Parnall Aircraft since 1914

K.Wixey - Parnall Aircraft since 1914 /Putnam/

Parnall and Sons Limited
Aircraft Built under Contract 1914-1918

Avro 504

   About 10,000 Avro 504s were produced by the British aircraft industry between 1914 and 1932. Of this total 8,340 were completed during the four years of the 1914-18 war; 3,696 by the parent company (A V Roe & Co) and 4,644 by various sub-contractors, among which was Parnall & Sons at Bristol, which built at least 530 Avro 504s.
   First' appearing in 1913, the 504 was to become recognised as one of the great training aeroplanes of all time, although for a short period the type was employed on combat duties. The Avro 504 was intended as a civil sporting machine and was entered in the Aerial Derby at Hendon in September 1913, later achieving a speed of over 80 mph and a registered climb of 1,000 ft in under two minutes.
   The British War office became interested in the type and twelve were ordered for the Army and one for the Admiralty. After evaluation trials both Services placed production orders for 504s, the Admiralty stipulating that those machines built for the RNAS should have different sized wing spars from those employed in the RFC aircraft. This variation in 504s existed until the RNAS and RFC were amalgamated to form the RAF on 1 April, 1918.
   Those Avro 504s already in service at the start of the war were at first employed on reconnaissance and bombing missions, while a later version, the 504K was in 1918 modified in a number of cases as a single-seat anti-Zeppelin fighter for home defence duties, a .303-in Lewis machine-gun being mounted on the upper wing and the front cockpit faired over.
   An earlier version, the 504B, was recognised as the naval variant and differed mainly from other 504s in having a long extended fin and plain rudder, a distinct contrast to the comma-type rudder and absence of fin familiar on most other 504s. A pylon-style tailskid was also introduced on the 504B, and this set a pattern for the following variants.
   A modified gunnery training version of the 504B, the 504G, was armed with a fixed forward-firing Vickers .303-in machine-gun synchronised to fire through the propeller arc, while a .303-in Lewis machine-gun was mounted on a Scarff gun-ring in the rear cockpit.
   During 1916, the Avro 504J appeared powered by the 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape engine, this version becoming popularly known as the Mono-Avro. Many machines ordered as 504As subsequently emerged as 504Js, and did not possess the elongated vertical tail surfaces of earlier 504s of the RNAS.
   Supplies of Monosoupape engines began to diminish however, and alternative powerplants were tried out on some 504s; these included the 130 hp Clerget, and 80 hp and 110 hp Le Rhone. Installing these different engines necessitated modifications being made to the front of existing airframes, which resulted in the 504K variant. This type could be fitted with a Gnome, Clerget or Le Rhone engine, and subsequently a number of machines were converted to 504K standard, among them some 504Js. Those aircraft already under construction by contractors as 504As and 504Js were modified in situ and delivered as 504Ks.
   Naval 504s served with several RNAS units including, No.1 Squadron (Dover/Eastchurch), No.4 Squadron (Dover/Eastchurch) and at the RNAS Stations at Chingford, Cranwell, Fairlop, Frieston, Manston, Port Victoria and Redcar, all of which were training schools.
   Parnall & Sons first became involved with the 504 when it received an Admiralty contract to build thirty Avro 504Bs (9861-9890). These aircraft had underwing bomb racks and could carry four 16 lb bombs. One machine from this batch (9890) was armed with a forward-firing .303-in Vickers machine-gun and interrupter gear.
   Parnall's second Admiralty order for Avro 504s was to produce twenty 504Bs (N6010-N6029) intended for service with the RNAS. In the event, however, fifteen of these machines were transferred to the RFC and allotted Army serial numbers in the 'B' prefix series. Three other Parnall-built 504s (naval serials unknown) were also transferred to the RFC, where they were serialled A9975-A9977, but from which batch they came is not certain.
   During 1917, Parnall received a contract for the construction of thirty Avro 504B armament trainers (N6650-N6679) powered by 80 hp Gnome engines. Seven of these aircraft were later transferred to the RFC. At one time it was believed that this particular batch of 504Bs was built by Avro, but independent Admiralty and Avro documents have now confirmed that this order was fulfilled by Parnall at Bristol.
   By the same token, however, another batch of 504Bs (N5800-N5829) previously considered as Parnall-built, are now known to have been produced by Avro.
   A further two hundred 504s were ordered later from Parnall (B8581-B8780), these being 504Js. From this batch at least two are confirmed as having survived to become civil machines after 1918.
   Among the last aircraft with 'D' prefix serial numbers to be delivered to the RFC, before its amalgamation with the RNAS, was a batch of 100 Parnall-built Avro 504Ks (D9281-D9380) from which three at least survived to pursue civil careers.
   Subsequently among new contracts for aircraft to serve with the newly formed RAF was one received by Parnall for the production of 150 Avro 504K trainers (E3254-E3403). From this batch quite a number later appeared in the British civil register.
   Parnall is also believed to have built a number of 504Ks from another batch of 250 (F8696-F8945), but although it is known that F8864-F8882 were produced by Frederick Sage & Co, no confirmation of any machine being built by Parnall from this batch of 504Ks has been traced. One reliable source has recorded at one time that a number of 504Ks in this serial range were Parnall-built, and indeed mentions that aircraft F8812 and F8834 were later converted to 504N standards.

Avro 504B
   Two-seat trainer. 80 hp Gnome seven-cylinder air-cooled rotary.
   Span 36 ft; length 29 ft 5 in; height 10 ft 5 in; wing area 330 sq ft.
   Empty weight 924 lb; loaded weight 1,574 lb.
   Maximum speed 82 mph at sea level; climb to 3,500 ft 7 mins; service ceiling 12,000 ft; endurance 3 hr.
   Provision for four 16/20 lb bombs

Avro 504K
   Two-seat ab initio trainer. 110 hp Le Rhone, 130 hp Clerget or 110 hp Gnome Monosoupape.
   Dimensions as Avro 504B.
   Empty weight 1,231 lb; loaded weight 1,829 lb.
   Maximum speed 95 mph at sea level, 85 mph at 10,000 ft; climb to 3,500 ft 7 min, to 10,000 ft, 16 min; service ceiling 16,000 ft; range 250 miles; endurance 3 hr.
   One .303-in Lewis machine-gun on single-seat fighter conversions.
   Weights and performance with Le Rhone engine.

