5 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 13 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 8.5 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 37 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 110 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10,000 feet 102 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 45 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 feet in minutes 7 minutes.
   To 10,000 feet in minutes 18 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 340 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 2,600 lbs.
This machine was also designed as a ship single-seater fighter, and was of very much the same overall dimensions as the W.B.IV.
  Instead of placing the engine over the C.G. and driving the propeller by a shaft passing between the pilot's legs, and designing the fuselage to provide the necessary buoyancy for flotation after alighting on the sea, the. conventional engine in front arrangement was adopted, and the necessary buoyancy bad to be provided by external air bags.
  
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine W.B.V.
Purpose for which intended Ship's Scout.
Span 35 ft. 10 In.
Gap 4 ft. 9 in.
Overall length 26 ft. 7 in.
Maximum height 11 ft. 10 in.
Chord 6 ft. 3 In.
Total surface of wings,
  including ailerons 394 sq. ft.
Span of tail 11 ft. 9 in.
Total area of tail 50.5 sq.ft.
Area of elevators 24 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 12 sq.ft.
Area of fin 8 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron 18.8 sq. ft. each,
  total area 37.6 sq. ft. total.
Maximum cross section of body 11.5 sq. ft.
Horizontal area of body 46.5 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 58 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. Hispano-Suiza 200 h.p
Airscrew, diam. and revs. 9 ft., 1,500 r.p.m.
Weight of machine empty 1,860 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 6.33 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 12.5 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 2.5 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 37 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 112 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10,000 feet 103 m.p.h
  Landing speed 45 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5.000 feet In minutes 6 minutes.
   To 10,000 feet in minutes 17 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 340 lb
Total weight of machine loaded 2,500 lb
The Beardmore single seater torpedo-carrying, folding ship-aeroplane, type W.B. VI., was the result of one of the many efforts to produce a satisfactory, fast torpedo-carrier. The general arrangement is on conventional lines, with the pilot well hack in the fuselage.
  The under-carriage is arranged to permit the stowage and dropping of a torpedo under the centre of gravity.
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine W.B.VI.
Purpose for which intended Torpedo Carrier.
Span
   Top 53 ft. 6.5 in.,
   bottom 47 ft. 10.5 in.
Gap 7 ft. 6 in.
Overall length 34 ft.
Maximum height 12 ft. 6 in.
Chord
   Top 8 ft. 10 in.,
   bottom 7 ft. 9 in.
Total surface of wings,
  including ailerons 796sq.ft.
Span of tail 15 ft. 9 in
Total area of tail 80 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 32.4 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 12 sq. ft.
Area of fin 10 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron 47.75 sq. ft. each,
  total area 95.5 sq. ft. total
Maximum cross section of body 10 sq. ft.
Horizontal area of body 62 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 100 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. Rolls-Royce Eagle 350 h.p.
Airscrew, diam. and revs. 12 ft., 1,080 r.p.m.
Weight of machine empty 3,027 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 7 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 15.6 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 3 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 70 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 102 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10,000 feet 91 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 47 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 feet in minutes 13 minutes.
   To 10,000 feet in minutes 41 minutes
Disposable load apart from fuel 2,060 lbs
Total weight of machine loaded 5,637 lbs
The prototype Blackburn Kangaroo, B9970, with slender nose profile and unsprung undercarriage struts. Note the enormous wing overhang.
This machine, designed as a torpedo carrier for use from aeroplane carriers working with the fleet at sea, was designed primarily with a view to ease of production.
  The machine is generally on conventional tractor lines, with a chassis designed to allow of the dropping of a torpedo slung beneath the body.
  The most noticeable feature, as far as appearance is concerned, is the side elevation of the fuselage, which is of the same depth from the leading edge of the lower wing to the sternpost.
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Tractor Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine "Blackburd."
Purpose for which intended Torpedo carrier, for use from ship or land.
Span 52 ft. 6 in.
Gap 7ft.
Overall length 36 ft. 3 in.
Maximum height 12ft. 4 1/2 in.
Chord 7 ft.
Total surface of wings 709 sq. ft.
Span of tail 17 ft.
Total area of Tail 82 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 34 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 9 sq. ft.
Area of fin 18 sq. ft.
Area of ailerons 85 sq. ft.
Maximum cross section of body 11 sq. ft.
Horizontal area of body 80 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 126 sq ft.
Engine type and h.p. "Eagle" Rolls-Royce; 350 h.p.
Weight of machine empty 3,080 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 7.53 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 15.8 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 3 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 69 petrol; 9 oil.
Performance.
  Speed low down 92 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10.000 feet 84 1/2 m.p.h. Climb.
   To 5,000 feet in minutes 11 1/2 minutes.
   To 10,000 feet in minutes 33 1/2 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 1,680 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 5,340 lbs.
A small single-seat fighter scout on standard lines, with a high performance. The X-type interplane struts are a characteristic feature.
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Single-seater Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine Bobolink.
Purpose for which intended Fighting Scout.
Span 29 ft.
Gap, maximum and minimum 3 ft. 10 5/8 in.
Overall length 20 ft.
Maximum height 8 ft. 4 in.
Chord Top plane, 5 ft. 4 1/2 In.;
   bottom plane, 4 ft. 1 1/2 in.
Total surface of wings 266 sq. ft.
Span of tail 9 ft. 2 in.
Total area of tail 30 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 10 sq. ft.
Area of fin 2 sq. ft.
Area of ailerons 7.5 sq. ft.
Maximum cross section of body 7.5 sq. ft.
Horizontal area of body 30 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 41 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. 230 h.p. B.R.2.
Airscrew, diameter and revs. 9 ft. 0 in. 1350 revs.
Weight of machine empty 1220 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 7.25 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 8.35 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 2.65 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 38 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed at 10,000 feet 125 m.p.h.
  Speed at 15.000 feet 110 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 50 m.p.h.
Climb.
  To 10,000 feet in minutes 9 1/2 minutes.
  To 15,000 feet in minutes 18 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 430 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 1920 lbs
This machine was designed late in the war as a fighter bomber. Is remarkable for its small overall dimensions. This machine combines the speed, climb, and manoeuvring qualities usually associated with a small single-seat fighter, with the fuel and load capacity expected of a large bomber. The appended specification gives the leading characteristics:
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Twin-engined Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine Boulton & Paul P 7 "Bourges."
Purpose for which intended Bomber-fighter.
Span 54ft.
Gap, maximum and minimum 6 ft. 6 in.
Overall length 37 ft.
Maximum height 12 ft.
Chord Top plane 8 ft.;
   bottom plane, 6 ft. 6 in.
Total surface of wings 738 sq. ft.
Span of tail 16 ft.
Area of tail plane 96 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 96 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 21 sq. ft.
Area of fin 14 sq. ft.
Area of ailerons 27 sq. ft.
Maximum cross section of body 5.3 sq, ft.
Horizontal area of body 73 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 140 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. 2-320 h.p. A.B.C "Dragonfly"
Airscrew, diameter and revs. 9 ft. 6 in. dia. 1650 r.p.m.
Weight of machine empty 3420 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 8 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 9.25 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 190 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed at 10,000 feet 124 m.p.h.
  Speed at 15,000 feet 118 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 50 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 10,000 feet in minutes 11 minutes.
   To 15,000 feet in minutes 21 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 1200 lbs
Total weight of machine loaded 5920 lbs.
Front View of the Boulton & Paul "Bourges" Twin-engined Fighting Bomber (two 300 h.p. A.B.C. "Dragonfly" engines.)
Bristol T.B.8 Biplane built by the Breguet firm.
Довоенный снимок "Скаута" А. Внешне самолет отличался упрощенным капотам двигателя с большим вырезом снизу и отсутствием предохранительных дуг под нижним крылом. / Side View of Bristol "Scout", early type.
Front View of Bristol Scout, type "D" commonly known as the "Bullet" (80 h.p. Gnome engine).
Three-quarter Rear View of second prototype Bristol F.2A "Fighter" with 150 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine. Production F.2As adopted the 190 h.p. Rolls-Royce Falcon engine.
Three-quarter Rear View of the Bristol F.2B Two-seater Fighter
A Bristol Two-seater Fighter and Reconnaissance Machine in the air
A Patrol of Bristol Fighters starting in Formation
Three-quarter Front View of the Bristol Monoplane.
View from Rear - The Bristol Monoplane.
The Bristol all-metal biplane is more or less an all-metal Bristol " Fighter " with sundry modifications and was designed primarily for use in countries where extremes of heat and cold might have a detrimental effect on woodwork.
  Metal has entirely replaced wood in the construction, the fuselage being constructed of aluminium and steel and can be easily dismantled for transport and storage purposes. The wings, which are unstaggered are of all-steel construction. The fuselage is slung between the planes, as in the Bristol " Fighter," but the lower centre section is completely cut away, leaving the two main spar tubes, to which are attached, the two lower centre section struts.
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Two-seater Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine All Metal M.R.I.
Purpose for which intended Fighting and Reconnaissance.
Span 42 ft. 2 in.
Gap 5 ft. 11 In.
Overall length 27 ft.
Maximum height 10 ft. 3 In.
Chord 6 ft.
Total surface of wings 458 sq. ft.
Area of ailerons 39 sq. ft.
Total area of tail 27.8 sq. ft.
Span of tail 16 ft. 3 in.
Area of elevators 30 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 8.25 sq. ft.
Area of fin 7.8 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. 170 h.p. Wolseley "Viper"
Airscrew, diam., pitch and revs. 8 ft. 10 in. diam., 6 ft. 7 in. pitch, 1,700 r.p.m.
Weight of machine empty 1,700 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 6.13 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 16.5 lbs.
Petrol tank capacity In gallons 50 gallons.
Oil tank capacity In gallons 5 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 110m.p.h.
  Speed at 5,000 feet 106 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10,000 feet 98 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 47 m.p.h.
Side View - The experimental Bristol All-Metall M.R.I development of the 'Fighter' (200 h.p. Sunbeam "Arab" engine.)
The Bristol " Braemar " was originally designed as a long, distance bomber, but owing to the Armistice coming when it did the machine was never used on active service. It is now being slightly modified to do duty as a passenger-carrier and commercial machine.
  It is a four-engined triplane with a single fuselage and with the four engines fixed in pairs tandem-wise driving two tractors and two pushers on either side of the fuselage.
  In its original form the fuselage had accommodation for one gunner in the nose, two pilots just in advance of the main planes and another gunner's cockpit midway between the planes and the tail unit. The tail is a biplane with triple rudders.
  The main planes are slightly swept hack and ailerons are fitted to the two upper planes only.
  The main planes are made to fold.
  
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Four-engined Triplane.
Name or type No. of machine Braemar Mk. 2.
Purpose for which intended Bomber or Passenger Carrier.
Span Top 81 ft. 8 in.,
   centre 81 ft. 8 in.,
   bottom 78 ft. 3 in.
Gap 7 ft. 2 1/2 in.
Overall length 51 ft. 6 in.
Maximum height 20 ft.8 in.
Chord 8 ft. 6 In.
Total surface of wings 1,905 sq. ft.
Total area of tail Top 51.5 sq. ft.,
   bottom 45 sq. ft.
Area of elevators Top 42.5 sq. ft.
   bottom 42.5 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 25 sq. ft.
Area of fin 28.2 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. Four Liberty engines, 1,640 h.p. (total).
Airscrew, diam., pitch and revs. Front (two) 10 ft. 2 In. dia.,
   rear (two) 9 ft. 2 in. dia.,
   front (two) 6 ft. 11 in. pitch.
   rear (two) 7 ft. 5 in. pitch,
   1,750 r.p.m.
Weight of machine empty 10,650 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 8.6 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 10 lbs.
Petrol tank capacity in gallons 450 gallons.
Oil tank capacity in gallons 40 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 125 m.p.h,
  Speed at 5,000 feet 122 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10,000 feet 113 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 55 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 feet 6 minutes.
   To 10,000 feet 13 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 1,940 lbs
Total weight of machine loaded 16,500 lbs
Front View of the Bristol Braemar Triplane. (Four 400 h.p. Liberty engines.)

  The Bristol scout, type Fl. is a recent production of the Bristol firm and was about to be put in production when the Armistice was signed. The fuselage is very deep and carried in its nose a 200 Sunbeam " Arab." The main planes show the principal departure from standard Bristol practice in that the lower plane is of smaller chord than the upper one so as to improve the pilot's range of vision downwards. One set of three struts, in the form of an N, are fitted on either side of the fuselage and are inclined outwards from the base. Ailerons arc fitted to the upper plane only. The tail plane and undercarriage are of normal type. Armament consists of two fixed Vickers guns fitted on top of the fuselage and firing through the propeller with the usual form of fire-control gear. The machine shows a speed of 128 m.p.h. at 10,000 feet, to which height it climbs in 8 1/2 minutes.
  A later edition with a "Cosmos" engine of 315 h.p. has given a much better performance.
  
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Single-seater Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine Scout F.
Purpose for which intended Fighting and Reconnaissance.
Span Top 29 ft. 6 In.,
   bottom 26 ft. 2 In.
Gap 5 ft. 1 In.
Overall length 80 ft. 10 In.
Maximum height 8 ft. 4 in.
Chord Top 5 ft. 7 in.,
   bottom 4 ft. 11 In.
Total surface of wings 260 sq. ft.
Area of ailerons 30 sq. ft
Total area of tail 15 sq. ft.
Span of tail 10 ft 6 In.
Area of elevators 14.5 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 5 sq. ft
Area of fin 4.1 sq. ft
Engine type and h.p. 200 h.p. Sunbeam "Arab"
Airscrew, diam., pitch and revs. 9 ft 2 ins., 9 ft., 1,155 r.p.m.
Weight of machine empty 1,300 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 8.08 sq. ft
Weight per h.p. 10 lbs.
Petrol tank capacity in gallons 32 gallons.
Oil tank capacity in gallons 5 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 138 m.p h.
  Speed at 5,000 feet 135 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10,000 feet 128 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 49 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5.000 feet 3.7 minutes.
   To 10,000 feet 8.5 minutes.
   To 15,000 feet 16 minutes
Disposable load apart from fuel 450 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 2,100 lbs.
Three-quarter Rear View of the Bristol type F.1., Single-seat Fighter. (Fitted with a "Mercury" Cosmos engine of 315 h.p.)
Prince Serge de Bolotoff will be remembered as the producer of a curious triplane in the very early days of aviation.
  During the war he designed and has built the machine illustrated herewith. This is a two-seater machine of medium size (span about 36 feet), fitted with а 200 h.p. 12-Cylinder " Curtiss " Engine.
  No detailed information as to dimensions or performance have been received.
  As may be seen, the machine is generally on the lines of the early Albatros biplanes.
AIRCO DE H.1
  
  The first of the series, produced just before the declaration of war, was a two-seater Renault-engined "pusher" machine.
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Biplane ("Pusher")
Name or type No. of machine De H.1.
Span 41 ft.
Gap, maximum and minimum 5 ft. 7 In.
Overall length 28 ft 11 in.
Maximum height 11 ft. 4 in.
Chord 5 ft. 6 in.
Total surface of wings, including
  centre plane and ailerons 409.3 sq. ft.
Span of tail 12 ft. 5 1/2 in.
Total area of tail (empennage) 80.45 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 11.0 sq. ft. each.
Area of rudder 16.15 sq. ft.
Area of fin 4.05 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron 18.0 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. 80 h.p. Renault.
Airscrew, diam., pitch and revs. 9.03 dia.; 9.2 pitch; 870 revs.
Weight of machine empty 1,356 lbs.
Weight of machine full load 2,044 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 4.99 lbs.
Weight per h.p. full load 25.5 lbs.
Tank capacity in gallons 30 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 78 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 41 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 3,500 feet 11 1/4 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 420 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 2,044 lbs.
  
  
  
  AIRCO DE H.1A
  
  This was a modified De H.1 fitted with a 120 Beardmore engine in place of the original Renault.
  
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Biplane ("Pusher")
Name or type No. of machine De H.1a.
Span 41 ft.
Gap, maximum and minimum 5 ft. 7 in.
Overall length 28 ft. 11 1/4 in.
Maximum height 11 ft. 2 in.
Chord 5 ft. 6 in.
Total surface of wings, including
  centre plane and ailerons 409.3 sq. ft.
Span of tail 12 ft. 3 in.
Total area of tail (empennage) 79.9 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 11.0 sq. ft. each.
Area of rudder 15.6 sq. ft.
Area of fin 4.05 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron 18.0 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. 130 h.p. Beardmore.
Airscrew, diam., pitch and revs. 9.03 diam., 9.2 pitch, 1,350 revs.
Weight of machine empty 1.672 lbs.
Weight of machine full load 2,400 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 5.87 lbs.
Weight per h.p. full load 18.45 lbs.
Tank capacity in gallons 33 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 89 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 49 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 3,500 ft. 6.45 mins
Disposable load apart from fuel 420 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 2,400 lbs.
The first De Havilland biplane, the de H.1 or D.H.1, built by the Aircraft Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
This machine, produced in 1915, was never put into service. It is of interest, however, as one of the earliest attempts at building a twin-engined machine and as the ancestor of the De H.10.
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Biplane "Pusher" (2 engines)
Name or type No. of machine De H.3.
Span 60 ft. 10 In.
Gap, maximum and minimum 7 ft.
Overall length 36 ft. 10 in.
Maximum height 14 ft. 6 in.
Chord 6 ft. 9 In.
Total surface of wings, including
  centre planes and ailerons 790.0 sq. ft.
Span of tail 23 ft. 2 in.
Total area of tail (empennage) 164.0 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 25.5 sq. ft. each.
Area of rudder 22.0 sq. ft.
Area of tin 13.0 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron 30,7 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. Two 130 h.p. Beardmore.
Airscrew, diam.. pitch and revs. 9.03 diam., 9.18 pitch, 1,400.
Weight of machine empty 3,982 lbs.
Weight of machine full load 5,776 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 7.3 lbs.
Weight per h.p. full load 22.2 lbs.
Tank capacity in gallons 140 gallons.
Performances.
  Speed low down 95 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 6,500 ft 24 mins.
  Landing speed 53 m.p.h.
Disposable load apart from fuel 711 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 5,776 lbs.
The unserialled Airco D.H.3 (2-120 h.p. Beardmore engines) which, despite attempts to mount the engines as far forward as possible, still rested on its tailskid when not occupied by its crew.
Прототип DH.4 / The De H.4 Biplane, with Rolls-Royce "Eagle" engine, 375 h.p.
The De H 10 The most noticeable feature of this machine is the extremely low position of the fuselage, which is mainly below the bottom wing, and the curious mounting of the engines, overhung from one side of the outer centre section struts
The De H 10 is a somewhat later type of the same machine. They differ mainly in that in the De H. 10 the twin engines are mounted well up in the gap between the planes, and in the De H 10a, the engine nacelles are actually on the bottom plane.
The alterations have resulted in a very marked increase in the speed of the type 10a, accompanied by an increase in the empty weight of the machine of nearly 140 lbs.
Both types proved their qualities on active service, before the cessation of hostilities, and it may be expected that with suitable modifications they will show their value even more fully as commercial machines in the near future.


Specification
Airco De H.10
Type of machine Biplane "Tractor"
Name or type No. of machine De H.10.
Span 65 ft. 6 in.
Gap, maximum and minimum 7 ft.
Overall length 39 ft. 7 7/16 in.
Chord 7 ft
Total surface of wings, including
   centre plane and ailerons 837.4 sq. ft.
Span of tail 22 ft.
Total area of tail (empennage) 144.3 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 16.54 sq. ft. each.
Area of rudder 25.75 sq. ft.
Area of fin 10.0 sq.ft.
Area of each aileron 29.5 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. Two 400 h.p. Llberty
Airscrew, diam., pitch and revs. 10.0 diam., 7.3 pitch, 1,625 revs.
Weight of machine empty 5,355 lbs.
Weight of machine full load 8,500 lbs.
Weight per h.p. full load 10.6 lbs.
Tank capacity In gallons 215 gallons.
Performance.
   Speed low down 117 1/2 m.p.h
   Speed at 10,000 feet 115 m.p.h.
   Speed at 15,000 feet 110 m.p.h.
   Landing speed 62 m.p.h.
Disposable load apart from fuel 1,381 lbs.

Airco De H.10A
Type of machine Biplane "Tractor"
Name or type No. of machine De H.10a
Span 65 ft. 6 in.
Gap, maximum and minimum 7 ft.
Overall length 39 ft. 7 7/16 in.
Chord 7 ft
Total surface of wings, including
   centre plane and ailerons 837.4 sq. ft.
Span of tail 22 ft.
Total area of tail (empennage) 144.3 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 16.54 sq. ft. each.
Area of rudder 25.75 sq. ft.
Area of fin 10.0 sq.ft.
Area of each aileron 29.5 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. Two 400 h.p. Llberty
Airscrew, diam., pitch and revs. 10.0 diam., 7.3 pitch, 1,625 revs.
Weight of machine empty 5,488 lbs.
Weight of machine full load 8,500 lbs.
Weight per h.p. full load 10.6 lbs.
Tank capacity In gallons 215 gallons.
Performance.
   Speed low down 128 1/2 m.p.h
   Speed at 10,000 feet 124 m.p.h.
   Speed at 15,000 feet 117 m.p.h.
   Landing speed 62 m.p.h.
Disposable load apart from fuel 1,248 lbs.
Front View of a De H. 10 (two 400 h.p. Liberty engines) without wings
The De H.6 was produced as an elementary training machine for pilots, and, to meet requirements, fundamentally different from those which are desirable in machines for war use.
  High performance was not desired, was in fact rather to be avoided. Cheapness and simplicity and strength of construction, together with ease to repair and a low landing speed, were of primary importance.
  As a result of these considerations, the De H.6, vulgarly known alternatively as the "Clutching Hand" or the "Sky Hook" vhas very few of those rather expensive refinements of form which characterise most modern machines.
  It has, in fact, rather the appearance of having been built by the mile and cut off to order, which is, of course, a testimony to the thoroughness with which the desired simplicity has been reached in the design.
  
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Biplane "Tractor"
Name or type No. of machine De H.6.
Span 35 ft 11 in.
Gap, maximum and minimum 5 ft. 8 1/2 in.
Overall length 27 ft. 3 1/2 in.
Maximum height 10 ft 9 1/2 in.
Chord 6 ft. 4 in.
Total surface of wings, including
  centre plane and aileron 436.3 sq. ft.
Span of tail 12 ft.
Total area of tail (empennage) 81.0 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 13.0 sq. ft. each
Area of rudder 12.0 sq. ft.
Area of fin 5.5 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron 19.0 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. 100 h.p. R.A.F. 1A.
Airscrew, diam., pitch and revs. 9.085 diam., 10.0 pitch, 1,800 r.p.m.
Weight of machine empty 1,460 lbs.
Weight of machine full load 2,027 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 4.64 lbs.
Weight per h.p. full load 20.27 lbs.
Tank capacity in gallons 26 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 66 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 39 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 6,500 feet 29 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 360 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 2,027 lbs.
One of the two D.H.6 prototypes, with traditional de Havilland rudder.
A De H.9 with a Napier "Lion" engine (450 h.p.)
The Pilot's and Gunner's Cockpits of a De H.9A, with Napier Lion engine. 450 h.p.
Three-quarter View from Rear - "Airco" De H.9A (400 h.p. Liberty engine)
Another View of the "Airco" De H.9A (400 h.p. Liberty engine)
A De H.9A, with Liberty engine.
The D.H. 9a. - Very similar to D.H. 9, but has a Liberty engine, and the radiator is placed in the nose.
AN AERIAL LIMOUSINE. - A D.H.4 converted into an enclosed passenger carrier. The pilot is, however, left out "in the draught."
An "Airco" De H.4 (375 h.p. "Eagle" Rolls-Royce) Converted to Passenger Carrying Purposes for use by No 2 Communications Squadron, RAF, to fly between Kenley and Buc during Peace Conference negotiations.
The type F2 twin engine machine was one of the earliest of the large twin engine types built. It was designed in 1914, and was flying in 1916. It was actually the first twin engine machine fitted with folding wings.
  The following table gives the main particulars:
  
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Land Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine F2.
Purpose for which intended General.
Span, upper plane overall 77 ft.
Gap, Maximum and minimum 6 ft.
Overall length 40 ft. 6 1/2 in.
Maximum height 13 ft. 5 5/8 in.
Chord 5 ft. 6 in.
Total surface of wings 718.4 sq. ft.
Span of tail 17 ft. 6 in.
Total area of tail 103.9 sq. ft. (Including elevators).
Area of elevators 39 sq. ft.
Area of rudder
  (2 rudders, 10 sq. ft. each) 20 sq. ft.
Area of fin
  (2 fins, 10.9 sq. ft. each) 21.8 sq.ft.
Area of each aileron 47.8 sq. ft. each
  total area 95.6 sq. ft. total.
Maximum cross section of body 3 ft. x 2 ft. 6 in.
Horizontal area of body 97 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 75 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. (2 engines) 190 h.p. Rolls-Royce.
Load per sq. ft. 6.8 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 13 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 3 1/2 hours.
Performance.
  Speed low down 81 kts.
  Landing speed 38 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5.000 feet in minutes 6 minutes.
Total weight of machine loaded 4880 lbs.
ANTE-DATING THE ENEMY. - The Fairey Aviation Co.'s Twin-engined Folding-wing Biplane. Designed by Mr. С. R. Fairey in Dec., 1914; built in the summer of 1916; delivered in the autumn of 1916. It had a remarkably good performance.
Three-quarter Front View of the Fairey Twin-engined Folder Biplane. F.2 type.
THE FAIREY N9 TYPE F127.
  
  The Fairey seaplane N9 was built in 1917 as a patrol seaplane for the R.N.A.S.
  This machine has one set of struts on each side of the fuselage, and a top plane with a large overhang.
  Owing to the Rolls-Royce " Falcon " engine being used in other types of machines in production, this type was never proceeded with. It is interesting to note that the original N9 remained in service to the middle of 1918. and was the first float seaplane to begin an actual flight by being thrown off a warship by a catapult gear.
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Seaplane.
Name or type No. of machine F127.
Purpose for which intended Ship work.
Span 50 ft.
Gap, maximum and minimum 5 ft. 7 in.
Overall length 35 ft. 6 in.
Maximum height 13 ft.
Chord 5 ft. 6 in.
Total surface of wings 420 sq. ft.
Span of tail 13 ft.
Total area of tail 34.2 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 34.2 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 9.8 sq. ft.
Area of fin 8.9 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron and total area 18 ft.
Engine type and h.p. 190 h.p. Rolls-Royce.
Load per sq. ft. 9.08 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 18.15 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 5 1/4 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 70 gallons.
Three-quarter Front View of the Fairey Seaplane. F 127 (N 9). (190 h.p. Rolls-Royce "Falcon" engine).
Although the Fairey F.127 never carried bombs, it is known that for part of the catapult trials aboard HMS Slinger it was ballasted for two 112 lb weapons.
Side View of the Fairey F 127 (N 9).
THE FAIREY CAMPANIA Types F16, F17, & F22.
  
  
  These machines were designed as patrol seaplanes with special reference to the stowage capacity and hatchway dimensions of H.M Seaplane Carrier " Campania,''
  The original P16 was designed for the Rolls-Royce " Eagle " engine.
  F17 was a slightly modified version fitted with a more efficient wing section, and a later version of the Rolls " Eagle " engine.
  The demand for Rolls " Eagles " at the time was considerably greater than the production thereof, and a further Campania type-the F22 was manufactured, fitted with a 260 h.p. Sunbeam engine.
  All these machines were fitted with the Fairey variable camber device.
  The leading particulars of all three types are as follows:
  
  
CAMPANIA F16.
  
Type of machine Seaplane.
Name or type No. of machine F16.
Purpose for which intended Patrol.
Span, upper plane overall 61 ft. 7 1/2 in.
Gap, maximum and minimum 6 ft. 6 in.
Overall length 43 ft. 3 5/8 In.
Maximum height 15 ft. 1 in.
Chord 6 ft. 4 in.
Total surface of Wings 639.8 sq. ft.
Span of tail 13 ft.
Total area of tail 75.1 sq. ft. (Including elevators).
Area of elevators 28.1 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 22 sq. ft.
Area of fin 14 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron and total area 23.4 sq. ft. ; 46.8 sq. ft.
Maximum cross section of body 3 ft 6 In. x 3 ft. 1 in.
Horizontal area of body 90 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 88 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. 250 h.p. Rolls-Royce.
Load per sq. ft. 8.6 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 22.2 lbs.
Tank capacity in gallons 88 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 72 kts.
  Landing speed 42 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 feet in minutes 14 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 1026 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 5500 lbs.
  
  
CAMPANIA F17.
  
Type of machine Seaplane.
Name or type No. of machine F17.
Purpose for which intended Patrol.
Span, upper plane overall 61 ft. 7 1/2 In.
Gap, maximum and minimum 6 ft. 6 in.
Overall length 43 ft. 0 5/8 in.
Maximum height 15 ft. 1 in.
Chord 6 ft. 4 in.
Total surface of wings 627.8 sq. ft.
Span of tail 13 ft
Total area of tail 75.1 sq. ft. (including elevators).
Area of elevators 28.1 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 19.6 sq. ft.
Area of fin 16.2 sq.ft.
Area of each aileron and total area 23.4 sq. ft.; 46.8 sq. ft.
Maximum cross section of body 3 ft. 6 in. x 3 ft. 1 In.
Horizontal area of body 90 sq.ft.
Vertical area of body 88 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. 275 h.p. Rolls-Royce.
Load per sq. ft. 8.7 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 19.5 lbs.
Tank capacity in gallons 88 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 78 kts.
  Landing speed 43 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 feet in minutes 12.30 minutes
Disposable load apart from fuel 1100 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 5560 lbs.
  
