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Schiffer
L.Opdyke
French Aeroplanes Before the Great War
798

L.Opdyke - French Aeroplanes Before the Great War /Schiffer/

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The 1910 Aman-Etrich single-seater.
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Voisin built this all-metal monoplane for the chairman of the Bristol Aeroplane Company in 1911. Length, 8 metres; span, 11 metres; surface, 20 sq. metres; steel tubes; 70 h.p. Gnome motor; weight, 400 kilogs.
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The one-off Nieuport-Dunne flying wing of 1913.
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The Paulhan-built Curtiss Triad.
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The Paulhan-Curtiss F-Boat. The additional strut to the lower wing, and simplified cowl are some of the differences from the American version.
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The 1910 Sloan bicurve at the Paris Salon.
SLOAN BIPLANE. - Engine, propeller, and general carriage arrangements seen from the front, and showing the landing skid construction. Note the ailerons.
The twin tractor propeller Sloan. It is hard to see what if any components of the earlier aeroplane are used in this one.
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The 1911 Sloan entered in the Concours Militaire. The designer has retained the upturned aft fuselage and wavy wings from the beginning.
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A Wright built by la Societe des Chantieres de France, with many wheels.
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The Astra-Wright Type E. The nacelle holds 2, and the Renault is cowled with a large circular ring.
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Clement Ader's Eole; the complex controls and bird-like structure show clearly in this single-propeller machine. (From drawings in Octave Progress in Flying Machines)
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The Avion III as exhibited at the Paris Exposition Internationale de Locomotion Aerienne of 1908.
The fuselage and cabin of Avion III as it was being restored at the Musee de l'Air in 1982.
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Two views of the Albessard Autostable. Note flattened top, and the keel aft the passenger compartment.
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A contemporary drawing of the Alvarez et de Conde No 2. The tiny fins along the sides would probably not help much in the water.
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The Antoinette I, probably never completed. Note pieces of the Gastambide-Mengin in various forms at the back of the shop.
The wing of the Antoinette I under construction, resembling that of the later models. This structure has often appeared identified as the wing of a Bleriot or other early aeroplane.
Another view of the Antoinette I wing.
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The first version of the Gastambide-Mengin, with castering tricycle landing gear.
Probably the fifth and last version of the Gastambide-Mengin, with 4 wheels equally spaced.
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One of many variants of the first Antoinette IV.
Another variation. Both still have the long wing skids.
Demanest 's Antoinette V, still with wing-skids. Note wing cut-outs.
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The first Antoinette VII, like the IV also to be frequently modified.
Latham's second Antoinette VII, at Reims with the number 13.
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The completed and unflyable Monobloc. A later fin was larger.
The big Antoinette Monobloc or Military Scout, 1910, under construction.
The sharp leading edge and flat airfoil bottom shows clearly.
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The sole Anzani aeroplane, of 1909. Note the all-flying tail surfaces and castering tailwheel.
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Voisin built Archdeacon's first glider in 1904; this photograph was taken at St Cloud.
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Voisin built Archdeacon's third glider as well; Voisin was nearly drowned in it.
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The first Arnoux with the engine not yet installed.
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The second Arnoux aeroplane; note the full-span controllers.
The fourth Arnoux. Note the hinged forward skid.
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The fifth Arnoux of 1914. Compare the airfoil sections of the wings ofNos 1, 2, 4, and 5.
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The big Astra triplane flew - with 6 wheels - on only 75 hp.
A close-up of the Astra triplane. The struts all seem very light.
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The Astra CM with 3 seats; it rather resembles a biplane Antoinette.
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The Greek-owned Type C named Nautilos.
An Astra Hydro was shown at the 1912 Paris Salon with the long triangular fuselage uncovered.
The flat-mounted Canton-Unne installed in the Astra Hydro at Monaco.
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The 1910 Audineau. One hopes the aft fuselage was very lightly built!
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The first Auffm-Ordt; note the inner wing panels. The machine seems a little loose on its landing gear.
The second Auffm-Ordt being tested at St Moritz in 1909. Note apparent sweepback of the wings.
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The first Avia monoplane, at the 1909 Paris Salon. Note the remarkable Gangler monoplane in the room in back at the left.
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The second Avia monoplane. This photograph may be of a model; it appeared in many of the Avia catalogs. The propeller turns, but the stationary Anzani doesn't show here. One other very poor photo shows a full-sized machine in the Avia stand.
The third Avia monoplane: note the elaborate landing-gear springing method.
Avia's monoplane trainer. A curious feature is what appears to be an inverted airfoil section. Perhaps the training method did not include flying!
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The Bachelier-Dupont-Baudrin flyingboat. Note the spoon-shaped forward hull.
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The Badaire safety aeroplane for the Concours de Securite of 1914.
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Balassian de Manawas' entry for the Concours de Securite of 1914. As described in the text, the wings moved in various directions. Note the ingenious springing of the undercarriage wheels. A handsome photograph of the 50 hp Gnome and the Integrale propeller.
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Jacques Balsan's neat monoplane of 1911.
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Pierre Barillon's 1909 monoplane, his second machine. Note the rocking arms for the undercarriage springing.
The second Barillon, at Juvisy. Note the control wheel.
Barillon 's third design. Note the small round windows in the side.
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A contemporary drawing of the Baron Aero Ramo-Planeur.
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The Bastier biplane of 1911.
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The second Bathiat-Sanchez; note outrigger construction and tail bracing.
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The 1913 Bathiat-Sanchez with its single flout being tested on the Seine; similar to the machine at Deauville.
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One of the Bazin gliders of 1904. There was no rudder, since as the designer explained, aeroplanes of the future were to travel only in straight lines.
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The Bedelia flyingboat.
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The Bellamy hydro. The purpose of the single (or double?) sail between the wings and the tail is unclear.
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The 1913 Berger monoplane of 1913.
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The model of perhaps a powered version of the Berger-Gardey glider. outer wing panels seem to be warpable.
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The Prini-Berthaud: note similarities to and differences from the contemporary Wrights.
Another view of the Prini-Berthaud.
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A very poor copy of a copy of the original postcard showing the Berthaud Monoplane W in which Antoine de St Exupery took his first flight. The postcard is signed by St Ex; the author got the copy from a private collection in the Hotel du Grand Balcon, in Toulouse, in which the crews of the airline Aero-Postale stayed between flights, and in which St Exupery wrote he Petit Prince.
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The third Bertin helicopter.
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The first Benin monoplane, semi-Bleriot and semi-Antoinette.
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The fifth Bertin, in which Bertin was killed.
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The completed Bertrand. The elevators seem to have needed uncommonly bracing.
A handsome photograph of the strange Bertrand of 1909 under construction. The S-curve airfoil shows clearly and the pivoted joint for the forward outrigger.
The first Fregate under construction for de Lesseps at the Avionnerie, the shops of the SCAA (Societe de Construction d'Appareils Aeriens). In the background, the remarkable Bertrand monoplane is taking shape at the same time.
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A more conventional aeroplane, the third Bertrand.
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Besson's first canard; the Voisin influence is clear.
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The 1879 Biot-Massia glider exhibited at the Musee de l'Air et de I'Espace.
The more developed Massia-Biot glider of 1882.
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The Barlatier et Blanc monoplane. The fuselage seems built of heavy timber.
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The spoon-winged Blanc monoplane under construction. Note other parts being built nearby.
The completed Blanc inflight.
A different Blanc monoplane - perhaps a different Blanc? Note simplicity of construction, and Bleriot-style upright/longeron joints.
Another Blanc monoplane, perhaps by a different designer entirely.
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Two close-ups of the unsuccessful Blard canard. Note landing-gear strut springing up at the pylon.
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A drawing of the model Bleriot I ornithopter.