Production (Parnall only)
   504B: 50 confirmed; 504B armament trainers: 30 confirmed; 504A/ J / K including As and Js modified to K standard: 200 confirmed; 504K: 250 confirmed. An unknown number of 504Ks are believed to have been built by Parnall from a batch of 200 serialled F8696-F8945. These would have been in the F8696-F8863 range, as 504Ks serialled F8864-F8945 are known to have been produced by Frederick Sage.
The elongated fin is noticeable on this RNAS Avro 504B (9826), a version built under contract at Bristol by Parnall & Sons.
Famed for teaching at least two generations of RAF pilots to fly, the Avro 504 had enjoyed a previous life as both a bomber and fighter during the first year of war, being used by both the RNAS and RFC. Seen here is one of forty Avro 504B two seaters that were produced, all going to the RNAS. Powered by either an 80hp Gnome or Le Rhone and with a top level speed of 82mph at sea level, some of these machines were known to have been flown operationally from the Dunkirk area, being used to raid Zeppelin sheds and submarine bases set up by the Germans further east along the coast. Just how the demand for military aircraft was to grow is demonstrated by the fact that prior to the large scale production of the Avro 504K trainer, the total RFC and RNAS orders placed for the type between 1914 and 1915 amounted to a mere 68 machines.
Included here for its rarity is this photograph of Parnall-built Avro 504B No.B396 (ex-N6027) at Spittlegate. The engine was an 80 hp Gnome rotary. The Parnall trade mark is aft of the serial number.
Another extremely rare photograph showing Parnall-built Avro 504J B8593 at Newmarket in about 1917. The engine was a 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape.
Another 504 variant built by Parnall was the J with a 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape engine. C4364 seen here was an Avro-built machine.
Believed to have been photographed on Bristol Downs, this Parnall-built Avro 504K, E3254, was the first from a batch of 150 machines (E3254-E3403) produced by Parnall for the RAF after that service was formed on 1 April, 1918.
This very rare picture is of Parnall-built Avro 504K E3345, on a training sortie during the early days of the RAF.
This Avro 504K (F8748) is believed to be one of the final batch of this type built by Parnall & Sons at Bristol during the First World War.
De Havilland D.H.9A Contracts

   Throughout aviation history there have been aircraft which could be singled out as outstanding for their time. In the Royal Air Force one such aeroplane, noted for its longevity and reliable service both at home and abroad, was the de Havilland D.H.9A. It was this type that provided Parnall with much needed work in the mid-1920s for, although the company was at that time engaged with several prototype projects, the D.H.9A construction contracts awarded by the Air Ministry produced the means by which Yate works could continue to function on a more secure footing.
   The D.H.9A was derived from the D.H.9, a First World War two-seat bomber that was a disappointment because of its Siddeley Puma engine. A converted D.H.9 was fitted with a 375 hp Rolls-Royce Eagle VIII, but the eventual standard powerplant installed was the American 400 hp Liberty 12, an engine produced after the United States entered the war.
   A two-seat, twin-bay conventional biplane, the D.H.9A was of mainly wooden construction and fabric-covered. Although based on the D.H.9 design, the D.H.9A possessed wings of greater chord and span, incorporated wire bracing for the fuselage structure instead of plywood bulkheads, and had a frontal radiator. The type lent itself admirably to the aircraft manufacturing techniques of woodworking companies such as George Parnall.
   In addition to those D.H.9As kept in store after the war, some new machines were built having had modifications introduced. As a consequence several Air Ministry contracts were issued to various manufacturers including Parnall, whose first order was for a batch of eighteen D.H.9A rebuilds (J8172-J8189).
   These aircraft were from a batch of 130 D.H.9As (J8096-J8225) produced after the First World War, the contracts being distributed by the Air Ministry between Westland Aircraft, de Havilland Aircraft, Short Brothers, S.E. Saunders, Blackburn Aircraft and George Parnall.
   In January 1927, an order for a further thirty-five D.H.9As was placed by the Air Ministry, one contract for twenty-three machines (J8460-J8482) going to Westland Aircraft Co. Ltd., while the remaining twelve aircraft (J8483-J8494) were contracted to Parnall at Yate, all these machines being the dual-control training version.
   Familiarly known as the 'Nine-Ack' ('Ninak' for short), the D.H.9A became one of the most widely used aircraft in RAF service during the 1920s. It operated both as a bomber and general purpose type, and served with at least twelve home-based and nine overseas squadrons, the latter based mostly in the Middle East. The D.H.9A shared with the Bristol F.2B the difficult job of policing Iraq and the North West Frontier of India for a number of years. Those 'Ninaks' abroad were fitted with a tropical radiator beneath the nose, and normally carried a spare wheel on the side of the fuselage.
   A distinctive D.H.9A built by Parnall was J8177, which was the personal aircraft of the AOC in Iraq around 1929, Sir Robert Brooke Popham and was finished in an all-over deep red. D.H.9As saw service with the Auxiliary Air Force, and as trainers at RAF Flying Training Schools, the type not being finally withdrawn until 1931.
   Some reflections on the test flying of certain D.H.9As from Parnall's second batch (J8483-J8494) can be found in these notes from Frank Courtney's log, when he was contracted as test pilot to the Yate works.
   14.3.27 Two flights in D.H.9As which were from batch by George Parnall & Co at Yate. These machines were J8484 (30 minute recondition test flight) and J8483 (40 minute recondition test flights, three in all).
   21.3.27 Parnall-built de Havilland 9A J8485. 40 minute production test flight. A second Parnall D.H.9A, J8486, taken on 30 minute production test flight from Yate also on the same day.
   29.3.27 Parnall-built D.H.9A, J8487. 10 minute production test flight from Yate.
   5.4.27 Parnall-built de Havilland 9A, J8489. 30 minute production test flight from Yate.
   30.4.27 Parnall-built de Havilland 9A, J8490. 30 minute production test flight from Yate. Second production test flight followed with D.H.9A, J8491, and a third similar test flight with Parnall-built D.H.9A, J8492, of 30 minutes' duration concluded work at Yate for this particular day.
   17.5.27 Parnall-built de Havilland 9A, J8493. 30 minute production test flight from Yate. Second D.H.9A, J8494, taken up later same day on 35 minute production test flight also at Yate.

De Havilland D.H.9A (as built by Parnall)
   Two-seat general purpose and training biplane. 400 hp Liberty 12 twelve-cylinder vee water-cooled engine.
   Span 45 ft 11 1/2in; length 30 ft 3 in; height 11ft 4 in; wing area 488 sq ft.
   Empty weight 2,695 lb; loaded weight 4,645 lb.
   Maximum speed 114 mph at 10,000 ft; climb to 10,000 ft, 15 min 45 sec; service ceiling 16,750 ft; endurance 5 1/4 hr.
   One fixed forward-firing .303-in Vickers machine-gun and one Scarff-mounted .303-in Lewis machine gun. Bomb load 660lb (normally two 230lb or four 112lb bombs).