  
CAMPANIA F22.
  
Type of machine Seaplane.
Name or type No. of machine F22.
Purpose for which intended Patrol.
Span, Upper plane Overall 61 ft. 7 1/2 in.
Gap, maximum and minimum 6 ft. 6 In.
Overall length 43 ft. 0 5/8 in.
Maximum height 15 ft. 1 in.
Chord 6 ft. 4 In.
Total surface of wings 627.8 sq. ft.
Span of tail 13 ft.
Total area of tail 75.1 sq. ft. (inc. elevators).
Area of elevators 28.1 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 19.6 sq. ft.
Area of fin 16.2sq.ft.
Area of each aileron and total area 23.4 sq. ft.; 46.8 sq. ft.
Maximum cross section of body 3 ft. 6 in. x 3 ft. 1 In.
Horizontal area of body 90 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 88 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. 250 h.p. Sunbeam.
Load per sq. ft. 8.14 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 20.1 lbs.
Tank capacity in gallons 88 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 74 kts.
  Landing speed 40 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 feet in minutes 18 minutes
Disposable load apart from fuel 1026 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 5329 lbs.
A Fairey Campania (260 h.p. "Sunbeam" engine), just before leaving the water.
A Fairey Campania leaving the water.
A Fairey Campania well off.
THE FAIREY Type 3 B.
  
  The Fairey 3B was designed as a bomber with the same fuselage as the N10 but the upper plane was increased in span, and larger floats were fitted. The wings and chassis were interchangeable with those of the original type 3.
  
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Seaplane.
Name or type No. of machine F.III.B.
Purpose for which intended Sea Bomber.
Span 62 ft. 9 in.
Gap, maximum and minimum 5 ft. 7 in.
Overall length 36 ft.
Maximum height 13 ft.
Chord 5 ft. 6 in.
Total surface of wings 570 sq. ft.
Span of tail 13 ft.
Total area of tail 34.2 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 34.2 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 12.4 sq. ft.
Area of fin 12.4 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron and total area 23 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. 260 h.p. Sunbeam.
Load per sq. ft. 8.5 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 18.5 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 4 1/2 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 76 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 83 kts.
  Speed at 10,000 feet 76 kts.
  Landing speed 42 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5.000 feet in minutes 12.30 minutes.
   To 10.000 feet in minutes 36 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 1041 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 4892 lbs.
  
  
  
THE FAIREY Type 3C.
  
  This machine was a further development of the F127 type. Wings and Chassis were still interchangeable with those of the F127 or the type 3B but a more powerful engine - the 375 h.p. Rolls-Royce "Eagle" was installed.
  The actual wings were identical with those of the original type 3, and the chassis, and floats were those of the type 3B
  
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Seaplane.
Name or type No. of machine F.III.C.
Purpose for which intended Reconnaissance.
Engine type and h.p. 360 h.p. Rolls-Royce.
Load per sq. ft. 10.6 ins.
Weight per h.p. 14 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 6 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 120 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 97 kts.
  Speed at 10,000 feet 90 kts.
  Landing speed 44 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5.000 feet in minutes 6.40 minutes.
   To 10,000 feet in minutes 17.30 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 1030 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 5050 lbs.
Performance.
  Speed low down 78 kts.
  Speed at 10.000 feet 74 kts.
  Landing speed 38 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5, 000 feet in minutes 9.30 minutes.
   To 10,000 feet in minutes 38 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 516 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 3812 lbs.
The Fairey type 3 B. Seaplane (260 h.p. "Sunbeam" engine).
Front view of a Fairey type 3 B Seaplane.
Rear view of a Fairey type 3 B Seaplane.
The Fairey type 3 C. Seaplane (375 h.p. Rolls-Royce "Eagle" engine).
THE FELIXSTOWE "F3" FLYING BOAT


  The F3 Flying Boat designs emanate from the Seaplane Experimental Station, Felixstowe, but it has been built in quantity by Messrs. Short Bros. The boat is of the now well known Felixstowe construction with a wide Vee bottomed planing surface, fitted with two steps. The crew consists of a gunner in the nose, two pilots enclosed in a cabin in advance of the main planes, and a gunners cockpit in the rear of the planes with swivel mountings for Lewis guns firing out of the top and either side of the boat. The top plane has a considerable overhang and is fitted with ailerons of large area. Over the last set of struts are king-posts for bracing the overhang, the intervening space between the front and rear king-posts being covered in to form a fin.



Specification.
Type of machine Boat Seaplane.
Name or typo No. of machine Felixstowe F 3.
Purpose for which intended Anti-submarine.
Span 102 It.
Gap, maximum and minimum 8 ft. 6 In.
Overall length 49 ft.
Maximum height 18 ft. 9 in.
Chord 8 ft.
Total surface of wings 1,413 sq. ft.
Span of tail 22 ft.
Total area of tail 118 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 67 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 30.3 sq. ft.
Area of fin 37.2 sq. ft.
Area of each ailerons 65 sq. ft.
Total area of ailerons 132 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. Rolls-Royce Eagle 8 (two) 400 h.p. each.
Airscrew, diam. 10 ft.
Weight of machine empty 7,650 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 842 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 17 lbs.
Tank capacity In hours 9.7 max.; 5 hours normal.
Tank capacity In gallons 212 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 85 m.p.h.
Disposable load apart from fuel 2,550 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 11,900 lbs.
A F5 Flying-boat (2 - 375 h.p. Rolls-Royce "Eagle" engines), built by the Gosport Aircraft Co., Ltd.
Type F3 boat - seaplane
Span 123 ft. (two upper planes)
Lenght (including tail) 60 ft.
Height (from keel) 27 ft. 6 ins.
total weight 23,400 lbs.
Power Plant Five "Eagle" Rolls-Royce engines, driving two tractor and three pusher air-screws.
The Grahame-White Type XV school biplane (1916 type, modified from 1914-15), with 80 h.p. Le Rhone engine. Adopted by the RNAS in early part of war.
This machine was designed prior to the signing of the Armistice, as a long-range day bomber
  It is of the twin fuselage, three engine type, two motors, one in the front of each fuselage driving tractor air screws, and a third, in the rear end of a central nacelle, driving a pusher air screw.
  Particulars of dimensions are given in the following table:
  
  
Specification.
Fitted with three 270 h.p. Sunbeam "Maori" motors.
  
Type of machine Twin fuselage, three-engined.
Name or type No. of machine "Ganymede."
Purpose for which intended Day Bomber.
Span 89 ft. 3 in.
Gap, maximum and minimum 9 ft. 3 In.
Overall length 49 ft. 9 in.
Maximum height 16 ft.
Chord 10 ft. 3 in.
Total surface of wings 1,660 sq. ft.
Span of tail 29 sq. ft.
Total area of tail 254 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 114 sq. ft.
Area of rudders 50 sq.ft.
Area of fin 30 sq. It.
Area of each aileron and total area 200 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. 3 Sunbeam "Maori" 270 h.p. each.
Airscrew, diam., pitch and revs 3.140 diam., 2.570 pitch, 1,050 r.p.m.
Weight of machine empty 11,500 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. fully loaded 9.65 lbs. sq. ft.
Weight per h.p. fully loaded 19.7 lbs. h.p.
Tank capacity in hours 9 hours at 10,000 feet.
Tank capacity in gallons 400 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 105 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10.000 feet 93 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 52 m.p.h.
Disposable load apart from fuel 3,100 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 16,000 lbs.
  
  The makers state that the machine had been designed for 3-400. h.p. Liberty engines, which would have increased the speed to 120 miles per hour.
Side view of the Grahame White "Hanymede" (3/270 h.p. Sunbeam Maori Engines); and of the Grahame White "Bantam" (80 h.p. Le Rhone).
Side view of the Grahame White "Hanymede" (3/270 h.p. Sunbeam Maori Engines); and of the Grahame White "Bantam" (80 h.p. Le Rhone).
A Handley-Page 100 biplane on an aerodrome in Italy. The photograph gives a good idea of the size of the machine.
Three-quarter Front View of a Handley-Page 400 Biplane, with Rolls-Royce Engines.
The Handley Page Type O/400 (2-375 h.p. Rolls-Royce "Eagle" Engines) with the wings folded.
Handley Page twin Liberty motored Type O/400 bomber
HANDLEY-PAGE FOUR-ENGINED BIPLANE, V/1500.


  The four-engined Handley-Page was a development of the smaller two-engined machine. It was designed principally for night bombing, its most spectacular " engagement" being the bombing of Berlin, which was only forestalled by the signing of the Armistice.
  The fuselage remains the same in all its essentials and internal arrangements. The four engines are carried, two tandemwise, on either side of the fuselage, and are not enclosed in any cowling. The upper and lower main planes are of equal span, the upper main plane being flat and the lower plane having a dihedral, and both planes have a decided sweepback. The under-carriage consists of two pairs of Vees under each power unit; the front legs of the Vees carries shock-absorbers enclosed in streamline fairing, the rear members being hinged.
  Both the O 400 and V 1500 types can be converted to commercial vehicles by the mere elimination of the military apparatus-bomb gear and guns-and the refitting of the ulterior of the fuselage for the accommodation of passengers or goods. In the event of passengers, mails and goods all being carried by the same machine, each would be conveyed in a separate compartment.
  In addition to the necessary crew of three men and petrol, oil and water for a non stop flight of 400-500 miles, the nett useful load of each machine would be;-
   Type O/400 - 2,700 lbs. of goods or 18 passengers.
   Type V/1500 - 10,000 lbs. of goods or 45 passengers.
  The external ranges of these machines as commercial vehicles can be regarded as :-
   Type O/400 - 800 miles non-stop with useful load of a half ton.
   Type V/1500 - 1.300 miles non-stop with useful load of one ton



Specification.
Type of machine Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine V 1500.
Purpose for which intended Night bombing.
Span 126 ft.
Gap. maximum and minimum 15 ft.; 12 ft.
Overall length 62 ft.
Maximum height 23 ft.
Chord 12 ft.
Total surface of wings 3,000 sq. ft.
Maximum cross section of body 8 ft. x 6 ft. 2 in.
Engine type and h.p. 4 R.R. Eagle VIII.
Airscrew, diam. and revs. 13 ft. 5 in. (tractors);
   10 ft. 4 In. (pushers). 1.080; 1,080.
Weight of machine empty 15,000 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. fully loaded 10 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 21 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 14 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 1,000 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 103 m.p.h. fully loaded.
  Speed at 6.500 feet 99 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10.000 feet 95 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 50 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5.000 feet 8 minutes.
   To 10.000 feet 21 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 7.000 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 30,000 lbs.
Alternative Engines 4 b.h.p, "Atlantic's," each 500 h.p..
   or 4 Napier '"Lion's." etc.
Three-quarter Front View of a Handley Page Type V/1500 (Four 375 h.p. Rolls-Royce "Eagle" Engines). The standing figures indicate the size of this machine.
Mr. Kennedy was one of the pioneers of aviation in Russia, and was largely concerned with the development of the Sikorsky biplane.
  Returning to England soon after the outbreak of War, he was responsible for the design of the machine illustrated herewith, which was built by the Gramophone Company, Ltd., at their works at Hayes, and was erected in the open at Northolt Aerodrome, there being no shed in the country sufficiently large to house it.
  The machine was equipped with 4-200 h.p. British-built Salmson engines, as the only ones which the authorities would issue, and the power was inadequate for more than straight flights.
  The following are the leading dimensions:
  
  
  
Span 142 ft.
Chord 10 ft.
Gap 10 ft.
Overall length 80 ft.
Maximum height 23 ft 6 in.
Weight of machine empty 19,000 lbs.
Engine type and h.p. 4-200 h.p. Salmson.
Side View of the Kennedy Giant (4 - 200 h.p. Salmson Engines).
A Front View of the Kennedy Giant, with a Bristol "Fighter" alongside.
The Kennedy Giant being erected at Northolt.
Late in 1914, the firm produced a small fast, biplane "Scout," with an 80 h.p. Gnome motor, which was an immediate success, and was promptly ordered in large quantities by the War Office. It played an important part in the war in 1915, till the increased speed of the German machines rendered it out of date. It was superseded by a more powerful type of Martinsyde scout, fitted at first with a 120 h.p. Beardmore engine and later with a 100 h.p. Beardmore.
  
  
Nation: Britain
Manufacturer: Martinsyde Ltd.
Type: Fighter
Year: 1914
Engine: Gnome rotary, 80 hp
Wingspan: 27' 8" (8.43 m)
Length: 21' (6.4 m)
Height: 8' 2" (2.49 m)
Speed: 84 mph (135 km/h)
Armament: 1 machine gun
Crew: 1
A Martinsyde S.1 Scout with 80 h.p. Gnome engine, and later with 100 h.p. Monosoupape Gnomes, one of the most sucessful small fighting machines of the 1915-16 campaign.
Бомбардировщик и разведчик G.100 "Элефант" / Side View of a Martinsyde "Elephant", one of the most sucessful machines of 1916-17.
THE MARTINSYDE F3 & F4 BUZZARD
  
  
  The Martinsyde F3 single-seater scout biplane was designed in 1917. and, although it was far superior to any other machine of the period in speed and climb, was not put into production, owing to the difficulty in obtaining engines, in this case, the Rolls Royce " Falcon," which were earmarked by the Air Ministry for other machines actually in use.
  It was then adapted to take the 300 h.p. Hispano-Suiza, and was put into production as the F-4, but its appearance on active service was preceded by the Armistice.
  The fuselage is very deep and carries enclosed in the cowling twin Vickers sychronised guns. One set of interplane struts are carried on either side of the fuselage, and are splayed outwards from the base.
  The pilot is set well back, and fairly high in the fuselage, the upper plane being cut away and the lower plane staggered back, thereby giving him a good view both upward and downward.
  
  
  
  
THE MARTINSYDE F4.
Specification.
  
Type of machine F 4.
Purpose for which intended Fighter.
Span Top plane. 32 ft. 9 3/8 in.;
   bottom, 31 ft. 2 3/8 In.
Gap. maximum and minimum 5 ft. 2 5/8 In.
Overall length 25 ft. 5 5/8 in.
Maximum height 10 ft. 4 in.
Chord Top plane, 6 ft. 0 1/2 in. ;
   bottom plane, 5 ft. 6 1/4 in.
Total surface of wings 320 sq. ft. (all in).
Span of tail 11 ft 1 1/2 in. (over elevators).
Total area of tail 36 3/4 sq. ft. (tailplane and elevators).
Area of elevators 8 1/4 sq. ft. each.
   Total 16 1/2 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 9 3/4 sq. ft.
Area of fin 6 1/2 sq.ft.
Area of each aileron Top, 11 3/4 sq. ft. each;
   Bottom, 9 1/4 sq. ft. each.
  total area Total, 42 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. Hispano-Suiza. 300 h.p.
Airscrew, diameter and pitch and revs. Dia., 8 ft. 8 7/8 in.;
   Pitch, 6 ft. 6 in.;
   Revs. 1850 r.p.m.
Weight of machine empty 1710 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 7 lbs
Weight per h.p. 7 1/2 lbs
Tank capacity in hours 3 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 43 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 145 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10,000 feet 143 m.p.h.
  Speed at 20,000 feet 126 m p.h.
  Landing speed 45 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 feet 3.0 mins.
   To 10,000 feet 6.30 mins.
   To 20,000 feet 19.30 mins.
Total weight of machine loaded 2280 lbs.
The Martinsyde F3 Single-seat Fighter (Rolls-Royce "Falcon" engine, 275 h.p.)
The firm is under the direction of Major Heckstall-Smith late of the Royal Aircraft Factory.
  During 1918 the firm produced a high-performance single-seat fighter, known as the " Nighthawk," which was ordered on a large scale by the R.A.F.
  The accompanying photographs illustrate the British Nieuport "Nighthawk" with the 320 h.p. A.B.C. "Dragonfly" engine.
  This machine is particularly interesting as having been built to the first specification issued by the Royal Air Force. When the R.A.F. decided that the time had come to concentrate on a limited number of types to finish up the war, they decided to concentrate for a single-seater fighter solely on the Nieuport "Nighthawk" for the "Dragonfly" engine.
  The reasons why this machine was selected were:
   (1) That it fulfilled the performance required.
   (2) That it was fully up to the required strength as demonstrated by loading tests on every part of the machine.
   (3) That the general arrangement of the machine gave the very best facilities to the pilot for fighting-namely: for position and accessibility of guns, instruments, etc., and the minimum blind area.
   (4) Because the general design of the machine was for quick production and the fact that complete engineering drawings and schedules hod been prepared in advance.
  The design was carried out by Mr. H. P. Folland, who is the chief engineer and designer to the Nieuport Company. Mr. Folland was assistant chief designer at the Royal Aircraft Factory, where ho carried out the designs of F.E.2 and S.E.5.
  Prior to the war, when Lieut.-Col. J. E. B. Seely, who was then Secretary of State for War, wished to make a world's record on behalf of the Royal Aircraft Factory, ho instructed the superintendent of the R.A.F. to produce a machine for this purpose. This machine was known as S.E 4, and was fitted with 160 h.p. 18 cylinder Gnome engine. The design of this machine was carried out by Mr. Folland, and the machine was flown by Mai. J. M. Salmond (now Major-General and K.C.B.), and, as mentioned in the House of Commons in 1914, the machine made a speed of 135 m.p.h. and climbed the first 1,500 ft. in one minute.
  Major S. Heckstall Smith, general manager of the Nieuport Company, was at that time Assistant Superintendent at the R.A.F., and was largely responsible for such successes as the factory produced. The " Nighthawk " is a marked advance in detail design and construction on any of the R.A.F. work, and both he and Mr. Folland deserve to be congratulated on its production.
  As will be seen, the machine somewhat resembles the Sopwith "Snipe" in general appearance and dimensions. It is designed as a production job, and a quantity of the fittings which are used in S.E.5s have been worked into the design, because these are stock fittings and can be procured easily and in quantities.
  The photographs show that the machine is eyeable, and that it gives one an impression of speed. It will be interesting to notice how the official performance of the machine works out in practice.
  Particulars of this machine are given in the following table:
  
  
  
Type of machine Fighting Scout.
Name or type No. of machine British Nieuport "Nighthawk"
Purpose for which intended Fighting, airship destruction, convoying.
Span 28 ft.
Gap, maximum and minimum 4 ft. 6 In.
Overall length 18 ft. 6 In.
Maximum height 9 ft. 6 in.
Chord 5 ft. 3 In.
Total surface of wings 270 sq. ft.
Span of tall 9 ft.
Total area of tail 28 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 10 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 5 ft 3 In.
Area of fin 5 ft. 2 In.
Area of each aileron and total area 9.3 each; total 37.2 sq. ft.
Maximum cross section of body 10 sq. ft.
Horizontal area of body 46 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 49 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. A.B.C. "Dragonfly," 320 h.p.
Airscrew, diam., pitch and revs. 9 ft. dia.; 7 ft. pitch; 1,650 revs.
Weight of machine empty 1,500 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 7.75 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 6.62 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 3 hours at 20,000 feet.
Tank capacity in gallons 40 petrol, 4 oil.
Performance.
  Speed low down 151 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10,000 feet 140 m.p.h.
  Speed at 20,000 feet 121 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 58 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 feet 3 minutes.
   To 10,000 feet 7 minutes.
   To 20,000 feet 20 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 400 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 2.120 lbs.
Side view of the British Nieuport "Nighthawk" (320 h.p. A.B.C. "Dragonfly" engine).
The Parnall Panther was a two-seater Naval Reconnaissance aircraft that was designed to be carried onboard ship. It's fuselage was constructed, similar to the German Albatros, minus any internal wire bracing, out of formers and three ply. The fuselage was bulkheaded and water-tight. One very interesting feature of the aircraft was that the entire fuselage folded in half, just aft of the observer's seat, for ship-board storage. In addition, a hydrovane was located in front of the undercarriage, to prevent flipping over in sea landings. Two air bags are situated on either side of the undercarriage, which can be inflated by the pilot when needed, in which case, the whole undercarriage is automatically released.
  
Nation: Britain
Manufacturer: Parnall & Sons
Type: Reconnaissance
Year: 1918
Engine: B.R.2, 200 hp
Wingspan: 29' 6" (9 m)
Length: 24' 11" (7.6 m)
   folded 14' 6" (4.4 m)
Height: 10' 6" (3.2 m)
Weight (Empty): 1,420 lbs. (644.1 kg)
Weight (Gross): 2,560 lbs. (1,161.2 kg)
Speed: 122 mph (196.3 km/h) at sea level
   116 mph at 6,000 ft. (186.7 km/h at 1,828.8 m)
   111 mph at 10,000 ft. (178.6 km/h at 3,280.8 m)
   40 mph (64.4 km/h) landing speed
Climb: 6 min 3 sec to 6,000 ft. (1,828.8 m)
   12 min 29 sec to 10,000 ft. (3,280.8 m)
Range: 480 miles (772.5 kilometres)
Armament: none
Crew: 2
Three-quarter front view of the Parnall "Panther" Ship Plane (230 h.p. B.R.2 engine). The machine is here shown with air bags inflated for flotation purposes, and the hydrovanes on the chassis can be clearly seen.
Three-quarter rear view of the Parnall "Panther", with fuselage folded for stowage on shipboard.
The curious Tail Unit of the Parnall "Panther".
SUPERMARINE PUSHER SCOUT, 1916.
(Commonly called the "Push-Prodge")
  
  Re-designed from original, and fitted with 100 h.p. monosoupape engine; 3 1/2 hours' fuel capacity; Lewis gun and ammunition.
  
  
Speed 98 m.p.h.
Climb:
  6,000 ft. 8 1/2 mins.,
  15,300 40 1/2 mins.
Side View of the "P.B. Push-prodge", a small fast biplane, built by the Supermarine Co. to the designs of Flight-Lieut. Pemberton-Billing, R.N. The machine was, with a 100 h.p. Mono-Gnome, the fastest biplane of its day, and was regarded as a "pushed projectile", hence its nick-name.
Pemberton Billing PB 23E, with its original tail unit and powered by an 80hp Le Rhone engine. It was nicknamed the "Sparklet" as its nacelle resembled a Sparklet bulb.
SUPERMARINE "NIGHT HAWK" QUADRUPLANE
  
  
  Designed and built for night-flying and cruising. Fitted with two Lewis guns mounted fore and aft and one two-pounder Davis gun; six double trays of Lewis gun ammunition and ten rounds of ammunition for Davis gun, the latter being fitted with double parallel sliding bed, permitting practically any are of fire.
  The machine was also fitted with a separate twin A.B.C. air-cooled petrol engine and dynamo. A searchlight, which was hung in gimbals, permitting complete range of light , wireless telegraphy; nine separate petrol tanks with patent change gear, enabling any number of tanks to be used or dis-used in case of tanks being punctured by gun-fire.
  All the controls, pipes, etc., belonging to engines, were laid outside the fuselage in specially constructed armour-plated casings.
  Accommodation was also fitted for bunking room, enabling one hand to sleep or rest.
  The whole wood members of the fuselage wore heavily taped and fabriced, to reduce the trouble of splinters in case of crashes.
  This machine was flown on several occasions at Eastchurch by Mr. Prodger, where the contract speed and landing speed were established. The engines, however, were under powered, and after alterations to the propellers, it was decided by the Authorities to discontinue any further experiments.
Side View of the "Night Hawk" Quadriplane, built experimentally by the Supermarine Company, to the designs of Flight-Lieut. N. Pemberton-Billing, R.N.
One of the most successful of the large type of flying boat.
  The machine is a twin-engined boat on well-tried and conventional lines, but special care has been devoted to detail design.
  In particular the hull is of excellent form and of very low resistance.
  Great attention has been paid to the duplication of all controls, and the whole of the petrol system, including the gravity tanks and the piping, is in duplicate. Both engines can be operated through either petrol system.
  A noticeable feature of the later models of this type are the two nacelles mounted behind the rear spar in the upper wings, the occupants of which have an extremely wide angle of vision and of fire for the machine guns with which they are equipped
  
  
  
Specification.
Type of Machine Flying Boat.
Name or type No. of machine "Phoenix Cork" P.5.
Purpose for which intended Submarine Patrol.
Span 85 ft. 6 in.
Gap maximum 10 ft. 6 In.
   minimum 10 ft.
Overall length 49 ft. 2 In.
Maximum height 21 ft. 2 In.
Chord 9 ft.
Total surface of wings 1,300 sq. ft.
Span of tail 25 ft.
Total area of tail 200 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 58 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 42 sq. ft.
Area of fin 31 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron and total area 42.75 each ; 85.5 total.
Maximum cross section of body 27.75 sq. ft.
Horizontal area of body 202.5 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 208 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. "Eagle" Rolls-Royce, two 360 h.p.
Airscrew, diam., pitch and revs 10 ft. diam., 10 ft. p., 1,080 revs, r.p.m.
Weight of machine empty 7,000 lbs.
Load per sq. ft 8.85 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 16.1 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 8 at full speed.
Tank capacity in gallons 360 galls.
Performance.
  Speed low down 106 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10.000 feet 94 miles.
  Landing speed 52 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 feet 10 minutes.
   To 10.000 feet 30 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 2,000 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 11,600 lbs.
Armament: 5 Lewis guns and 4-230 lbs. or 2-520 lbs bombs.
Crew 5 - Pilot, observer, wireless operator, engineer, and gunner.
A Phoenix "Cork" Flying-Boat (2-375 h.p. Rolls-Royce engines) on the Slipway.
A PROMISING FLYING BOAT. - The " Phoenix-Cork," built by the Phoenix Dynamo Manufacturing Co., Ltd., ol Bradford. This machine has put up some excellent performances after passing its experimental stage, but as the Armistice came along just as the machine was being put into production, it has not yet had an opportunity of proving itself extensively on active service. The machine is fitted with two Rolls-Royce "Eagle" engines.
A "B.E.2c" biplane, with Renault engine, built by the Royal Aircraft Factory.
The B.E.2d. With 90 h.p. or 100 h.p. R.A.F. engine. Note the petrol tank under the upper plane, and the exhaust pipe projecting upwards.
The F.E.2b. With Beardmore engine of 120 h.p, fore-runner of the Rolls engined type, which it resembles in general design. This machine, with slight modifications and a 160 h.p. Beardmore engine, was still in use at the end of the war, as a night-bombing machine.
The F.E.2b. Viewed from below.
With the R.A.F. in the Field: - A R.A.F. Padre preaching to officers and men of the R.A.F. from the nacelle of a F.E.2b Night-bomber. It will be noted that the men still wore R.F.C. uniform. This custom still prevalied in many parts until the middle of 1919, when nearly all the men were demobilised.
An F.E.2d. A photograph from Germany, via a neutral country, showing an F.E.2d, which landed by error at Lille and tried to turn over on reaching the ground. It will be seen that it resembles the F.E.2b, but it has a 250 h.p. Rolls-Royse engine instead of the 150 h.p. Beardmore. It is regretted that the only photographs available are those of damaged machines, but the R.A.F. machines, being definitely of Government design, may not be photographed under normal conditions.
The F.E.8. With Monosoupape Gnome engine. A single-seat fighter.
The F.E.8. With Monosoupape Gnome engine. (Three-quarter view.)
The B.E.2e. With 100 h.p. R.A.F. engine. Note the single pair of struts outside the fuselage, the thin aileron strut, and the long over-hang to the upper planes. The pilot sits behind and the passenger in front.
The R.E.8. With 130 h.p. R.A.F. engine. Note the big engine, the heavier aileron strut, and the less overhang to the upper planes than in the B.E.2e. The pilot sits in front, and the gunner has a gun-ring round the after seat.
Side view of a S.E.5 Biplane, captured by the Germans.
An Ausin-built S.E.5a
A British Fighting Pilot changing a double Lewis drum on the top gun of an S.E.5a
General views of the S.E.5a from "Luftwaffe".
The Sage No. 2 Two-seater fighter was designed in the spring of 1916. The pilots and observers seats are enclosed in a Streamline cabin reaching to the upper plane, the top plane being left open so as to enable the observer to use a Lewis gun in a ring mounting on the top plane, for firing over the propeller.
  
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine Scout.
Purpose for which Intended Fighting.
Span 32 ft. 2 1/2 In.
Sap, maximum and minimum 5 ft. 6 in.
Overall length 21 ft. 1 5/8 In.
Maximum height 9 ft. 6 in.
Chord Top plane, 5 ft.;
   lower plane 2 ft. 8 in.
Total surface of wings 168 sq. ft.
Span of tail 9 ft. 5 In.
Total area of tail 20 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 14.5 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 9 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron 12 1/2 sq. ft.
Total area of ailerons 25 sq. ft.
Maximum cross section of body 3 ft. 5 in. dia.
Horizontal area of body 44 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 52.5 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. 100 h.p. Gnome.
Airscrew diameter and pitch 8 ft. d. x 7 ft. p.
Airscrew revs 1200 r.p.m.
Weight of machine empty 890 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 9.2 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 15.46 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 2 1/2 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 26 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 112 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10,000 feet 100 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 50 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 feet 6 1/2 minutes.
   To 10,000 feet 14 3/4 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 96 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 1546 lbs.
Ceiling 16,000 ft.
Three-quarter View from Rear - Sage No.2 (100 h.p. Mono Gnome engine).
The Sage No. 3 was designed in the autumn of 1916 as a primary training machine and was fitted with dual control with a full cut-out gear in the instructor's cockpit. The undercarriage is of the oleo-pneumatic type and has a pair of small wheels mounted on the front Vee in addition to the landing wheels.
  