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The Bleriot Type II in the water, and the motorboat Antoinette II, 18 July 1905.
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Bleriot's third try. The forward elevator cell is set between the wings, with 2 propellers in front of it. Louis Bleriot embarked on a somewhat hit-and-miss programme of experimentation with his No III floatplane, seen here on Lac d'Enghien in 1906. It subsequently underwent a number of transformations, but never took to the air.
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These 3 photographs make a good study in early aeroplane experimentation. The Bleriot IV is shown on 2 different kinds of floats, evidently in an effort to assist take-off. This third variation shows a different main wing cell, shorter, with more dihedral, and inter-wing ailerons.
These 3 photographs make a good study in early aeroplane experimentation. The Bleriot IV is shown on 2 different kinds of floats, evidently in an effort to assist take-off. This third variation shows a different main wing cell, shorter, with more dihedral, and inter-wing ailerons.
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The same machine as reconstructed in April 1905. The narrow tread and short wheel-base must have made it hard to taxi - at least 2 men needed here!
The Bleriot V under construction, showing the big forward lower fin.
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The first version of the Type VI. The pilot looks like Louis himself.
The VIbis, the penultimate version, with wider-track undercarriage and longer fin.
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The last version of the Type VII, with the more familiar landing gear and the higher wing.
The Type VII under construction, showing the first version of its undercarriage, low-set wing, and uncompromising sprung tailwheel strut.
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The Type IX, which never flew. Note transparent streamlined windshield, which did not appear again.
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The Type VIII inflight. Note tip elevators, single tailplane.
The Type VIIIter, with staggered tailplanes and a shorter fuselage.
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The Type X canard biplane of 1908 never flew. Note the aileron surfaces attached to the outboard interplane struts, and the side-curtains made of circular radiator sections
A fine close-up of the operating center of the Bleriot X. Note the offset propeller blades; the enormous cloche on the control column; the battery and the rudder bar on the step; the big doughnut wheels.
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The cross-Channel Anzani Bleriot XI safely back in France. Note the bladder inside the fuselage, against sinking, and the tall rudder.
Delagrange's Type XI inflight; the engine has been moved back to its normal position.
A frequently-printed photograph of a 50 hp Gnome mounted in front of the propeller of a Type XI. This mounting was common in the big Farman pusher biplanes, where the engine was therefore aft of the propeller; this photograph, however, shows the engine mounted in Delagrange's first Bleriot XI.
The experimental springing system devised by a man named Sacotte for the XI, with frontal bumpers and under-seat springs. Another photo shows it wrecked.
View of a Type XI Pinguin ground-trainer. Note the heavy protective forward skids and the abbreviated wingspan.
View of a Type XI Pinguin ground-trainer. Note the heavy protective forward skids and the abbreviated wingspan.
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A later modification of the Type XII. This photo shows Bleriot himself on board flying before the members of the Senate.
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The XI-2bis in flight.
The Type XIV. The photograph is a copy of a copy, but it shows clearly lines of this machine.
A drawing from the patent for the Bleriot XV.
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The big Type XIII of 1910. With 100 hp it carried 10 people.
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One of Pegoud's Type XIs, this one fitted with the parachute with which he made at least one successful jump in 1913; note the inverted rudder to make room for the opening parachute. His machines featured a taller cabane pylon, needed in his looping experiments.
At least one of Pegoud's XIs had a one-piece elevator, the 2 halves connected with the elevator spar. Note their reverse curve, and the added extensions at the ends.
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The Type XX. Note revised airfoil section, swallow-tailed stabilizer faired into the fuselage sides.
The swallow-tailed Bleriot XXI sat 2 side by side.
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The Type XXIII racer.
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The canard Type XXV. No apparent rudder or fin surfaces.
Patent drawing of the Type XXVI of 1911. Note the planned retractable front wheel.
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The Y Anzani in the Type XXVIII Populaire.
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The patent drawing for the Type XXIX project.
A contemporary drawing of the unlucky Type XXXVII; the crew sat side side in front.
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Another patent drawing, this one of the unbuilt pretty little Type XXXII.
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The armored Type XXXVI Torpille at the 1912 Salon. Note simplified all-steel undercarriage.
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The tandem Type XL. Note landing gear suspension, semi-spherical nacelle nose.
THE BLERIOT BIPLANE. - Amongst the Bleriot machines which will be exhibited at the coming Paris Salon, is a biplane of the type shown in the accompanying photograph. This machine is constructed of steel throughout and has, it will be noticed, a new type of landing chassis which is said to be very effective even on the roughest ground.
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The canard Type XLII.
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The leggy tandem armored XLIII.
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The XLIV Type Artillerie, with aft-sitting pilot. Note the 2 different size struts in the pylon.
The Type XLV resembles most of the earlier Bleriot monoplanes - until you notice the Anzani set behind the pilot, evidently to allow him to sit far forward for better visibility.
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The Type XXXIX armored single-seater of 1913.
The Type XXI Hydro.
A Type XI-2 Tandem hydro, this one with a short rudder.
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The type number of the armored monoplane La Vache seems not to have been listed. The aircraft looks heavy - note the 3 men's efforts and the large tires.
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The prototype Bleriot Type Parasol, this one fitted with the split "crocodile" rudder.
Another Type Parasol; note the differences from the first one.
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Any further information on the Bobenreith - if indeed this is the Bobenreith - would be welcome.
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The Bonamy was entered in the Concours de Securite of 1914. At least we know it flew.
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View of the first Bonnet-Labranche. The wingtip ailerons are fitted here, so the aircraft is probably the Ibis. Note the long forward drive-shaft for the second propeller.
The Bonnet-Labranche No 2A lot has been simplified; inter-wing ailerons have been added.
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The Bonnet-Labranche No 3, also listed as "Avia vedette militaire." Compare it with the ABL Nos 1 and 2.
The ABL No 5 at Issy in 1910.
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The first ABL monoplane, No 4. Note inset ailerons and high forward skids.
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The Bonnet-Labranche No 6 school machine; this photograph shows the 2-seater version.
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The Borel Type Militaire entered in the Concours Militaire of 1911.
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The Borel Obus. Only the bottom quarter of the cowl is open for cooling. Note the simplified landing gear.
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A1912 2-seat hydro, the winner at the meet at Tamise.
One of several Borel seaplanes of1913. Note N-struts for float supports.
The Borel at Monaco.
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The Borel Monoplan Type Militaire. The top longeron attaches through the propeller hub.
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The cockpit of the Torpille looks small for both pilot and gunner/observer.
The new Borel-Ruby Torpille at the Paris Exposition in 1913.
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The Borel Aeroyacht Type Denhaut I, this one at Monaco in 1913.
The Borel Aeroyacht Type Denhaut II.
The Borel Aeroyacht Type Denhaut III, now a full biplane.
The Borel Type Monaco was basically a monoplane, like the 2 first Aeroyachts. The owners must have planned immensely long trips to use those fuel tanks.
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The first version of the Borgnis et Desbordes de Savignon; this picture was taken on 12 March 1909.
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The little Bothy monoplane of1910.
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A contemporary drawing of the strange Boucheron biplane with variable-area wings.
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The first Bourgoin et Kessels design, perhaps as nearly complete as it ever got.
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The Bousson-Borgnis firm followed the Auto-Aviateur with this big triplane glider in 1909; he claimed to have flown in it for an hour.
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The tiny-span Boutaric tandem biplane. The 2 forward surfaces were separately controllable as ailerons;perhaps they could be worked together to serve as forward elevators as well.
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The Brazier seaplane glider seemingly under tow.
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A half-view of the Breguet-Richet Gyroplane No I. If you look carefully you can make out the 4 arms emanating from the center, at right in photo, each arm with a 4-hladed rotor, each blade having 2 lifting surfaces.