Production (Parnall only)
   First contract 18, second contract 12.
D.H.9A E8407 as originally produced by the Aircraft Manufacturing Co (Airco).
Parnall was among firms involved in refurbishing and building new de Havilland D. H.9As for the RAF during the mid-I920s. This example, E9891, was produced by the Vulcan Motor & Engineering Co at Southport.
Over typical hostile terrain in Iraq during the 1920s are three D.H.9As from No.30 Squadron, J7124, H3633 and H3632.
Refurbishing and production of de Havilland D.H.9A general purpose biplanes provided Parnall with valuable government contracts in the 1920s. The two D.H.9As pictured here are from No. 39 Squadron RAF circa 1926.
This photograph, of poor quality but very rare, shows two Parnall-built D.H.9As at Yate in the mid-1920s.
Parnall and Sons Limited
Aircraft Built under Contract 1914-1918

Hamble Baby

   Perhaps the most important contract awarded to Parnall during the First World War was that for the construction of Hamble Baby seaplanes and landplanes.
   The Hamble Baby evolved from the original Sopwith Baby, which was itself a direct descendant of the Sopwith Schneider seaplane of 1914. The Schneider had been fitted with a 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape rotary engine, almost entirely enclosed within a 'bull-nose' metal cowling. The Baby, however, was powered by a 110 hp Clerget, and the profile of the aircraft's nose was consequently altered to the familiar squat appearance characterised by the horse-shoe style front end of the cowling. Performance of the type was further improved when the 130 hp Clerget was fitted, but as modifications were involved, which Sopwith with their large Camel fighter commitments were unable to undertake, the task of improving the Baby design was allotted to Blackburn Aircraft and to Fairey Aviation.
   The Blackburn machines differed little from the 110 hp version and were known simply as the Blackburn Baby, but Fairey modified the design to such an extent, it materialised as virtually a new type. This came about after a Sopwith-built Baby (8134) was delivered to the Fairey works at Hayes in Middlesex, where the wings were completely redesigned, the squared-off wingtips of the original Baby being replaced by rounded tips. An innovation was the installation of the Fairey Camber Gear in the revised wing form. This device consisted of hinged flaps attached to each mainplane and running the full length of the trailing edge.
   Acting as normal ailerons in flight, these flaps, when lowered together, gave increased lift, thus improving somewhat the load carrying capacity of the aeroplane.
   Lateral control of the Fairey-built Baby (named Hamble Baby after Fairey's works at Hamble Point near Southampton) was maintained by tightening the operating cables and slackening the balancing cables simultaneously. A wheel and cable drum attached to the Baby's control column effectively tightened or loosened the aileron control cables. Use of Fairey's Camber Gear on Hamble Babies was the first occasion in which trailing-edge flaps to increase wing lift had been incorporated into a production aeroplane.
   The Hamble Baby was tested by Sqn Cdr Maurice Wright, and its production was initially undertaken by the Fairey company, but the majority of Hamble Babies were constructed by Parnall at Bristol under contract.
   The Parnall-built Babies were distinguished by their retention of the original Sopwith-type floats and fin and rudder. The last seventy-four machines of the type built by Parnall were, however, completed as landplanes, and were known as Hamble Baby Converts. In this variant horizontal skids replaced the floats, although the main N struts of the seaplane undercarriage were retained. This resulted in a very long axle for the wheels, the axle itself being bound to the skids by rubber cord. The Parnall-built Hamble Baby Converts (N1986-N2059) were used mostly for training, many of them serving at the RNAS Station at Cranwell.
   Of the 180 Hamble Babies produced, no less than 130 were built by Parnall at its Bristol works in two batches, the first comprising thirty machines (N1190-N1219) and the second 100 (N1960-N2059).
   The first thirty machines were all seaplanes powered by the 110 hp Clerget while from the second batch of 100 machines, twenty-six were completed as seaplanes, the remaining seventy-four being Hamble Baby Convert land planes. All Babies in this second batch were powered by the 130 hp Clerget.
   Like other aircraft manufacturers during the 19l4-l8 war, Parnall added its trade name to many of the aircraft it built, the Hamble Baby being no exception. The legend Parnall & Sons Ltd., Bristol, England, formed an oval on the fuselage sides, while the words Aircraft Constructors were added one above the other in the centre of the oval. Included also was the individual aircraft company number, which was painted in small figures immediately below the main military serial number.
   The single-seat Babies were employed on unspectacular but very useful and essential duties patrolling the waters around the coasts of Great Britain. They flew from a number of shore bases including, the RNAS Seaplane Stations at Calshot, Cattewater, Dundee, Great Yarmouth, Felixstowe, Scapa Flow, Westgate, Killingholme and Fishguard. Overseas the Baby seaplanes operated from the RNAS stations at Dunkirk, Otranto, Santa Maria di Leuca, Thasos, Suda Bay, Syra, Port Said and Alexandria. The type also flew from a number of seaplane and aircraft carriers as well as aboard the light cruisers Arethusa and Undaunted.
   With its 130 hp Clerget and Fairey Patent Camber Gear, the Hamble Baby was the ultimate in the Baby series, and was capable of carrying two 65 lb bombs. Armament varied, earlier versions having a .303-in machinegun mounted to fire obliquely upwards through an aperture in the upper centre-section. This arrangement was modified later so that the Lewis gun, fixed centrally above the fuselage, fired through the propeller arc by means of synchronising gear.
   Some Babies carried Ranken anti-airship darts, while Le Prieur rockets, carried in racks attached to the interplane struts, were tried out on the type. Towards the end of the war Babies were giving way to more advanced types of aircraft, but even so on 31 October, 1918, there were still eighteen Hamble Baby seaplanes and Hamble Baby Converts on RAF charge.

Hamble Baby (Parnall-Built)
   Single-seat anti-submarine, scout and bomber. 110 hp or 130 hp Clerget air-cooled rotary engine.
   Span 27 ft 9 1/4 in; length 23 ft 4 in; height 9 ft 6 in; wing area 246 sq ft.
   Empty weight, 1,386 lb; loaded weight 1,946 lb.
   Maximum speed 100 mph at sea level, 90 mph at 2,000 ft; climb to 2,000 ft 5 min 30 sec, to 10,000 ft 35 min; service ceiling 7,600 ft; endurance 2 hr.
   One .303-in Lewis machine-gun or Ranken darts. Bomb load two 65 lb on under-fuselage racks.