  
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine Sage 3.
Purpose for which intended Training.
Span 34 ft. 6 in.
Gap, maximum and minimum 5 ft.
Overall length 26 ft 6 In.
Maximum height 10 ft. 9 In.
Chord 4 ft. 9 in.
Total surface of wings 330 sq. ft.
Span of tail 11 ft. 4 in.
Total area of tail 26 sq. ft
Area of elevators 24 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 10 sq. ft.
Area of fin 4 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron 18 sq.ft.
Total area of ailerons 72 sq. ft.
Maximum cross section of body 2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. 6 in.
Horizontal area of body 59 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 78 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. 75 h.p. Rolls.
Airscrew diameter and pitch 8 ft. d. x 6 ft. 4 in. p.
Airscrew revs 1500 r.p.m.
Weight of machine empty 1390 lbs.
Load per sq. ft 6.25 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 27.5 lbs.
Tank capacity In hours 4 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 26 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 72 m p.h.
  Landing speed 38 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 feet 20 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 119 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 2064 lbs.
Ceiling 9,500 ft.
Side view of the Sage Training Machine, Sage 3 (75 h.p. "Hawk" Rolls-Royce engine).
The Sage No. 4a was designed for sea patrol work in June 1917. It is similar to most float seaplanes and is fitted with a 150 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine which gave the machine a considerably superior performance to any seaplane or flying boat of its power at the time. The No. 4b and No. 4c were similar to the No. 4a, but were fitted with dual control and 200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza and Sunbeam " Arab " engines. The No. 4c had staggered planes and folding gear, whilst the 46 had fixed wings of slightly smaller area and a faster wing section. Both types could be rolled, spun, looped, &c., and have been used for advanced training for seaplane pilots.
  
  
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Seaplane.
Name or type No. of machine Sage 4a.
Purpose for which intended Patrol.
Span 84 ft 6 in.
Gap, maximum and minimum 5 ft.
Overall length 26 ft. 8 in.
Maximum height 11 ft. 3 in.
Chord 4 ft. 9 in.
Total surface of wings 330 sq. ft.
Span of tail 11 ft. 4 in.
Total area of tail 26 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 24 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 9 sq. ft.
Area of fin 7 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron 18 sq. ft.
Total area of ailerons 72 sq. ft.
Maximum cross section of body 2 ft. 6 In. x 2 ft. 5 In.
Horizontal area of body 59 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 78 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. 150 h.p. Hispano.
Airscrew diameter and pitch 9 ft. d. x 7 ft. 3 In. p.
Airscrew revs. 1500 r.p.m.
Weight of machine empty 1620 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 8.0 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 17.6 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 4 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 50 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 93 1/2 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10.000 feet 81 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 50 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5.000 feet 12 minutes.
   To 10,000 feet 25 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 291 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 2645 lbs.
Ceiling 13,000ft.
  
  
SAGE 4B.
SAGE 4C.
Specification.
Type of machine Seaplane.
Name or type No. of machine Sage Seaplane.
Purpose for which intended Training.
Span 39 ft. 7 1/4 In.
Gap, maximum and minimum 5 ft. 3 in.
Overall length 37 ft. 6 In.
Maximum height 11 ft. 7 In.
Chord 5 ft. 3 In.
Total surface of wings 386 sq. ft.
Span of tail 11 ft.
Total area of tail 24 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 21 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 9 sq. ft.
Area of fin 7 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron 21 sq. ft.
Total area of ailerons 84 sq. ft.
Maximum cross section of body 2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. 5 In.
Horizontal area of body 56 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 70 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. (4. A.) 200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza;
   (4. B.) 200 h.p. "Arab" Sunbeam.
Airscrew diameter and pitch 9 ft. d. x 7 ft. 9 n. p.
Airscrew revs. 1500 r.p.m.
Weight of machine empty 2100 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 7.45 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 14.4 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 2 1/2 hours.
Tank capacity In gallons 35 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 97 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10,000 feet 94 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 45 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 feet 8 minutes.
   To 10,000 feet 21 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 155 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 2875 lbs.
Ceiling 15,800 ft.
Side View - The Sage No 4A Seaplane (150 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine).
S 38 type Short biplane. 80 h.p. Gnome, largely used for instructiional purposes.
Short "pusher" biplane - instructional type - taking the air.
Short "folder" seaplane.
Diagram of Short "folder" Seaplane - as published in March, 1914. Details of further improvements cannot be given during the war.
The Salmson-engined Short Admiralty Type 166 seaplane about to get off реу water in Salonica harbour.
Short Type 166 seen being lifted out from her shed with wings folded on HMS Ark Royal. The engine is a Salmson (Canton-Unne) of 130 h.p. The main floats, wing-tip floats and steerable tail floats may be noted.
Short "folder" seaplane - Sunbeam engine - before launching.
A Short Seaplane (320 h.p. Sunbeam engine) in the Japanese Naval Air Service.
The Short N2B bombing seaplane is the latest of the many types of float seaplanes produced by Messrs. Short Bros. before and during the war, and used by the R.N.A.S. and subsequently the R.A.F. as sea patrols, etc. The upper main plane has no dihedral and has a slight overhang over the bottom plane which has a dihedral. Two large pontoon floats are fitted to the fuselage by faired struts. The tail unit is on conventional lines except that a very large fin is used in conjunction with a balanced rudder. Wing-tip and tail floats of ample proportions are fitted, the tad float having a small water rudder. The pilot sits under the centre section wherein are carried the petrol gravity tank, and radiator. The observer sits well back and is armed with Lewis Gun carried in a Scarff mounting,
  
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Float Seaplane.
Name or type No. of machine Short N.2 B.
Purpose for which intended Bombing.
Span 55 ft.
Gap, maximum 7 ft.
Overall length 40 ft.
Maximum height 13 ft. 9 in.
Chord 7 ft. 6 in.
Span of Tail 15 ft. 6 in.
Maximum cross section of body 11.5 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. Sunbeam - Coatalen "Maori", 275 h.p.
Airscrew diam. 10 ft. 6 in.
Weight of machine empty 3,050 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 4 1/2 hours.
Tank capacity In gallons 70 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 90 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10,000 feet 88 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 ft. 12 1/2 minutes.
   To 10,000 ft. 40 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 1,170 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 4,800 lbs.
General Arrangement of the Short N2 B type Seaplane (275 h.p. Sunbeam-Coatalen "Maori" engine).
THE SHORT "SHIRL" TORPEDO-CARRIER.
  
  
  The Short "Shirl" biplane is generally similar to the N2B type seaplane except that a divided wheel and skid chassis is fitted for flying off decks and to allow the stowage of an 18 in. torpedo under the fuselage. The machine is a single-seater, the pilot being situated in rear of the main planes, which are noticeably swept back from the fuselage, and are arranged to fold for stowage on board ship.
  Flotation gear in the form of air-bags are carried over the skids and small plane form hydro vanes are fitted to the front of the skids, to prevent turning over when alighting on water.
  The machine entered by Messrs. Short Bros, for the trans-Atlantic flight is a modified " Shirl," fitted with somewhat larger wings and tailplane, and an immense petrol tank suspended under the fuselage.
  
  
  
Specification
Type of machine Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine "Short Shirl."
Purpose for which intended Torpedo carrying.
Span 52 ft.
Gap, maximum and minimum 6 ft.
Overall length 35 ft. 6 in.
Chord 8 ft. upper; 7 ft. lower plane.
Span of tail 15 ft.
Maximum cross section of body 11 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. Rolls Eagle 8, 400 h.p.
Airscrew, diam. 10 ft.
Weight of machine empty 2,850 lbs.
Tank capacity In hours Max. 6 1/2 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 137 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 99 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10,000 feet 97 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 feet 13 minutes.
   To 10,000 feet 30 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 2,500 lbs. normal
Total weight of machine loaded 5,950 lbs.
General Arrangement of the Short "Shirl" Torpedo Ship Plane (375 h.p. "Eagle" Rolls-Royce engine).
Sopwith "tabloid" scout landing.
A Sopwith "Pusher" Seaplane (100 h.p. Anzani engine), in use by the Greek Naval Air Service.
A Sopwith Schneider type Seaplane (110 h.p. Rotary engine) in the Japanese Naval Air Service.
Three-quarter View from Rear the Blackburn "Baby" Seaplane (130 h.p. Clerget Engine.)
Front view of "1 1/2 Strutter" Sopwith biplane, Clerget engine, 1916 type. Used for fighting, bombing and reconnaissance until early 1918, then becoming a trainer.
A row of "Camels" built by Boulton & Paul, Ltd.
Side View of the Sopwith "Camel" (130 h.p. Clerget engine).
General Arrangement of the Sopwith "Camel" (130 h.p. Clerget engine).
Scale drawings of a Sopwith Triplane, taken from the German paper "Flugsport".
THE SOPWITH CUCKOO
  
  Produced in 1917. A very successful example of the British torpedo carrying machine.
  
  
  
Type of machine Tractor Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine "Cuckoo."
Purpose for which Intended Torpedo carrying.
Span 46 ft. 9 In.
Gap, maximum and minimum 6 ft.
Overall length 28 ft. 6 In.
Maximum height 11 ft.
Chord 6 ft. 3 In.
Span of tail 11 ft. 9 in.
Total area of empennage 35 1/2 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 18 1/2 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 8 sq. ft.
Area of fin 5.6 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron and total area 20 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. 200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza (Experimental).
   220 h.p. Sunbeam Arab (Production).
Weight of machine empty 2140 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 6.7 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 17.9 lbs.
Tank capacity In hours 4 hours at full speed.
Tank capacity in gallons 56 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 90 kts.
  Speed at 10.000 feet 85 kts.
  Climb.
   To 10.000 foot 26 minutes.
Total weight of machine loaded 3880 lbs.
Side View of the Sopwith "Cuckoo" Torpedo Carrier (200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine).
Sopwith torpedo carrier
Three-quarter Front View of the Sopwith "Dolphin" (200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine).
Sopwith TF2 Salamander.
The Sopwith "Scooter", a Monoplane "run-about" with a 130 h.p. Clerget.
Three-quarter Front View of the Sopwith "Snipe" (230 h.p. B.R.2 engine).
Type of machine Single-seater Flying-boat.
Name or type No. of machine Supermarine "Baby."
Purpose for which intended Single-seater Seaplane Fighter.
Span 30.5 ft.
Overall length 26.3 ft.
Maximum height 10.6 ft.
Chord 5.5 ft.
Total surface of wings 309 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. 150 h.p. Hispano-Suiza.
Weight of machine empty 1699 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 7.5 lbs. per sq. ft.
Weight per h.p. 15.5 lbs. per h.p.
Tank capacity in hours 3 hours.
Performance.
  Speed low down 117 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 57 m.p.h.
Disposable load apart from fuel 627 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 2326 lbs.
Side View of the Supermarine "Baby" with wings folded.
Front View of a Supermarine "Baby" Flying-Boat (150 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine).
The Vickers E.F.B.7 a twin-engined fighter designed for Vickers by Howard Flanders. The engines were Gnome Monosoupape of 100 hp mounted between the wings.
  It was designed to carry a Vickers one-pounder gun in the front, which made the arrangement that the gunner was in the front and the pilot way back behind the wings. The machine flew in August 1915. It was not succesfull and a modification was made (designation E.F.B.7A) where the pilot was placed directly behind the gunner. Also the engines were changed due to the scarcity of the Gnomes, making it far less powerful, so dropping the performance unacceptably. Only this one (5717) was built.
  Vickers attempted another twin-engined fighter - the E.F.B.8 - but this did not work out either. The machine could be distinguished by the equal span wings, where the E.F.B.7 had unequal span wings.
F.B.9. PUSHER BIPLANE.
  
  
  Developed from the successful F.B.6 "Gun bus" that used a 100 hp Monosoupape Gnome engine and was employed as a fighter-scout from 1914-16. Pilot and gunner observer placed in tandem. Fitted with various rotary and fixed radial engines. Armament: Lewis gun on ring mounting-One of the best fighting machines of its time.
  
  
  
Model and date. 1914. Fighting type biplane.
Length feet (m.) 27 1/2 (8.23)
Span feet (m.) 37 (11.28)
Area sq. feet (m2) 385 (36)
Weight total, lbs (kgs.) 1760 (799)
   useful, lbs (kgs.) 900 (408)
Motor h.p. 100 Monosoupape
Speed max. m.p.h. (km.) 70 (110)
   min. m.p.h. (km.) 45 (70)
Endurance hrs 1 1/2 hours
  
  
Remarks, Notes and Details
  
  Climbing capacity of 450 feet per minute fully loaded. Radius of action 300 miles, and carries (including pilot, passenger and gun,) 300 rounds of ammunition. Fuselage of high tensile steel.
  This machine has been designed entirely for offensive action in the air against other aeroplanes. For this purpose the gun is mounted in the front of the machine where it has a clear field of fire. The firer has also a perfectly clear view, and is sheltered from all wind by the design of the cowl.
F.B.12C. PUSHER BIPLANE. SINGLE SEATER.
  
  
  Fitted with various rotary and fixed radial engines.
  Armament: One or two elevatable Lewis guns firing forward.
Three-quarter Rear View of Vickers' Single-Seater Pusher Fighter. (Type F.B.12.C.)
The F.B.12 achieved little success and was never fitted with the intended Hart engine.
F.B.14. TRACTOR BIPLANE.
TWO SEATER RECONNAISSANCE
  
  
  Pilot and gunner observer placed in tandem.
  Fitted with various line and V type engines.
  Armament: One Vickers gun firing forward, with Vickers' syncronised firing gear. One Lewis on ring mounting at rear.
Three-quarter Rear View of Vickers' Two-Seater Fighter and Reconnaissance Biplane. (Type F.B.14.)
THE VICKERS F.B. 16 H.
  
  
  The Vickers F.B. 16 H. is a single-seater fighting Scout type. The planes are rather heavily staggered and fitted with two pairs of interplane struts either side of the fuselage. No centre section is fitted, the planes being fixed direct to the inverted Vee type pylons in front of the pilot's seat. The upper plane is well cut away over the pilot's cockpit to give a clear view upwards.
  The tail-unit consists of a large fin and unbalanced rudder and a tail plane and divided elevator, the fin and tail plane being well braced above and below with Rafwire lacing.
  The elevator controls are outside the fuselage.
  The armament consists of two fixed Vickers guns which are fitted inside the fuselage synchronised to fire to the propeller.
  
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Tractor Biplane, single-seater
Name or type No. of machine F.B. 16 H.
Purpose for which Intended Fighter.
Span T. 31 ft.; b. 30 ft.
Gap, maximum and minimum 45 ft.
Overall length 21 ft. 8 In.
Maximum height 8 ft. 1 in.
Chord T. 5 ft. 4 in.; b. 4 ft, 2 In.
Total surface of wings 272 sq. ft.
Span of tall 11 ft.
Total area of Tail 33.8 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 15.3 sq.ft.
Area of rudder 6.5 sq. ft.
Area of fin 7 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron and total area 2 x 9.5+2 x 6 = 31 sq. ft.
Maximum cross section of body 8 sq. ft.
Horizontal area of body 36 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 57 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. Hispano-Suiza; 300 h.p.
Airscrew, diam., pitch and revs 8 ft. diam., 6 ft. pitch, 1,875 r.p.m.
Weight of machine empty 1,636 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 8.45 lbs.
Weight per h.p. (800 h.p.) 7.65 lbs.
Tank capacity in gallons Petrol 40 galls; oil 5 galls.
Performance.
  Speed low down 147 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10,000 feet 140 m.p.h.
  Landing Speed 53 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 feet 3,3 minutes.
   To 10.000 feet 7.8 minutes.
   To 20 000 feet 23.5 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel
  (including crew) 327 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 2,300 lbs.
Front View of the Vickers Single-seat Fighter, type F.B.16H. (300 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine).
Side View of the Vickers Single-seat Fighter, type F.B.16H.
F.B.19. TRACTOR BIPLANE. SINGLE SEATER.
  
  
  Fighter of 1916 appearance, capable of 109 mph. Only 36 built for RFC and used in Palestine, Russia, Macedonia and in UK for home defence. Fitted with 110 h.p. Clerget or Le Rhone rotary engine.
  Armament: One Vickers' gun with Vickers' syncronised firing gear.
THE VICKERS "VAMPIRE."
  
  
  The Vickers " Vampire" is a small single seater pusher biplane designed primarily for trench fighting.
  The small nacelle is directly under the undersurface of the upper plane and is connected to the lower plane by short struts. The tail booms are fitted at the ends of each of the rear inner interplane struts and are parallel in plan view but, in elevation, converge at the fixed tail plane. The chassis is of the customary Vee-type rubber sprung.
  
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Pusher Biplane, single-seater
Name or type No. of machine "Vampire" B.R. 2
Purpose for which intended Trench fighting.
Span Top 31 ft. 6 in.; bot. 27ft. 6 in.
Gap, maximum and minimum 52 in.
Overall length 22 ft. 11 In.
Maximum height 9 ft. 5 in.
Chord Top 5 ft 6 in.; bot. 4 ft. 6 In.
Total surface of wings 267 sq. ft.
Span of tail 12 ft. 3 in.
Total area of tail 38 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 16 sq.ft.
Area of rudder 6.7 sq. ft.
Area of fin 6.4 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron and total area (2x12)+(2x6) = 36sq ft.
Maximum cross section of body 7.6 sq. ft.
Horizontal area of body 16.6 sq ft.
Vertical area of body 24.5 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. B.R. 2; 200 h.p.
Airscrew, diam., pitch, and revs. 8.75 ft., 9 ft., 1,300
Weight of machine empty
  (including 500 lbs. steel armour) 1,870 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 9.1 lbs.
Weight per h.p. (228 h.p.) 10.7 lbs.
Tank capacity in gallons Petrol 29 galls.; oil 6 galls
Performance.
  Speed low down 121 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10.000 feet 115 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 54 m.p.h
  Climb.
   To 5,000 feet 5 minutes.
   To 10,000 feet 12 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel
  (including crew) 568 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 2,438 lbs.
Side View of the Vickers' "Vampire" Single-seat Fighter.
VICKERS "VIMY" TWIN-ENGINED BIPLANE.


  The Vickers "Vimy" biplane was designed as a long-distance bomber, and, following the usual practice in twin-engined machines, has a single fuselage, carrying the pilot and two gunners, one in the nose and the other just aft of the trailing edge of the main planes.
  The engines arc housed in " power eggs," each containing one complete power unit with its respective petrol and oil tanks, carried halfway bet ween the planes, one on either side of the fuselage.
  Under each engine-housing is a separate under carriage consisting of two vees of steel tube, between which an axle and two wheels are slung on shock-absorbers.
  To prevent the machine standing on its nose after too fast a landing, a skid is fitted under the nose of the fuselage.
  Four large balanced ailerons are fitted to the main planes. The empennage consists of a biplane tail unit with two unbalanced elevators, and turn rudders with no fixed fin-area.
  It was on a Rolls-Royce engined Vickers " Vimy" that Capt. John Alcock, D.S.C, and Lieut. Arthur Whitten Brown made the first direct flight across the Atlantic ocean.
  The following specifications give particulars of this machine fitted with various types of engine :


THE VICKERS "VIMY" (Fiat Engines.)

Type of machine Twin-engine Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine "Vimy" Fiat
Purpose for which Intended Bombing.
Span 67 ft. 2 in.
Gap 10 ft.
Overall length 43 ft. 6 1/2 in.
Maximum height 15 ft. 3 in.
Chord 10 ft. 6 In.
Total surface of wings 1,330 sq.ft.
Span of tail 16 ft.
Total area of tail 177.5 sq. ft
Area of elevators 63 sq. ft. (total).
Area of rudder 21.5 sq. ft. (total).
Area of fin None.
Area of each aileron and total area 60.5 sq. ft.; 242 sq. ft.
Maximum cross section of body 3 ft. 9in. by 3 ft. 9 in.
Horizontal area of body 125 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 120 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. Fiat A/12/ Bis.
Airscrew, diam., pitch and revs. 9.4 ft dia., 5.85 ft. pitch, 1,700 revs.
Weight of machine empty 6,426 lbs.
Tank capacity in gallons Petrol 170 galls.; oil 17 galls.
Performance.
  Speed low down 98 m.p.h.
  Speed at 5,000 feet 96 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 53 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 feet 14 minutes.
   To 10,000 feet 45 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 2,479 lbs, (including crew of 3)
Total weight of machine loaded 10,300 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 7.75 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 17.2 lbs.


THE VICKERS "VIMY" (Hispano-Suiza Engines)

Type of machine Twin-engine Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine "Vimy" Hispano.
Purpose for which Intended Bombing.
Span 67 ft. 2 In.
Gap 10 ft.
Overall length 43 ft. 6 1/2 In.
Maximum height 15 ft. 3 In.
Chord 10 ft. 6 In.
Total surface of wings 1330 sq. ft.
Span of tail 16 ft.
Total area of tail 177.5 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 63 sq. ft. (total).
Area of rudders 21.5 sq. ft. (total).
Area of fin None.
Area of each aileron and total area 60.5 sq. ft.; 242 sq ft.
Maximum cross section of body. 3 ft. 9 In. by 3 ft. 9 In.
Horizontal area of body 125 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 120 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. Two 200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza.
Airscrew, diam., pitch and revs. 9.25 ft. dia. 5 ft. pitch, 2,100 revs.
Weight of machine empty 5,420 lbs.
Tank capacity in gallons Petrol 91; oil 14
Performance.
  Speed low down 90 m.p.h.
  Speed at 5,000 feet 87 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 51 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 feet 23.5 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 2,900 lbs, (including crew of 3)
Total weight of machine 9,120 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 6.85 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 22.8 lbs.


THE VICKERS "VIMY" (Rolls-Royce Engines)

Type of machine Twin-engine Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine "Vimy" Rolls.
Purpose tor which Intended Bombing.
Span 67 ft. 2 in.
Gap 10 ft.
Overall length 44 ft
Maximum height 15 ft.
Chord 10 ft. 6 In.
Total surface of wings 1,330 sq. ft
Span of tail 16 ft.
Total area of tall 177.5 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 63 sq. ft. (total).
Area of rudder 21.5 sq ft.
Area of fin None.
Area of each aileron and total area 60.5 sq ft ; 242 sq ft
Maximum cross section of body 3 ft 9 in. by 3 ft. 9 In.
Horizontal area of body 125 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 120 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. Two 350 h.p. "Eagle Mark VIII" Rolls-Royce.
Airscrew, diam., pitch, and revs 10.5 ft. dia., 9 ft. 11 in. pitch, 1,950 revs.
Weight of machine empty 7,100 lbs
Tank capacity in gallons Petrol 452; oil 18.
Performance.
  Speed low down 103 m.p.h.
  Speed at 5,000 feet 98 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 56 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 feet 21.9 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 2.010lbs. (including crew of 3)
Total weight of machine loaded 12,500 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 9.4 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 17.8 lbs.
Third prototype Vimy, B9954, with Fiat A-12 engines, which also met with disaster at Martlesham Heath.
Three-quarter Front View of a Fiat-engined Vickers "Vimy" Bomber.
Side View of a Vickers "Vimy" Bomber (two 375 h.p. Rolls-Royce "Eagle" engines).
Front View of a Vickers' "Vimy" Bomber. (two Fiat engines, type A.12 Bis).
Three-quarter Front View of the Westland Seaplane N.16 (150 h.p. B.R.1. rotary engine).
The Westland "Wagtail" was designed in answer to a general demand for a fast, quick-climbing, general utility single-seater fighter.
  It conforms in general arrangement with most other machines of this type.
  The pilot's view is very good both upward and downward, more than half the centre section being left open. Main planes of equal span are fitted, the upper plane having a dihedral of 5 degrees, whereas the lower plane is flat, i.e., no dihedral.
  
  
  
THE WESTLAND "WAGTAIL."
Specification.
  
Type of machine Single-seater Tractor Scout.
Name and type No. of machine Westland "Wagtail."
Purpose for which Intended High altitude fighting.
Span 23 ft. 2 in.
Gap maximum At outer strut 4 ft. 6 in.
   minimum Centre section 4 ft.
Overall length 18 ft. 11 In.
Maximum height 8 ft.
Chord 4 ft 6 in.
Total surface of wings 190 sq. ft.
Span of tail 7 ft. 10 3/4 In.
Total area of tall, incldg. elevators 25 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 9.5 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 4.4 sq. ft.
Area of fin. 2.1 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron 6 sq. ft.
Total area of ailerons 24 sq. ft.
Maximum cross section of body 7.1 sq. ft.
Horizontal area of body 29.3 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 36.5 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. 170 b.h.p."Wasp" Fixed Radial.
Airscrew, diam., pitch and revs. Pitch 2070 m/m., diam. 2590 m/., revs. 1,900.
Weight of machine empty 965 lbs. (Including 219 lbs. for fuel and oil).
Weight of machine empty 746 lbs. (without fuel and oil)
Load per sq. ft Fully loaded 7 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 7.7 lbs.
Tank capacity In hours 2 1/2 hours at 15,000 feet.
Tank capacity In gallons Petrol 26 galls.; oil 3 galls.
Performance
  Speed at 10,000 feet 125 m.p.h
  Landing speed 50 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 feet 3 1/2 minutes.
   To 10,000 feet 7 1/2 minutes.
   To 17,000 feet 17 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 365 lbs
   Pilot 180 lbs
   Two guns, gear & 1,000 rounds 160
   Oxygen 25
Total weight of machine loaded 1,330 lbs.
Three-quarter View from rear of a Westland "Wagtail" Single-seat fighter.
1914 Wight Pusher seaplane.
Eleven Wight Pusher Seaplanes built for Admiralty for reconnaissance. Two served on the seaplane carrier HMS Ark Royal. One 200 h.p. Salmson engine, offering a speed of 72 mph.
Type 840 TRACTOR SEAPLANE
  
  
  
Length: 41 ft.
Span: 61 ft.
Surface: 568 sq. ft.
Weight empty: 3408 lbs.
Useful load: 1045 lbs.
Engine: 225 h.p. Sunbeam.
Speed: 81 m.p.h.
Endurance: 4 hours.
A Wight Type 840 tractor seaplane, built by J.Samuel White. Used by RNAS on anti-submarine patrol between 1915-17.
A.E.G. two-seater biplane, type C.IV
Front View of the A.E.G. G.IV Bomber. 1918 type.
Side View of the A.E.G. G.IV Bomber. 1918 type.
AGO CII reconnaissance biplane of 1915 (two 220 h.p. Benz IV engines)
AGO DV3 unarmed single seat scout of 1915 (100 h.p. Uberursel Ur I rotary engine). Prototype only, achieving 150 km.p.h.
Three-quarter Front View of an AGO C.IV armed reconnaissance Biplane of 1917. Note the tapered wing and the single strut between the outer pair and the fuselage
ANOTHER VIEW OF THE AGO BIPLANE. - A slight difference in the strutting is noticeable in this view. The machine previously described in "FLIGHT" had a diagonal (incidence) strut between the two outer interplane struts. In the machine shown in this photograph this strut, it will be seen, has been replaced by a wire, thus conforming more with standard practice.
Earlier type of Albatros biplane
Albatros-built Etrich Taube
Albatros B.I biplane, with 100 h.p. Mercedes motor. (on view in the "Place" and Nancy, after being brought down by a French aviator.)
Side view of the C.III type, "General Purpose" Albatros biplane, 1916-1917.
The exhaust pipes, with machine gun below, and engine cowl of the C III type Albatros
The Albatros biplane, C III type, of 1916-17.
Wing curves of the Albatros biplane, C III type, 1916-17.
Method of attchaing interplane struts and bracing cables to main spars on the C III type Albatros.
The Albatros B.F.W. 225-h.p. biplane, type C.V.
Three-quarter front view of the type D.I Albatros destroyer.
Front view of the type D.I Albatros destroyer.
Back view of Albatros destroyer.
The D.I type Albatros destroyer, 1917 pattern. The sketch under the tail shows the cross section of the fuselage at the line above the figure 2, and gives an idea of the great strength at that place.
The D I type Albatros destroyer, 1917 pattern. (The sketch alongside the tail shows the cross-section of the fuselage at the line opposite the figure 1.)
Three-quarter rear view of the D III Type Albatros Chaser
A Captured German "Albatros" Single-seater Fighter
Front View of the D III Type Albatros Chaser
The D III Albatros
Manfred von Richthofen and Mohnicke in C.IX 4508/16, preparing to takeoff from Hannover after Richthofen's visit.
One of only three Albatros C.IX Type Two-seater biplanes built in 1917, with arrow-shaped wings and curious strutting arrangement.
A German "Circus" of Albatros single-seaters getting ready to start. Note the "shugar-stick" stripes, by way of camouflage, of the machine near the right end of the picture.
The Albatros DV entered service in May 1917 to counter British types such as the SE5; although it was not as promising as expected, it was still ordered in large numbers and remained in use to the end of the war. Powered by a 180hp or 200hp Mercedes DIIIa it had a top speed of 116mph (187kph).
A nose-piece of an Albatros with 8-cylinder 250 h.p. Mercedes engine, and geared-down airscrew.
The single streamlined and outwards inclined strut idea has been carried out with the clear object of minimising the interplane connection head resistance, and in conjunction the inclined struts from the interplane strut bottom joint to the upper fuselage longitudinals doing althogether away with wiring. The Albatros strut form was first seen in the fashion of the 1916-17 L.F.G. Roland Whale effort, while the two inwards inclined struts appear to be of usual streamline shape.
  The body nose and the fairly forward position of the Albatros gives the impression of a rotary engine installation.
  One fails to see immediately the object of advancing the fin and balanced rudder on the Albatros.
  The tail fin and undivided balanced elevator is similar to the one of the biplane scout of the same firm.
The Albatross D.XI, flown in 1918 but not put into production.
The for part of the 1915-17 type Aviatik C.I armed reconnaissance biplane.
Side view of D.F.W. B.I biplane, Reconnaissance and School type.
Front View of the captured D.F.W. Aviatik in Paris. - The shape of the nose shows clearly how the Germans obtained better propeller efficiency than we did, and also how, by fitting their radiators directly in the slip stream, they managed to run big engines with small radiators. These points contrasted favourably with our own contemporary methods.
The D.F.W. Type C.V.
The latest D.F.W. biplane - Type C 37 III.
  