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The Breguet-Richet Gyroplane No 2. This machine is also difficult to puzzle out from the photographs. It did not fly, either.
The Gyroplane No 2bis, simplified somewhat from No 2.
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The Breguet-Richet No 3, renamed Breguet No I. This one flew.
A striking photograph of the Breguet No 2 inflight. The machine was sometimes named No 4. Note the elaborate undercarriage, and general configuration of Breguets for some time.
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The 1910 Breguet No 3. Note the "diffuseurs."
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Breguet U-2; this may be the No 45 described in the text.
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A Breguet U-2 hydro, perhaps No 87.
Breguet G-4, No 147, hydro. There, is clearly no relation between the G-3 (in text) and the G-4, except for the engine.
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View of the one-off and unsuccessful Breguet A.U.2 La Marseillaise.
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Bronislawski's Farman modified to take his experimental controls.
The Bronislawski Henry Farman modified to demonstrate the Bronislawski stability system.
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The BRT biplane with its extremely close-spaced wings.
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The Brule biplane as it appeared in L' Aeronautique in 1912.
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Another tandem biplane, the 1910 Brunet. The pilot's seat is just forward the tail.
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Walther Bulot's 1911 biplane La Mouette at the Paris Salon. The inscription on the rudder advertises Pegamoid, a contemporary covering material.
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The first Canton et Unne aeroplane, their 1910 push-pull triplane. Note flat-mounted engine amidships.
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The second Canton et Unne push-pull, of 1910.
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The redesigned Caudron glider, Type A, No 1. This is the first version, with the propeller chain-driven.
The Caudron Type A, No 2, with tractor propeller driven directly. In the background: perhaps No 1 modified? Note curved wingtips.
One of the last of the Caudron Type A series, perhaps No 6.
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The little Anzani-powered Type N of 1911; the one pictured is No 21.
Caudron Type M of 1912, powered with a Gnome.
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The Caudron Type Monaco of 1912. Note strut arrangement for attaching the floats over the wheeled undercarriage.
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The Special Type of 1912 (in one of the catalogs, it is listed as Type B Multi-Place).
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Chanteloup's single-seater Type F.
One of the Caudron Gs sold to China, fitted only with wheels.
The Caudron G-3 of May 1914.
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Above: Another J, No 6 at Deauville, powered with an Anzani, and displaying twin double rudders.
This is a Chinese G-2, this one with floats. Note the star under the wing.
One of 2 Type Js aboard La Foudre. This one has a hole in the top wing for the lifting hook.
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The big Type K at Deauville, with the new 200 hp Anzani. Note the elaborate strut arrangements for the tail.
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The tandem biplane Cesar without its carrier balloon.
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The first distinctively Champel-designed aeroplane - though it has not moved far from the Farman influence.
Possibly Champel No 4, with the covered nacelle.
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The Wright-based Chapiro.
Chapiro No 2.
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The second Chassagny monoplane, resembling a Nieuport.
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The "variable-lift" Chauviere No 2. The circular "propeller-hub" joints the wingtips would allow for warping the lower wings.
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The first Chauviere powered aeroplane.
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The handsome Chazal monoplane I'Aiglon.
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The second Chedeville, with wing-warping.
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The Chesnay appears here without its distinctive third tank.
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A contemporary drawing of the Chevallier monoplane of 1914. There seem no vertical surfaces aside from the fuselage.
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The low-slung Maurice Clement monoplane, probably his first design.
One of Louis Clement's big all-steel tube biplanes of 1911.
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The second M Clement, a very pretty biplane - a clear advance over his first design.
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The first Clement-Bayard machine after the abortive Demoiselle attempt. It would be interesting to see exactly how the engine arid its chain drive connected to the horizontal pusher propeller shaft.
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Perhaps the same monoplane with wing changes, and an upright-mounted Anzani instead of the buried Clement-Bayard. Note that the side louvers are still in place.
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The 1911 Clement-Bayard inflight. Note the high-set propeller shaft, driven by the Clement-Bayard engine mounted as shown in the next photograph.
A good view of the water-cooled 55 hp Clement-Bayard mounted flat inside the C-B monoplane of 1911.
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One of several 1912 Clement-Bayard monoplanes, this one with the forward skids - which do not seem to have saved this landing.
Another C-B monoplane; the firm seems to have settled on a simpler and heavier design.
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A contemporary drawing of the one-off Clement-Bayard flyingboat.
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The first Clerget monoplane. Note the drive-shaft inside the tapered nose; perhaps Clerget intended to cover it for streamlining.
The second Clerget aeroplane; note the even longer drive-shaft.
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The big Cluzan.
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The first Henri Coanda aeroplane at the Paris Exposition of 1910. Note that each wing is attached in only 3 places at the center section.
The wooden mold for the making of the turbine for the Coanda monoplane.
The Coanda turbo-sled with a 30 hp Gregoire engine.
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View of the second Coanda design, his twin-Gnome monoplane. The engine arrangements have no connection with his turbo design.
Constructional details of the second Coanda machine. Note reflex airfoil, many other features.
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The Collomb ornithopter exhibited in 1904.
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Two views of the second Collomb in action.
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The remarkably ugly Constantin-d'Astanieres safety plane: everything moved.
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A more conservative - and graceful - Contal design.
Another Contal monoplane. Note additional rudder area added after construction.
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A photo (from La Vie Automobile!) of the fuselage of the wildly experimental Protin-Contal monoplane.
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The "big and heavy" Copin biplane of 1909. It seems to have flown very well.
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The Copin photographed at Chalons in April 1912.
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The Corbadec ornithopter.
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This particular Courrejou is marked Aeroplane Courrejou No 3 on the rudder; this might mean it was the third design of this man - or it might not. It is pretty, and looks light. The wing spars may run across the top of the wings, on the outside.
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Clearly ofTaube ancestry, this CPC is marked CPC No 1. Visibility forward would appear to be very poor.
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The sculptured da Sylva pusher biplane. The 2 forward surfaces move independently.
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The pretty Danard el Nayot biplane of 1912 poses on a roadway at Port-Aviation on 9 August.
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The third d Artois at the meet at Monaco in 1913.
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The d'Artois Aerotorpille of 1912. The wings pivot on the front spars - note absence of diagonal bracing aft of the spars.
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Three views of the third de Beer monoplane, showing 3 wing incidence positions for (T) landing and take-off; (C) normal flight; (B) position for braking after landing.
The fourth de Beer.
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A close-up of the big de Bolotoff triplane. The massive wooden uprights in the landing gear show more clearly in photos of the machine being built at the Voisin factory.
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A rare view of the underside of an early aeroplane: this de Brageas is clearly repairable. Note the reflex airfoil on both wing and stabilizer.
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The de Caze, safely on 4 wheels on the ground. Note the 2 seats far apart.
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De Coster's monoplane Flugi of 1910. Note the variation on the Bleriot model.
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De Dion Bouton's second machine, first stage, under construction; the ailerons seem not to have been fitted so far.
The big de Dion Bouton, second stage. Note the huge kingposts supporting the tail booms.
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The de Lailhacar monoplane of 1910.
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Charles de Langhe's slender monoplane.
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In 1911: the first de Marcay-Moonen showing its folding wings.
A later model of the de Margay-Moonen. The spinning Gnome shows clearly.
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A poor photograph of the de Margay-Moonen canard of 1914.
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The de Monge entry in the 1914 Concours de Securite; its resemblance Deperdussin is not accidental.
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A contemporary drawing of the de Puiseux Cycloplane in its powered version.
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The first of the de Rouge biplanes.
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The first de Rouge helicopter.
The second de Rouge helicopter. The rotor still seems small for the size of machine.
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The third Debort. One hopes the swayback in the fuselage was intentional, but the general roughness of construction - note what appears to be a splice in the right-hand pylon post - suggests not.