Production (Parnall only)
   110 hp Clerget seaplane: 30 confirmed; 130 hp Clerget seaplane: 26 confirmed; 130 hp Clerget Convert: 74 confirmed. Total 130.
Used as an anti-submarine patrol seaplane, the Hamble Baby played a mundane, but important part in the war at sea. This Fairey-built machine has two 65-lb bombs slung beneath the centre fuselage.
Believed to be N1970, this Parnall-built Hamble Baby reveals clearly the retained Sopwith design of vertical tail surfaces and floats.
In this view of Parnall Hamble Baby Convert N2002 (Parnall c/n P.1/17), the Sopwith lineage is obvious. Also noticeable is the Parnall trade mark on the side of the rear fuselage.
Of the 130 Hamble Babies built by Parnall under sub-contract, 74 were fitted with land undercarriages and called Hamble Baby Converts.
Hamble Baby Convert N2059 nearing completion in the Coliseum works of Parnall at Park Row, Bristol. The Parnall c/n P.1/74 appears beneath serial number. An Avro 504 is under construction in the background.
This view of the Parnall Hamble Baby Convert shows to advantage the wide-track undercarriage in which skids and axle simply replaced the floats, and rounded wingtips. Most of these aeroplanes were used as trainers by the RNAS.
Parnall and Sons Limited
Aircraft Built under Contract 1914-1918

Parnall Scout / Zepp Chaser

   On the evening of 19 January, 1915, the German Zeppelin airships L3 and L4 made the first air attack on Britain, when they bombed Great Yarmouth and King's Lynn killing four people, injuring 16 others, and causing damage to a number of houses and a power station.
   As a result the government began organising home-defence units on a more effective basis, a move which necessarily involved the deployment of forces in Britain that would otherwise have proved strategically more valuable elsewhere. The possibility of the demoralisation of the civil population, which had never before been subjected to such terror from the skies, was another factor the authorities had to take into consideration.
   It was decided that the most effective deterrent against the large airships was the aeroplane, and as a consequence B.E.2c and D.H.4 biplanes of the RNAS were sent up on anti-Zeppelin patrols, at times meeting with some success.
   The Admiralty, having assumed the role of defender of Britain's coastline against air attacks, soon wished to procure an aircraft type of naval concept that would be capable of quickly intercepting any raiding German airships. As a result Parnall was invited to submit plans for such a type. The requirements were for a single-seat scouting aeroplane for service with the RNAS which would have the ability to rapidly attain the height of marauding Zeppelins and attack them.
   The response from Parnall was the Scout, or Zepp-Chaser as it was more popularly known, and it was the company's first aircraft design.
   The Parnall Scout's creation was accredited to Adolf Camden Pratt (later to become head of Vickers Aviation stress section), but the idea for the aircraft was attributed to Keith Davies, who was a test pilot with the Parnall company at that time. Davies was born in London during 1885, trained as an engineer and became interested in aviation. He held RAC Aviator's Certificate No. 22, and flew with the early pioneers at Brooklands, where he was employed by Messrs Humber in connection with the Humber three-cylinder engine installed in a Bleriot monoplane. Davies later went to India with Capt Windham and gave flying demonstrations in the Central Provinces Exhibition at Allahabad, thus becoming in 1910 the first man to make an official flight in India. In 1912, Keith Davies was the second officer to be gazetted to the RFC reserve, and later was attached to the Royal Aircraft Factory as an experimental pilot. He was one of the first pilots to undertake night-flying tests, and after being a member of the AID at Farnborough, Davies transferred to Parnall & Sons where it was intended that he should take on the duties of a test pilot flying both landplanes and seaplanes. Keith Davies joined Parnall in 1916, and after his work with the Zepp-Chaser, he eventually left the company's services to take over an aircraft factory in London until the end of the war.
   Davies's ideas and Camden Pratt's interpretation of them in designing the Parnall Scout - sometimes referred to as the 'night flyer' - resulted in a large aeroplane incorporating a two-bay biplane layout with unequal span wings and considerable stagger. In order to provide the pilot with a good field of view, the upper mainplane was quite close to the top of the fuselage, the lower mainplane being set well below it and attached by N struts, the forward sections of which were symmetrical with the rear undercarriage legs.
   The undercarriage was a cumbersome affair of the cross-axle type with thick front supporting members attached to the corners of the blunt nose. The 250 hp Sunbeam Maori II was cooled by a large square-shaped radiator slung between the undercarriage legs. The Zepp-Chaser's nose-heavy appearance was accentuated by the fitting of a large diameter two-bladed wooden propeller. The upper mainplane trailing-edge contained a large cut-out to enhance the pilot's upward field of view. Ailerons were fitted to all four wings while the relatively short fuselage necessitated a large tailplane.
   The Parnall Scout was completed in an all-black factory finish in readiness for its role of Zeppelin interception at night.
   Meanwhile a nocturnal attack system against enemy airships had already been tried out at Orfordness and applied with some success to a number of Home-Defence aircraft types. The idea was to fit a machine-gun at an angle to the side of the aircraft's cockpit, and when the pilot dived his machine at a predetermined attitude at the target, the machine-gun fired on a horizontal trajectory. As a consequence the Parnall Zepp-Chaser was fitted with a .303-in Lewis gun mounted on the starboard side of the cockpit at an angle of forty-five degrees.
   The Parnall Scout was destined never to fire its gun in anger however, if it ever fired it at all! When the machine was sent to Upavon for its trials, the stress calculations proved the Zepp-Chaser to be excessively heavy and the aircraft's safety factor was declared as very low. Indeed after further ground tests had been made the machine was proclaimed as unsafe, and as far as is known, it was never flown.
   Two Parnall Scouts were originally ordered (N505-N506), but only N505 was built.
   The second Zepp-Chaser was to have been powered by a 190 hp Rolls-Royce Falcon engine, but work on this aircraft was never started. Parnall are believed to have scrapped the sole example of the Zepp-Chaser in 1917.
   The following information was gleaned from the official Aeronautical Inspection Directorate (Preliminary Experiment Report) of 1916.