Specification
  
Span Upper plane, 13.27m.;
   Lower plane, 12.8 m.
Chord 1.75 m.
Maximum height 3.252 m.
Overall length 7.825 m.
Weight of machine empty 970 kgs.
Useful load 460 kgs.
Engine type and h.p. 200 h.p. Benz.
Performance
   Speed 144 k.p.h.
   Climb
   To 1,000 metres 4 mins
   To 2,000 metres 9 1/2 mins
   To 3,000 metres 16 1/2 mins
   To 5,000 metres 49 mins
Useful load 460 kgs.
Total weight of machine loaded 1,430 kg.
A D.F.W. type C.37 III.
A Fokker Monoplane, 1914-15 type, with Uberursel motor. One of the earlier examples of the type which was proved so redoubtable as a "destroyer".
A Fokker B Type biplane, 2-seater, with 100 h.p. rotary Uberursel engine. This particular machine is here seen in a valley of the Carpatians, having been lent to the Austrians. The Austro-Hungarian forces used Fokker Bs from 1915 for reconnaissance and training.
General Sketches of the Fokker Triplane by M.Lagorgette.
A Formation of Fokker Biplanes, of the late 1918 period
Front view of the Fokker D.VII (D.7) Biplane.
The Wing Curves of the Fokker Biplane.
The Fokker Single-seater Biplane - Type D.7.
Instrument Board of Fokker Monoplane.
Three-quarter Front View of a Friedrichshafen G.III Bomber.
The 450-h.p. Friedrichshafen G.II Three-seater.
The Friedrichshafen Seaplane, Type FF67, used extensively in the North Sea; operating from land stations and also seaplane carriers.
Geest Mowe monoplane (rear view).
Gotha LE "Taube" monoplanes of 1913-14 used for scouting.
The early Ursinus GUH G.I. twin-engined bomber. It was produced at Darmstadt in 1914. Later it was built under license by the Gotha company first as a land machine and later as a seaplane with 2-100 h.p. motors, which were subsequently replaced by more powerful power units.
The German Bomber. - A twin-engined Gotha biplane. The balanced ailerons and rudder are notheworthly.
A Gotha Bombing Squadron about to start.
A Gotha G.V (G.IV???) Bomber as seen from above, with its handling crew resting in a trench behind it and on the ground round it.
The General Scheme of the Gotha Gun-Tunnel.
The Gotha G.IV Bomb Dropper. - Outline views of the twin-engine three-seater biplane used largely for raiding purposes by the Germans. The sketches are reproduced from the French technical paper "L'Aerophile".
The Ursinus GUH G.I. Hydro-Aeroplane at rest.
An Aviatik Twin-engined Biplane, Type G1. (2-230 h.p. Benz engines.) (???)
A Gotha GL.VIII Twin-engined Tractor Biplane of late 1918 design, showing the abolition of the front gunner-observer's cockpit.
The fuselage and wings of a captured Halberstadt D.III single-seat Fighter of 1916 (120 h.p. Argus As II engine).
Gunner-observer on a Halberstadt, equipped for Contour-fighting, with hand-grenades.
A general view of the Two-seater Halberstadt CL.II.
A rear view of the Halberstadt CL.II showing tail plane arrangement.
Halberstadt C.4
Side view of the Hannoversche CL.IIIA Biplane.
Three-quarter rear view of the Hannoversche Biplane.
Radiator and Gun-Emplacement.
The Pilot's Office in the Hannoversche Biplane.
Rear Gun Attachment and Ring.
Hannoversche Biplane
A Hannoversche Biplane, Type CL.IV, with curious strutting arrangement. (300 h.p. Maybach engine.)
A Hannoversche reconnaissance Biplane, Type C.L.V. (second series), with large single wooden streamline struts and a monoplane tail.
A Brandenburg Two-Seater Biplane, built by "Oeffag" in 1916
"Изюминка" самолета Э. Хейнкеля - пересекающиеся межкрыльевые стойки - впоследствии авиаконструкторами не использовалась / An Ago (???) Flying Boat of 1918 type
A Brandenburg CC fighter flying-boat in initial service form with plain "star" strutting.
An Ago (???) Seaplane of 1918 type
Side view of the Brandenburg W.29 Sea Monoplane.
A front view of the Brandenburg W.29 Sea Monoplane of late 1918.
Tree-quarter front view of the Junkers J.I Biplane.
A German Junker-Fokker "Contour-Fighter" or "Ground-Strafer" loading up with food and ammunition for conveyance to German troops in trenches which were cut off from other communications
Side view of the Junkers J.I all-metal low-level close support and reconnaissance biplane of 1917 appearance.
Front view of the Junkers J.I Biplane.
The All-Metal Wireless Junkers CL.I ground attack and escort monoplane of 1918. (Junkers J 8)
The Junkers J.7 experimental all-metal fighter of 1917, developed into the operational D.I of 1918.
A rear view of the Junkers J.7 Monoplane.
A German Kondor Taube monoplane in the Spanish Service.
Front View of the Kondor D VI Biplane. (200 h.p. Goebel rotary engine.)
An early (1915) Type, Twin-propeller and Single-engined Roland Biplane, Class G.I. (260 h.p. Maybach engine.) Remained a prototype.
An Experimental Roland Type D.XV Single-seater Biplane. (160 h.p. Mercedes engine.) This machine was the 2,000th aircraft turned out by the Roland factory.
A Roland Single-seater "Wireless" Biplane. Type D.XV in third prototype form. (190 h.p. B.M.W. engine.)
Little is known of this firm, which was not much heard of till the Armistice, when certain illustrations of its products appeared in the German Press.
  It is stated that none of its products have been used in any war area.
L.V.G. monoplane showing distinct Nieuport characteristics.
L.V.G. B.I reconnaissance biplane of 1914-15, unarmed and using either a 110 h.p. Benz or a 100 h.p. Mercedes engine.
An L.V.G. C.II biplane, 160 h.p. Mercedes engine of 1916 type. Note the radiator built into the centre sections of the wings.
The gun-ring and cockpits of L.V.G. C.II reconnaissance and general purpose biplane of 1916-17 use, captured by the French. 160 h.p. Mercedes D.III engine, allowing 81 miles per hour.
L.V.G. Biplane. Type C.V.
Front and three-quarter front views of the L.V.G. biplane. Type C.VI. Note the absence of balanced extension on the ailerons and the different nose-piece.
Three-quarter rear view of the L.V.G. biplane. Type C.VI.
L.V.G. Biplane. Type VI.
L.V.G. Scout. D.V. Type.
  
  
  In this L.V.G. the streamlining embraces both the interplane and plane-cum-fuselage connectiong twin-struts, of more or less V structure. The inner set is provided with a round cutting in the streamlining. The steepness, though not markedly whale type, camouflaged body of the L.V.G. may be result of the employment of a powerful stationary motor. The chord of the lower plane of the L.V.G. looks large for a scout; the rudder asks for comment. Considering the large impulses on a scout rudder from hard work the unsupported position seems daring. The hinged fixed plane and elevator position of the L.V.G. Scout is that of the Brandenburg seaplane faschion.
The L.V.G. D.V. prototype slab-sided fighter of 1918.
An L.V.G. G.III Twin-engined Tractor Triplane. Note, as in the Friedrichshafen and the Gotha the "sawed-off" nose. Appeared at end of war (two 245 h.p. Maybach Mb IV engines). The G.I biplane bomber (prototype only) had appeared in 1915.
Seating arrangement ang wing fitting of N.F.W. B.I biplane of 1915 (120 h.p. Argus As II.)
The Pfalz E.V monoplane. - This machine closely resembles the fixed engine Fokker. Not all of the 20 ordered were built. 100 h.p. Mercedes D.I engine, allowing 103 m.p.h.
Rear view of the Pfalz Chaser, D.III type.
Front view of the Pfalz Single-seater D.III Type.
The D.III Type Pfalz
The Siemens-Schuckert D.IV. (???)
Pfalz Scout. Type D.XII.
Early form of Rumpler B.I type military biplane, which just before the war broke various distance and duration records, including an 18 hours non-stop flight by Herr Basser, and a flight from Berlin to Constantinople, stopping only at Vienna, Sofia and Bucharest. Herr Basser is seen in the pilot's seat above.
Side view of a Rumpler C.I type two-seat general-purpose biplane captured by the French. The C.I was an improved armed version of the B.I and was operational from 1915-17, then as a trainer. 160 hp Mercedes engine usually allowing 95 m.p.h.
A Brandenburg (?) Seaplane looping over the coast. Machines of this type for a time gave the Germans the Command of the Air over the North Sea
Rumpler C.IV type.
An 160 h.p. Benz-engined Sablatnig Seaplane of SF 5 (1917) type, largely used by the German Navy.
A Sablatnig SF 4 experimental Single-seater Triplane Scout Seaplane.
An early (1914-15) Schutte-Lanz Experimental Type G.I Twin-engined Biplane, possessing many features betraying its relationship lighter-than-air craft. Two 160 h.p. Mercedes D.III engine.
A Four-engined Siemens-Schuckert Biplane bomber of 1915, with 110 h.p. Mercedes engines. The first multiple-engined machine built by this firm.
An early type of Siemens-Steffen Giant Aeroplane. Probably the second four-engined bomber designed by Forssmann and flown in September 1915. Featured an enclosed cabin.
An early type of Siemens-Schuckert Giant Aeroplane of the 'R' series, flown from 1915. The engines are within the fuselage and drive both airscrews through clutches and a gear box.
Rear View of the Siemens-Schuckert.
Experimental Zeppelin CL.II all-metal Two-seater Biplane of 1917.
Three-quarter Front View of a Zeppelin Five-engined "Giant" bomber, probably one of the R.XIVs or XVs of 1918.
The Zeppelin Five-engined "Giant".
Rear View of the Zeppelin "Giant" Biplane. (5-250 h.p. Maybach engines.)
The Zeppelin R.VI production Four-engined Biplane in Flight. (4-250 h.p. Maybach engines.)
Sketch of the Method of Fastening the Bracing Wires on the Wing-spars of the Zeppelin Four-engined Biplane.
Details of Ribs and Spars. Wings of Four-engined Zeppelin Biplane.
Front View of the Four-engined Zeppelin Biplane.
Scale Drawings of the Four-engined Zeppelin Biplane.
Front View of Nielsen & Winther Nieuport type Chaser Biplane.
Three-quarter Rear View of Nielsen & Winther Nieuport type Chaser Biplane.
A Nielsen & Winther Seaplane.
A Danish Service Flying Boat, photographed from another aeroplane.
A Danish Flying Boat build by the Danish Navy.
A Danish Government biplane, designed and built in the Government Workshops.
A Danish seaplane, built by the Danish Navy.
The Spanish Royal Flying Service. - A group of the chief aviation officers at a Spanish aerodrome, with a number of "Flecha" type Spanish-built biplanes lined up ready to start.
A Spanish military experimental biplane, known as the "Flecha" type, on genarally German lines, but with an original landing gear.
A Spanish military experimental biplane, known as the "Delta" type, combining some Nieuport characteristics with German wing arrangement and curious fins above, which are designed for experiments in lateral stability.
A Spanish-built Biplane, apprently a combination of the "Flecha" type with Curtiss influence. Built by the Spanish Flying Service.
A Spanish military experimental biplane, known as the "W" type, combining a generally German design with apparently a Curtiss engine and radiator and a novel landing gear.
ANSALDO 1, called also the "BALILLA"
  
Type of machine Single-seater Biplane.
Name or type No of machine Ansaldo 1-nicknamed the "Balilla."
Purpose for Which Intended Hunter
Span 25 ft. 2 in.
Length 22 ft. 5 in.
Height 8 ft. 3 in
Engine type and h.p. S.P.A.6A. 200 h.p .6cyl., Vertical. 225 h.p. at 1700 r.p.m.
Weight empty 1.823 lbs
Tank capacity In hours About 2 1/2 hours
Performance,
  Speed 137 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 16,000 feet in minutes 16 minutes.
Guns fire through propeller.
Front View of an S.V.A. Biplane.
THE S.V.A. BIPLANE.
  
  The famous engineering and shipbuilding concern, the Societa Gio Ansaldo of Genoa, is now making aircraft upon a very large scale. This firm, which is comparable in this country only with Vickers', Armstrong's, or Beardmore's, or in Germany with Krupps', is governed by the brothers Pio and Mario Perrone. These enterprising men, both of whom are but slightly past forty years of age, have shown enterprise in every department of engineering, and it is not surprising, therefore that their aeronautical products are equally original and successful.
  The Ansaldo firm has incorporated the S.I.T. (Societa Italiana Transaerea, Turin) business, which holds the Bleriot and Voisin licenses for Italy, and the F.I.A.T. Saint-Georgio business for the manufacture of aero-engines at Muggiano. In addition an important aircraft works has been established at Borzoli, near Genoa, the whole establishment being raised upon green fields within eight months.
  An aerodrome site was purchased about six miles from the works, the surrounding terrain being unsuited to this purpose. A number of houses were pulled down to clear the ground, and a first-class testing depot established.
  Owing to the difficulty of procuring steel tube suitable for aircraft work, the firm laid down tube mills to work to make its own. And as first-class wing fabric was scarce, they installed a silk-weaving plant to make special fabric for themselves.
  They then commenced to build S.V.A. 5 (Savoia-Verduzio-Ansaldo) aeroplanes, successful examples being single-seater land machines and seaplanes, whose most noteworthy feature is the use of triangularly arranged tubular interplane struts, much after the practice prevailing before the war in certain German biplanes and in the French Clement-Bayard biplane, the object in view being the elimination of unnecessary bracing cables.
  On a land machine of this description the military .aviator Stoppani flew from Turin to Rome in 2 hr. 50 mm. This machine is regarded as a long-distance fighter, and can carry fuel for eight hours, in the course of which it will fly between 1,600 and 1,700 kilometres, which represents the distance from Rome to Paris. When some of the fuel carrying capacity is utilised for bomb loads the machine becomes a formidable raiding unit. The seaplane is a similar machine fitted with long, narrow twin floats of Howard Wright type.
  Some idea of the extent of the activities of the Perrone Bros, may be judged from the fact that they employ over 60,000 workmen in their various factories, an important proportion of whom are engaged upon aircraft construction.
  During 1918, the firm absorbed the O. Pomilio Aircraft Company, of Turin, mentioned elsewhere in this work.
  The principal outstanding work done by S.V.A. in the war was the pacific raid of 7 machines on Vienna, a 700 mile flight done in under 7 hrs. The firm are exclusively fitting the 220 S.P.A. 6-cylinder engines. During the early part of this year most of Italy's crack pilots were flying or in expectation of flying S.V.A. machines. The famous Baracca and Serenissima escadrilles are using them exclusively,


THE S.V.A. 4 BIPLANE
Type of machine Single-seater Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine S.V.A. (Savoia-Verduzio-Ansaldo).
Purpose for which intended Single-seater reconnaissance.
Span 29 ft. 10 in.
Overall length 26 ft. 7 in.
Maximum height 10 ft. 6 in.
Engine type and h.p. 220 h.p. S.P.A. 6A (Ansaldo).
Weight of machine empty 1,900 lbs
Weight per h.p. 13.2 lbs.
Tank capacity In gallons 75 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 140 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 45 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 20.000 feet in minutes 30 mins.
  Total weight of machine loaded 2,900 lbs.


THE S.V.A. 5 BIPLANE.
Type of machine Single-seater.
Name or type No. of machine S.V.A. 5 Primo.
Purpose for which Intended Daylight bomber and reconnaissance.
Span 29 ft. 10 In.
Length 26 ft. 7 in.
Height 10 ft. 6 in.
Total lifting surface 261 sq.ft.
Engine type and h.p. S.P.A. 6A 200 h.p.. 6 cyl., vertical. 225 h.p. at 1700 r.p.m.
Tractor screw Two-bladed.
Weight empty 1450 lbs.
Tank capacity In hours 6-7 hours.
Performance.
  Speed at sea level 143 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 45m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 10,000 feet in minutes 10 mins.
   To 20,000 feet in minutes 28 mins.
  Useful load with tanks full About 450 lbs. has been flown with 650 lbs.
  Total weight with tanks full and full load of bombs 2,315 lbs.
An early S.V.A. Seaplane.
The Italian S.V.A. 210 h.p. SPA motored Fighting Scout.
Fore part of an early Caproni Ca 3 type biplane with two rotary tractor engines and a pusher Isotta-Fraschini.
THE 300 H.P. CAPRONI BIPLANE IN FLIGHT. - These machines, which have been frequently mentioned in the reports of Italian aerial war work, are fitted with three motors of 100 h,p, each. One of these is mounted in the central nacelle, and drives a propeller, while the other two are placed some distance out on the lower plane, each driving a tractor screw. From each of these engines a structure resembling in shape and construction an ordinary fuselage runs back to form a support for the tall planes, serving at the same time to streamline the engines. In the nose of the central nacelle are seats for three, a pilot and two gunners. For long-dlstance bombing raids the Capronis have proved particularly suitable on account of their good weight-carrying capacity.
A 1,000 h.p. Caproni Triplane, of 1917, nose to nose with a 100 h.p. Caproni Monoplane of 1915 type.
Two Views of a Mexican-built Twin-fuselage Biplane.
A 1,000 h.p. Caproni Triplane, of 1917, nose to nose with a 100 h.p. Caproni Monoplane of 1915 type.
Front View of a Caproni Ca 4 type Triplane bomber of 1917.
Italian Aviators and Civilian Aviators with an Italian Service machine.
The Gabardini type of monoplane took the competent by storm when it first appeared in 1913 to the public.
  With two adult passengers and an 80 h.p. rotary engine, the late Philip Cevasco made a non-stop flight from Milan to Venice, and otherwise proved the powers of the machine to be quite exceptional and unusually well suited for all sorts of general conditions.
  With a smaller engine, the Gabardini was found to be ideal for training pilots, and so a large school and works were opened at Cameri, in 1914, and were got into swing in time for the work of preparation for war.
  Squat and inelegant and built largely of metal, the monoplanes are distinctive, not freakish nor reminiscent of any other aeroplane.
  Signor Gabardini, who at one time dedicated himself to art of another sort, is a Piemontese by birth, and cruelly crippled, mental energy alone being in his power of recent years. He has. however, the satisfaction of having produced one of the very few monoplanes which has survived the ban and disfavour into which single-deckers have fallen, and his joy therein is shewn by the pride with which he claims it the best, after trial, in all the world.
  The type has had a long testing during four war years of gruelling, with barely a modification, and that in the cockpit, in all that time.
  So responsive to control is the Gabardini that its designer states that "they answer the intangible helm of the pilot's intention before the material leverage has come into action."
  In flight, the Gabardini reminded one of the Antoinettes, curiously, since the design of the two is so entirely opposite. Up till now radial motor> are fitted, with rotaries for school machines.
  With a motor less costly in upkeep, the Gabardini monoplane is a machine which may. one hopes, become a useful means of commercial transport, being a good lander, a weight-earner and stable. A commercial traveller's vehicle possibly ?
  The work of training some 300 pilots carried on at Cameri has kept Signor Gabardini's designing energy rather in the background necessarily.
  
  
THE GABARDINI MONOPLANE.
Type of machine Tractor Monoplane.
Name or type No. of machine Gabardini.
Purpose for which intended Training Machine.
Span 10 m.
Total surface of wings 18 sq. m.
Engine type and h.p. 50 h.p. Gnome.
Performance.
  Speed low down 100 km.p.h.
Gabardini Monoplame for elementary instruction (35 h.p. Anzani).
Gabardini Monoplame with 50 h.p. Gnome engine.
A Gabardini Monoplame with 80 h.p. Le Rhone engine.
A Gabardini captive monoplane used to teach the use of controls.
THE GABARDINI BIPLANE.
Type of machine Single-seater Tractor Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine Gabardini.
Purpose for which Intended Advanced Training.
Span 7.20 m.
Maximum height . 2.2 m.
Total surface of wings 14.81 sq. m.
Engine type and h.p. 80 h.p. Le Rhone.
Load per sq. m. 32.07 kgs.
Weight per h.p. 5.9 kgs.
Performance.
  Speed low down 180 kms.
  Total weight of machine loaded 475 kgs
  
  
THE GABARDINI BIPLANE.
Type of machine Single-seater Tractor Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine Gabardini.
Purpose for which intended Advanced Training.
Span 7.2 m.
Maximum height 2.25 m.
Total surface of wings 15.85 sq. m.
Engine type and h.p. 110 h.p. Le Rhone.
Load per sq. m. 33.7 kgs.
Weight per h.p. 4.87 kgs.
Performance.
  Speed low down 190 km.p.h.
  Total weight of machine loaded 535 kgs.
A Gabardini Advanced Training Machine (80 h.p. Le Rhone engine.)
A Gabardini biplane with 110 h.p. Le Rhone engine.
A Gabardini School Machine (50 h.p. Gnome engine.)
MACCHI "5"
Type of machine Single-seater Waterplane.
Name or type No. of machine M5.
Purpose for which Intended Hunter.
Span 11.90m.
Gap 1.90 m.
Overall length 8 m.
Maximum height 2.85 m.
Chord Upper plane, 1.60 m.;
   Lower plane, 1.10 m.
Total surface of wings 29 sq. m.
Span of tail 2.87 m.
Total area of tail 3.95 sq. m.
Elevator, maximum 2.87 x 0.55 m.
Rudder, maximum 1.20 x 0.55 m.
Fin, maximum 2.50 x 0.65 m.
Ailerons, total area 3.75 sq. m.
Fuselage dimensions 1.00 x 0.85 sq. m.
Engine type and h.p. Isotta Fraschini V4b., 160 h.p.
Airscrew, diam.,pitch and revs. 2.55 m., 15.00.
Weight of machine empty 700 kilos.
Load per sq. m. 35,5 kilos.
Weight per h.p. 6.45 kilos.
Tank capacity In hours 3.15 hours.
Performance.
   Speed low down 189 k.p.h.
   Climb.
   To 4.000 metres in minutes 20 mins.
   Total useful load 270_kgs.
   Total weight of machine fully loaded
   970 kgs.
A Single-seater Macchi-Nieuport M.5 Flying Boat.
MACCHI "7"
Type of machine Single-seater Waterplane.
Name or type No. of machine M7.
Purpose for which Intended Hunter.
Span 9.95 m.
Gap 1.96 m.
Overall length 8.10 m.
Maximum height ?. 2.95 m.
Chord Upper wing, 1.670 m.;
   Lower wing, 1.31 m.
Total surface of wings 26.6 sq. m.
Span of tall 2.84 m.
Total area of tail 2.65 sq. m.
Elevator, maximum 2.84 x 0.6 m.
Rudder, maximum 1.12 x 0.6 m.
Fin, maximum 2.50 x 0.55. m
Ailerons 2.70 sq. m.
Fuselage dimensions, horizontal 1.15 m.
Fuselage dimensions, vertical 0.90 m.
Engine type and h.p. Isotta Fraschini V6. 260 h.p.
Airscrew, diam. and revs. 2.55 m., 1800.
Weight of machine empty 775 kgs.
Load per sq. m. 41.5 kilos.
Weight per h.p. 4.325 kilos.
Tank capacity In hours 4 hours.
Performance.
  Speed low down 210 k.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 6,000 metres in minutes 21 mins.
  Total useful load 305 kilos.
  Total weight of machine fully loaded
   1.080 kgs.
MACCHI "8"
Type of machine Two-seater Seaplane.
Name or type No. of machine M8.
Purpose for which Intended Scouting.
Span 13.8 m.
Gap 2 m.
Length 9 m.
Maximum height 3.25 m.
Chord Upper plane. 1.75 m.;
   lower plane, 1.59 m.
Total surface of wings 40 sq.m.
Span of tail 3.270 m.
Area of tail 3 sq. m.
Elevator 3.27 x 0.7 m., 1.70 x 0.7 m.
Fin 8 x 0.58.
Area of ailerons 4.50 sq.m.
Fuselage 1.23 x 1.08.
Engine type and h.p. Isotta Fraschini V4 B. 160 h.p.
Airscrew, diam. and revs. 2.7 m. 1500 revs.
Weight of machine empty 900 kgs.
Load 35 kgs. per sq. m.
Weight per h.p. 8.75 kgs.
Tank capacity in hours 4 hours.
Performance.
  Speed low down 167 k.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 metres in minutes 55 mins.
  Total useful load 500 kgs.
  Total weight of machine fully loaded
   1.400 kgs.



MACCHI "9"

Nation: Italy
Manufacturer: SA Nieuport-Macchi
Entered Combat: 1918
Endurance: 4 hrs.
Armament: 1 machine gun
Crew: 2
Ceiling: 18,050 ft. (5,500 m)

Type of machine Two-seater Seaplane.
Name or type No. of machine M9.
Purpose for which intended Scouting and Bombing.
Span 15.4 ms.
Gap 2 m.
Maximum length 9.4 m.
Maximum height 3.25 m.
Chord Upper wing. 1.8 m.;
   lower wing. 1.6 m.
Total surface of wings 48.5 sq. m.
Elevator 3.50 x 0.65 m.
Rudder 1.75 x 0.70 m.
Fin 3.10 x 0.75 m.
Area of ailerons and total area 4.10 x 0.75 m. 6.15 sq. m.
Fuselage, horizontal and vertical 4.10 x 0.75 m.
Engine type and h.p. Fiat. A 12 bis. 280 h.p.
Airscrew, diam. and revs. 2.65 m. 1600 revs.
Weight of machine empty 1,250 kgs.
Load per sq. m. 37 Kgs.
Weight per h.p. 6.4 kgs.
Tank capacity in hours 4 hours
Performance.
  Speed low down 187.5 km.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 m. in minutes 40 mins.
  Total useful load 550 kgs.
  Total weight of machine fully loaded 1800 kgs.
The Macchi-Nieuport Boat, with double rudder.
The Marchetti-Vickers-Terni (M.V.T.) biplane.
Designed to do what bicycle docs for the man on the road. the little vehicle was ready for its trial flight when its builder. the lute Emilio Pensuti, was killed in attempting to save а very valuable life for the country.
  After the lapse of some months the machine was taken into the air by Lt. L. Montegani and did all that its lamented designer hoped of it.
  The Pensuti 2, as it is named, leaves the ground after a run of 20 metres and pulls up in the name distance.
  With an Anzani V, 35 h.p. engine, a speed of 95 kilometres has been attained and a minimum speed of 40 is possible.
  
  
Rate of climb: 1000 metres in 1/4 hr.
Span: 4 metres.
Total length: 3.80 metres.
Over all height: 2.40 metres.
Weight in flying trim including pilot:
   230 kilos
Petrol consumption per flying hr.
   2 gallons
Oil 1/2
The Pensuti-Caproni in the air.
The Pensuti-Caproni Triplane in the air.
The Pensuti-Caproni on the ground.
Side View if a Pomilio PC Tractor Biplane for armed reconnaissance from 1917. 260 h.p. Fiat A.12 engine, allowing about 114 m.p.h. Later models became similar but refined PDs and PEs.
A Row of Pomilio S.P. (Savoia-Pomilio Biplanes. S.P.s in S.P.2, 3 and 4 version served from 1915 onwards as reconnaissance and artillery observation biplanes. S.P.2 version used one 260 h.p. Fiat A.12 engine to achieve 91 m.p.h. Those illustrated are probably 300 h.p. A 12 bis-powered S.P.3s.
S.I.A. (Societa Italiano Aviazione).
Works at via Nizza 15, Turin. Flying ground at Lingotto. Turin. Capital paid-up: Lire 5,000,000.

  This title, with its Italian-Latin word-play, must not be confounded with the pre-war firm of the same initials which produced an excellent monoplane - nor with the S.I.A.. an Aero-Club much less with the S.I.A.T. (Societa Idrovolanti Alta Italia) a Savoia offshoot.
  This, the Turin S.I.A., builds a large tractor-biplane for the. F.I.A.T. engine, with which excellent heart the machine has created many records and places its ceiling some distance farther from the earth's crust than most others.
  The firm's growth was abnormal - its machines were flying before the Company was constituted it is claimed - and it is now able to supply aircraft to foreign powers.
  The S.I.A. biplane is a tractor type.
  The upper and lower wings are united by four pairs of vertical steel struts of oval section. The upper wings are fitted with ailerons.
  The fuselage is completely streamlined and consists of four longitudinal wood members with diagonal bracing and canvas covered.
  The motor is a F.I.A.T. 300 h.p. 6 cylinders vertical with direct-mounted propeller, carried behind a honeycomb radiator and under a bonnet, as in automobile practice.
  It has been officially announced that Lieut. Brach-Papa, Chief Pilot of the S.I.A., has created a new world's altitude record with passenger on a S.I.A. machine of the type illustrated.
  This was the third height world's record won by this pilot in 1917. Lieut. Brach-Papa is one of the oldest Italian aeroplane testers. To his credit stands the flying test of more than a thousand machines of twenty different types.
  The figures concerning this last record are the following, as issued in all the Italian daily papers :- Machine : S.I.A. 7.B. No. 5966. Load (Passengers and fuel): 350 kgs. (775 lbs.). 1,000 m. in 2 mins. 30 secs. 2,000 m. " 5 mins. 3,000 m. " 9 mins. 4.000 m. " 18 mins. 5,000 m. ,. 24 mins. 6,500 m. " 37 mins. 30 secs. 6,750 m. " 1 hour 3 mins. Ground level was .275 metres above the sea. Height above the sea level reached : 7,025 m. (23,000 ft.). Military Control Commission at a flying ground near Turin. Date: 14 Dec, 1917, in the afternoon.
  It may be of interest to technical readers to know that the machine was tuned before starting with the " Vibration" method recently adopted by Ingegnere Lerici (See "The Aeroplane," Nov. 7th, page 1342) in order to ensure the highest safety factor to the whole structure under such abnormal conditions of flight.