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The first form of the d'Equevilly-Monjustin, with 6 wings.
The d'Equevilly-Monjustin with a 7th wing added on top; the wheels are turned sideways in this photograph to facilitate towing.
The 1908 version of the d'Equevilly-Monjustin, with more wings. Note tilted ring-frame.
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One of the school Demazels of 1911-1912 presents a clean modern appearance.
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The Demouveaux Aviator glider.
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The pretty little back-staggered Danton racing plane of 1910, designed by Denhaut.
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How Busson carried his four passengers on his Deperdussin monoplane.
A single - and what was probably built as a 2-seater Deperdussin Type A, but which managed at least to seat if not to carry 5 people. Note distinctive twin uprights as kingposts.
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The first Deperdussin-de Feure canard. Note the coaxial propellers, and the centrally-mounted engine.
The second Deperdussin-de Feure canard, here on display in a Paris department store. But perhaps it is only a model. Again, note the coaxial propellers and mid-mounted engine.
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The sleek Deperdussin Type Meeting de Grenoble.
Note the large wheels and wing-root cut-outs on the Deperdussin Type Grand Prix d'Anjou.
The Deperdussin de Marc Pourpe of 1914. Note the pilot's shoulder harness.
The Deperdussin Type C, with cowled Gnome.
The 1911 twin-Gnome installation in a Deperdussin fuselage frame, designed to drive counter-rotating propellers, one of which appears in this photograph.
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The Deperdussin Type Concours Militaire of 1911.
This often-printed photo of what appears to a captured Deperdussin was in fact license-built in Russia.
Lemoine's second experiment with a parachute; the experimenter is sitting under the fuselage in front of his parachute.
Armed monoplane with machine-gun arranged to fire over the propeller. The Type Mitrailleur of 1914.
A close-up of the action in the Deperdussin Type Mitrailleur. The gunner is equipped with a safety harness, however inadequate it may be.
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The big Deperdussin at Deauville, painted 11, requires real horsepower at this stage.
No 19 at Monaco; Prevost won the first Schneider Cup.
Type Tamise. Note the untypical rudder shape - this machine was built Brouckere in Belgium under license.
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The Deperdussin Epervier of 1912.
Prevost's Deperdussin Monocoque Reims of 1913.
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Two views of the model twin-boom pusher, designed by Deperdussin in 1913.
The 3-part elevator for the twin boom pusher - one of the few parts actually built.
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The Desusclade monoplane.
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Two views of the Detable entered in the Concours de Securite. Note the half-conical surfaces aft.
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The Dinoird monoplane marked Monoplan Dinoird No 2.
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Domingo's Aeraptere, crew aboard, engine running. The elevator surface seems to be calling for a descent.
The Aeraptere, now lightened by one crew member, tries it again.
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Note the forward elevator and the hull shape of this first Denhaut flyingboat temporarily fitted with wheels: nearly flat on the bottom with only the shallowest step, and knife-edged on top. The machine still retained its forward elevator when this picture was taken. A larger step was soon added after the first hull had proved unsatisfactory.
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A Donnet-Leveque Type B.
A Donnet-Leveque Type C.
A Donnet-Leveque marked with the race-number 10; the hull resembles that of Type C, but this machine has ailerons.
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One of the Dorand powered kites. Note the triangular frame with the engine and propeller attached, hinged to the main structure. It was Dorand's idea to swing this element back and forth for control - in this case, by control lines.
The Dorand as a triplane, retaining the swinging engine and control unit.
The big Dorand now as a biplane.
Close-up of the business part of the Dorand biplane. Note the pivot on which the control unit swung.
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The Dorand biplan-laboratoire of1912.
Close-up of the Dorand biplan-laboratoire.
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The Dorand Do 1 armored biplane of 1913; this one is marked Do 1 No.4.
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Doutre's Maurice Farman with his patented Stabilizer. It is visible under nose of the nacelle, steel plate facing the air-stream.
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The first Drzewiecki canard at the 1912 Salon.
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The Picat-du Breuil at the 1911 Paris Salon. Note the radiator tubing on the cowl, and the headlamps.
A later du Breuil monoplane, with the same sagging fabric for wings.
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Although it did not fly, Felix du Temple's monoplane was the first powered aeroplane to carry a passenger and leave the ground, doing so in 1874.
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Two views of the first Dufour, the monoplane. Note fully-flying rudder and stabilizer.
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The Dumoulin "tracteur pour la navigation aerienne " of 1904.
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The pretty but unsuccessful Dussot at Deauville in 1913.
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The first Eparvier; it resembles a large Bleriot XI.
The second Eparvier, of 1910.
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Henri Fabre's unsuccessful trimotor hydro of 1908-1909.
The 3 Anzanis hooked together in the Fabre trimotor seaplane tested in 1909.
Fabre's 1911 Goeland at Monaco.
The 1914 Fabre hydro-glisseur in action.
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The Henry Farman II. Note the engine forward of the propeller, the minimal inter-wing bracing, and the distinctive initial hoops.
The completed HF II, with the circular hoops replaced. Note the curious spinner around the engine and propeller.
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The Henry Farman No III.
Henry Farman in his No III winning at Reims in 1909.
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The Type Coupe Michelin. Note top wing overhang and ailerons.
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The aeroplane designed by both Henry and Maurice Farman. Note common elements.
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The Henry Farman HF 2/2 of 1910. The designation system here seems to have changed radically.
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The HF 10, built for the 1911 Concours Militaire.
The HF lObis, with extreme stagger.
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The HF 6 Type Militaire, with the Gnome mounted behind the propeller.
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The 1911 H Farman monoplane with the first version of its vertical surfaces.
The second version of the Farman monoplane.
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THE LATEST PRODUCT OF THE HENRY FARMAN WORKS. - A new type of hydro-biplane which can be used from the land as well as from water. It is driven by an 80-h.p. Gnome motor mounted on the coque, driving the propeller by chain transmission.
View of Henry Farman 's 1912 amphibian, clearly passenger-carrying.
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The 1912 HF 14 as a hydro at Deauville, in 1913.
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The remarkable one-off Farman Le Babillard, with its simplified undercarriage.
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The HF 19 at Monaco.
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Two views of the HF 24; it had been shown at the 1913 Salon. This time, the Gnome was mounted in front of the propeller.
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The Flying Fish under construction at the Voisin works. Note the airfoil-shaped fuselage and offset propeller blades.
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Perhaps the first Faure - perhaps the first double-lifting fuselage? Handsome, though.
The second (?) Faure. Note the little ears on the tips of the stabilizer -perhaps part of the "helical-pitch" tailplane.
Another Faure moiwplane. It may have used parts from the previous one.
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FBA 26.
FBA 27 - note differences in hull shape.
FBA flyingboats under construction at the FBA works, January 1914.
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The Ferber glider No 3.
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Ferber's No 5 glider, first version.
One of the later versions ofFerber's No 5 glider.
The Ferber No 5bis, one of the later No 5s with a Buchet engine, being tested on the swinging arm at Chalais-Meudon in 1904.
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The Ferber No 6 attempting to take off from a wire in 1905.
The power installation for the Ferber No 8. The unit is hung from 4 cables, perhaps to test thrust.
A contemporary drawing of the Ferber No 8; note the side-mounted Antoinette and the contra-rotating propellers.
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Ferber No 9 inflight at Issy in 1908.
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The second Fernandez aeroplane, with a single propeller and 4 wheels.
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The Fernandez Aeral, in good times.
The wreck of the Aeral.
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The graceful Florencie ornithopter.
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The first Franchault, of 1910.
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The second Franchault, the rakish 1913 monoplane.
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The third Franchault, a business-like biplane.
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One of the Fumat monoplanes.
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The Gabardini flyingboat of 1912.
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The mid-engine, mid-propeller Galvin seaplane.