Parnall Scout (Zepp-Chaser)
   Two-seat scout for defence against German airships. 250 hp Sunbeam Maori II twelve-cylinder vee water-cooled engine.
   Span 44 ft upper, 40 ft lower; chord 7 ft upper, 5 ft 6 in lower; incidence 2 deg; dihedral 4 deg; stagger 4 ft; gap 5 ft 6 in; wing area 516 sq ft; aileron area 36 sq ft; tailplane span 18 ft; tailplane area 74 sq ft; elevator area 38 sq ft; fin area 6.5 sq ft; rudder area 12.75 sq ft.
   Estimated maximum speed 113.5 mph at sea level, 101.5 mph at 10,000 ft.
   Fuel 36 Imp Gal.
   One .303-in Lewis machine-gun at 45 deg elevation.

   Two ordered, only one completed.
One of only two known photographs of the completed Parnall Scout, shown here in the Eastville shops. Just visible above the wing centre section is what appears to be the Davis gun mounting. Even in this poor quality, but extremely rare picture, the heaviness of the design is apparent even in the struts alone. Notice also the radiator slung beneath the nose and the large diameter propeller.
Parnall and Sons Limited
Aircraft Built under Contract 1914-1918

Parnall Panther

   During 1917 the British Admiralty issued Specification A.D.(N.2A, which called for a two-seat reconnaissance and spotting aeroplane capable of operating with the RNAS from an aircraft-carrier.
   In response designs were submitted from three sources: Handley Page with the Type 14 (R/200), the Isle of Grain (Port Victoria) Naval Experimental Station, which presented adaptations of the P.V.5 and P.V.5a types, and Parnall which entered its second design for the Admiralty, the N.2A, which was to be later named the Panther.
   The N.2A was the first design for the Parnall company from the drawing board of Admiralty designer Harold Bolas. To comply with the specification's requirements, Bolas introduced something of an innovation in the structural design of his N.2A. The fuselage featured a wooden monocoque construction, a reflection of Harold Bolas's earlier experiences with the A.D. Flying-Boat and Navyplane, while another novelty was the unorthodox method employed to facilitate stowage aboard an aircraft carrier. In this instance the rear fuselage section was hinged just aft of the observer's cockpit, and could be swung to lie parallel to the starboard mainplanes. To obviate chafing, the tail unit control cables were located in a special channel on the starboard side of the fuselage.
   The fuselage was built as two sections, each consisting of plywood formers to which was screwed and glued an outer skin, also formed of plywood and having fabric covering. The whole was based on a frame of four longerons, which carried the plywood formers as well as providing 'hard spots' at the fuselage folding points.
   Air bags were installed in the rear fuselage section to provide buoyancy in the event of the aircraft being ditched. The instrument panel was hinged in order to provide easy access for maintenance from the rear. The pilot's cockpit was beneath the upper centre section and immediately above the main fuel tank, which had a maximum capacity of 48 gal, while two gravity tanks, installed within the upper centre-section, contained a further ten gallons. The fuel was pumped up to these tanks by means of a small wind-operated pump attacked to a short strut on the fuselage. The N.2A incorporated single-bag biplane wings of equal span and conventional construction, although the ailerons were positioned well inboard from the detachable wingtips, a combination that allowed for easier stowage. An opening in the upper centre-section provided the pilot with a rather laborious means of entry to the cockpit, a feat which also required the lowering of a centre-section trailing-edge, which was hinged to the rear spar. This aperture did have one advantage, however, in that it presented the pilot with a clear view immediately overhead. This rather cumbersome means of ingress to the pilot's cockpit, necessitated by the unusually high positioning of the two crew members (the observer entered by a more orthodox method), was compensated for when airborne by an excellent all-round view. Another great advantage for the pilot, especially in a naval aeroplane, was the exceptionally good forward view when making carrier deck landings.
   The Parnall N.2A (the name Panther was applied to the sixth prototype) was powered by a 230 hp Bentley B.R.2 nine-cylinder rotary air-cooled engine, one of the most powerful rotary aero-engines ever built in quantity. This powerplant was encased in a shapely convex cowling divided radially and open at the bottom for cooling, a feature which served to improve the airflow and reduce drag.
   The engine and its auxiliary components were mounted on projecting spars, and could be fitted or removed from the aircraft as a complete unit; the N.2A was one of the first aeroplanes to incorporate this feature. Large slots situated behind the engine and contained within the aircraft's fuselage profile allowed for the outlet of air and exhaust gases. The empennage was of conventional construction, but even that had a novel element m the actual layout, for the elevators and the rudder hinge lines were inclined forward in plan view.
   The first N.2A prototype, N91, was ready for its initial trials in April 1918, and it appeared with an undercarriage of the cross-axle type having two V struts with widened apexes. The tailskid was attached to a strengthened former, and differed from normal practice by virtue of a special ball-type fitting designed to assist take-off procedure aboard ship. Another feature was the jettisonable wheels. These could be released by a cable and spring mechanism operated from the cockpit if a forced alighting at sea became imminent.
   The prototype N.2A was armed with a fixed forward-firing .303-in Vickers machine-gun mounted on the port side of the pilot's cockpit, while the observer/ gunner in the rear cockpit was provided with a .303-in Lewis gun mounted on a pillar. The pilot's gun was later dispensed with, however, and all subsequent prototype and production Panthers were armed with just the observer's Lewis gun.
   On undergoing manufacturer's trials the prototype N.2A was found to be nose-heavy, and before leaving Bristol for its official trials at the A & AEE, Martlesham Heath, in May 1918, the aircraft was modified to include horn-balanced elevators with a pronounced increase in the forward slope of the hinge lines.
   The Martlesham trials proved disappointing; the N.2A's maximum speed of 108.5 mph at 2,000 ft, and climb to that altitude in 2 min 20 sec was little improvement over earlier RNAS aircraft types possessing much less power. Nevertheless it was decided to proceed with development of the Parnall machine, and the prototype was returned to the Bristol works for the installation of flotation gear. That was in June 1918, but in the following October the prototype was reported as still being at Parnall's works.
   A further five N.2As were produced by Parnall, all classed as prototypes. The second machine, N92, was fitted with an identical undercarriage to the first prototype, but the third prototype, N93, was equipped with a hydrovane attachment designed to prevent the aeroplane from nosing over in the event of a forced alightning. This hydrovane was constructed of wood and steel and was adopted as standard equipment on subsequent N.2A prototypes and production machines.
   By the summer of 1918 the first three prototype N.2As had been completed and were subjected to tests involving Parnall's own design flotation gear. Deemed necessary in an aeroplane expected to operate mainly over water, this gear consisted of air bags fixed beneath the lower wings, these being additional to the air bags contained in the N.2A's rear fuselage.
   On 22 June, 1918, the second prototype N.2A was sent to Turnhouse (Edinburgh) for trials with the Fleet, and was eventually taken on board the battle-cruiser HMS Repulse. This was presumably for the purpose of trying out the Parnall machine in take-offs from a small platform attached to one of the ship's gun turrets, a practice then in vogue for launching naval scouting aircraft from the larger warships.
   The third prototype N.2A was completed in July 1918, and after being equipped with the Parnall flotation gear was flown to the Isle of Grain Naval Experimental Station for ditching trials. While there the Parnall flotation gear was removed to be supplanted by the Isle of Grain's own system. This consisted of three inflatable air bags, one in the rear fuselage compartment, and one each stowed in tubular steel containers attached to the top of the undercarriage V-struts. These bags were inflated by means of an air bottle charged at a pressure of 1,800 psi. After undergoing successful trials, this gear was adopted as standard equipment for all production Panthers.