THE SIA " F.B." AEROPLANE.

  The S.I.A. - type F.B. biplane, which Captain Laureati flow, in lost than seven hours, from Turin to London, is associated with the following officially recorded performance :-
   August 26th - The height of 20,000 ft. (6.165 m.) is reached in 34 minutes with a load of 660 lb- (comprising a pilot and a passenger).
   June 28th.- The height of 24,000 ft. (7,310 m.) is reached in 56 minutes, with a load of 600 lb. (pilot alone).
   August 26th. - Capt. Laureati flies from Turin to Naples and back without descending, covering in 10 hours a distance of 1,000 miles (1,400 km.).

  The world's height records above-mentioned were beaten by the chief pilot of the Societa Sia, Lieut. Brach-Papa.
  The motor of the SIA 7B reconnaissance-bomber of 1917 is the 250-300 h.p. Fiat "A12" motor, of the standard type widely employed in all the Italian machines.
  The aeroplane was designed for being a "jack of all trades " type. Indeed, its carrying capacity, as well as its speed and climbing powers, enable it to be employed as a bomb-dropper as well as a racer.
  The machine was built in the workshops for aeronautical construction of the Societa Italiana Aviazione, commonly known as the " Sin," a sister company to the famous motor-car firm, F.I.A.T.. of Turin.
  The designers are the engineers, Torretta and Carlo Maurilio Lerici, of the technical staff of F.I.A.T. Co.
  The initials F.I.A.T. stand for Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino, and the word " Fiat" in pure Latin, means " Let it Be," or " So Be it " - which, freely translated, indicates that the F.I.A.T. is undoubtedly " It." The word " Sia " in modern Italian also means " Let it be so," with a precisely similar connotation to the word "Fiat." The play on initials is ingenious.


FIAT-SIA.
Specification.
Type of machine Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine R2.of 1918
Purpose for which Intended Scouting and Bombing.
Span 12.32 m.
Gap 1.95 m.
Overall length 8.75 m.
Maximum height 3.30 m.
Chord 1.95 m.
Total surface Of wings 45.60 sq. m.
Span of tail 3.40 m.
Total area of tail 3.05 sq. m.
Area of elevator 2.00 sq. m.
Area of rudder 1.05 sq. m.
Area of fin 2.08 sq. m.
Maximum cross section of body 0.835 m.
Fuselage, vertical and horizontal
   1.425 m. x 0.835 m.
Engine type and h.p. Flat A12 bis. 300 h.p.
Airscrew, diam., pitch and revs 2.80 m. 1.85 m. 1,500 revs.
Load per sq. m. 36.7 kgs.
Weight per h.p. 5.56 kgs.
Tank capacity In hours 4 hours.
Tank capacity In kilograms Petrol, 215 kg. ; Oil, 40 kg.
Performance.
  Speed at 200 metres 180 k.p.h.
  Speed at 2,000 metres 165 k.p.h.
  Landing speed 75 k.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 1.000 metres in minutes 6 mins.
   To 2,000 metres in minutes 14 mins.
   To 3,000 metres in minutes 23 mins.
   To 4,000 metres in minutes 38 mins.
  Total useful load 450 kgs.
  Total weight of machine loaded 1670 kgs.
The S.I.A. Type 9B Two-seater reconnaissance-bomber (700 h.p. Fiat A.14 Engine.)
A S.I.A.I. S.8 reconnaissance and anti-submarine flying-boat, designed in 1917. 172 used by Italian Navy. 170 h.p. Isotta-Fraschini V4B engine, allowing 88 m.p.h. Two machine guns.
A S.I.A.I. S.9 Flying Boat of 1918. Bombing Type. Fiat A 12 bis engine of 100 h.p. Not adopted for service.
Mexican Government Two-Seater Biplane
(Constructed in the Mexican National Aeronautical Workshops.)
  
Type of machine Mexican Two-seater Biplane
Name or type No. of machine Series A.
Purpose for which intended General purposes.
Span 10.15 metres.
Total surface of wings 35.2 sq. metres.
Engine type and h.p. "Aztatl" 6-cyl. Radial; 80 h.p.
Load per sq. metre 18.76 kgs.
Weight per h.p. 8.2 kgs.
Tank capacity in hours 40 litres petrol; 20 litres oil.
Performance.
   Speed low down 90 k.p.h.
Disposable load apart from fuel 140 kgs.
Total weight of machine loaded 520 kgs.
A Mexican-built Monoplane.
In February, 1918, the Military Aviation Factory produced to the designs of its director, Senor Francisco Santarini, and Captain Guillermo Villasana, Chief of the Technical Department, a one-seater fighting scout fitted with a 150 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine. The characteristics of this machine, which is oficially termed a Microplano, are the following:-
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Mexican Scout Biplane
Name or type No. of machine Microplane Veloz.
Purpose for which intended Single-seater Fighter.
Overall span, upper plane 8.00 metres.
Span of lower plane 6.88 metres.
Surface area 18 sq. metres.
Interplane gap 1.5 metres.
Overall length 6.60 metres.
Maximum height 2.55 metres.
Speed, horizontal 190-220 km.p.h.
Area of elevators 1.73 sq. metres.
Area of rudder .76 sq. metres.
Gross weight 650 kgs.
Net weight 460 kgs.
Useful load 190 kgs.
Engine type and h.p. Hispano-Suiza; 150-160 h.p.
Airscrew Anahuac
The Government-built "Microplano".
The Mexican "Microplano Veloz".
SPYKER SCHOOL BIPLANE.
Type of machine Spyker dual control School Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine V.2.
Purpose for which Intended Training.
Span 10.850 m.
Overall length 6.640 m.
Maximum height 3 m.
Engine type and h.p. Spyker 80 h.p. Rotary.
Load per sq. m. 23 kg.
Petrol tank capacity In gallons 25 gallons.
Oil tank capacity In gallons 5 1/2 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed, maximum 135 km. per hour.
  Speed, minimum 70 km. per hour.
  Climb.
   To 1,000 ms. in minutes 8 minutes with full load.
A Spyker School Machine used by the Dutch Flying Corps.
Half front view of a Spyker-Trompenburg Two-seater School Machine, type V.2.
The Spyker-Trompenburg Two-seater Training Machine.
SPYKER SINGLE-SEATER FIGHTER.
Type of machine Spyker single-seater Fighter.
Name or type No. of machine V.3.
Purpose for which intended Air Fighting.
Span 8.190 m.
Overall length 6.100 m.
Maximum height 2.6 m.
Engine type and h.p. Spyker 180 h.p. Rotary.
Load per sq. in. 25 kg.
Petrol tank capacity in gallons 28 gallons.
Oil tank capacity in gallons 4 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed 180 km. per hour.
  Climb.
   To 1,000 ms. in minutes 3 minutes with full load
Armament: 2 machine guns.
The latest type Scout, Holland's leading aeroplane.
The Spyker-Trompenburg V.3 was cancelled by the Luchtvaartafdeling with the Armistice of 1918.
Monocoque-bodied Biplane (150 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine). Built at the Norwegian Army Aircraft Factory, and fitted with ski for use on snow.
Aircraft Engineering Corporation build a small single-seater sporting aeroplane, the Ace, to the designs of N.W.Dalton, chief engineer of the firm.
  
Specification
Span 28 ft. 4 in.
Length overall 16 ft. 1 in.
Chord 4 ft. 6 in.
Engine 4-cylinder 40 h.p. B.W.W. (air-cooled).
Tractor airscrew Direct driven
High speed 60 m.p.h.
Low speed 30 m.p.h.
Weight, light 600 lbs.
Useful load 225 lbs.
The Aircraft Engineering Corporation's "Ace" (40 h.p. B.W.W. engine).
AEROMARINE, PRIMARY TRAINING (ARMY).
  
Type of machine Land machine.
Name or type No. of machine Model M.L.
Span 37 ft. 3 in.
Overall length 25 ft. 11 In.
Overall height 12 ft. 4 in.
Total wing area 430 sq. ft.
Weight, loaded 2.050 lbs.
Dihedral (top and bottom) 1 degree.
Sweep back None.
Stagger 12 In.
Decalage 1 degree.
Gap 6 ft. 6 in.
Chord 6 ft. 3 In.
Aileron area (two ailerons) 56 sq. ft.
Rudder area 13 ft.
Elevator area (two elevators) 21 sq. ft.
Stabilizer area 33 sq. ft.
Upper plane
  Span 37 It. 3 In.
  Chord 6 ft. 3 In.
  Area (not Including ailerons) 194 sq. ft.
Lower plane
  Span 32 ft. 10 in.
  Chord 6ft. 3In.
  Area 180 sq. ft.
  
  
  The Aeromarine Model .M L. is a two-place land machine, equipped with the Aeromarine Model L. (6-cylinder) motor.
  Seating Arrangement. The seats are arranged in tandem, and controls can be had in either or both cockpits.
  
Performance.
High speed 90 miles per hour.
Landing speed 42 miles per hour.
Climb 6.000 feet in 10 minutes.
  
Price: $8,250
The Aeromarine Central Float Seaplane.
The Aeromarine Central Float Seaplane.
AEROMARINE, SPORT SEAPLANE.
Type of machine Flying Boat.
Name or type No. of machine Model 40-T.
Span, upper wing 48 ft. 4 In.
Span, lower wing 37 ft. 4 in.
Stagger 8in.
Chord 75in.
Gap 78 in.
Dihedral 2 degrees.
Area, upper panel
  (with ailerons) 804 sq, ft.
Area, lower panel 200 sq. ft.
Ailerons, each 29 sq. ft.
Elevators, each 12.8 sq. ft.
Stabilizer 39.5 sq.ft.
Vertical stabilizer fin 15 sq. ft.
Rudder 17.5 sq. ft.
Skid fin 5.5 sq. ft.
Length overall 28 ft. 11 In.
Weight, light 1,925lbs.
Weight, loaded 2,485 lbs.
Gasoline 35 gallons.
  
  Seating Arrangement. Model 40-T is arranged for one operator and one passenger, and is an ideal machine for instruction or sporting purposes.
  
Performance.
Aeromarine 125-130 h.p. motor :
High speed 80 m.p.h.
Landing speed 38 m.p.h.
Climb 2,500 feet in 10 minutes.
  
100 h.p. motor:
High speed 70 m.p.h.
Landing speed 38 m.p.h.
Climb 2.100 feet in 10 minutes.
  
  Hull. The hulls of these boats are constructed in the most modern and durable fashion.
  The bottoms are constructed of two-ply, placed diagonally with cloth between and fastened with brass fastenings.
  The sides and decks are of three-ply waterproof veneer.
  The decks forward of the cockpit and after the rear beam may be removed, as well as the floors in the passenger compartment, and as it is possible to enter the hull between the wing beams through the hutch, the entire bottom and inside of the boat may be inspected and repaired more easily.
  50 of these machines have been delivered to the U.S. Navy. Price: $9,000.
  
  
  
Specifications of Model 50 Flying Boat.
  
  The Aeromarine Plane and Motor Company's Model 50 is of the same general dimensions as that of Model 40-T.
  The seating arrangement, however, is for three persons - two passengers side by side and a pilot sitting in a separate cockpit forward of the passengers.
  This model will be supplied either with the passenger space enclosed or open, with movable windshield to protect the passengers.
  Price: $9.500.
The Aeromarine Sport Seaplane (Curtiss 100 h.p. O.X.5 engine)
General Description of Model C.L. 4 S.
  
  The model C.L. 4 S is a modification of the model " ? " seaplane. Although the general appearance and characteristics remain the same, the new engine installation together with a few minor changes have added to the performance of this machine.
  The wing structure with its center cabane of steel simplifies assembly and clears the approach to, and vision from, the cockpits.
  The tail unit, consisting of balanced elevators, rudder and fin, is independently complete, readily assembled and firmly fixed in place by steel tuning, forming a compact structure in keeping with the wind surfaces.
  The body, although short in appearance, is wholly in keeping with the aero and hydro conditions met with in this type of seaplane.
  
  
Specification.
  
Power Plant.
  (Hall-Scott Liberty Four) 125 h.p.
  
Wing and Control Surface Areas.
  Main planes (including ailerons) 475 sq. ft.
  Upper planes (including ailerons) 246 sq. ft.
  Lower planes 229 sq.ft.
  Ailerons 36.0 sq.ft.
  Number of ailerons 2.
  Elevators 30.0 sq. ft.
  Rudder 12.0 sq.ft.
  Vertical fin 6.0 sq.ft.
  
Overall Dimensions.
  Span, upper 43 ft. 6 in.
  Span, lower 43 ft. 2 in.
  Chord, upper and lower 69 in.
  Gap 72 in.
  Length overall 27 ft.
  
Incidence of Wings with Propeller Axis.
  Upper 6 1/2 degrees.
  Lower 4 degrees.
  Dihedral 2 3/4 degrees.
  Stagger 29 1/2 in.
  
Performance.
  Get away 11 sec
  Climb in 10 mm. (full load) 3.600 ft.
  High speed 75 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 38 m.p.h.
  Endurance at full speed 3 hours.
  Gasoline consumption
   (during altitude climb) 10.5 gallons per hour.
  Oil consumption
   (during altitude climb) 1.0 gallon per hour.
  
Weight
  Fully loaded 2,430 lbs.
An Experimental Breese Seaplane.
Type S is a twin-float tractor seaplane.
Type U is a central-float tractor seaplane.
  
Model Navy School Tractor. Tractor Hydro.
Type S. U.
Length 30' 30'6''
Span 46'6'' 46'
Useful load, lbs. 750 640
Motor, h.p. 125 100 Curtiss Oxx2
Fuel capacity 4 hours 4 hours
Speed, Max 73 70
Speed, Min 41 40
Seating capacity 2 2
Burgess Seaplane: The Training Tractor, type L. (S???)
Type B.D. is a Burgess Dunne sportsman's seaplane.
Type B.D.H. is a Burgess Dunne reconnaissance biplane with central floats.
  
  
Model Burgess Dunne. Burgess Dunne.
Type B.D. B.D.H.
Length 23' 31'
Span 46' 46'6''
Useful load, lbs. 670 350
Motor, h.p. 100 Curtiss Oxx2 140
Fuel capacity 4 hours 4 hours
Speed, Max 69 70
Speed, Min 45 40
Seating capacity 2 2
Burgess-Dunne Seaplane aloft.
The Burgess-Dunne Seaplane, type B.D.
The Burgess-Dunne Reconnaissance Seaplane, type B.D.I.
Burgess-Dunne Seaplane.
Burgess-Dunne Flying Boat, 1916-17 type. Model B.D.F.
A single-seater tractor biplane of quaint appearance was tested at the U.S.A. Government Experimental Field No.1 on Dec. 3rd and 7th.
  The machine is named the Christmas "Bullet" after its designer, Dr. W.W.Christmas, and is driven by a Liberty "6" engine, which develops 185 h.p. at 1,400 r.p.m. The "Bullet" was reported to have attained a speed of 175 m.p.h. at tree quarter throttle.
  The "Bullet" has what is termed one and-a-half planes, as used in the Nieuport biplanes, the upper plane having a span of 28ft, and a chord of 2 1/2 ft. External bracing and struts do not exist, the upper wing being fitted to the top of the fuselage and the lower wing to the bottom.
  The wing curve is one developed by Dr. Christmas, and is of fairly deep section between the main wing spars, but tapers off sharply aft of the rear spar, merging into a flat and thin flexible trailing edge. The wing this maintains a high angle of incidence and a fair camber at low speeds, and a lower angle and a flatter camber at higher speeds. This system of wing construction is reminiscent in a measure of the earlier Breguet and Caudron machines.
  Both upper and lower planes have the same aspect ratio. The upper plane has a maximum thickness of 5 ins. Fuller details of the wing construction cannot at the moment be given, as patents were still pending when the last was heard of the machine.
  The car-type radiator and engine are placed in the front part of the fuselage, which is very deep. The two-bladed airscrew has a projectiong bullet-shaped hub. The landing carriage struts are of deep section, such as is used in the Curtiss land machines and Burgess seaplanes. The pilot's cockpit is located behind the upper plane, affording a fairly good view in most directions.
  The elevator is not divided, as the rudder is fitted to the vertical fin in such a manner as not to interfere with free elevator movement. This method is similar to that emplayed in the Pfalz single-seater scout. The tail-skid is fixed to the stern-post.
  The principal details of the Christmas "Bullet" are as follows:
  
Span, upper plane 28 ft.
Span, lower plane 12 ft.
Chord, upper plane 5 ft.
Chord, lower plane 2 ft. 6 in.
Area, upper plane 140 sq. ft.
Area, lower plane 30 sq. ft.
Length overall 21 ft.
Weight, machine empty 1,820 lbs.
Weight, fully loaded 2,100 lbs.
Minimum speed 50-60 m.p.h.
Maximum speed 175 m.p.h.
Cruising radius 550 miles
Ceiling 14,700 ft.
The Christmas "Bullet" (185 h.p. 6-cylinder Liberty engine)
The Continental KB-3T training tractor
  
  The Continental Aircraft Corporation's new training tractor KB-3T recently tested at Amityville, has come up to all expectations of the designer Vincent J.Buranelli. The short "over-all" length of this machine, 23 feet 4 inches, is noteworthly and characteristic of Continental machines.
  Mr. Buranelli's chief object in designing the KB-3T was to produce a training machine that could be cheaply constructed. This has been accomplished by an extensive use of one-piece standartized fittings. A very complete list of neasurements and weights are given which should prove useful in checking up with other machines.
  
General Specifications.
  
Span upper plane 40 ft. 3in.
Span lower plane 34 ft.
Chord both planes 5 ft. 6 In.
Gap 5 ft. 4 in.
Stagger 6 in.
Length over all 23 ft. 4 in
Height 9 ft. 3 in.
Net weight 1.340 lb.
Useful load 540 lb.
Gross weight 1,880 lb.
Motor. Curtiss OX 100 h.p.
Speed range 45-75 m.p.h.
Climb in ten minutes 3,200 ft.
  
Weights.
  Upper planes 118 lb.
  Lower planes 102 lb.
  Struts 30 lb.
  Wires and turnbuckles 20 lb.
  Fittings and bolts 18 1b.
   Total 288 1b.
  
  Fuselage 310 lb.
  Seats upholstered 12 lb.
  Stick controls and mountings 17 lb.
  Dash with instruments 13 lb.
   Total 352 lb.
  
  Ailerons 24 lb
  Elevators 16 lb.
  Rudder 10 1b.
  Vertical stabilizer 3 lb.
  Horizontal stabilizer 19 lb.
  Control cables 16 lb.
   Total 88lb.
  
  Motor complete 390 lb.
  Propeller 22 lb.
  Radiator and piping 53 lb.
  Gas tank and gauges 22 lb
  Exhaust pipe 16 lb.
   Total 503 1b.
  
  Landing chassis and incidentals = 109 lb.
  
Planes.
  The wing curve is Eiffel 38. The planes are set with an angle of incidence of 21 degrees. Top and bottom are the same The tips of planes are slightly rounded as is in general use on Continental machines. Then is no sweepback, but a dihedral of 1 degree and a stagger of 6 in. The upper planes are made in two main sections with a three-foot panel over the body. The lower plane is in two sections and attaching to the body. ' Wing beams are of " I" section and made of Douglas fir. The overhang is braced by a steel strut made of | in. seamless tubing with a fairing of spruce
  The struts are of streamline section, the maximum 3 3/4 in. x 1 1/2 in. occurring at the centre, and tapering in proportion to each end where it sets into a special strut socket. Flying cables are double 5/32, in. in inner panel, 1/8 in. outer panel, landing wires are single of the same sizes. Double drift and single tracing wires are used. All control wires are internal.
  Ailerons on top plane only, and are 11 ft. x 1 ft. 6 in. Where ailerons are attached, a bevel on the aileron permits the surface to be moved without a space occurring between aileron and wing.
  R. A. F. stitching is employed in attaching the fabric to the ribs. To finish four coats of " dope " and two coats of Valspar are used. A factor of safety of 7 is employed. The lift to drag ratio is 12.
The Continental Model KB-3T Training Tractor
Curtiss Model M.F. Flying Boat.
  
Specification.
  
General Dimensions.
  Wing span, upper plane 49 ft. 9 3/8 in.
  Wing span, lower plane 38 ft. 7 5/32 in.
  Depth of wing chord 60 in.
  Gap between wings at engine section 6 ft. 4 5/32 in.
  Stagger None.
  Length of machine overall 28 ft. 10 3/16 in.
  Height of machine overall 11 ft. 9 3/8 in.
  Angle of incidence 6 degrees.
  Dihedral angle, lower planes only 2 degrees.
  Sweepback None.
  Wing curve U.S.A. No.1.
  Horizontal stabilizer
   angle of incidence 0 degrees.
  
Areas.
  Wings, upper 187.54 sq.ft.
  Wings, lower 169.10 sq. ft.
  Ailerons (each 22.43 sq. ft.) 44.86 sq.ft.
  Horizontal stabilizer 33.36 sq. ft.
  Vertical stabiliser 15.74 sq. ft.
  Elevators (each 15.165 sq. ft.) 30.33 sq. ft.
  Rudder 20.42 sq. ft.
  Total supporting surface 401.50 sq. ft.
  Loading (weight carried per sq. ft.
   of supporting surface) 6.05 lbs.
  Loading (per r.h.p.) 24.32 lbs.
  
Weights.
  Net weight, machine empty 1.796 lbs.
  Gross weight, machine and load 2,432 lbs.
  Useful load 626 lbs.
   Fuel 240 lbs.
   Oil 22.5 lbs.
   Water 36 lbs.
   Pilot 165 lbs.
   Passenger 165 lbs.
   Miscellaneous accessoires 7.5 lbs.
   Total 636.0 lbs.
  
Performance.
  Speed, max. (horizontal flight) 69 m ph.
  Speed, mm. (horizontal flight) 45 m.p.h.
  Climbing speed 5.000 ft. in 27 mins.
  
Motor.
  Model O.X.X. 8-cylinder, Vee, four-stroke cycle
   Water cooled.
  Horse power (rated) at 1400 r.p.m. 100
  Wright per rated h.p. 4.01 lbs.
  Bore and stroke 4 1/2 in. x 5 in.
  Fuel consumption per hour 10 galls.
  Fuel tank capacity 40 galls.
  Oil capacity provided, crankcase 5 galls.
  Fuel consumption per b.h.p. .60 lbs. per hour.
  Oil consumption per b.h.p. .030 lbs. per hour.
  
Propeller.
  Material. - Wood.
  Pitch. - According to requirements of performance.
  Diameter. - According to requirements of performance.
  Direction of rotation, as viewed from pilot a seat. - Clockwise.
  
Details.
  Dual control.
  Standard Equipment. - Tachometer, oil gauge, gasoline gauge, complete set of tools.
  Other equipment on special order.
  
Maximum range.
  At economic speed, about 325 miles.
A typical Curtiss F Type Flying Boat used by the US Navy from 1914-18. Curtiss OXX engine (100 h.p.) MF (modified) version was ordered to replace Fs, but only 16 delivered in 1918.
Model R-4 Curtiss
Curtiss Model R-4 Tractor
CURTISS MODEL J.N.4D.2 TRACTOR.
  
Specification.
General Dimensions.
  Wing span, upper plane 43 ft 7 3/5 in.
  Wing span, lower plane 33 ft. 11 1/4 in.
  Depth of wing chord 59 1/2 in.
  Gap between wings 61 1/4 in
  Stagger 16 in.
  Length of machine overall 27 ft. 4 in.
  Height of machine overall 9 ft. 10 5/8 in.
  Angle of incidence 2 degrees.
  Dihedral angle 1 degree.
  Sweepback 0 degree.
  Wing curve Eiffel No. 6.
  Horizontal stabilizer -
   angle of incidence 0 degrees.
  
Areas.
  Wings, upper 167.94 sq. ft.
  Wings, lower 149.42 sq. ft.
  Ailerons, upper 35.2 sq. ft.
  Horizontal stabilizer 28.7 sq. ft.
  Vortical stabilizer 3.8 sq. ft
  Elevators (each 11 sq. ft.) 22 sq. ft.
  Rudder 12 sq. ft.
  Total supporting surface 352.56 sq. ft.
  Loading (weight earned per sq. ft.
   of supporting surface) 6.04 lbs.
  Loading (per r.h.p.) 23.65 lbs.
  
Weights.
  Net weight, machine empty 1,580 lbs.
  Gross weight, machine and load 2,130 lbs.
  Useful load 550 lbs.
   Fuel 130 lbs.
   Oil 38 lbs.
   Pilot 165 lbs.
   Passenger and other load 217 lbs.
   Total 550 lbs.
  
Performance.
  Speed, max. (horizontal flight) 75 m.p.h.
  Speed, min. (horizontal flight) 45 m.p.h.
  Climbing speed 3.000 ft. in 10 mins.
  
Motor.
  Model O.X. 8-cylinder, Vee. Four-stroke cycle. Water cooled
  Horse power (rated) at 1400 r.p.m. 90
  Weight per rated h.p. 4.33 lbs.
  Bore and stroke 4 in. x 5 in.
  Fuel consumption per hour 9 galls
  Fuel tank capacity 21 galls.
  Oil capacity provided (crankcase) 4 galls.
  Fuel consumption per b.h.p 0.60 lbs. per hour.
  Oil consumption per b.h.p. 0.030 1bs. per hour.
  
Propeller.
  Material. - Wood.
  Pitch. - According to requirements of performance.
  Diameter. - According to requirements of performance.
  Direction of rotation, viewed from pilot's seat. - Clockwise.
  
Details.
  One gasoline tank located in fuselage.
  Tail skid independent of tail post.
  Landing gear wheel, size 26 in. x 4 in.
  Standard Equipment. - Tachometer, oil gauge, gasoline gauge, complete set of tools.
  Other equipment on special order.
  
Maximum Range.
  At economic speed, about 250 miles.
  
Shipping Data.
  Fuselage Box.
   Dimensions: 34ft. 6in., x 5ft. 3in. x 3 ft. 1 in.;
   gross weight, 2,380 lbs.
  Panel Box.
   Dimensions: 20ft, 9in. X 5ft. 8in. x 3ft.;
   gross weight. 1.450 lbs.
The Standard type Curtiss J.N. 'Jenny' Training Tractor. The type most used by the U.S.Army.
This two-seat bomber appeared in 1916 and was used by the US Army and RNAS for training. Power was provided by a 200 h.p. Curtiss V-2 engine. Prom it was developed the R6 with the pilot in front (200 h.p. Curtiss or 375-400 h.p. Liberty engine) for observation and training, and the R9 with the same Liberty engine. R6s were the first American produced aircraft to serve abroad in the war (the Azores). The US Navy received examples of all three versions, but the R6 in the greatest number.
  
  
General Dimensions.
  Span
   Upper 48' 4"
   Lower 38'5"
  Chord 6' 3''
  Gap 6' 2"
  Stagger 1 3/4'
  Length, overall, 28' 11 3/4"
  Height 13' 2 1/4"
  Incidence 2 1/2 degrees
  Dihedral 3 degrees
  Wing Curve R.A.F.6
  Tail Plane No incidence
  
Areas
  Surface (total) 505 sq.ft.
  Wings (upper) 257 sq.ft.
   (lower) 193 sq ft.
  Aileron (upper) 17 sq.ft.
   (lower) 10 1/4 sq. ft.
  Total Aileron Surface 54 1/2 sq. ft.
  Tail Plane 40 1/2 sq. ft.
  Elevators (two) 27 1/2 sq. ft.
  Fin (vertical) 7 sq. ft.
  Rudder 16 1/2 sq ft.
  Load per sq. ft. 6.42 lbs
  
Other Figures.
  Load per B.H.P. 15.89 lbs.
  Net Weight (empty) 2225 lbs.
  Gross Weight (full) 3245 lbs.
  Useful Load 1020 lbs.
  Petrol carried 625 lbs. (90 galls.)
  Speed (max.) 90 m.p.h.
   (min.) 48 m.p.h.
  Climb 4000 ft. in 10 mins.
  Motor (V2 type) 200h.p. 8-cyl.Curtiss
CURTISS MODEL H.16A. FLYING BOAT.
  
Specification.
  
General Dimensions.
  Wing span. upper plane 96 ft. 6 5/8 in.
  Wing span, lower plane 68 ft. 11 3/8 in.
  Depth of wing chord 84 19/64 in.
  Gap between wings 96 9/16 in.
  Stagger None.
  Length of machine overall 40 ft. 1 15/32 in.
  Height of machine overall 17 ft 8 5/8 in.
  Angle of incidence 4 degrees.
  Dihedral angle 1 degree.
  Sweepback None.
  Wing curve R.A.F. No. 6.
  Horizontal stabilizer
   angle of incidence 2 degrees pos.
  