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A striking view of a striking aeroplane, the unsuccessful Gangler of 1910.
The first Avia monoplane, at the 1909 Paris Salon. Note the remarkable Gangler monoplane in the room in back at the left.
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The L Garaix under construction.
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The first Gasnier under construction.
The Gasnier ready for flight.
The nacelle of Gasnier No 3 before reconstruction at the Musee de I Air et de I'Espace.
The forward elevator of the Gasnier No 3 under reconstruction at the Musee de I'Air et de I'Espace.
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The Gassier Sylphe. There seems to be a great deal of structure in it.
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Gaudard's "rigid-trussed-beam monoplane" of 1911.
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The 1912 Gavault. As with the Gassier Sylphe, there seems a great deal of heavy structure here.
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The first of the big Wright-based Germe biplanes. Note the heavy belting for the propeller drive, and the double tip ailerons.
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Eugene Gilbert's 1912 canard. Note the heavily arched airfoil with thick leading edges.
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Octave Gilbert's glider.
Octave Gilbert aboard his glider.
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View of the first version of the Givaudan tandem-drum machine.
View of the first version of the Givaudan tandem-drum machine.
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The graceful Goldschmidt monoplane.
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This photo of the Goliesco is light-struck, but gives a good sense of the grace of this seemingly awkward-looking monoplane.
A contemporary Romanian drawing of the Goliesco.
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View of the Gonnel Uniplan. If it was meant to run on roads, there seems no indication of steering, either of the main wheels or of the tailwheel.
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Three drawings of Goupil's designs: first, his man-powered machine, and second, his steam-powered aeroplane.
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The first Goupy design was this Voisin-built triplane, variously modified along the way.
The de Caters No 1 triplane. Note typical contemporary French use of castings.
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The second, Goupy No 2, in full flight. The lightness of the structure shows clearly in the original photograph, where the horizontal segments of the longerons are warped and uneven.
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The big Goupy Type Concours Militaire of 1911, still with wingtip ailerons.
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The 2-seater Goupy Type AA. This model features inset top-wing ailerons.
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The odd Gramatisesco monoplane. Note the striking airfoil section.
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The 1911 Grapperon was a real Bleriot XI look-alike, except for the landing gear and the skids.
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The first Gregoire of1909, with a double-strut pylon, tailskid, and long curved forward skid.
The modified Gregoire at the Salon of 1909, with revised landing gear and tail support. Note the same striped awning canvas used for the sling seat in both versions!
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The 1910 Gregoire-Gyp with Hanriot-style undercarriage.
A still later Gregoire-Gyp with a completely different landing gear.
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The Guee, evidently in this picture still a glider.
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The push-pull Guillaume, his modified Voisin. Note the nose-over wheels under the propeller shaft behind the engine.
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The Guillebaud amphibian, ready for flight.
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The strange Guinard monoplane still inside its hangar, pilot ensconced in the aft fuselage. The tail surfaces seem made of a single sheet of material.
The Guinard just outside its hangar. More fuselage covering has been added, and the position of the main wheels has been changed. The rudder still seems small.
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The Guy et Bollon glider. It looksflyable.
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The first Guyard, a seemingly clumsy Demoiselle copy.
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Another, later, Guyard. Several contemporary aeroplanes shared the inverted-U undercarriage frames.
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A good view of the Guyot-Cellier-Jaugey of1909. Note the long forward extension shaft.
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The first Guyot-Verdier, the tractor biplane, of1908.
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The first Hanriot, already showing the beginnings of the familiar trade-mark undercarriage.
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The 2 Hanriots at the 1910 Brussels show - note the wheeled vehicles in the background.
The Type VI. Would that designations could all be so clear.
A Hanriot from below - a Spitfire of its time, at least in appearance.
The 1911 military version with the 4-legged undercarriage.
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The Ponnier Fl with the covered nacelle.
The second version of the first Ponnier, the Fl.
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The Hanriot entered in the Concours de Securite of 1913.
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The big tandem Hayot multiplane under construction. The photo shows the divided tail surface in the foreground, preceded by the 5 sets of small triplane wings going forward to the nose.
The Hayot as it finally appeared: the fuselage may have remained unchanged.
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One of Hayot's later safety monoplanes.
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The Henry canard.
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Herard's paddle-wheel flyer of 1888 - which probably did not fly.
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The 1908 Hervieux seems to have lacked rudder control.
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The IAL monoplane of1909.
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Jacquelin's Voisin as he began to modify it. Compare this with the photo original Voisin tractor, under Voisin; also with the following photo.
Note the continuing changes made to Jacquelin's Voisin.
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View of the Jeanson-Colliex flyingboat.
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An intermediate version of the Jourdan of 1910, with the full cone-shaped barrel, rectangular wings with trailing ailerons, and the pilot seated below.
A later version of the Jourdan, now with new wings and only half the overhead barrel. This may well have been the final version.
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The huge Juge et Rolland ornithopter.
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The aft end of the Juvigny canard. The drive chain is not installed in this picture.
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The Kapferer-Paulhan (Kapferer-Astra) No 2 - perhaps No 1 without the tail outriggers. Note the small numerals 1 and 3 painted above the wing roots: presumably 2 and 4 are on the other side, and all 4 panels may be the same.
The tandem Kapferer-Paulhan No 3. The 2 men plus the 35 hp REP proved inadequate to get the aeroplane into the air.
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The first Kassa, with double tailplane.
The second Kassa.
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The first Kaufmann monoplane.
Slightly reminiscent of the Demoiselle, Kaufmann's second design.
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The third Kaufmann. Note the covered wheels, slightly gulled wings, and narrow-bladed propeller.
The fourth Kaufmann. Note the drooping wings and the covered wheels.
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The Kluytmans.
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The Koechlin No 1. The pilot lay in the hammock aft, encased in the hoop; his throttle control is suspended beside him.
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The basic Koechlin monoplane. This one had small trailing ailerons.
A Koechlin of 1910, this one with tip ailerons.
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Ladougne's pretty and fast monoplane La Colombe.
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Apart from its wings and overhead bracing, the Landeroin et Robert 1914 entry for the Concours de Securite seems a very straightforward design.
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One of the first versions of the Lanzi et Billard La Fleche.
Laughing mechanics towing La Fleche at Juvisy. Note castering rear wheels, partly turned.
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The Lartigue glider Zyx rises, with the Lartigue family and friends in attendance, September, 1910.
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A contemporary drawing of the Lasternas et Lepers biplane of 1911.
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The Lataste Aeroplane Gyroscopique was actually built.
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The Lavezzari hang-glider, probably the 1904 version.
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George Lazard, smiling, on board his 1913 monoplane. It seems barely big enough for 2 seats.
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One of the Le Bris gliders in flight.
Another Le Bris glider, perhaps the unlucky one on the cart.
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Two slightly different versions of the 1912 Leblic.
Two slightly different versions of the 1912 Leblic.
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The first version of the Leclerc monoplane of 1912.
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One of Henri Lecomte's single-seat monoplanes.
Perhaps the third Lecomte: little in common with the design in tire preceding photograph.
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Illustrations from the 1911 LMA catalog showing their new offerings.
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This appears to be a revised version of the first LMA aeroplane, with true tail surfaces. Note the hinged triangular wingtips.
A slightly later model of the LMA. Note side radiators for the water-cooled engine.
The LMA 4bis.
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The big Lefebvre machine for the 1911 Concours Militaire.
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Leforestier No 1. Note the big pulley on the drive-shaft.
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The half-scale model of the big Leger helicopter.
One of the huge blades for the Leger helicopter under construction. For scale, note the size of the man in the background.
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Variations on a theme: the Legrand Voisin.
Variations on a theme: the Legrand Voisin.
A 1911 Legrand modification to his Voisin: to triplane configuration.