   In general the flotation bags were constructed with several layers of rubberized fabric, and most were provided with flaps with which they could be attached to the aircraft's structure. It was normal practice for the bags to be installed relative to the aeroplane's greatest concentration of weight, but the location of bracing wires and the aircraft's centre of gravity had also to be considered. The simultaneous release of all bags was usually accomplished by means of a T-shaped handle positioned either in the upper right-hand side of the instrument panel, or in the upper wing centresection. A hand-operated pump was also often provided to top up the bags after inflation, or to replace lost air should a slow leak have occurred. The bags were capable of keeping an aeroplane afloat for about ten hours in a calm sea, but rough waters could result in the waves chafing the bags and subsequent loss of buoyancy.
   The tests at the Isle of Grain were undertaken by Maj W G Moore, DSC, and after the buoyancy trials and wheel jettisoning tests, the third prototype N.2A was subjected to alighting experiments using the hydrovane. These proved satisfactory, with the aircraft alighting at a very low speed, planing along on the hydrovane and settling down on the water undamaged.
   Once recovered from the water the N.2A was ready for flying again immediately. At about the time these trials were taking place, a new official system of nomenclature was introduced for British military aeroplanes, and Parnall's N.2A was named Panther, coming officially within the class known as the RAF Type 21, which applied to Fleet Reconnaissance shipborne aircraft.
   Meanwhile the fourth prototype N.2A (N94) flew to the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough to undergo proof-loading tests, the fifth machine (N95) going to Turnhouse, where it flew on trials with the Fleet, at the same time participating in experiments with the Grain Flotation Gear. The sixth and final N.2A prototype (N96) was equipped with Grain Flotation Gear, a hydrovane and two extra handling positions which were embodied in the fuselage. It was this sixth machine that was officially named Panther, and which was considered equivalent to a production aircraft.
   Parnall was awarded two contracts for the construction of 312 production Panthers (N7400-N7549 and N7680-N7841), but with the signing of the Armistice in November 1918, the second contract was cancelled. This annulment created friction between Avery (Parnall's controlling group) and the Air Ministry, and as a consequence both the Panther contracts were cancelled. The first order was later revised and offered to The British & Colonial Aeroplane Company at Filton, which readily accepted the Panther contract and thus helped to alleviate the rising unemployment figures in the area.
   It is apparent, however, that Parnall did produce a small number of production Panthers in its Bristol works, a fact proved by a surviving photograph showing Panther N7406 in the Coliseum works, and bearing the unmistakable Parnall factory number P.877.
   How many Panthers were actually completed by Parnall from the Air Ministry contract to The British & Colonial Aeroplane Company is uncertain, but fuselages for machines up to N7426 are believed to have been built in the Coliseum works by Parnall on behalf of British & Colonial before Panther production began at Filton.
   The second Panther contract remained void, and work on the 162 machines (N7680-N7841) was never started. The original Air Ministry order for 150 Panthers was complied with during 1919 and 1920 at Filton, and the type entered service with the British Fleet aboard the aircraft carriers HMS Argus and Hermes whence the Panthers participated in the early development of carrier deck flying. For this purpose they were equipped with special fasteners attached to the undercarriage axle, these fasteners, or clips, engaging longitudinal wires running fore and aft along the carrier's deck. The wires themselves acted not only as guide lines and assisted in friction braking, but were also directed over a number of transverse, hinged, wooden barriers, which helped to brake the aircraft as it pushed them down during its landing roll. Under these conditions it was inevitable that a number of aircraft sustained varying amounts of damage while in the process of landing on the carrier deck. Indeed during one set training period aboard HMS Argus in 1924, it was recorded that only five landings in six escaped mishaps. This system of carrier deck landing proved so costly in damage to Fleet Air Arm aircraft that it was abandoned in favour of the old rope and weights method until a more satisfactory system was available.
   Production Panthers were later modified to include large horn-balanced rudders, oleo-type undercarriage legs, a wider-track undercarriage, and improved deck-landing cable hooks.
   A number of Panthers were rebuilt under contract including eighteen sent to Gloucestershire Aircraft at Cheltenham in 1923 and, although unconfirmed, it is believed a small number of Panthers were renovated by the newly formed George Parnall company at the Coliseum works, Park Row, Bristol.
   Service pilots reported the Panther as pleasant to fly with few vices, the most noticeable being an adverse effect on rudder control when the aircraft was flying at low speed. It was also agreed that the Panther's Bentley engine required frequent coaxing and could become very irksome during flight. The well-known test pilot Capt Norman Macmillan spoke highly of the Panther in regard to his personal experience with the type.
   In addition to serving with the carriers HMS Argus and Hermes, Panthers operated with shore-based units including, No.421 Fleet Spotter Reconnaissance Flight at Gosport, Nos.441 and 442 Fleet Spotter Reconnaissance Flights at Leuchars and, also at Leuchars, with No.406 Fleet Fighter Flight. Panthers continued to serve with the Fleet Air Arm until 1926, when those machines still serving with No.442 Flight were finally replaced by Fairey IIIDs.
   Due to the rate of attrition caused mainly by carrier deck landing damage, and despite the availability of sixteen spare Panther airframes produced at Pilton, relatively few of the type survived to be offered on the civil market. Any that did were sold privately by the Aircraft Disposal Company. One such machine, G-EBCM, was converted purely to take part in the Royal Aero Club race meeting held at Croydon on 17 April, 1922. This particular Panther (ex-N7530) had first been completed at Filton on 23 June, 1920 and first flew in its civil guise on 13 April, 1922. Four days later it flew in the Royal Aero Club race piloted by A F Muir.
   The Panther did arouse the interest of some foreign observers, among them representatives of the United States Navy and the Imperial Japanese Navy. The US Navy placed an order for two Panthers which were allotted the US Naval Flying Corps serial numbers A.5751 and A.5752. Both machines were shipped to the United States during 1920, and were fitted with the 230 hp Bentley B.R.2 rotary engine, hydrovanes and the Isle of Grain flotation gear. In view of the subsequent trials that both of these aircraft underwent in the United States, the Parnall Panther can justifiably be regarded as one of the founder types of aeroplane that helped to develop naval aviation in the USA.
   Meanwhile the Imperial Japanese Navy was keen to build up its naval aviation potential. During 1921 a British Air Mission, headed by Col The Master of Sempill, arrived in Japan. Their purpose was to advise on the most suitable and best equipment with which the Imperial Japanese Navy could establish its new air arm. The result was a number of British aircraft types being ordered for service with the Japanese Navy. Among these were twelve Parnall Panthers, all of which were fitted with horn-balanced rudders, and these machines served for some time with the Japanese Fleet from a base at Yokosuka.
   Despite any shortcomings it possessed, there is little doubt the Parnall Panther played an important part in the development of carrier deck flying techniques, and it was an early factor in the evolution of the carrier-borne strike aircraft which were to participate so vitally in the war at sea two decades later.