Areas.
  Wings, upper (without ailerons) 616.2 sq. ft.
  Wings, lower 443.1 sq. ft.
  Ailerons 131 sq.ft.
  Horizontal stabilizer 108 sq. ft.
  Vertical stabilizer 31.1 sq. ft.
  Elevators 58.4 sq. ft.
  Rudder 27.9 sq. ft.
  Non-skids 24 sq. ft.
  Total supporting surface 119.3 sq. ft
  Loading (weight carried per sq. ft.
   of supporting surface) 8.54 lbs.
  Loading (per r.h.p.) 15.42 lbs.
  
Weights.
  Net weight, machine empty 6,956 lbs.
  Gross weight, machine and load 10,172 lbs.
  Useful load 3,216 lbs.
   Fuel and oil 1,527 lbs.
   Crew 660 lbs.
   Useful load 1,029 lbs.
   Total 3,216 lbs.
  
Performance.
  Speed, max. (horizontal flight) 95 m.p.h.
  Speed, min. (horizontal flight) 55 m.p.h.
  Climbing speed 4,000 ft. in 10 mins.
  
Motor.
  Two Liberty 12-cylinder, Vee, four-stroke cycle. Water cooled.
  Horse power (each motor 330) 660
  Weight per rated h.p. 2.55
  Bore and stroke 5 in. x 7 in.
  Fuel consumption (both motors) 62.8 galls, per hour.
  Fuel tank capacity 300 galls.
  Oil capacity provided 10 galls.
  Fuel consumption per b.h.p. 0.57 lbs. per hour.
  Oil consumption per b.h.p. 0.03 lbs. per hour.
  
Propeller.
  Material - Wood.
  Diameter. - According to requirements of performance.
  Pitch. - According to requirements of performance.
  
Maximum Range.
  At economic speed, about 675 miles.
  
Shipping Data.
  Hull Box. - Dimensions: 44 ft. 9 in. x 11 ft. x 9 ft. 4 in. ; gross weight, 1,300 lbs.
  Panel Box. - Dimensions: 30 ft. 4 in. x 7 ft. 7 in. x 6 ft. 6 in.; gross weight, 4,850 lbs.
  Panel Box. - Dimensions: 21 ft. 2 in. x 7 ft. 5 in. X 3 ft. 6 in.; gross weight, 2,170 lbs.
  Engine Box.- Dimensions: 6 ft. 2 in. x 4 ft. 4 in. x 2 ft. 9 in.: gross weight, 1,645 lbs.
The U.S. Navy's F.5.L. type Flying Boat ashore.
Three-quarter front view of the U.S.A. Navy F-5-L flying-boat
CURTISS MODEL H.S. 1L and H.S. 2L FLYING BOATS
  
  H.S 1L was a three-seat escort and anti-submarine flying boat of 1917, powered by a 375 h.p. Liberty engine. It was ordered into production and became the only American aircraft to fly with the US Navy in Europe during the war (from May 1918). Of 182 H.S. flying: boats received by the USN in Europe, almost all were of this version. Perhaps about 20 were of the later H.S.2L type, with greater wing span to allow carriage of larger bombs. This version is detailed below.
  
  
CURTISS MODEL H.S.2L. FLYING BOAT.
  
Specification
  
General Dimensions.
  Wing span, upper plane 74 ft. 0 19/32 in.
  Wing span lower plane .. 64 ft. 1 21/32 in.
  Depth of wing chord 6 ft. 3 5/32 in.
  Gap between wings (front) 7 ft. 7 1/8 in.
  Gap between wings (rear) 7 ft. 5 29/32 in.
  Stagger None.
  Length of machine overall 40 ft
  Height of machine overall 14 ft. 7 3/4 in.
  Angle of incidence, upper plane 5 1/2 degrees
  Angle of incidence, lower plane 4 degrees
  Dihedral angle 2 degrees
  Sweepback 0 degrees
  Wing curve R.A.F. No. 6
  Horizontal stabiliser
   angle of incidence 0 degrees
  
Areas.
  Wings, upper 380.32 sq. ft.
  Wings, lower 314.92 sq. ft.
  Ailerons (upper 62.88, lower 42.48) 105.36 sq. ft.
  Horizontal stabilizer 54.8 sq. ft.
  Vertical stabilizer 19.6 sq. ft.
  Elevators (each 22.8 sq. ft.) 45.6 sq. ft.
  Rudder 26.5 sq. ft.
  Total supporting surface 800.6 sq. ft.
  Loading (weight carried per sq. ft.
   of supporting surface) 7,77 lbs.
  Loading (per r.h.p.) 18.85 lbs
  
Weights.
  Net weight, machine empty 4,359 lbs.
  Gross weight, machine and load 6,223 lbs.
  Useful load 1,864 lbs.
   Fuel 977 lbs.
   Crew 360 lbs.
   Useful load 527 lbs.
   Total 1,864 lbs.
  
Performance.
  Speed, max. (horizontal flight) 91 m.p.h.
  Speed, min. (horizontal flight) 55 m.p.h.
  Climbing speed 1,800 ft. in 10 mins.
  
Motor.
  Liberty 12-cylinder. Vee, four-stroke cycle. Water cooled.
  Horse power (rated) 330.
  Weight per rated h.p. 2,55 lbs.
  Bore and stroke 5 in. x 7 in.
  Fuel consumption 32 galls per hour.
  Fuel tank capacity 152.8 galls.
  Oil tank capacity 8 galls.
  Fuel consumption per b.h.p. 0.57 lbs per hour.
  Oil consumption per b.h.p. 0.03 lbs per hour.
A U.S. Naval Flying Boat of the H.S.2L. type, built by the Standard Aircraft Corporation.
A Curtiss N-9 Type Training Seaplane, used by the US Navy from 1917 and also in limited number by the Army. 150 h.p. Hispano-Suiza A engine.
CURTISS TYPE 18T. TRIPLANE.
  
Specification.
  
General Dimensions.
  Wing span, upper plane 31 ft. 11 in.
  Wing span, middle plane 31 ft. 11 in.
  Wing span, lower plane 31 ft. 11 in.
  Depth of wing chord
   (upper, middle and lower) 42 in.
  Gap between wings
   (between upper and middle) 42 in.
  Gap between wings
   (between middle and lower) 35 9/16. in.
  Stagger None.
  Length of machine overall 23 ft. 3 3/16 in.
  Height of machine overall 9 ft. 10 3/8 in.
  Angle of incidence 2 1/2 degrees.
  Dihedral angle None.
  Sweepback 5 degrees.
  Wing curve Sloane.
  Horizontal stabilizer
   angle of incidence 0.5 degrees.
  
Areas.
  Wings, upper 112.0 sq.ft.
  Wings, middle 87.71 sq. ft.
  Wings, lower 87.71 sq. ft.
  Ailerons (middle 10.79, lower 10.79) 21.58 sq.ft.
  Horizontal stabilizer 14.3 sq. ft.
  Vertical stabiliser 5.2 sq. ft.
  Elevators (each 6.51) 13.02 sq. ft.
  Rudder 8.66 sq. ft.
  Total supporting surface 309.0 sq. ft.
  Loading (weight carried per sq. ft.
   of supporting surface) 9.4 lbs.
  Loading (per r.h.p.) 7.25 lbs.
  
Weights.
  Net weight, machine empty 1.825 lbs.
  Gross weight, machine and load 2,901 lbs.
  Useful load 1,076 lbs.
   Fuel 400 lbs.
   Oil 45 lbs.
   Pilot and passenger 330 lbs.
   Useful load 301 lbs.
   Total 1076 lbs.
  
Performance.
  Speed, max. (horizontal flight) 163 m ph.
  Speed, mm. (horizontal flight) 58 m.p.h.
  Climbing speed 15.000 ft. in 10 mins.
  
Motor.
  Model K.12, 12 cylinder, Vee, four-stroke cycle
   Water cooled.
  Horse power (rated) at 2500 r.p.m. 400
  Wright per rated h.p. 1.70
  Bore and stroke 4 1/2 x 6.
  Fuel consumption per hour 36.7 galls.
  Fuel tank capacity 67 galls.
  Oil capacity provided, crankcase 6 galls.
  Fuel consumption per b.h.p. .55 lbs. per hour.
  Oil consumption per b.h.p. .030 lbs. per hour.
  
Propeller.
  Material. - Wood.
  Pitch. - According to requirements of performance.
  Diameter. - According to requirements of performance.
  Direction of rotation, as viewed from pilot a seat. - Clockwise.
  
Details.
  One pressure and one gravity gasoline tank located in fuselage.
  Tail skid independent of tail post; landing gear wheel, also 26 in. x 4 in.
  Standard Equipment. - Tachometer, oil gauge, gasoline gauge, complete set of tools; other equipment on special order.
  
Maximum Range.
  At economic speed, about 880 miles.
The Curtiss Triplane, type 18T. Single-seater Fighter (Curtiss K.12 400 h.p. engine). Two went to US Navy, ordered in March 1918.
The Curtiss experimental Model 18 B. Two-seater Fighter (400 h.p. K.12 Curtiss engine).
The Curtiss two-seat HA Dunkirk fighter of 1918, intended for fighter and escort work. Not operational. Maximum speed 132 mph. (Liberty 400 h.p. engine).
A Curtiss experimental Single-Seat Fighter (400 h.p. K.12 Curtiss engine). A very high speed single-seat fighter.
SERVICE FLYING BOATS OF THE U.S.N.F.C
  
Type NC.1. F.5L. H.16. HS.2L.
Span, OVERALL 126ft. 103ft.9in. 95ft. 74ft.
   (38.43 m.) (31.92 m.) (29 m.) (22.60. m.)
Length, overall 68ft.2 1/2in. 49ft 3 1/2in. 48ft. 1 1/2in. 38 ft. 6 in.
   (20.75 m.) (15.00 m.) (14.00 m.) (11.75 in.)
Height, overall 24ft 6in 18 ft. 9 in. 17 ft. 8in. 14 ft. 7 in.
   (7.47 m.) (5.78 in.) (5.40 m.) (3.45 m.)
Chord 12ft. 8 ft. 7ft. 3/4in. 6ft. 3in.
   (3.66 m.) (2.44 m.) (2.15 m.) (1.91 in.)
Wing area 2,380 sq. ft. 1.397 sq.ft. 1,164 sq. ft. 803 sq. ft.
   (2,114.2sq m.) (125.7sq. m) (104.8 sq. m.) (72.3 sq. m.)
H.P. 1,200 800 800 400
Engines 3 Liberty 12 2 Liberty 12 2 Liberty 12 1 Liberty 12
Airscrews 3 Tractors. 2 Tractors 2 Tractors 1 Pusher
Weight,
  fully loaded 22,000 lbs. 13.000 lbs. 10.900 lbs. 6,432 lbs.
   (9.900 kgs.) (5.850 kgs) (4.900 kgs.) (2.894 kgs.)
Useful load 7,750 lbs. 4,750 lbs. 3,500 lbs. 2,132 lbs.
   (3.490 kgs.) (2.140 kgs.) (1,575 kgs.) (960 kgs.)
High speed 81 m.p.h.* 87 m.p.h. 95 m.p.h. 91 m.p.h.
   (129.6 km.p.h.) (139 km.p.h.) (152 km.p.h.) (145.6 km.p.h.)
Low speed 61 m.p.h.* 57 m.p.h 56 m.p.h. 55 m.p.h.
   (97.6 km.p.h) (91 km.p.h.) (90 km.p.h.) (88 km.p.h.)
Initial climb 1,050 ft. 2,625 ft. 3,000 ft. 2,500-3.000 ft.
   320 m. (800 m.) (915 m.) (760-915 m.)
   in 5 mins. in 10 mins. in 10 mins. in 10 mins.
Full speed endurance.
   13 hours 10 hours.
Armament 8 M.G. 1 Q.F., 4 M.G. 6 M.G. 1 M.G.
   2-500 lb., or
   4-230 lb. bombs
Complement 5 5 4 3
Builder Curtiss Naval Aircraft Curtiss Standard
   Factory
* Carrying a load of 21,560 lbs. (9,700 kgs)
Side View if the U.S. Navy's N.C.1 Flying Boat.
This company was organised during the war for the quantity production of aeroplanes to government specifications. On February 1st, 1919, the total number of machines constructed comprised 400 Standard J.1 training aeroplanes and D.H.4A "battle-planes".
  
  
  The American H.H.4 Biplane
  (built by Dayton Wright Aeroplane Co.)
  
Type of machine Two-seater Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine American D.H.4
Purpose for which intended Reconnaissance and light bomber.
Span 42 ft. 5 3/4 in.
Overall length 30 ft. 5 in.
Maximum height 10 ft. 3 in.
Chord 5 ft. 6 in.
Span of tail 13 ft. 7 in.
Engine type and h.p. Liberty 12; 400 h.p.
Weight of machine empty 2,391 lbs.
Tank capacity in gallons 88 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 124.7 m.p.h.
  Speed at 6,500 feet 120 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10,000 feet 117 m.p.h.
  Speed at 15,000 feet 113 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 58 m p.h.
  Climb.
   To 10,000 feet in minutes 14 minutes
Ceiling 19,500 feet.
Endurance
  at 6,500 feet (full throttle) 2 hrs 13 mins.
  at 6,500 feet (half throttle) 3 hrs 3 mins.
Track 6 feet.
Total weight of machine loaded 3,582 lbs.
The Dayton-Wright "Honeymoon Express" (400 h.p. Liberty engine). A converted American De H.4.
The special feature of this machine is that it is a "pusher" biplane with a fuselage, the aircrew consisting of four separate blades fixed to a ring-centre which revolves round the fuselage itself.
  
  
THE GALLAUDET D.4 LIGHT BOMBER SEAPLANE.
  
Specification.
Type of machine Two-seater Seaplane.
Name or type No. of machine D. 4.
Purpose for which intended Bombing.
Span 46 ft. 6 in.
Overall length 33 ft.
Maximum height 11 ft. 6 in.
Single central float.
Engine type and h.p. Liberty (power unstated).
Weight of machine empty 3,800 lbs.
Petrol tank capacity In gallons 64 gallons.
Performance. Speed (maximum) 130 m.p.h.
Landing speed 45 m.p.h.
Climb.
  To 8.100 feet in minutes 15 minutes.
Total weight of machine loaded 5,430 lbs.
The Gallaudet D.4 Hydro-Biplane, with airscrew-centre encircling the main frame of the fuselage. Two used by US Navy, plus one earlier D.1 type with two 150 h.p. Duesenberg engines.
Gallaudet Navy Seaplane
Manufacturer of two types of tractor biplane, inherently stable and without ailerons.
  
  
   Type AI. Type BI.
Span 30' 42'
Gap 4'8'' 5'8''
Length 25' 29'
Stagger 6 6
Landing gear Combined land and water
Engine 140 h.p. Hall-Scott
Weight
  with one hour's fuel 1750 lbs 2200 lbs
Useful load 800 lbs 1500 lbs
The Lawrence-Lewis flying boat, with 140 h.p. Duesenberg engine.
Two-seater tractor biplane, destined for training and civil flying.
  
  
Specifications.
Span, upper plane 39 It.
Span, lower plane 36 ft.
Chord 5 ft 2 In.
Gap 5 ft. l in.
Stagger 8 In.
Incidence 3 degrees.
Dihedral 1 degree.
Area, upper plane
  (including ailerons) 200 sq. ft.
Area, lower plane 150 sq. ft.
Length, overall 25 ft.
Height, overall 8 ft.
Weight, empty 12,000 lbs.
Weight, loaded 1,900 lbs.
Speed range 40-90 m.p.h.
Climb In 10 minutes 6,000 ft.
Gliding angle, full load 1 in 9.
Engine, Hall-Scott 100 h.p.
The Lawson Aircraft Corporation's Two-seater (100 h.p. Hall-Scott engine).
Aeronautical constructional engineers, engaged during the war in experimental work for the U.S. Army and Navy, as the result of which they produced a fighting monoplane of highly original design end a ship-plane of very small dimensions.
  
  
THE LOENING M-8 MONOPLANE
  
  It is stated that in its actual performance the Loening monoplane has, with the full two-seater fighter load, not only exceeded all the performances of other machines, but has with this same load equalled, if not exceeded, all of the performances of the very best European single-seaters with the same engine.
  In the tests made by the manufacturer at Mineola, the machine showed a high speed of 146 m.p.h., and on one occasion climbed to 24.000 ft. in 43 min. with pilot, passenger, two hours fuel and considerable gun equipment, thus establishing an unofficial height record for two-seaters.
  The new monoplane of the same type tested at Dayton by the U.S. Army snowed practically the same high speed, and climbed - with a live load almost equal to the weight of the aeroplane - 16,000 ft. in 18 min.
  The outstanding feature of the machine is the manner in which the wings fasten to the upper body longitudinals, and ore braced by two enormous braces to the bottom of the body. This method of wing bracing bus so much simplified the construction of the machine, that it has permitted to cut in halves the structure weight.
  A very interesting feature of the design proven by the tests made is the slow speed on landing and general buoyancy of the machine, despite the fact that the wing loading has gradually been stepped up to almost 12 lb. per sq. ft.
  
Construction.
  The wings, body, tail surfaces, landing gear, etc., are all -built of most approved spruce and metal fitting airplane construction. All metal fittings ore of stamped sheet metal, with practically no braced or welded parts, all joints are pin connected, particularly the joints of the main wing braces to the wings and body, which are free to move in any direction, so that vibration will not fatigue these members. In addition to which, all parts are readily adjustable for alignment.
  
Safety Factor.
  Sand load tests that have been carried on exhaustively to prove the strength of the machine show a safety factor of 14 on drift stresses, and a safety factory of 8 on lift stresses.
  All tail surfaces and fin surfaces, stabilizers, rudders, etc withstand on actual sand test a load of 35 lbs. per sq. ft. area.
  
Military Features.
  It is claimed that the visibility afforded to the pilot is so complete that he has practically no blind spots at all. He can see either above or below the wings or to either side, and in addition to that can see quite well in the front, due to the narrowness of the body.
  
The Gun Range.
  The gun range is also very good, particularly as the gunner can shoot forward, the only obstruction being the arc of the airscrew.
  The deep body offers ample room for all kinds of military. equipment, oxygen tanks, wireless apparatus, cameras, etc, and in addition to that the arrangement of the cowls is such as to give the occupants ample protection against the wind without interfering with the view.
  The construction has everywhere been studied so as to give maximum strength to all of the porta that ore vital due to damage from bullets. This is particularly true of the main braces supporting the wings which can bo half shot away before they will lose the safety factor of 8 provided.
  
Performance.
  It has been found that the machine lands very slowly, gets off the ground in 4 seconds from a dead start, and that in flight the machine is very easy to handle on all its controls in spirals, loops, barrel rolls, etc
  The performances of the machine with full load are as follows:
  
Slow speed 48 m.p.h.
High speed 146 m.p.h.
Indicated ceiling, light load 26,000 ft.
   heavy load 22,000 ft.
  
The principal characteristics of the Loening monoplane are as follows :
  
Areas.
  Main planes, total 238.9 sq. ft.
  Upper planes,
   including ailerons 214.9 sq. ft.
  Strut planes 24.0 sq.ft.
  Ailerons (2) 24.0 sq.ft.
  Fins (2) 8.8 sq. ft.
  Stabiliser 14.9 sq.ft.
  Rudders (2) 9.0 sq. ft.
  Elevator 15.0 sq. ft
  
Weights.
  Weight, empty 1,328 lbs.
  Fuel and oil 360 lbs.
  Military load 680 lbs.
   Total weight 2,368 lbs.
  
Power Plant.
  Engine, Hispano-Suiza, model H, developing 340 h.p. at 1,800 r.p.m.
  Weight, including airscrew, 618 lbs.
  Fuel consumption per b.p.hr., 0.53 lbs.
  
Performances.
  Altitude. Speed. Climb
  
  Sea level 146 m.p.h 0 min.
  20,000 ft. 20 min.
The Loening M-8 Monoplane (300 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine).
Loughead Model F.I Seaplane (two 160 h.p. Hall-Scott engines).
The Loughead F.I.A. Machine. This is Seaplane F.I. fitted with a land chassis.
An L.W.F. military biplane flew, late in 1917, with a 200 h.p. Sturtevant engine from Rantoul, Illinois, to San Antonio, Texas, a distance of 1.184 miles, in a total flying time of 9 hrs. 15 mins. This included one non-stop stretch of 620 miles.
  The machine carried a U.S. Army Officer and pilot, and made two short stops on route for fuel.
  
Model V, Thomas 135 h.p. motor. Biplane land machine.
  Two seater. Speed : 42.2 to 95.5 m.p.h. Climb: 3,750 ft. in 10 mins.
  Full government load. Wing curve: L.W.F. I.
Model V1. Same as above machine, but equipped with Sturtevant 140 h.p. motor.
Model V2. Very similar to above machines, but different motor installation and radiator on nose of upper wing.
  Hall-Scott 165 h.p. motor. Also many minor differences.
  Highspeed: 102 m.p.h.
Model V3. Similar to Model V1, except that motor is now Sturtevant 200 h.p.
  Speed: 42.2 to 110 m.p.h. Climb: 8,000 ft. in 10 mins. Full government load.
  Made flight from Rantoul, Ill., to San Antonio, Texas.
Model F. New model. Liberty motored.
  (First Liberty motor to fly.)
L.W.F. Model V 2-seater reconnaissance biplane, with 135 h.p. Thomas motor.
THE L.W.F. MODEL 6. FIGHTING AEROPLANE.
  
  Among the most successful of the all-American designs is the L.W.F. machine, the first experimental model of which was in the air early in January, 1918. This first machine, known as Model G., was powered with a Liberty 12 motor and was taken off with the wind, looped and tailspun the first time it was in the air.
  
Specification.
  
General.
  Type Two seater land tractor biplane.
  Use Military reconnaissance, advanced training, or commercial.
  
Dimensions.
  Length overall 29 ft. 2 in.
  Height overall 10 ft. 7 in.
  Width overall 46 ft. 6 in.
  
Wings.
  Wing curve L.W.F. No. 1.
  Chord 80 in.
  Gap 80 in.
  Stagger 8 in.
  Span
   Upper wing 46 ft. 6 in.
   Lower wing 38 ft. 4 in.
  
Areas.
  Total supporting area 555 sq. ft.
  Area of ailerons 42 sq. ft.
  Area of elevators 22 sq. ft.
  Area of horizontal stabilizer 29 sq. ft.
  Area of vertical stabilizer 5.5 sq. ft.
  Area of rudder 11.5 sq. ft.
  
Control.
  Deperdussin control centre column single or dual.
  Stick control can be furnished if preferred.
  
Power Plant.
  Liberty 12-cylinder engine 350 b.h.p.
  Gasoline consumption per b.h.p. .54 lbs. per hour.
  Oil consumption per b.h.p. .03 lbs. per hour.
  Propeller Two blade, 1,650 r.p.m
  
Weights.
  Gross weight, fully loaded 3,522 lbs.
  Light weight, empty 2,498 lbs.
  Useful load 1,024 lbs.
  Water (11 gallons) 92 lbs.
  Gasoline capacity (86 gallons) 532 lbs.
  Oil capacity (6 gallons) 42 lbs.
  Two men or equivalent 330 lbs.
  Accessories 28 lbs.
  
Performance (fully loaded).
  Highspeed 125 m.p.h.
  Low speed (landing) 47 m.p.h.
  Climbing speed 10,000 ft. in 7 1/2 mins.
  Ceiling 24,000 ft.
  Endurance at full speed 2 3/4 hours.
  
  This machine is capable of carrying a cargo of about 1,200 lbs., in addition to the above load.
  Model G.1, an improvement over Model G., was built and flown successfully during the summer of 1918, demonstrating before various government officials its speed, climb and carrying capacity. Thin machine, loaded as a fighter, with full tanks, seven machine guns, ammunition, pilot and gunner, made 128 m.p.h. and climbed 10,000 feet in ten minutes.
  Later in the summer. Model G.1 was radically changed into Model G.2 by cutting off the overhang, balancing all control surface, doubling the number of wing ribs and later installing a wing curve radiator. The following description refers to the later machine. Model G. 2, which, as before stated, is a modification of Models G. and G. I.
  
General Description.
  Model G.2 is a general service, 425-450 h.p., two man biplane of the land tractor, military type, armoured, and curries an armament of seven machine guns. In addition it can also be equipped with four large bombs. As will be noted, a wing nose radiator was used at the tune the photos for the accompanying figures were made. All parts of the machine seen from above are finished in earth brown, while from below it is sky blue.
  The general specifications follow :
  
THE L.W.F. MODEL G.2 FIGHTING AIRPLANE.
Specification.
  
Dimensions.
  Overall width 41 ft. 7 1/2 in.
  Overall length 29 ft. 1 1/4 in.
  Overall height 9 ft. 4 3/8 in.
  Tread of wheels 5 ft. 6 in.
  Wheels 26 in. x 4 in.
  
Wings.
  Wing curve L W.F. No.1 (modified R.A.F.6) upper and lower wings.
  Incidence : lower wing 0 degrees.
   upper wing +1 degree.
  Decalage 1 degree.
  Chord 80 in., upper and lower.
  Dihedral 0 degrees.
  Gap 72 in.,
   nose to nose on vertical line with body horizontal.
  Backsweep 0 degrees.
  Stagger 7 1/8 in. (positive)".
  Span : upper wing, inc. ailerons 41 ft. 7 1/2 in
   lower wing 38 ft. 5 3/4 in.
  Aspect ratio:
   Upper wing, inc. ailerons 6.3
   Lower wing 4.78,
   average 5.54.
  
Areas.
  Total supporting area, including ailerons 515.54 sq. ft
  Net area of main wings, not inc. ailerons 465.46 sq. ft.
  Net area of upper wings, including ailerons 268.78 sq. ft.
  Net area of upper wings, not inc. ailerons 218.70 sq. ft
  Net area of lower wings 240.76 sq. ft.
  Total area of one aileron 25.04 sq. ft.
   balanced area, 1.95 sq. ft.
  Total area of both ailerons 50.08 sq. ft.
  Total area of one elevator 13.85 sq. ft.
   balanced area, 1.5 sq. ft
  Total ares of both elevators 27.70 sq ft.
  Total area of rudder 12.65 sq. ft.
   balanced area, 1.31 sq. ft.
  Total area of horizontal stabilizer
   (both sides) 29.15 sq. ft.
  Total area of vertical stabilizer 5.21 sq. ft.
  
Controls and Control Surfaces,
  Dual stick control
  Aileron wires enclosed in wings.
  Horizontal stabilizer double camber with centre line set at 0 degrees to thrust line.
  Elevator curve included in stabilizer curve.
  Aileron curve included in wing curve extended.
  Rudder and vertical stabilizer flat.
  
Power Plant
  Liberty 12-cyl engine, direct connected 435 hp. at 1,700 r.p.m.
  Airscrew, 2 blade, tractor, diam. 9 ft. 7 in ; av. pitch 7.38 ft.
  Propeller turned 1.800 r.p.m.
  
Weights.
  Case 1.
   Weight of complete machine empty,
   with gun mounts, but no guns 2.675 lbs.
  Case 2.
   Equipped as a fighter
   Weight, light 2,675.5 lbs.
   90 galls, gas 553.5 lbs
   14 galls, water 118 lbs.
   6 galls, oil 44 lbs.
   Ammunition 150 lbs.
   7 machine guns 152 lbs
   2 men 330 lbs.
   Total full load 4,023 lbs
  Case 3. Equipped as a bomber.
   Weight, light 2,675.5 lbs
   120 galls gasoline 752 lbs
   6 galls oil 44 lbs
   14 galls, water 118 lbs
   Ammunition 150 lbs
   7 machine guns 152 lbs
   Armour 66 lbs
   4 bombs, rack and release 592 lbs
   2 men 330 lbs
   Total full load 4,879.5 lbs
  
Loadings (based on 515.54 sq. ft. area and 435 h.p)
  Case 1.
   Loading per sq. ft. 5.185 lbs
   Loading per h.p. 6.15 lbs
  Case 2.
   Loading per sq. ft. 7.82 lbs
   Loading per h.p. 9.25 lbs
  Case 3.
   Loading per sq. ft. 9.47 lbs
   Loading per h.p. 11.22 lbs
  
Performance.
  High speed at 10,000 ft. 130 m.p.h. (loaded as in Case 2).
  High speed at low altitude 138 m.p.h. (loaded as in Case 2).
  Low speed (landing) 50 m.p.h. (loaded as in Case 2).
  Climb.
   Case 1. 10,000 feet in 7 mins. 28 secs.
   Case 2. 10,000 feet in 9 mins. 18 secs
   Case 3. 10,000 feet in 14 mins. 45 secs
  Endurance. Four hours at full speed.
The L.W.F. "Model G" Two-seater (350 h.p. Liberty engine).
The L.W.F. Model "G.2" Two-seater (350 Liberty engine).
THE MARTIN TWIN-ENGINED BOMBER.

  The Martin twin-engined bomber constitutes one of the most important developments in bombing airplanes of original American design. In its official test, at Wilbur Wright Field, the all-round performance of this machine, considering the load carried, has easily excelled any other record from a similar bomber, either hero or abroad. The machine shows excellent workmanship and such thoroughness of engineering that the organisation is to be complimented upon the talent of their personnel. Mr. Martin is proud of the ability of his assistants, Mr. Lawrence D. Bell, factory manager; Mr. Eric Springer, pilot; and Mr. Donald W. Douglas, aeronautical engineer; and he prophesies important futures in their respective specialties. Lawrence D. Bell, has been with Mr. Martin for seven years, and is noted for his production management. Eric Springer learned to fly at the Martin School five years ago. He is an unusually capable tester and flyer, having made an enviable record in five years of piloting for the Martin Company without an accident. Donald W. Douglas came from the Boston Tech., joining the Martin plant in Los Angeles four yews ago, and in that abort length of time has grown to bo recognised as one of the foremost aeronautical engineers.
  The all-round efficiency of the Martin bomber has been proven in its official performance trials. An official high speed at the ground of 118.5 m.p.h was made on the first trials, with full bombing load on board. This speed has been bettered since, due to the better propeller efficiency arrived at by expensive experiments. With full bomb load, the climbing time to 10,000 feet was 15 minutes, and a service ceiling of between 16,000 and 17,000 feet was attained.