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The Vendome-built Lelievre. Note the vertical bracket to support the drive chain from the rotary.
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A very poor photo of the Lemaire ornithopter.
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The Lemaitre wings must have required some difficult woodworking.
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One of the Lemaitre-Maucourt et Legrand Hirondelles of 1912.
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The tiny Leray triplane of 1908. The engine is between the pilot's feet - but where are his controls?
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A poor photograph of the Leroy et Marzollier monoplane of 1910.
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Another Bleriot XI copy, the Letord et Niepce. Skids added.
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A drawing of Letur in his machine, controlling his wings through a system of treadles and pedals.
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Four views of the Levavasseur Aeroplan de Villotrans in varying stages of construction. Note that the wing structure consisted long curved built-up spars, each panel cross-braced by 4 rectangular girders on top. Fabric was laced across the undersides of each panel. The push-propellers were set at each end of a nacelle built inside the wing.
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The Leveque-Salmson with the race-number 15 at Deauville in 1913.
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The 1908 Levy-Gaillat. The top surface seems adjustable, perhaps for control.
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The Leyat biplane fitted with a Gnome.
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The twin-propeller Liore et Olivier.
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The Liurette, complete with feathered friend.
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The twin-engine 3-propeller Loubery biplane of 1911.
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The big Lucas-Girardville of 1910. It was wrecked before actually taking the air.
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The 1910 Mainguet was designed to carry 10 people. It flew, but probably without the full complement.
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The handsome 2-seat Mamet of 1911: some of its ancestry is very clear.
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The Martinaisse shows off its hinged inner-wing panels.
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View of the Maurice Farman No I, without some side-curtains, and single rudders.
View of the Maurice Farman No I, with some side-curtains, and twin rudders.
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The MF Type Coupe Michelin, clearly showing the special construction of the prow. The tailbooms curve slightly inward toward the tail. The single propeller is driven by an 8-cyl. 50-h.p. Renault motor.
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The MF II with vertical uprights in the tailbooms.
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Renaux on the MF II on floats, at St Maid, on 26 August 1912
One of several versions of the MF 7bis.
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Renaux at Monaco in a hydro Maurice Farman, possibly developed from the MF II.
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The Maurin et Willaume Nicois Ibis readied for take-off.
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Note the minor differences between this 1909 Mazoyer and the Bleriot XI.
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A contemporary drawing of the remarkable Melin tandem biplane flyingboat.
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This view of John Moisant's L'Ecrevisse does not show its most remarkable feature, its corrugated surfaces.
This view shows clearly the structures of the Moisant L'Ecrevisse of 1909-1910.
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The Moisant Le Corbeau, showing more than a family resemblance to his design.
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The single-seater Molon monoplane of 1911. Note the heavy undercarriage structure.
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One of the first of the Montgolfier aeroplanes, the Demoiselle copy. Note differences from the original.
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Raymond Montgolfier's unfortunate second machine before its terminal accident in 1910.
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Montgolfier's all-blue monoplane of 1911. There seems hardly ground clearance for the propeller.
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An early Borel, 1910. Note the single tailskid.
Daucourt in his Morane leaving Paris for Cairo, 30 October 1913. Note the twin skids, now-traditional Morane rudder shape, and separate trailing elevators.
The Morane-Borel, similar to the Bleriot XI. This is Vedrines on 9 August 1911 in the Coupe Michelin race.
Taddeoli at a tense moment in take-off at Bern, Switzerland.
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The Morane-Saulnier Type TB with its Gnome fully cowled. It appeared unfinished with a slightly different cowling in the 1911 Paris Salon.
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The Morane Type G 2-seater: the basic Morane monoplane.
The Morane H, a single-seater resembling - but perhaps preceding! - the Type G.
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This Morane-Saulnier seaplane, clearly so marked on the nacelle, is often confused with a similar Farman. Here it is flying at Monaco, carrying also the inscription Le Rhone.
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The Morane-Saulnier Demoiselle, with 2 seats and cowled Gnome with chain drive.
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The 1913 version of the Type Garros which Garros used at Monaco in 1913.
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The Morane Type G parasol.
The 1913 Morane Type L parasol, this one with warping wings. Access to the front cockpit looks very difficult.
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A flat plate over the front of the engine marks the military Morane Type M 1912.
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The Moreau Aerostable.
The military Aerostable at the 1913 Salon in Emaillaite. The placard reads Appareil Invisible.
A close-up of the passenger unit of the Moreau.
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Mouillard's glider in Cairo, his fourth.
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A poor copy of the postcard showing the Mullot biplane, similar to a Farman.
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The first big Nau monoplane.
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The second Nau. Note design features in common with No 1.
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The first Nieuport of 1909.
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One of the first Nieuport II monoplanes.
Another version of the Nieuport II.
Still another variant of the Nieuport II theme.
The Nieuport IIN with the Nieuport engine.
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The Type IVM Concours Militaire 2-3-seater of 1911.
The Nieuport X 2-seater.
Espanet's 50 hp Gnome Nieuport IV.
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The Nieuport IVG hydro.
The Nieuport VI tandem seaplane.
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The Nieuport XI, not the WWI scout biplane!
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The twin-boom Nieuport hydro made of compressed paper.
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The first (1911) Noel biplane.
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The 1914 Noel.
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The Scrive glider of1909.
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The Norrep-Lau Nieuport copy, with the Edelweiss engine.
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Emile Obre's first aeroplane. There seems no inter-wing bracing other than the 6 struts.
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The second Obre. Note reflex airfoil contours.
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The first version of Obre No 3, in 1910. The reflex airfoil has been abandoned.
Obre No 4. Note inner-wing or covering bracing pattern.
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The Odier-Vendome biplane of 1910.
The Odier-Vendome biplane in flight.
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Two views of the Ouarnier biplane showing typical pre-WWI structural details.
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The Pacchiotti monoplane of 1910. Note the distinctive trailing ailerons.
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View of the remarkable Papin-Rouilly helicopter, showing the contours of its single rotor.
View of the remarkable Papin-Rouilly helicopter, showing swiveling cockpit.
View of the remarkable Papin-Rouilly helicopter, showing what turned out an unsuccessful attempt to fly it on Lake Cercy.
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The 1910 Parent, resembling the contemporary Hanriots.
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It is hard to believe that this Parent machine came only a year after the one in the preceding photograph.
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The 1910 Passerat-Radiguet with wingtip ailerons.
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A contemporary drawing of the 1910 Paulat back-staggered amphibian. The engine buried low in the hull drove 2 counter-rotating propellers of different sizes through belts. This machine is not the one described in the text, and may not have been built at all.
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The first version of Paulhan's biplane, with Fabre-type spars with the fabric laced to them.
Louis Paulhan (L) and Louis Peyret (R) with their big model with twin pusher propellers on outriggers between the wings.
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The second version of the Paulhan biplane, with standard spars.
The Paulhan, folded. Note the basic rigid wing frame; all the rest flexed and folded.
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Two views of the Paulhan triplane of 1911. Note the control stick dangling from the top wing over the cockpit, and the 8-wheeled landing gear.
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View of the handsome Tatin Aerotorpille No 1.
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The rather uncompromising Paumier in flight.
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Since the configuration of the Pean monoplane is hard to take in from one angle alone, here are 2. It is interesting to see how many early experimenters used the 12 hp Buchet, clearly too small.
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A drawing of the remarkable Penaud amphibian with retractable undercarriage and twin propellers.
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An unfortunately dark picture of the tandem monoplane by Philippon. The pilot and engine are in the middle, and the pusher propeller is at the far left. Small tilting control surfaces are visible high up between the wings on each side.
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Two views of the Piquerez biplane of 1909. The radiator seems to have changed position between the times of these 2 photos.