Parnall N.2A Panther
   Two-seat carrier-borne Fleet Spotter and reconnaissance biplane. 230 hp Bentley B.R.2 nine-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine.
   Span 29 ft 6 in; length 24 ft 11 in; length folded 14 ft 6 in; height 10 ft 6 in; chord 6 ft 3 in; maximum gap 6 ft 3 in; minimum gap 6 ft 2 1/2 in; wing area 336 sq ft; aileron area (each of four) 11.3 sq ft; tailplane span 12 ft; tail plane area 18.4 sq ft; total elevator area 19.3 sq ft; fin area 6.85 sq ft; rudder area 4.4 sq ft.
   Empty weight 1,328 lb; loaded weight 2,595 lb. Gross weight of civil Panther 2,369 lb.
   Maximum speed 108.5 mph at 6,500 ft, 103 mph at 10,000 ft; climb to 2,000 ft, 2 min 20 sec; to 6,500 ft 9 min 20 sec, to 10,000 ft 17 min 5 sec; service ceiling 14,500 ft, endurance 4 1/2 hr. One .303-in pillar-mounted Lewis machine-gun in rear cockpit. First prototype had one fixed forward-firing .303-in Vickers machine-gun on port side of pilot's cockpit.

   Six prototypes.
Powered by a 230 hp Bentley B.R.2 rotary engine, the Panther was Harold Bolas's first design for Parnall. Seen here is the prototype N.91. It has the .303-m Vickers machinegun fitted to the upper port side and hydrovane had not been fitted at that time.
The prototype Panther, N.91. On this machine the pilot's forward-firing Vickers machine-gun is fitted in the original port side position; this gun was removed later, and did not appear on subsequent models. Note the absence of a hydrovane, and the .303-m Lewis machine-gun in rear cockpit. The Parnall trade insignia appears on rear of the fuselage.
This rare print purports to be an in-flight view of the Parnall Panther prototype N.91. It is in fact a faked picture; nevertheless it depicts well the Panther's pronounced humped profile.
A prototype Parnall Panther with inflated Isle of Grain style flotation bags. The hydrovane forward of the wheels, the humped fuselage and the starboard side strut carrying the propeller for actuating the wind-driven fuel pump are all visible.
One of the first three prototype Panthers is seen here at the Isle of Grain RNAS. The Parnall-type flotation bags are inflated, one under each lower wing, plus one between the undercarriage legs.
The novel way in which the fuselage of the Panther was hinged to allow for stowage of the type aboard ship can be clearly seen in this photograph of the sixth and last prototype N.96 (Parnall c/n P.707). The flotation bag in the rear of the fuselage is just visible.
When the fuselage of the Panther was completely disconnected, it could be transported by lorry as shown here.
A production Panther.
Although contracted to the Bristol Aeroplane Co, this production Panther, N7406, (Parnall c/n P.1/10650) is under construction at the Coliseum works of Parnall & Sons, Park Row, Bristol.
A Bristol-built Panther about to touch down on HMS Argus.
Two views of Bristol-built Panther N7425 on HMS Argus. The longitudinal wires were the cause of many damaged aircraft.
A Panther with the modified undercarriage struts and deck-landing hooks beneath the axle. Just visible is the lowered trailing-edge section in the upper centre-section to allow the pilot entry into the cockpit.
This updated Panther has a modified horn-balanced rudder and oleo undercarriage legs. A Blackburn Dart is in the background.
The B.E.2c was one of the types rebuilt at No.3 (Western) Aircraft Repair Depot.
R.E.7s were among the aircraft fitted with Rolls-Royce Falcons built by Brazil Straker.
Parnall and Sons Limited
Aircraft Built under Contract 1914-1918

Short 827

   Having become established as sub-contractors to build naval aeroplanes for the Admiralty, Parnall undertook the construction of two types of machine designed by Short Brothers. The first of these was the Short Seaplane Admiralty Type 827, of which twenty were ordered from Parnall in two batches of twelve and eight respectively.
   The Short 827 was a single-engined, two-seat twin-float seaplane designed for naval reconnaissance and bombing duties, and was identical to its contemporary, the Short 830, except for the powerplant installation. The Short 827 was powered by a 150 hp Sunbeam Nubian water-cooled vee-type engme, whereas the Short 830 was fitted with the 135 hp Salmson radial.
   In the event the Type 827 predominated, the Nubian being more or less standardised for the type with the result that comparatively few Type 830s were built. Indeed while the parent firm produced only nineteen Type 830s, the Type 827 of which more than 100 were ordered, was sub-contracted to four other companies, Short Brothers producing forty-eight.
   The Type 827 was a two-bay biplane with steel-tube interplane struts and wire bracing, and the extended upper wings, which included inversely tapered ailerons, were cable-braced. Both sets of wings folded rearward to facilitate stowage. A rather large radiator was mounted above the Sunbeam Nubian engine forward of the wings. Provision was made for the carrying of a .303-in Lewis machine-gun for the observer's use, and small bombs could be carried on racks beneath the fuselage.
   After the Short Type 827 began to appear in 1915, it remained in service until the Armistice, and was employed both at home and overseas. Those used in home waters flew patrol duties over the English Channel, and especially the North Sea. They were based at the RNAS coastal air stations at Calshot, Dundee, Killingholme, the Isle of Grain and Great Yarmouth. In fact it was one of the Great Yarmouth based Short Type 827s, which, at 04.05 on 25 April, 1916, bombed the German warships that had begun bombarding Lowestoft.
   Short Type 827s also operated from the seaplane carriers Ben-my-Chree, Manica and Raven II, while the armed merchant ships Laconia and Himalaya operated one Short Type 827 each. During March 1916, four Short 827s, in company with four French Voisin pusher biplanes were shipped to Zanzibar for service in East Africa, where they eventually became No.8 Naval Squadron.
   Four other Short Type 827s were handed over to the Belgian forces in East Africa, and in 1917, a further four went to the Mediterranean area, where they operated from a base at Otranto.
   Parnall's first order for Short 827s was for twelve machines (8218-8229) one of which served with No.8 Naval Squadron in East Africa. This aircraft was one of four later handed over to the Belgian forces. Four other 827s from this batch were fitted with dual controls.
   An extension of the original contract for twelve Short 827s was undertaken by Parnall's, and involved the construction of a further eight.