General Description.
  As a military machine, the Martin " Twin " is built to fulfil the requirements of the four following classes:-(1) Night bomber, (2) day bomber, (3) long-distance photography, (4) gun machine.
  (1) As a night bomber it is armed with three flexible Lewis machine guns, one mounted on the front turret, one on the rear, below and to the sides, under the concave lower surface of the body. It carries 1,500 lbs. of bombs and 1,000 rounds of ammunition, A radio-telephone set and the necessary instruments are curried on all four types. The fuel capacity in all four types is sufficient for four and a half hours' full power at the ground and six hours' full power at 15,000 feet. This gives the machine gasoline for the climb to 15.000 feet, and enough more for about six hundred miles.
  (2) As a day bomber two more Lewis guns are carried, one more on each turret. The bomb capacity is cut to 1,000 lbs. to give the higher ceiling necessary for day work.
  (3) When equipped as a photography machine, the same number of guns as in the case of the day bomber are carried: but in place of the bombs two cameras are mounted in the rear gunner's cockpit. One camera is a short focal length semiautomatic, and the other is a long focal length hand-operated type.
  (4) The gun machine is equipped for the purpose of breaking up enemy formations In addition to the five machine guns and their ammunition as carried on the photographic machine, a semi-flexible 37 mm. cannon is mounted in the front gun cockpit, firing forward, and with a fairly wide range in elevation and azimuth. This cannon fires either shell or shot, and is a formidable weapon.
  The Martin "Twin" is easily adaptable to the commercial uses that are now practical They are:-(1) Hall and express carrying, (2) transportation of passengers. (3) aerial map and survey work.
  (1) As a mail or express machine a ton may bo carried with comfort, not only because of the ability of the machine to efficiently handle this load, but because generous bulk stowage room is available.
  (2) Twelve passengers, in addition to the pilot and mechanic, can be carried for non-stop runs up to six hundred miles.
  (3) The photographic machine, as developed for war purposes, is at once adaptable to the aerial mapping of what will become the main flying routes throughout the country. The accuracy that is being obtained in aerial photography should be of vast value in survey and topographical map work. The Martin airplane, with its great cruising radius and complete camera installation, presents itself as the logical machine in this field.

General Dimensions and Data.
1. Power Plant.
  Two 12-cyl. Liberty engines.

2. Wing and Control Surface Areas.
  Main planes, total 1,070 sq. ft.
  Upper planes, including ailerons 550 sq. ft.
  Lower planes, including ailerons 620 sq. ft.
  Ailerons, each 32,5 sq. ft.
  No. of ailerons 4
  Vertical fins. each 8.8 sq. ft.
  No. of fins 2
  Stabilizer 62.25 sq ft.
  Elevator 43.20 sq.ft.
  Rudders, each 16.50 sq.ft.
  No. of rudders 2

3. Overall Dimensions.
  Span, upper and lower 71 ft. 5 in.
  Chord, upper and lower 7 ft. 10 in.
  Gap 8 ft. 6 in.
  Length overall 46 ft.
  Height overall 14 ft. 7 in.
  Incidence of wings with propeller axis 2 degrees.
  Dihedral None.
  Sweep back None.
  Decalage, wings None.
  Stabilizer, setting with wing chord +1 degree,
   adjustable between -5 degress,
   normal setting -2 degrees.
The Glenn L.Martin MB-1 Twin-engined Bomber (two 400 h.p. Liberty engine), first flown in August 1918.
The Glenn L.Martin Twin Bomber.
Side View of the Glenn L.Martin Bomber (two 400 h.p. Liberty engine).
THE ORDNANCE SCOUT BIPLANE.
  
Specification.
  
Type of machine Single-seater Biplane
Name or type No. of machine Ordnance Scout.
Purpose for which intended Advanced training.
Span 26 ft.
Gap 3 ft. 10 in.
Overall length 18 ft. 9 in.
Chord 4 ft. 5 in.
Maximum cross section of body 41 1/2 Ins.
Engine type and h.p. 80 h.p. Le Rhone.
Airscrew, diameter 8 ft. 3 In.
Weight of machine empty 335 lbs.
  
Performance.
  Speed low down 88 m.p.h..
  Speed at 6,500 feet 94 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10,000 feet 84 m.p.h.
  Speed at 15,000 feet 70 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 6,500 feet in minutes 9 minutes.
   To 10.000 feet in minutes 17 mins. 30 secs.
   To 15,000 feet in minutes 55 minutes.
  Service ceiling 13.500 feet.
  Total weight of machine loaded 1.117 lbs
The Ordnance Engineering Corporation's Single-seat Scout.
Ordnance Scout with Le Rhone Engine.
THE PACKARD BIPLANE.
  
Type of machine Two-seater Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine 1 A. Packard.
Span 37 ft.
Overall length 25 ft.
Maximum height 8 It. 11 In.
  
Wing and Control Surface Areas.
  Main planes, total 387.6 sq. ft.
  Ailerons, total 48.3 sq. ft.
  Vertical fin 7.0 sq. ft.
  Rudder 12.0 sq. ft.
  Tail plane 35.7 sq. ft.
  Elevator, total 21.9 sq. ft.
  
Engine type 8-cyl. 1 A. Packard ; 160 h.p. at 1,525 r.p.m.
Petrol tank capacity In galls. 34 galls.
Fuel consumption per h.p. .50 to .54 lbs. per h.p. at sea level.
  
Weight.
  Machine empty 1,520 lbs.
  Gasoline 210 lbs.
  Oil 30 lbs.
  Water 52 lbs.
  Tools and extras 25 lbs.
  Pilot 165 lbs.
  Passenger 465 lbs.
  Normal flying weight 2,167 lbs.
  Weight, lbs. per h.p. 13.5 lbs.
  Wing loading per sq. ft. 5.6 lbs.
  Permissible extra luggage 100 lbs.
  
Performance.
  High speed near sea level 102 m.p.h.
  High speed at 5,000 feet 100.5 m.p.h
  High speed at 10,000 feet 98 m.p.h.
  High speed at 15,000 feet 90.5 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5.000 feet 7.5 minutes.
   To 10.000 feet 18.1 minutes.
   To 15,000 feet 34.5 minutes.
  Absolute ceiling 19,500 ft.
  Fuel range, wide open, near sea level 2.5 hours.
  Fuel range, wide open, at 5,000 ft. 3 hours.
  Fuel range, wide open, at 10,000 ft. 3.5 hours.
  Fuel range, wide open, at 15,000 ft. 4 hours.
The Packard Two-seater. (160 h.p. Packard engine).
THE LE PERE FIGHTER.
  
  Captain G. Lepere, an aeronautical engineer in the French Air service, designed the Lepere "Fighter" with a Liberty engine for production in the United States. It was intended for use as a fighter or reconnaissance machine, and carried two fixed guns firing forward, synchronised with the engine, and two Lewis guns attached to a movable Scarf ring surrounding the rear cockpit.
  
General Dimensions.
  Span, upper plane 39 ft. 0 1/4 in
  Span, lower plane 39 ft. 0 1/4 in.
  Chord, both planet 5 ft. 6 in.
  Gap between planes 5 ft. 0 5/8 in.
  Stagger 2 ft. 0 15/16 in.
  Length over all 25 ft. 4 5/8 in.
  Height over all 9 ft. 10 7/8 in.
  
Weights.
  Machine empty 2,468 lbs.
  Pilot and gunner 360 lbs.
  Fuel and oil 475 lbs.
  Armament 352 lbs.
   Total 3,056 lbs.
  
Performances.
  Height. Speed. Time of Climb.
  0 ft. 136 m.p.h. 0 mins. 0 secs.
  6,000 ft. 132 m.p.h. 5 mins. 35 secs.
  10,000 ft. 127 m.p.h 10 mins. 35 secs.
  15,000 ft. 118 m.p.h. 19 mins. 15 sees.
  20.000 ft. 102 m.p.h. 41 mins. 0 secs.
  Service ceiling, or height beyond which the machine will not climb 100 feet per minute, 20,800 feet.
  
Engine Group.
  A Liberty " 12 " 400 h.p. engine is used. It develops 400 h.p. at 1,750 r.p.m.
  Bore, 6 ins.; stroke, 7 ins.; weight, without propeller and water, 858 pounds.
  Two Zenith Duplex carburetters are used.
  The radiator is located in the upper plane centre section, and its location has necessitated some slight modifications in the engine to increase the water circulation.
  Propeller, 9 ft. 4 ins. in diameter.
  Front propeller plate projects 11 3/4 ins. forward of fuselage nose.
  Propeller axis 15 7/16, ins. below top of upper longerons.
  In flying position the propeller hub is 5 ft. 2 7/8 ins. above the ground line;
  when at rest on the ground the propeller hub is 6 ft 1 5/8 ins. above ground.
Side View of the Le Pere Fighter (400 h.p. Liberty engine).
The latest type Sloane is a military tractor biplane.
  This machine is equipped with a 130 h.p. 6-cylinder water-cooled engine.
  Climbing speed id 500 feet (152 meters) per minute.
  The maximum and minimum speeds are 82 m.p.h. (130 kilometers) and 47 m.p.h. (75 kilometers).
  The load carried is 900 lbs (410 kilograms).
  
Span 38 feet
Chord 6'6''
Length 34 feet
Area 510 sq. feet
Weight total 4300 lbs
Weight useful 900 lbs
Motor 125 h.p.
Speed 85 to 47 m.p.h.
Climb 3,000 in 7 1/2 minutes
The Sloane biplane, with back-swept wings, and 100 h.p. Hall-Scott motor.
Span 40' (both planes)
Chord 6'6''
Gap 6'6''
Length 27'
Dihedral 3
Sweep back 10
Stagger 1'3''
Area 491 sq.ft.
Aileron Both wings
Landing gear 2 wheels
Engine 140 h.p. Hall-Scott (Type A5a)
Weight with 1 hour's fuel
   2700 lbs
Useful load 800 lbs
The H 3 type Standard Aero Corporation's tractor. 140 h.p. Hall-Scott engine.
THE STANDARD MODEL "J-R" MILITARY TRAINING TRACTOR, WITH HALL-SCOTT 175-H.P. MOTOR.
  
  The Standard Model "J-R" is one of America's recent productions in the way of an advanced training machine. It is similar in general form to the Standard Model" J " Military Preliminary Training Tractor. The 90-h.p. motor has been replaced by a special Hall-Scott 175-h.p. motor, and the R.A.F. No. 3 wing curve has been superseded by the U.S.A. No. 6.
  Home leading features of the " J-R " model are as follows :
   (1.) The two-wheeled steel landing gear combines lightness with strength and is perfectly streamlined throughout so as to offer a minimum of head resistance. On landing, the axle rises in vertical guides, and when normal rests in a U-shaped steel case streamlined with aluminium.
   (2.) All wing struts are provided with ball and socket fittings.
   (3.) An auxiliary fan, driving the gear fuel-pump, projects out from the fuselage, and pumps the fuel from the main tank to the gravity tank.
   (4.) The engine-bed is made very rigid by means of stool tube stays which connect the ash engine supports to the longerons.
   (5.) There is a single control of the Dep. type in the rear cockpit.
   (6.) The radiator is mounted over the motor and is free from vibrations. It strikes one, however, that it produces immense head-resistance.
   (7.) There is a single complete manifold for the exhaust.
   (8.) The exhaust pipe leads the gases over the top plane.
   (9.) Throughout the entire machine, the weight has been kept down and yet none of the strength or air-worthiness has been impaired.
  
  
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS.
  
General Dimensions.
  Wing span, upper plane 42 ft. 10 in.
  Wing span, lower plane 31 ft.
  Wing chord 6 ft.
  Gap between wings 71 in.
  Stagger 10 degs.
  Overall length of machine 27 ft. 2 1/2 in.
  Overall height of machine 10 ft. 10 in.
  Angle of incidence 2 1/2 degs.
  Dihedral angle 3 per cent.
  Sweepback 5 degs.
  Wing curve U.S.A. No. 6.
  Tail plane, angle of incidence 0 deg.
  
Areas.
  Upper wing 258 sq. ft.
  Lower wing 159 sq. ft.
  Total supporting surface
   (wings and ailerons) 417 sq. ft.
  Ailerons (each 21 sq. ft.) 42.
  Tail plane 23.7 sq. ft.
  Fin, vertical 3.7 sq. ft.
  Elevators (each 11 sq. ft.) 22.
  Rudder 10 sq. ft.
  Max. load per sq. ft. supporting surface 5.75 lbs.
  Max. load per h.p. 13.7 lbs.
  
Weight.
  Net weight, machine empty 1,764 lbs.
  Gross weight, machine loaded 2,400 lbs.
  
Performance.
  Max. speed, full load 95 m.p.h.
  Min. speed, full load 48 m.p.h.
  Gliding angle 1 to 11.
  Climbing speed in 10 minutes 5,000 ft.
  
Power Plant.
  Hall-Scott A-5A special, 6-cyl vert, four-stroke cyl. water-cooled.
  Horse-power (rated at 1,400 r.p.m.) 175 h.p.
  Weight 605 lbs.
  Bore on stroke 5 1/2 in. by 7 in.
  Fuel consumption per hour 14 gals.
  Fuel tank capacity 51 gals.
  Gravity tank capacity 7 3/4 gals.
  Total tank capacity 58 3/4 gals.
  Oil capacity in crank-case 4 gals.
  
Propeller.
  Make "Standard."
  Material Black walnut.
  Diameter 8 ft. 4 in.
  Pitch 5 ft. 6 in.
  Direction of rotation
   (viewed from pilot's seat) Clockwise.
  
Landing Gear.
  Number of wheels 2
  Size of wheels 26 in. by 4 in.
  Thread 68 3/4 in.
  
  
  As may be seen from the firm's own figures for performances. the machine cannot be used for war purposes, as the maximum speed would have to be increased by 25 per cent, and the climb by 100 per cent, before it would be safe to send over the lines at all in 1918. Nevertheless, in the advanced stages of training, after a pupil has left the slow preliminary types, and before putting him onto war aeroplanes, the machine should find a distinct field of usefulness.
  
  
  
  
  
THE STANDARD J.R.1 BIPLANE.
(Built by the Standard Aircraft Corporation.)
  
Specification.
  
Type of machine Single-seater Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine J. R. 1.
Span 31 ft. 4 3/4 In.
Overall length 26 ft. 2 in.
Maximum height 10 ft. 10 3/16 In.
Engine type and h.p. 170 h.p. Hispano-Suiza
engine. Weight of machine empty 1,566 lbs.
Petrol tank capacity In gallons 60 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed low down 100 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 48 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 5,300 feet in minutes 10 mins.
  Total weight of machine loaded 2,400 lbs.
Undercarriage and Engine-mounting of Standard Training Tractor
THE STANDARD E 1 DEFENCE BIPLANE
  
  Intended, as shown below, for fighter and reconnaissance work, the E 1 was underpowered by 1917 standards. However, over 100 were built with Gnome and Le Rhone engines for fighter training, delivered from August 1918. With the 100 h.p. Gnome engine, a speed of 120 m.p.h. was possible.
  
  
THE STANDARD E 1 OR M DEFENCE BIPLANE.
Specification.
Type Of machine Single-seater Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine E. 1. (M. Defence)
Purpose for which intended Reconnaissance & fighting.
Span 24 ft.
Gap 4ft.
Overall length 18 ft. 10 11/16 in.
Maximum height 9 ft. 1 in.
Chord 42 ins.
Area of elevators 10.3 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 6.8 sq. ft.
Area of fin 2.5 sq. ft.
Total area of ailerons 23.2 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. 80 h.p. Le Rhone.
Airscrew, diameter 8 ft.
Weight of machine empty 828 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 7.5 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 14.3 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 2 hours.
Performance.
  Speed low down 99.8 m.p.h.
  Speed at 6,400 feet 94 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10.000 feet 85 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 48 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 6,000 feet in minutes 10 minutes.
   To 10 000 feet in minutes 22 mins. 20 secs.
  Theoretical ceiling 14,800 ft.
  Disposable load apart from fuel 201 lbs.
  Total weight of machine loaded 1.144 lbs.
Dihedral 3%.
Stagger 13 1/4 in.
Track 5 ft.
Side View of the Standard E.1 Single-seater.
Front View of the Standard Aircraft Corporation's type E.1 Single-seater (80 h.p. Le Rhone engine).
Standard E.1 with 80 h.p. Le Rhone engine.
Standard E.1 with 80 h.p. Le Rhone engine.
The S4 two-seat seaplane was one model of the S series, which found limited favour with the US Navy. Altogether the USN received 12 S machines.
  
Span 48 ft. 7 1/2 In.
Chord 7'
Gap 6' 9''
Length 28'
Area 620 sq.ft.
Ailerons Both wings
Landing gear Floats or 2 wheels.
Engine 5 A Sturtevant (140 h.p.)
Weight 2025 lbs. (with 1 hour's fuel)
Useful load 525 lbs
Speed range 40 to 73 m.p.h.
Climb 4000 ft. in 12 mins.
Rear view of Sturtevant "battle" biplane, with a gun turret on each wing.
THE SUNDSTEDT-HANNEVIG SEAPLANE.
  
  At the plant of the Wittemann-Lewis Aircraft Co., probably one of the largest seaplanes in the United States has been constructed by the prominent Swedish aviator, Captain Hugo Sundstedt, and the well known Norwegian financier, shipbuilder and shipowner, Mr. Christoffer Hannevig.
  Captain Sundstedt is one of the pioneers in aviation, having flown since 1910. In July, 1914, just before the war broke out. ho made a non stop flight from Bue, near Paris, France, to Stockholm, of about 1,200 miles, in a Henry Farman biplane, in 13 hours and 20 minutes. During the war Capt. Sundstedt has been about two years in France, and received several decorations. About three years ago he left France for the United States for the purpose of building an aeroplane for a trans-Atlantic flight.
  The Sundstedt-Hannevig seaplane has been designed for the specific purpose of long-distance flying over the sea. In general, it has been designed with an extra heavy substantial construction, particularly an those parts subjected to the greatest amount of strain during flight and at landings, such as pontoons, wings, and the entire rigging.
  In the design, however, only proved aero-dynamical principles have been embodied, assuring a positively efficient machine, and Captain Sundstedt has made a large number of improvements in structural details, affording the utmost strength and lightness of construction.
  The seaplane is equipped for two pilots and two passengers in the cabin of the fuselage. General Dimensions.
  
Span, upper plane 100 ft.
Span, lower plane 71 ft. 6 in.
Wing chord, lower plane 8 ft.
Wing chord, upper plane 8 ft.
Gap between wings 8 ft. 72 in.
Length of machine overall 50 ft. 6 in.
Height of machine overall 17 ft. 7 in.
Dihedral angle, lower plane 2 degrees
Wing curve U.S.A. No. 5
Total lifting surface 1,587 sq.ft.
Rudder area 22 sq. ft
Elevator area 54 sq. ft.
Weight 10,000 lbs.
Loading per h.p. 25 lbs.
Loading per sq. ft. 6 lbs.
Speed, estimated, full load 80 m.p.h.
Climbing speed, estimated 3,000 ft. in 10 mins.
Horse power, total 440.
The Sundstedt-Hannevig Transatlantic Seaplane before complete erection.
THOMAS 1915 FLYING BOAT. 90 h.p.
  
  1. Built entirely of mohogany, luxuriously fitted up, hull of best design for water and air use.
  2. Carries two or three people, fuel for two to four hours, and additional useful load. Speed is 70 m.p.h. (115 kms.) Weight (empty) is 1250 lbs. (567 kgs.)
  3. Over all length, 28 feet 6 Ins. (8.65 m ), span-top plane, 38 feet (11.60 m.), lower plane, 28 feet (8.55 m.), chord, 5 feet (1.50 m.), gap (average), 6 feet (1.82 m.), wing area, 360 sq. feet (33.5 m2), loading, 4.3 lbs./sq. feet.
  4. Compared with 1914 model, design of wings end hull is much better for the considerations of less resistance, more seaworthiness, and greater air efficiency. The entire construction is of a much higher order, and luxurious comfort is the first consideration.
The Thomas flying boat, 90 h.p. Austro-Daimler engine.
THOMAS MILITARY TRACTOR, Type T2. 80-90 horse power.
  1. Minimum head resistance and maximum efficiency. Especially adapted to all-round military work-scouting, reconnaissance, range spotting, messenger service, etc
  2. Carries pilot and observer, fuel for four hours, and 285 lbs. (130 kgs.) additional (total useful load is 897 lbs. (405 kgs.) Speed range is 38-82 m.p.h. (60-130 km) Weight (empty) is 1075 lbs. (437 kgs.) Climb with full load is 4,000 feet (1,220 m.) in 10 minutes, 800 feet (245 m.) in first minute.
  3. Overall length, 28 feet (8 50 m,), span, 36 feet (11.00 m.), chord, 5 feet (1.50 m), gap. 5 feet (1.50 m.) wing area, 350 sq. feet (33 m2), loading, 5.3 lbs. sq. feet.
  4. Entirely new model, developed for military purposes,
Thomas tractor biplane, 90 h.p. Curtiss motor, rising from ground.
Thomas tractor biplane, 90 h.p. Curtiss engine, just about to land.
THOMAS MILITARY RECONNAISSANCE TRACTOR, Type D2. 150-180 horse power.
  1. Great power and speed, in addition to all the advantages of Type T2. Also has the most simple and rugged type of landing gear.
  2. Carries pilot and observer, fuel for four and a half hours, and 250 lbs. (114 kgs.) additional (total useful load is 1082 lbs. (490 kgs.) Speed range is 40 to 91 m.p.h. 25-145 km.) Weight loaded is 2,250 lbs. (1,020 kg.) Climb is 4,000 feet (1220 m.) in nine minutes
  3. Overall length, 29 feet (8.85 m.),span, 37 feet (11.30 m.),chord, 5 feet 3 ins (1.50 m.), gap, 5 feet (1.50 m.), total lifting area, 401 sq. feet (37.5 m2.), loading, 5.6 lbs sq. feet.
  4. Changed conditions of warfare have shown the need of very powerful, fast, two passenger machines, capable of carrying extra load.
  
  
THE THOMAS-MORSE D5
  
  The "D 5" Thomas Tractor has the following characteristics:
Span 52' 9" upper plane.
   34' lower plane.
Chord 5' 6"
Gap 5'3"
Length 29' 9"
Dihedral 4 degrees.
Area 465 sq. ft.
Ailerons Upper wings only.
Landing Gear Two wheels.
Engine Thomas 135 h.p., 8-cylinder V
Weight 2500 lbs. (1 hour's fuel).
Useful load 1100 lbs.
The "D 5" Type Thomas-Morse military tractor with 135 h.p. Thomas engine.
The Thomas twin tractor biplane, as built for the U.S.Army & Navy.
THE THOMAS MORSE S.H.4 SEAPLANE
  
  Following the delivery of a number of biplanes of similar but earlier types to the UK from 1915, Curtiss developed the S.H.4. The US Navy received 14 in 1917 for training and observation roles.
  
Type of machine Two-seater Seaplane
Name or type No. of machine S.H. 4.
Purpose for which Intended Training.
Span 44 ft.
Overall length 29 ft. 9 In,
Chord 5 ft. 9 in.
Engine type and h.p. 100 h.p. Thomas.
The Thomas-Morse S.H.4 Seaplane.
THE THOMAS-MORSE S.4 SCOUT BIPLANE
  
  The S.4B (100 h.p. Gnome engine) and S.4C (80 Le Rhone engine) became standard single-seat fighter trainers with the US services from 1917. The details below apply to the S.4C version.
  
Type of machine Single-seater Scout trainer.
Name or type No. of machine S.4C.
Purpose for which intended Fighter training.
Span 26 ft. 6 in.
Overall length 19 ft. 10 In.
Maximum height 8 ft. 1 in.
Engine type and h.p. 80 h.p Le Rhone.
Weight of machine empty 940 lbs.
Petrol tank capacity in gallons 30 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed (maximum) 97 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 45 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 7,600 feet in minutes 10 minutes
  Total weight of machine loaded 1.330 lbs.
Three-quarter Rear View of the Thomas-Morse type S.4C. (80 h.p. Le Rhone engine).
THE THOMAS-MORSE S.5 SINGLE SEATER SEAPLANE
  
  Designation of six S.4B seaplanes used by the US Navy from 1917-18.
  
Type of machine Single-seater Seaplane.
Name or type No. of machine S. 5.
Purpose for which intended Training.
Span 26 ft. 6 in.
Overall length 22 ft. 9 In.
Maximum height 9 ft. 7 In.
Total surface of wings (inc. ailerons) 240 sq. ft.
Total area of fixed tail plane 16.8 sq. It.
Area of elevators 22 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 8.5 sq. ft.
Area of fin 3.5 sq. ft.
Total area of ailerons 30 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. 100 h.p. Monosoupape Gnome.
Airscrew, diameter and revs. 8 ft., 1250 r.p.m.
Load per sq. ft. 6.25 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 14.3 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours. 3 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 30 galls.
Performance.
  Speed low down 95 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 50 m.p.h.
  Climb
   To 5,200 feet in minutes 10 minutes.
  Total weight of machine loaded 1,500 lbs.
The Thomas-Morse type M.B.3 of 1918 design (300 h.p. Wright-Hispano-Suiza).
Top view of Eastern military tractor.
Eastern Aeroplane Corps. Military Tractor.
This firm constructs to the designs of Mr. Chance M. Vought, president and chief engineer, a two-seater biplane fitted with a 180 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine, which is used by the U.S. Army as an advanced training machine. This aeroplane won, in 1918, the Army competition for advanced training machines.
  
  
THE V.E.7 "BLUEBIRD" TRAINING MACHINE.
  
Type of machine Two-seater Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine V.E.7 "Bluebird."
Purpose for which intended Training.
Span 34 ft. 4 in.
Gap 4 ft. 8 In.
Overall length 24 ft. 5 3/8 In.
Maximum height 8 ft. 7 1/2 In.
Chord 4 ft. 7 1/2 in.
Span of tail 10 ft.
Engine type and h.p. 150 or 180 h.p. Hispano-Suiza.
Airscrew, diameter 8 ft. 8 in.
Weight of machine empty 1,392 lbs.
Performance.
  Speed low down 106 m.p.h.
  Speed at 6.500 feet 103 m.p.h.
  Speed at 10.000 feat 97 m.p.h.
  Speed at 15,000 feet 86 m.p.h.
  Landing speed 48 m.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 6,500 feet in minutes 8 mins. 50 secs.
   To 10,000 feet in minutes 15 mins. 15 secs.
   To 15,000 feet in minutes 29 minutes.
Total weight of machine loaded 1,937 lbs.
Side View of the Lewis & Vought V.E.7 Training Machine (Hispano-Suiza engine).
Three-quarter Rear View of the Lewis & Vought V.E.7 (150 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine).
V-E-7 Plane with 150 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine.
V-E-7 Plane with 150 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine.
THE WITTEMANN-LEWIS TRACTOR BIPLANE.
  
Type of machine Wittemann-Lewis.
Name or type No. of machine "T. T."
Purpose for which intended Military training.
Span 42 ft. top; 34 ft. bottom plane.
Gap 5 ft. 6 In.
Overall length 27 ft. 2 In.
Maximum height 11 ft. 6 1/2 in.
Chord 5 ft. 6 In.
Total surface of wings 400 sq. ft.
Total area of tail 28.8 sq. ft.
Area of elevators 21.6 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 12 sq. ft.
Area of fin 5.37 sq. ft.
Aran of each aileron & total area 17.44; 38.88 sq. ft.
Engine type and h.p. Hall-Scott, 100 h.p.
Weight of machine empty 1,560 lbs.
Load per sq. ft. 5.41 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 21.6 lbs.
Tank capacity in hours 3.6 hours.
Tank capacity in gallons 36 gallons.
Performance.
  Speed 74 m.p.h. max, 38 m.p.h. min.
  Climb.
   To 3,000 feet in 10 minutes.
  Disposable load apart from fuel 605 lbs.
Total weight of machine loaded 2,165 lbs.
The Witteman-Lewis Biplane, type T.T. (100 h.p. Hall-Scott engine).
Wright experimental biplane. Engine in front and two chain-driven propellers.
Wright Type L military tractor.
Wright Type L military tractor.
The Single Wright Model K experimental seaplane taken into service by the US Navy. It was the last Wright aeroplane bought from the original company.
WRIGHT-MARTIN. TYPE V.
  