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The first de Pischoff design; it is shown taxiing, but not flying.
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One of the de Pischoff Autoplans; the pilot seems to be driving an automobile.
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The de Pischoff et Koechlin-built Fouquet biplane of1909.
The Lejeune of 1909. Note the big pulleys on the 2 propeller shafts.
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The de Pischoff et Koechlin tandem monoplane of 1908.
The tandem revised, or a new machine: the de Pischoff et Koechlin.
The twin-outrigger version of the de Pischoff et Koechlin under construction. Note wide propeller blades.
The completed twin-outrigger de Pischoff at the 1908 Paris Salon. Note the new wingtip aileron surfaces.
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The relatively simple Pivot monoplane, with an extremely complex undercarriage arrangement. Someone at the time wrote Yvonne across the face of the lady pilot...?
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The Pivot-Koechlin, still with wingtip ailerons.
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The Plaisant rocking-wing monoplane, complete with feather-like wing covering.
One of at least 2 versions of the Plaisant Propulseur Cycloidal propeller arrangement. This one comprises a rotating bar with spinning propellers at each and, the whole thing chain-driven and mounted in what looks like the fuselage of his aeroplane.
Another version of the Plaisant Propulseur Cycloidal system, with a rotating cross with 4 small propellers set into the corners. Note the complex gearing: his 40 hp engine would not have sufficed for all this.
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The lightweight Demoiselle copy by Platel, in 1909.
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A signed photograph of a model of Pompeien Piraud's 1870 flying machine.
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An early version of the Ponche et Primard Tubavion, still with the low-set engine and side-by-side seating, and with only 2 wheels.
A later version, with the trailing edge-mounted Gnome, and the aluminum tandem-seated nacelle. Note the generous use of castings at all the joints.
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Jules Vedrines in the Ponnier D .III at Reims.
The Ponnier Type Ecole.
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A close-up of the Pons canard. Note abrupt change in cross-section of forward fuselage.
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The Poulain-Orange No 1 of 1911.
A later Poulain-Orange, but in the same year.
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The Argus version of the Poulain Orange No. 3.
The Anzani version of the same machine.
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The automatically stable aeroplane of G Ramel in 1911-1912.
The rolling seat of the Ramel, which controlled 2 axes of movement. How pilot steadied himself while swiveling his seat around is not clear.
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The tandem 2-seat Ratmanoff.
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Ravaud's first Aeroscaphe, at Monaco in 1909.
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The second Ravaud Aeroscaphe; the front end was at the left.
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The Renard Decaplan model.
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The first REP, No 1, with the 2 supporting wheels moved out to the wingtips.
Short flights were accomplished by Robert Esnault-Peltrie in November and December 1907 in his first monoplane, powered by a 25hp engine also designed by him.
The REP No 2 of 1908, with changes as noted in the text.
One of the stages in the development of the REP No 2, the 2his, in a luckless moment.
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The REP Type B single-seater.
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The 1911 REP Type de Course.
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The uncovered REP Type D at the Musee de l'Air et de I'Espace.
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The 1912 REP hydro (a Series K monoplane on floats).
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The 1914 Concours de Securite REP Vision Totale.
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The 1910 Requillard; perhaps the forward skid should have been longer.
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This may be the only surviving photograph of the 1911 Restan monoplane.
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The big Rimailho biplane. Note the twin tailwheels mounted at the ends of one-piece elevator spar.
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The first Robart monoplane of 1908.
The modified Robart, no more successful than in its first version.
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Robart's second and no more successful machine.
A close-up of Robart's big biplane. Its ragged construction shows clearly.
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A crowd of admirers surround the awkward-looking Roche et Laborde tandem delta in 1910.
A close-up of the Roche et Laborde on the same occasion. Note the centrally-mounted Gnome. Accommodation for the pilot do not seem clear in this photograph.
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The first Rossel-Peugeot aeroplane, a biplane, of 1909.
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The graceful Rossel-Peugeot monoplane.
A less happy photograph of the Rossel-Peugeot; we do not know where in history this accident occurred.
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The metal Roux monoplane of 1911.
A later single-seat Roux-Garaix-ACR-Aerotourisme Victor Garaix monoplane.
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The Roze, Perret et Chaffal biplane with twin Wright-style pusher propellers.
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Ruchonnet's Cigare of 1911.
The Ruchonnet-Schemmel, with different fuselage and undercarriage.
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The first Fregate under construction for de Lesseps at the Avionnerie, the shops of the SCAA (Societe de Construction d'Appareils Aeriens). In the background, the remarkable Bertrand monoplane is taking shape at the same time.
Probably the second version of the SCAA Fregate.
The third Fregate, now with fin and rudder and nearly straightened wings.
The pilot signed this photograph with his name, and "Pilote de la Fregate (no 3)." Note the addition at this time of what seems to be a small horizontal rectangular surface forward of the tailplane.
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The big Sallard for the 1914 Concours de Securite.
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The Aime-Salmson Autoplane; the exact position of the third and fourth propellers - and their function - is not clear here.
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The first Sanchez-Besa, a Farman copy, of 1910.
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One of the 1912 Sanchez-Besas patterned on the contemporary Voisins. This photograph has been variously labeled both Voisin and Sanchez-Besa.
Another 1912 Sanchez-Besa, this one with a Canton-Unne.
The Sanchez-Besa seaplane at Monaco in 1912. Note complex tailboom box structure.
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The odd Sanchez-Besa landplane, with a buried engine.
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The Sanchis under construction in the Despujols workshop in 1909.
The 50 hp Anzani installed in the Sanchis, apparently immediately following the previous photograph.
Variations on a theme: the completed Sanchis, quite different from its initial stages.
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A 1906 drawing of Santos-Dumont's helicopter project.
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A real photograph of the No I4bis in flight.
Moving the Santos-Dumont 14bis very carefully through a gate, Alberto Santos-Dumont himself leading the way.
A close-up of the aft end of No 14bis, the pilot to stand upright at the control wheel at the left.
Santos-Dumont and his mechanic and their model, 1905.
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Santos-Dumont (L) working on his No 15 with plywood sheet surfaces and precariously-positioned 50 hp Antoinette.
Another view of No 15. Note the 2 thin outriggers supporting the tail.
The twin 6 hp engines on the Santos-Dumont No 16.
There are not many photos of Santos-Dumont's No 17 - it may not even have been finished. Here Santos-Dumont stands against the tail outriggers and the 100 hp Antoinette; the sheet plywood wings go up and off to the right, with one rectangular strut frame showing at the right.
Santos-Dumont aboard his hydroplane, No 18.
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The first modification of No 19. Note that only the propeller at the right was belt-driven: the other turned by a connecting-rod, but may have been designed for its own belt.
A close-up of the drive used in No 19bis; the 24 hp Antoinette replaced the 17-20 hp Dutheil et Chalmers.
A revised No 20; note the conical tank behind the pilot. The third wheel is gone.
The No 20 in flight: it looks as if deserves its name, "Infuriated Grasshopper"!
Garros and Audemars attempted their versions of the Demoiselle, too; this one had a 50 hp Gnome on the leading edge of the wing.
Alberto himself at the controls of one of his No 20s.
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The first Saulnier design. Note the pilot suspended in his seat-strap.
The second Saulnier monoplane.
The second Saulnier in full flight.
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The first Savary, a tractor biplane.
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The new Savary of 1910. Note the forward-mounted vertical radiator.
An intermediate Savary design: it had 4 ailerons, but the hinged elevators and covered nacelle had not yet appeared.
One of the 1911 Savarys with overhung wings and undercarriage sprung from the center skid structure.
One of the 1911 military Savarys. Note the double wheels. Clearly the nacelle was not designed for 7 passengers.
The Savary seaplane. Note the covered nacelle and the hinged elevators. Ailerons were fitted to the top wings only.