Short 827
   Two-seat reconnaissance and bomber seaplane. 150 hp Sunbeam Nubian eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine.
   Span 53 ft 11 in upper, 40 ft lower; length 35 ft 3 in; height 13 ft 6 in; wing area 506 sq ft.
   Loaded weight 3,400 lb.
   Maximum speed 61 mph at 2,000 ft.
   Provision for one .303-in Lewis machine-gun and bombs.

Production (Parnall only)
   Twenty confirmed
In this picture one can almost hear the 150 hp Sunbeam Nubian engine being throttled back as Short Type 827, No.8255, is about to alight. This particular machine was one of eight produced by Parnall at Bristol during the First World War.
Although a little hazy, this photograph is quite rare, and shows to advantage the drooped ailerons on the upper wings of this Short Type 827 of the RNAS. Numbered 8638, it was built by Sunbeam and represents the type produced by Parnall.
A Short Type 827, identical to those produced by Parnall, being erected on the quayside at Kilwa during the First World War. This particular machine (8649) was built by the Sunbeam Motor Car Co.
Identical to those machines built by Parnall at Bristol, this Short Type 827 seaplane, No.8230 of the RNAS, has suffered an alighting mishap. It was produced by the Brush Electrical Engineering.
Parnall and Sons Limited
Aircraft Built under Contract 1914-1918

Short Bomber

   In addition to the Type 827 and one Type 184 seaplane (No. 843) which it rebuilt in November 1916, Parnall became involved with one other Short-designed aeroplane during the First World War - the Short Bomber.
   Bearing no official type designation the Short Bomber was planned as an adaptation of the highly successful Short Type 184 and was Short's response to the .Admiralty's request for an aeroplane possessing good range and heavy bombing capabilities. Early production Short Bombers incorporated fuselages of the same dimensions as the Type 184 seaplane, but later machines had lengthened fuselages to improve longitudinal stability. All production machines had dual controls, the observer being housed in the rear cockpit as opposed to the original front cockpit position on the prototype. The fuel tanks on Short Bombers were armoured, but the airframe was composed mainly of wood which was fabric-covered. The extensive overhang to the upper mainplanes was braced by wires stretching from the king posts. A characteristic feature of the Short Bomber was its cumbersome four-wheeled undercarriage.
   A total of eighty-three Short Bombers were built, thirty-six by Short Brothers, twenty by Mann, Egerton, fifteen by Sunbeam, six by Phoenix Dynamo and six by Parnall. All except those produced by Sunbeam, which installed its own 225 hp Mohawk engines, were powered by the 250 hp Rolls-Royce Eagle.
   First production aircraft were available late in 1916 and on the night of 15 November the type saw action when four joined eighteen other bombers, mostly French Caudrons, from the 4th and 5th Naval Wings.
   The Short Bombers were operating with No.7 Squadron of the RNAS 5th Wing based at Coudekerque, and the targets for the force of twenty two bombers was Ateliers de la Marine, and the Slyken electric power station at Ostend. Each of the Short Bombers carried eight 65 lb bombs.
   Considered as an interim type, the Short Bomber was required to serve as a long-range heavy bomber until the arrival in service of the Handley Page 0/100, Cmdr Murray Sueter's 'bloody paralyser of an aeroplane'. As a consequence the Short Bomber was never looked upon as a real operational success, but the type did, nevertheless, pave the way for the founding of the truly Independent Air Force of 1918.
   Parnall received a contract to build ten Short Bombers (9771-9780), but this was later amended when the last four machines on the order were cancelled, as were a number of Short Bombers ordered from other manufacturers.
   One of the Parnall-built Short Bombers flew with No.5 Wing of the RNAS while another Parnall-built machine was transferred to the RFC from No.3 Wing of the RNAS at Luxeuil.

Short Bomber
   Two-seat long-range heavy bomber. 250 hp Rolls-Royce Eagle III twelve-cylinder vee water-cooled engine.
   Span 85 ft; length 45 ft; height 15 ft; wing area 870 sq ft.
   Empty weight 5,000 lb; loaded weight 6,800 lb.
   Maximum speed 77.5 mph at 6,500 ft; climb to 6,500 ft 21 min 25 sec; to 10,000 ft 45 min; service ceiling 9,500 ft; endurance 6 hr.
   One .303-in Lewis machine-gun. Bomb load four 230 lb or eight 112 lb on underwing racks.

Production (Parnall only)
   Contract for ten, only six built and last four cancelled.
In its original form the Short Bomber had two-bay wings but it was modified to three-bay configuration.
Short Bomber No. 9771 (Parnall c/n 21) nearing completion in the Coliseum works of Parnall. Lower wings for another of the type are in the foreground, and the combined front and rear cockpit coaming.
Short Bomber 9834 was built by Phoenix Dynamo and like the Parnall-built examples had the 250 hp Rolls-Royce Eagle III.
Шорт "Бомбер" перед вылетом на задание. Несмотря на значительные размеры, конструкция "Бомбера" была очень простой.
One of the six Short Bombers built by Parnall.
The original Sopwith tailplane and blunt wingtips denote a Blackburn-built Baby in this very rare flying view of a patrolling Baby with its bomb load.
One of the first contracts undertaken by Brazil Straker for the Admiralty was the overhauling of Curtiss OX-5 engines for RNAS Curtiss JN-4 'Jenny' trainers. This JN-4 is seen at RNAS Redcar.