Книги

Centennial Perspective
J.Herris
Halberstadt Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2: CL.IV-CLS.I & Fighters
489

J.Herris - Halberstadt Aircraft of WWI. Volume 2: CL.IV-CLS.I & Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (45)

Halberstadt C.V(Av) 6898/18 '53' (ex-FA 417/KG Sachsenberg) fully restored and ready to enter service with the Estonian Sea Squadron. It was captured east of Narva on 9 June 1919 and initially given serial '13'. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Three Halberstadt D.III fighters are at the far end of this lineup at Grand Metz, ready for action. In this case, it is training action. At left is an Albatros C.III with an Albatros C.V second from left and two Fokker Eindeckers in the middle. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Three Halberstadt D.III fighters are at the far end of this lineup at Grand Metz, ready for action. In this case, it is training action. At left is an Albatros C.III with an Albatros C.V second from left and two Fokker Eindeckers in the middle. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Lineup of Halberstadt D.II, D.III, and D.V fighters at Jastaschule I. Third aircraft from the right is an Albatros D.I.
Halberstadt and Albatros D.II fighters at the Jastaschule at Famars airfield near Valenciennes. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
From left, an Albatros D.III, a Halberstadt D.III, and a Spad 7 at Jastaschule I at Famars airfield near Valenciennes. The Albatros D.III is Hptm. Martin Zander's personal machine. It is marked with the letter 'Z' on the bottom wing undersurfaces and is faintly seen on the original image.
This is a Halberstadt D.III at Jastaschule I at Famars airfield near Valenciennes, along with an Albatros D.III. The Spad was one of a whole flight of captured Allied aircraft at the Jastaschule, something of an aggressor squadron. The man on the left is Hptm. Martin Zander, the commander of the school. Zander (five victories) had been pulled from his command of Jasta 1 to take over the new school when it was formed in late November 1916. The man on the right with the big ears is Oblt. Erich Hahn, one of Zander's former pilots at Jasta 1. Hahn appears to have merely been visiting as he was not on the staff of the Jastaschule. Hahn (six victories) commanded the new Jasta 19 until his death on 4 September 1917.
DFW C.V(Halb) 5788/16 with crew from the first batch built by Halberstadt has the early ear radiators.
Halberstadt-built DFW C.V(Halb) aircraft originally known as the Halberstadt C.I before Idflieg rationalized the designations of license-built aircraft.
Halberstadt D.II 'P' second from left and a Fokker E.III at left together with two-seaters at right indicate a Flieger Abteilung.
Many of the Kampfeinsitzerkommandos and the first Jagdstaffeln operated a mixed selection of aircraft types in the late summer of 1916. In the center of this view, a disassembled Fokker E.II/III can be seen, as well as four Halberstadt D-type fighters and two Fokker D.Is, with D.I 168/16 seen at right. Pictured here is the newly-formed Jagdstaffel 4 at Roupy airfield, with its characteristic barn hangar seen at right. Initial members of the Staffel included Oblt. Buddecke, Oblt. Berthold, Ltn. Bernert, Vzfw. Frankl, Ltn. Fugner and Vzfw. Clausnitzer. The six biplane fighters in the photo may well have been the initial equipment for these six men when the unit was formed on 25 August.
Three Halberstadt D.III fighters are at the far end of this lineup at Grand Metz, ready for action. In this case, it is training action. At left is an Albatros C.III with an Albatros C.V second from left and two Fokker Eindeckers in the middle. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Many of the Kampfeinsitzerkommandos and the first Jagdstaffeln operated a mixed selection of aircraft types in the late summer of 1916. In the center of this view, a disassembled Fokker E.II/III can be seen, as well as four Halberstadt D-type fighters and two Fokker D.Is, with D.I 168/16 seen at right. Pictured here is the newly-formed Jagdstaffel 4 at Roupy airfield, with its characteristic barn hangar seen at right. Initial members of the Staffel included Oblt. Buddecke, Oblt. Berthold, Ltn. Bernert, Vzfw. Frankl, Ltn. Fugner and Vzfw. Clausnitzer. The six biplane fighters in the photo may well have been the initial equipment for these six men when the unit was formed on 25 August.
From left, Junkers D.I, Fokker D.VII, and Halberstadt C.V of Kampfgeschwader Sachsenberg aircraft at Swinemunde (today's Swinoujscie, in Poland) on the Baltic in 1919.
Halberstadt C.V aircraft; the C.V on the right was C.3388/18. A Fokker D.VII in the left background indicates it was not the Halberstadt factory, but likely a postwar collection point in Germany, possibly Furth or Schleissheim. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V is among Junkers monoplanes and a Fokker D.VII on the right of the Wainoden Zeppelin hall postwar. Junkers D.I(Jco) D.9166/18 is first in line on the left. This location is now Vainode in Latvia. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Fokker D.VII(OAW) 8595/18 (#4) flown by Lt. Munters, has crashed into Halberstadt C.V(DFW) 4237/18 (#19), both ex-Sachsenberg. (Moshe Bukhman)
This is thought to be the accident that finally ended in it being written off when it hit a Halberstadt C.V at the training squadron.
Halberstadt Fighters