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The 1912 Savary with a streamlined tail cone. The grain in the wood of the lower longeron shows clearly in the original photograph; it is wildly erratic.
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The last Savary of 1912 shown on the last day of the 1912 Exposition. Then it seems to have disappeared.
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The first version of the first Paul Schmitt. Note the trailing triangular rudder flaps attached to the aft wingtip struts.
The first Paul Schmitt, modified. The angle of attack of the whole machine seems to have been increased.
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One of the first stages of the development on the way to the Schmitt Type 7, this one with a water-cooled engine
Another version of the Schmitts. Still no rudder, except for the upright wingtip vanes.
Still another early Schmitt, different from the previous 2 photographs.
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The Schmitt Type 7 of 1913.
A 1914 development of the Schmitt Type 7; in one of these Garaix flew 5 passengers for 2,250 m, and 6 passengers for 1,700 m.
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The first Schreck Diapason.
The second Diapason. Note the differences from the first.
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The big Sclaves all wire-braced biplane.
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The second SELA (Societe d'Etude pour la Locomotion Aerienne) monoplane, with the Aviatik engine.
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The Serraillet Voisin copy. Note the 2 control wheels, and the wingtip surfaces.
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The "waving wing" Seux monoplane. In this photo, the tail looks wavy, too.
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The Sotinel, Guerin, Corneloup et Karganiantz automatically stable pendulum monoplane.
Contemporary drawing of the SGCK monoplane showing the range of wing/fuselage movement.
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Roger Sommer's first design, in 1909.
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The first Sommer monoplane, like the Bleriot XI with altered undercarriage and covered underside.
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View of the 1911 Sommer Grand Biplan (Aerobus).
The 1910 Sommer in one of its several versions.
View of the 1911 Sommer Grand Biplan (Aerobus). It doesn't look as if any of the crew or passengers wore seat-belts.
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The 1911 Sommer Type de Course (racing type).
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A variant of the Sommer Type E, labeled Centre Sommer (Sommer school).
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The Sommer Type de Campagne.
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The 1912 Sommer twin-float seaplane.
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The 1912 Sommer Type K.
The 1912 Sommer Type R3, the 3-seater.
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The 2 Souchet monoplanes in front of the Brule et Souchet flying school hangar. Both show minor variations on the Bleriot XI theme.
A close-up of one of the Souchet aeroplanes.
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Two views of the odd little Stoeckel. It is difficult to make out from only one picture how the machine is arranged.
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The Dajoigny et Beaussart monoplane Simplex, featuring a very low-set pilot.
Dajoigny's and Beaussart's second design, put out under their firm name SVA (Societe des Vehicules Aeriennes). Note 4-legged undercarriage.
The third SVA, with a 6-legged undercarriage.
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Two views of the second Taris, built for de Lesseps.
De la Vaulx tested and crashed this second big Tatin machine in 1907.
View of the big Tatin twin-prop model of 1890, before covering. Note the steam boiler.
View of the big Tatin twin-prop model of 1890, after covering.
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The first Tellier, of 1909.
One of the second versions of the Tellier, still with wings shaped like those of the Bleriot XI.
A late 1911 Tellier, probably built under the name ACT, or perhaps under later firm name d'Artois.
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The oddly graceful Theodoresco monoplane of 1911. And it flew.
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The Thomann of 1910 - the second, or perhaps the first modified. Note change in fuselage cross-section under the trailing edge.
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The Heroclite Phenomenon, Victor Thuau's semi-Demoiselle.
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The first Train aeroplane, a sort of all-metal Demoiselle.
Basically the same Train with fabric-covered sides. Note the neatly-cowled Gnome on the leading edge.
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The later 1912 Train monoplane with 3-4 seats.
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The sense of the 2 machines in this and the following photograph is basically the same: a triplane, with twin-boom outriggers, a high rectangular vertical surface, a single pusher propeller. But the 2 Vaniman triplanes are otherwise quite different. This one is the 1907 machine.
And this is the 1908 Vaniman.
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A somewhat simplified - retouched - rendering of the big Vedoveli in one of its several forms.
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The Vendome No 1 in the shop. The tail surfaces do not seem to be movable.
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View of the Vendome No.2.
View of the Vendome No.2.
The Vendome No 3. Note the first appearance of the later Vendome trademark landing gear.
A later version of the No 3 Vendome.
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The tiny Vendome Moustique.
Another view of the little Vendome: a truly light aeroplane.
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The 1911 gull-wing Vendome at Issy.
Another 1911 Vendome monoplane.
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Two views of the 1912 Venddme Type Militaire.
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The 1914 Vendome with wing cut-outs.
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The 1902 Villard Aviator - there seem to have been several of them.
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The 1906 Villard Ornis I helicopter.
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The third Villard helicopter, Ornis-3.
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The first Vinet, similar to the Demoiselle.
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The Vinet Type B.
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The Vinet Type D, with the Anzani.
The Vinet Type F 2-seater.
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An original drawing by Gabriel Voisin himself of the 1906 hydroplane (aeroplane?) designed for Filiasi.
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The Voisin-built Delagrange No I in flight, 30 March 1907.
The Delagrange No 1 crashed at Vincennes.
The Delagrange No 1 on floats.
The slightly modified Henry Farman No 1. Note the tank on the top wing.
The Farman No Ibis in full flight.
Henry Farman's modified No Ibis - here - briefly - a triplane. Note, among many things, the cut-outs in the inner wing-curtains, and the ailerons on all 4 wings.
The Delagrange No 3, a modified version of No 2, itself a copy of the Henry Farman No I.
Paulhan's Standard Voisin.
The Standard Voisin of Bunau-Varilla.
Henry Fournier's No 1 Standard Voisin; the engine has not yet been installed. Note the chalk lines on the rudder to guide the painter.
Assembling the Kapferer Voisin on the field.
The nacelle of the Kapferer Voisin. Note the sandbags to prevent it tipping backward on the trestles.
The biplane built for Hans Reissner.
The author could not easily find a photograph of the Standard Voisin owned and flown by the Baronne Raymonda de la Roche, so he settled for this fine photograph of the lady herself. The baroness set many records and was world-famous, finally dying in one of her own aircraft.
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The 1909 Voisin tractor. It was later sold to Jacquelin - see under Jacquelin for further information.
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De Rougier's Voisin Type de Course.
THE LATEST VOISIN MACHINE AS USED BY METROT AT THE ROUEN MEETING. - By comparison with our photographs on page 293 , it will be noticed that two ailerons have been added to the top main plane, and the arrangement of the tail has been altered considerably.
Another Type de Course, this one flown by Metrot at Reims.
Bielovucie's new Voisin biplane without front elevating planes. The extreme "nose" of the machine, which is pointed, is not in place in our photograph.
The 1910 Type de Course (racing) - this one was flown by Bielovucic. The design appeared in many variations, as shown by the following photographs.
A 2-seater Type de Course. Note the extension shaft on the Gnome.
The Voisin Type Militaire of 1911.
Accident. A luckless Voisin Type de Course.
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THE NEW VOISIN. - The elevating and steering planes in front. This machine was dealt with in FLIGHT on January 14th.
The 1911 canard prototype in full flight. Not quite in its first form, this version has the new forward eyebrow winglets.
Probably the Voisin canard prototype in a later form, in full flight.
Probably the second canard, it is being tested by Colliex on the Seine, on 6 August 1911.
One of the 1911 production canards of 1911, specially built for testing by the French navy. Here it is on board La Foudre.
Voisin canard of 1912. Note the variations in the front ends, and the attachment of the forward elevators. Sometimes photographs can be matched through the patterns of oil and grease spots.
One of the 2 Types Monaco built by Voisin for this meet in 1912. Following his success, Henri Farman specialised in float design. He designed and built the floats for thi