Span 39' 8"
Chord 5' 10"
Gap 5' 7"
Stagger 1'
Dihedral 1 1/4 degrees
Span of Tail 12'
Area 223.2 sq. ft. (upper plane)
   206.8 sq. ft. (lower plane)
Area of Aileron 64.6 sq. ft. (total of four)
   Tail 57.2 sq. ft.
   Fin 17.37 sq. ft.
Total Area 430 sq. ft.
Loading per sq. ft. 5.86 lbs.
   B.N.P. 16.86 lbs.
Weight without engine 1130 lbs.
Weight of power plant complete 595 lbs.
   useful load 445 lbs.
   6 hrs. fuel 460 lbs.
Gross Weight 2630 lbs.
Motor-Simplex Model A.
   Hispano-Suiza 150 h.p. at 1450 r.p.m
Propeller, diam. 8' 4"
   pitch 5' 7 1/2''
Control Deperdussin type
A Roumanian 1911-12 type Bleriot, bearing war identification marks. An old type Nieuport wing similary marked, may be seen in the background.
Type XI-2. Standard "tandem" military monoplane developed from the single-seat Type XI. Bleriot monoplane used (alongside a B.E.2a) on the very first RFC reconnaissance over German lines, 19 August 1914.
Bleriot Parasol reconnaissance machine of 1914-15.
Military 2-seater. 1914 type with rigid wings and ailerons. Used for reconnaissance at start of war by French, British and Italian services. RFC nickname "Tin Whistle". 110 h.p. Salmson-Canton-Unne radial engine, offering 68 mph.
A Siamese Breguet Biplane, used for training.
Французский самолет ВМ-5 опирается костылем на подставку. Машина оснащена дополнительной рамой для установки на верхнем крыле оборонительного пулемета / The Breguet Biplane. Type M.5 bomber. Winner of the competition for high-powered Avions in Oct., 1915 and much used for night-bombing in 1916-17. Developed from earlier Br M.4 light bomber with similar 220 h.p. Renault engine, itself an improved Br M.2 type (200 h.p. Canton-Unne) of 1915.
The Three-motored Breguet - Three 250 h.p. Renault Engines. Flew for three hours at a height of 2,500 metres with a load of 1200 kilogrammes.
Breguet AV 2. This aircraft differed from the AV 1 by having a 275-hp Renault engine, a slightly longer fuselage, and a fixed fin
Sectional Plan and Side Elevation of the Fuselage of the Breguet Biplane. Type 14 B.2.
General Arrangement Drawing of the 14 B.2 as issued by the Breguet firm.
THE BREGUET BIPLANE, TYPE 16 B.N.2.
  
  
  
Type of machine Two-seater Tractor Biplane.
Name or type No. Of machine 16 B.N.2.
Purpose for which Intended Night Bomber.
Span 17 metres.
Chord 2.35 m.
Overall length 9.55 m.
Maximum height 3.42 m.
Total surface of wings 73.5 sq. m.
Span of tail 4.66 m.
Engine type and h.p. Renault 300 h.p. or Liberty 400 h.p.
Airscrew 3.42 m. diam.
Weight of machine empty 1,265 kilos.
Performance.
   Speed low down 160 kms. per hour.
  Climb.
   To 4,000 metres in 51 minutes 10 seconds.
Ceiling 4,600 metres.
Disposable load apart from fuel: machine gun aft, and 550 kilos. of bombs=1130 kilos.
Avion Breguet Type 16 Bn.2
THE BREGUET BIPLANE, TYPE 17 C.2.
  
Type of machine Breguet Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine 17 C.2.
Purpose for which Intended Two-seat Fighter.
Span 14.280 metres.
Overall length 8.1 m.
Maximum height 3.42 m.
Total surface of wings 45.3 sq. m.
Engine type and h.p. 450 h.p. Renault.
Performance.
  Speed low down 225 kms. per hour.
  Climb.
   To 5,000 m in 24 mins. 51 secs.
Ceiling at 7,000 metres.
Armament: Twin synchronised guns in front;
   two guns aft.
   One gun firing below fuselage.
The Breguet Biplane, type 17 C.2 (Renault 450 h.p. engine)
The G3 Type Caudron, with 100 h.p. Anzani engine, widely used for reconnaissance and training from 1914.
Snapshot at Chinese Aerodrome near Peking.
В носовой части гондолы на шкворне мог устанавливаться пулемет "Максим" с ленточным питанием / Twin-engine Caudron G.4 biplane. Two Le Rhone engines of 80 h.p. each. Machine fitted with mitrailleuse. This type, with these or with two Anzani engines of 100 h.p. each, was widely operated during 1915-16 as a bomb-dropper and as a fighting machine, later being used for reconnaissance and training.
A Twin-engined Caudron Biplane of the tail-boom type, known as G.6. (2-110 h.p. Le Rhone engines.)
The R4 Type Caudron, with Two 140 h.p. Hispano-Suiza Engines. Used for reconnaissance before R.II became available.
THE CAUDRON R.II TWIN-ENGINED BOMBER.
  
  
  
Type of machine Caudron Twin Tractor.
Name or type No. of machine R. II.
Purpose for which intended Bombing.
Span 17.92 m. top;
   16.9 m. bottom plane.
Overall length 11.25 metres.
Maximum height 2.70 metres.
Engine type and h.p. Hispano-Suiza, two 200 h.p.
Weight of machine empty 1,422 kgs.
Tank capacity in litres 220.
Performance.
  Speed low down 190 k.p.h. full,
   95 k.p.h. throttled.
  Speed
   at 2,000 metres 185 k.p.h.
   at 3,000 metres 180 k.p.h.
   at 4,000 metres 173 k.p.h.
   at 5,000 metres 167.3 k.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 2,000 metres in 8-10 minutes.
   To 3.000 metres in 14-3 minutes.
   To 5.000 metres in 39 minutes.
Disposable load apart from fuel 405 kgs.
Total weight of machine loaded 2,167 kgs.
The Caudron Type R.11 bomber, reconnaissance and escort biplane of 1918. (2-200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engines.)
Three-quarter View, from rear, of the experimental Caudron, Type C.23 Twin engined night bomber.
DONNET FLYING BOAT.
  
  
  Three-ply wood central float or boat, so constructed that fixed tail fin forms part and whole with it. Two small three-ply floats at wing ends. Sent for pilot and observer side by side. Third sent for gunner in front. Several watertight compartments.
  
  
  
Type of machine Donnet Flying Boat.
Name or type No. of machine Type D.D., 200 h.p.
Purpose for which Intended Bombardment.
Span 16.80 m.
Gap 1.83 m.
Overall length 9 m. 50.
Maximum height 3 m.
Chord Top plane, 2 m.;
   Lower plane, 1 m. 45.
Total surface of wings 53 sq. m.
Span of tail 3 m. 20.
Total area of tail 7 sq. m.
Area of rudder 1.20 sq. m.
Area of each aileron 2 sq. m.
Maximum cross section of body 1 m. 20.
Engine type and h.p. 200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza.
Weight of machine empty 950 kgs.
Tank capacity in hours 4 hours.
Tank capacity in litres 140 each (two tanks).
Performance.
  Speed 130 km.p.h.
  Landing speed 80 km.p.h.
  Climb.
   To 1.000 metres 6-30 mins.
   To 2.000 metres 15 mins.
Disposable load apart from fuel 650 kgs.
Total weight of machine loaded 1,800 kgs.
Three-quarter Front View of the Donnet Flying-Boat (200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine.)
Side View of the Donnet Flying-Boat.
THE DORAND RECONNAISSANCE BIPLANE.
  
  
  
  "Flugsport" for Aug. 14th describes the Dorand biplane, explaining that this machine is known as " A.R." or " A.L.D." according to its equipment with a Renault or a Lorraine-Dietrich engine. The machine described, naturally one captured from the French, bears the description, " A.R.," and the number 309. The letter "A" indicates that it is a Reconnaissance machine.
  The empty weight of the aircraft is 890 kilos. A note on the rudder gives the weight of the fuel (poids combustible) as 140 kg. and that of useful load (poids utile) at 300 kg., the total load working thus out at 1,330 kg. As the planes have an area of 1330 50.30 square metres, the loading of the planes is thus 1330/50.36 = 26.40 kg. per sq. m., and the engine performance 1330/190.36 = 7 kg. per h.p.
  The main object of the design seems to have been the production of a light aeroplane with fairly high wing loading. The construction of component parts, such as stampings, has, therefore, been kept simple and light.
  
  
  
Type of machine Two-seater Reconnaissance Biplane.
Name or type number of machine A.R.
Purpose for which intended Reconnaissance.
Span 13.3 metres.
Gap, maximum and minimum 2 m. to 1.825 m.
Overall length 8.225 m.
Total surface of wings 50.36 sq. meters.
Engine type and H.P. 8 cyl. Renault, 190 h.p
Weight of machine empty 890 kgs.
Load per sq. metre 7 kgs.
Tank capacity in litres 170.
Disposable load apart from fuel 300 kgs.
Total weight of machine loaded 1330 kgs.
  
Weights. Kg.
  Engine 245
  Cooling water 25
  Airscrew 22
  One main petrol tank 22.5
  One auxiliary petrol tank 2
  One oil tank 2
  Engine equipment,
   exhaust collector body
   with tools 244.5
  Landing gear 60
  Control arrangement 6
  Planes 234.5
  Rudder and elevator 26.5
   ---
  Empty load 890
  Total weight 1330
  
Load (Approximately). Kg.
  Pilot and observer 150
  Armament 75
  4 bombs @ 12 kg. 48
  Wireless and
   photography equipment 27
  182 lit. petrol; 7 lit. oil 140
   ---
   440
Note painted on the rudder:
  "Useful load" 300 kg.
  Fuel 140 kg.
Average useful loading of the planes: 4.65 kg. sq. m.
Three-quarter Front View of the Dorand Biplane, type A.R., with 200 h.p. Renault engine (running).
Side View of the Dorand Biplane, type A.R., with 200 h.p. Renault engine. The group in front include, from left to right, Commandant Maurer, Colonel Dorand, and Commandant Lepere (all wearing caps).
Sectional Plan and Side Elevation of the Fuselage of the Dorand Biplane. (Taken from the German paper "Flugsport.")
H. Farman "F-22" Hydro.
Side View of a "Horace" Farman of the F.40 reconnaissance-bomber series, combining the characteristics of the Henry and Maurice Farman types. 160 h.p. Renault engine, allowing 84 mhp.
A Savoia "Horace" Farman. Three-quarter Front View.
Two Belgian aviators with a Maurice Farman biplane, equipped for fighting and photography. The camera may be seen on the ground.
The "Horace" Farman.
Avion Farman Type 50 Bn. 2
A F.B.A. Flying-boat (100 h.p. Gnome engine), built by the Gosport Aircraft Co., Ltd.
An F.B.A. flying boat on the water. Actually in the service of Italy.
The Hanriot firm produced its first aircraft in 1916. The HD. 1, as it was designated, was designed by Pierre Dupont. The compact single-seater had an upper wing with dihedral. The lower wing had no dihedral; its span and chord were less than that of the upper wing. The center section struts were similar to those used on the Sopwith 1 1/2 Strutters which Hanriot had built under license. The synchronized Vickers 7.7-mm machine gun was fitted on the port side of the fuselage. The engine was a 110-hp Le Rhone 9Jb driving a Ratmanoff propeller 2.46 meters in diameter.
  The fuselage was of wood except for the forward portion extending from the firewall to the cockpit, which was metal. The forward fuselage had three longerons: one behind the firewall, a second supporting the cabane struts and landing gear, and a third at the rear of the cockpit. The lower wing spar passed between the second and third frames. The rear fuselage had four rectangular longerons. The frame for the headrest was situated over the first three frames. At the rear of the fuselage steel tubes supported the tail and landing skid. The upper wing had two parallel spars and a dihedral of four degrees. The lower wing had a single large spar and, as mentioned earlier, no dihedral. The oil tank was in the forward fuselage. There were three fuel tanks: two in front of the cockpit and a third in the headrest fairing. Normally only a single machine gun was carried, but some HD.1s were modified to have two.
  The Hanriot HD.1, as the new machine was designated, had an impressive performance which was fully evaluated when it made its first test flights in June 1916. The aircraft had the same engine as the Nieuport 16/17 series, which was probably the reason for its rejection by the Aviation Militaire. At this time the rotary engine's eccentric traits were being widely denounced by fighter pilots, who greatly preferred the SPAD 7 and its water-cooled engine. A 150 hp Gnome Monosoupape engine was later fitted to an HD.1 which also had new fuselage fairings and an altered fin and rudder. Although tests at Villacoublay confirmed its superior performance, no series production followed.
  Although rejected by the Aviation Militaire, the Aviation Maritime adopted a modified version of the aircraft designated HD.2. The HD.1 was also widely used by the Italian, Belgian, and Swiss air services (see below).
  
Foreign Service
  
  Belgium
  
   The Aeronautique Militaire Belge ordered 79 Hanriot HD.1s in 1917. The first example was received in August 1917 by the I st Escadrille. Others were supplied to most of the fighter units, the 9th Escadrille and 11th Escadrille (at Moeres airfield) being equipped entirely with Hanriot HD. Is during the war.
   Despite the fact that the Hanriot HD.1s were found to be lightly armed and relatively slow, they were used with great success by such Belgian aces as Coppens, de Meulemeester, and Olieslagers. Field modifications included fitting two machine guns (which seriously degraded performance), fitting an HD.2 rudder to the HD.1 (which improved maneuverability), and fitting an 11-mm Vickers gun in place of the 7.7-mm weapon.
   Postwar, the Hanriot HD. Is were operated by the 7th Escadrille of the 4th Groupe de Chasse based at Schaffen. By 1926 the 7th Escadrille was based at Nivelles. Later that year the unit retired the last of its Hanriot HD.1s.
  
  Italy
  
   The Aviazione Militaire needed a replacement for its Nieuport 17s, which were becoming rapidly obsolescent. Examples of the HD.1 had been tested by Italian pilots in Paris who gave favorable reports on the new fighter. The speed, maneuverability, and climb rate were found to be considerably better than that of the Nieuport-Macchi 17s. As a result, an arrangement was made for the Societa Nieuport-Macchi to produce the HD.1 under license.
   An initial order for 100 aircraft was placed in late 1916 and production began soon after. Most were powered by a 110-hp Le Rhone engine, although some were fitted with a 120-hp 9Jby. The Vickers machine gun, which originally was offset, was relocated to the centerline of the fuselage to improve the pilot's access to the gun in flight and to make aiming easier.
   The Italians were very pleased with the HD.1. They especially appreciated its robustness and agility. It was also marginally faster than the Albatros fighters and Brandenburg D.Is it was fighting.
   The initial unit to be equipped with the type was 76 Squadriglia, which received its first in August 1917. The unit was based at Borgnano and assigned to the 6 Gruppo in the 2nd Armata sector.
   It participated in the 11th Battle of Isonzo on 18 August 1917, where the qualities of the HD.1 became readily apparent.
  
  
   HD. 1 Single-Seat Fighter HD.1 Single-Seat Fighter
   with 120-hp Le Rhone 9Jb with 110-hp Le Rhone 9Jb
   Built by Nieuport-Macchi
Dimensions:
  Span 8.7 m 8.50 m
  length 5.85 m 5.85 m
  height 2.94 m 2.5 m
  wing area 18.2 sq. m 17.50 sq. m
  Empty weight 400 kg 410 kg
  loaded weight 605 kg 600 kg
Performance:
  Max speed
   at ground level 186 km/h 183 km/h
   at 2,000 m 178 km/h
  Climb to:
   1,000 m 2 minutes 58 seconds 2 minutes 40 seconds
   2,000 m 6 minutes 3 seconds 6 minutes 40 seconds
   3,000 m 11 minutes 3 seconds 11 minutes
   4,000 m 19 minutes 30 seconds 16 minutes 30 seconds
   5,000 m 32 minutes
Ceiling: 6,000 m 5,900 m
Endurance: 2.5 hours 2.5 hours
Armament: One 7.7-mm Vickers machine gun One 7.7-mm Vickers machine gun
Production: Approximately 100 HD.1s of all Approximately 900 built under
   variants were built by Hanriot license by Nieuport-Macchi
A Hanriot HD-1 Single-seat Tractor Biplane.
Side View of the Letord Twin-Engined Biplane, type V. (type 4 ???)
Le-4 имел противокапотажное носовое колесо, двигатели Испано-Сюиза с бочкообразными радиаторами Ламблена и турели ТО4 в кабинах стрелков. / The Letord type V (type 4 ???) Twin-Engined Bomber.
THE LETORD. TYPE 9B.N.2.
  
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Twin-engined Tractor Biplane.
Name or type Mo. of machine Letord. Type 9B.N.2.
Purpose for which intended Night Bomber.
Span 25.94 m.
Overall length 14.95 m.
Maximum height 4.26 m.
Total surface of wings 135 sq. m.
Engine type and h.p. 2-350 h.p. Liberty.
Weight of machine empty 40.9 kgs.
Load per sq. m. 7.88 kgs.
Tank capacity in hours 6 hours.
Performance.
  Speed at 2,000 metres 145 km.p.h.
Disposable load apart from fuel 1,243 kgs.
Total weight of machine loaded 5,521 kgs.
Three-quarter Front View of the Letord Type 9 Night Bomber.
Levy built 100 GL40s (R for Renault engine) for the French in 1918.
  
  
THE GEORGES LEVY. TYPE R FLYING BOAT.
  
Specification
Type of machine Three-seater Flying Boat. Type R.
Span Upper plane. 18 m. 50;
   Lower plane, 12 m. 00.
Overall length 12 m. 40.
Maximum height 3 m. 85.
Total surface 68 sq.m.
Engine type and h.p. Renault. 300 h.p.
Weight of machine empty 1450 kgs.
Disposable load 1,000 kgs.
Performance
  Speed 145 km.p.h.
Georges Levy Type R Flying Boat
The M.F.11 "shorthorn" Maurice Farman, with 100 h.p. Renault engine of 1914. Used for bombing, artillery observation, reconnaissance, infantry contact patrols and training.
M. Farman "S-11".
A Maurice Farman Seaplane coming alongside a Seaplane Carrier.
Morane-Saulnier Type L "Parasol" monoplane of 1914-16.
A Spanish-built "Parasol" monoplane, on Morane-Saulnier lines.
A Morane-Saulnier Type N "monoplan de chasse" or "destroyer" - 1914-16 type, with monocoque fuselage. 80 h.p. Gnome or Le Rhone engine, allowing 102 mph.
MORANE BIPLANE.
  
  Type Bimoteur "S" presented for trial February. 1916, with stationary cylinder Renault engines of 250 h.p each. Not put into production.
  Speed: 145 kms. (96 miles) per hour. 3-seats. Useful load: 1.200 kilos. Weight: 3,000 kilos. Span: 26 m. Surface: 108 sq. m.
  (Dimensions and performance practically Identical with that of the Gothas of 1917.)
  
Morane Biplane, Type Bimoteur "T"
  
  First flown in 1914, it was not put Into production for reconnaissance until 1916. 80 h.p. Le Rhones.
  Speed: 156 km.p.h. (97 m. per h). Span: 17.65 m (57 ft 11 in). Celling: 4,500 m. Useful load 640 kilos.
Первый и единственный прототип "Морана-Солнье S".
Front View of Morane Biplane, Type Bimoteur "T".
Three-quarter Rear View of twin-engined Morane, Type "T".
The 1916 Model Parasol (Type P) has a Le Rhone engine of 110 h.p. It has been largely used by both the French and British Armies in 1916-17. It resembles the 1915 Type LA reconnaissance and fighting parasol but is marginally larger, also retaining LA-type aileron control instead of the earlier L's warping control
  The speed is about 156 kms (97 miles) per hour
  The surface is 18 sq. metres.
  Weight loaded 731 kg.
  The tanks contain 102 litres of petrol and 20 litres of oil. Suitable for about 2 3/4 hours' flying.
  The type is chiefly used in the French Army for short reconnaissance and artillery observation. It carries one fixed Vickers and one free firing Lewis gun.
Three-quarter Front View of the Type P. Morane-Saulnier "Parasol".
Модификация "Р" выглядела гораздо изящнее предшественников. На ее основе после войны выпускался учебный вариант самолета / Three-quarter Rear View of the Type P. Morane-Saulnier "Parasol". Note the ailerons: unusual in a monoplane.
Type B.B (two-seater) reconnaissance and escort Biplane. 110 h.p. Le Rhone engine.
  Speed: 90 m.p.h. Used by the British Flying Services from Nov. 1915. to end of 1916
Three-quarter Rear View of a Morane-Saulnier Biplane.
Three-quarter Front View of a Spanish-Built Saulnier Biplane, with Hispano-Suiza engine.
The Morane machines, particularly the Parasol monoplanes, rendered great services during the earlier part of the War.
  The firm has since turned out a number of biplanes, including certain two-engined machines. Among the final Morane-Saulnier war machines was the AI parasol fighter, put into production for service in 1918 as the Type 27 and Type 29. Type 27 C.1 achieved 130 m.p.h, (210 km per hour).
  
  
THE MORANE SAULNIER. TYPES 27C.1 & 29C.1.
  
  
Type of machine Single-Seater Parasol Monoplane.
Name or type No. of machine Morane-Saulnier. 27C.1, single gun. 29C.1, two guns.
Purpose tor which Intended .. Fighting Scout.
Span 8.72 m.
Overall length 5.7 m.
Maximum height .. 2.4 m.
Chord..... 2.013 m.
Total surface of wings .. 13,5 sq. m.
Span of tail 2.7 m.
Engine type and h.p. .. 160 h.p. Mono. Gnome.
Avion Morane-Saulnier Types 27 C.1 et 29 C.1
THE MORANE SAULNIER. TYPE C.2.
  
  
Type of machine Two-seater Tractor Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine Morane Saulnier. Type C.2.
Span 11.726 m.
Gap 1.7 m.
Overall length 8.345 m.
Chord 1.9 m.
Total surface of wings 41 sq. m.
Span of tail 3.66 m.
Engine type and h.p. 420 h.p. Bugatti.
Airscrew, diameter 3.1m.
Avion Morane-Saulnier Type C.2
A Nieuport-type Monoplane, built in Siam.
Back view of the Macchi-Nieuport, Le Rhone engine.
A Nieuport Scout, with the Prieur Incendary Rockets in position.
An Experimental Nieuport, with Hispano-Suiza Engine.
The fore-part of a Nieuport 17 "destroyer" (1916-17 type).
Three-quarter rear view of the type XXIII Nieuport.
Rear view of the type XXIII Nieuport.
A Nieuport "biplan de chasse" or "destroyer" (1916-17 type). The mounting of the gun on the top plane is of interest.
Side view of the type XXVII Nieuport of 1917-18.
Front view of the type XXVII Nieuport.
Three-quarter Front View of the Salmson type S.A.L. 2-A.2. (250 h.p. Salmson engine).
M. Louis Moineau, the famous pilot of Breguets before the War, turned constructor in 1915.
  In 1916-17 he produced the curious biplane illustrated herewith.
  It is driven by a Salmson-Canton-Unne engine, placed with its shaft thwart-wise of the fuselage. Each end of the shaft drives a cross-shaft to a bevel gear at the intersection of the cross-bracing of the wings, so that the engine drives two airscrews, one on each side of the machine.
  A gunner sits in front of the engine, and has a very big arc of fire. Another gunner sits behind the pilot.
  The machine flew, but was never put into production.
The Salmson-Moineau Biplane of 1916.
Side View of a Paul Schmitt tractor biplane. Type VI, of 1916.
Near View of the "Front-gun" Spad A.2 fighter with the gunner in place. The position seems unenviable, despite the wire guard. A.2s and few later A.4s served briefly with French and Russian forces.
Side View of a Spad Biplane (from a German photograph of a captured example.)
Rear View of a British two-seater Spad, captured by the Germans.
A general view of a Spad XIII in the air.
A Tellier Flying Boat (200 h.p. engine) in the Japanese Naval Air Service.
A Tellier Flying-Boat with "Maori" Sunbeam-Coatalen Engine, 350 h.p.
A Tellier Flying-Boat (350 h.p. Sunbeam-Coatalen "Maori" Engine) about to take off.
The Power Plant Instalment of a "Maori" Sunbeam in a Tellier Flying-Boat.
A Vendome Monoplane, used for School Work in the Spanish Army.
M. Vendome, one of the earliest of French constructors, produced in 1916 a machine somewhat after the style of the Moineau.
  In the fuselage, one on each side, were two Monosoupape Gnome engines, each driving a shaft to a bevel gear, which in turn drove a tractor airscrew. Thus the machine had two rotary engines turning in opposite directions, which would give it considerable lateral stiffness (though not stability), owing to their gyroscopic action.
  A gunner sat in the nose of the machine and another behind the pilot.
  As in the case of the Moineau, it was never put into production.
The Vendome Biplane of 1916 (2-100 h.p. Gnome Engines.)
Voisin III light bomber of 1914, with a Canton-Unne engine. A Type III was the first French aircraft to bring down a German aircraft, on 5 October 1914.
S.I.T.-Voisin III with 130 h.p. Salmson (Canton-Unne) engine.
1917 MODEL. - TWO-SEATER NIGHT BOMBER.
  
  
Length : 10 m.
Span : Upper plane, 18 m.
   Lower plane, 17 m.
Surface of Wings : 63.2 sq. m.
Weight of machine, empty : 1,400 kgs.
Useful load : 650 kgs.
Motor : 280 h.p. Renault.
Speed : Maximum, 130 k.p.h.
   Minimum, 70 k.p.h.
Climbing speed : 4,000 metres in 45 minutes.
  
  
  
1917 MODEL. - TWO-SEATER GUN CARRIER.
  
  
  This machine has similar characteristics to the night bomber. It is fitted with a 47 millimetre gun.
  
  
  
CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES
  
  
  Steel construction control by ailerons and rear tail unit. Four-wheeled landing carriage.
  This type is fitted indifferently with Peugeot, Panhard, and Fiat motors.
Three-quarter Front View of a Voisin "Avion Canon" in the air.
The Standard Type VIII Voisin "Avion Canon." Much used for reconnaissance.
The Voisin Single-engined Bomber Type 10 (400 h.p. Liberty Engine.)
THE VOISIN. TYPE 12 B.N.2.
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine Four-engined Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine Voisin. Type 12 B.N.2.
Purpose for which intended Night bombing.
Span 30.6 in. Folded, 16.6 m.
Overall length 16.6 m.
Maximum height 4.3 m.
Chord 2.7 m.
Total surface of wings 145 sq. m.
Engine type and h.p. 4-220 h.p. Hispano-Suiza.
  
  
  
  
  
THE VOISIN 4-ENG1NED BIPLANE. TYPE 13.
  
  
  
Specification.
Type of machine 4-engined Biplane.
Name or type No. of machine Voisin. Type 13.
Purpose for which Intended Night Bomber.
Span Top plane, 30 m.;
   Bottom plane, 24.162 m.
Chord 3.00 m.
Total surface of planes 155.686 sq. m.
Tank capacity in kgs. 1,100 kgs.
Engine type and h.p. 4-230 h.p. Hispano-Suiza.
Airscrews, type Lumiere.
Weight per h.p. 6.19 kgs.
Weight per sq. metre 36.53 kgs. Performance.
Speed 146 km.p.h.
Climb.
  To 3,000 metres in minutes 30 mins.
Useful load 1,300 kgs.
Total weight of machine loaded 5,700 kgs.
Side View of the Voisin Type 12 B.N.2 (Night Bomber) (4-220 h.p. Hispano-Suiza Engines.)
General arrangement of a four engined Night-Bomber slightly modified from the type B12.
Side View of a Swedish-built Triplane with Rotary engine.
Type 11
  
Two-seated double engined reconnaissance biplane
  
Total length 8.55 metres
Total width 16.16 metres
Total height 3.6 metres
Engines Two 110 or 160 h.p. Mercedes, Benz or Scania-Vabis fixed
Load carried 800 kg.
Speed 140 kil. an hour.
  
  
Type 12
  
Two-seated double engined reconnaissance biplane
  
Same as above, but equipped as hydro.
Three-quarter Rear View of Northern Aviatic Co.'s Twin-engined Biplane. Type 12.
Two-seated reconnaissance biplane (Albatros B)
  
Total length 8.0 metres
Total width 13.7 metres
Total height 3.5 metres
Engine 110 h.p. Mercedes fixed
Load carried 400 kg.
Speed 120 kil. an hour.
Three-quarter Front View of Northern Aviatic Co.'s Biplane. Type 9.
One-seated scouting biplane
  
Total length 6.7 metres
Total width 10.0 metres
Total height 3.0 metres
Engine 110 h.p. Mercedes
Load carried 300 kg.
Speed 155 kil. an hour.
Three-quarter Front View of Northern Aviatic Co.'s Biplane. Type 17.
These aeroplanes are of rather unconventional design, the chief idea of the constructor being a device for altering the position and angle of the top planes.
  The aeroplanes are built from three-ply wood, fuselage, wings and rudders.
  The concern is a new one, machines are under construction, but the value of the special arrangements seems rather doubtful. No tests are yet made.
  
  
Type 1
One-seated sporting biplane
  
Total length 5.7 metres
Total width 8 metres
Total height 2.3 metres
Engine 50 h.p. Gnome or Palson rotary
  
  
Type 2
Passenger-carrying biplane
  
Total length 11.7 metres
Total width 22.3 metres
Total height 5.3 metres
Engine 300 h.fixed
Load carried Six passengers and fuel for six hours.
Shaded Sketch of the Palson Single-seater
The Palson Single-seater Sporting Biplane
Side View of the Palson Passenger Biplane
Swedish Flying Officers and an Aeroplane North of the Arctic Circle.
Front View of Swedish-built Thulin Type K Esant monoplane fighter, built between 1917-19. 90 h.p. Thulin-built Gnome rotary engine, offering 93 miles per hour.
Front View of Thulin Monoplane.
Three-quarter Rear View of Thulin Monoplane.
Type N.A
One-seated scouting biplane
  
Total length 5.85 metres
Total width 7.9 metres
Total height 2.45 metres
Engine 125 h.p. Thulin rotary
Load carried 300 kg.
Speed 165 kil. an hour.
The Japanese-built Yokosuka Dockyard type Seaplane (140 h.p.)