  By the middle of 1916, the French over Verdun and the British over the Somme had achieved air superiority over the German air service. The Fokker and Pfalz Eindeckers were too few in number and worse, were technically outmoded by new Allied fighters, the Nieuport 11 and D.H.2, that were faster in level flight and climb rate and were also more maneuverable. Leading German fighter pilots advocated development of new biplane fighters to redress the situation.
  The first new German fighter biplane to reach the front was the Halberstadt. We do not know what motivated Halberstadt, but their chief designer, Karl Theis, developed a biplane fighter from the Halberstadt B.II biplane trainer. This Halberstadt fighter prototype flew in the late Autumn of 1915. There were at least two prototypes. The first, the D.I (work number 155) was powered by a 100 hp Mercedes D.l engine, and experienced static-load testing on February 26, 1916 at Adlershof.
  The airframe achieved a load rating of 5.78 G, showing the robustness of the design.
  The second fighter prototype, designated D.III and powered by a 120 hp Argus As.II engine, appeared in the Frontbestand for February 1916 - the first biplane German fighter to reach the front. This delivery of a fighter prototype was likely for frontline evaluation.
  On March 8, 1916, Halberstadt received a letter of intent to produce "a dozen D.l fighters powered by a 120 hp engine based on the example demonstrated at Adlershof." Serial numbers D.100-111/16 were assigned. The contract was signed on March 21 and specified a useful load of 150 kg, including one synchronized machine gun with 500 rounds of ammunition, a top speed of 145 km/h, and climb to 4,000 meters in 40 minutes.
  When the first production Halberstadt fighters were test flown they easily exceeded the Idflieg requirements.


Halberstadt D.I

  The Halberstadt biplane fighter has the honor of being the first German fighter biplane to reach the front. Karl Theis, the chief designer of Halberstadt, developed a biplane fighter from the Halberstadt B.II biplane trainer. The first Halberstadt fighter prototype, the D.I (work number 155), was powered by a 100 hp Mercedes D.I engine and underwent static-load testing on February 26, 1916 at Adlershof. The sturdy airframe achieved a load rating of 5.78 G; the Halberstadt was a very robust aircraft that, as far as is known, never suffered a structural failure in combat.
  The second fighter prototype, designated D.III and powered by a 120 hp Argus As.II engine, appeared in the Frontbestand for February 1916 - the first biplane German fighter to reach the front. Apparently it was sent for front-line evaluation.
  On March 8, 1916, Halberstadt received a letter of intent to produce "a dozen D.I fighters powered by a 120 hp engine based on the example demonstrated at Adlershof." Serial numbers D.100-111/16 were assigned. The contract was signed on March 21.
  The prototypes handily exceeded the performance requirements. The D.I designation applied to production aircraft powered by a 100 hp Mercedes and appeared like D.I D.100/16 above. Compared to the prototypes the D.I had an airfoil, not frontal, radiator, horizontal exhaust pipe, and fully-faired turtle-deck behind the cockpit for improved streamlining. The D.I also had horn-balanced ailerons However, aside from a few early D.I aircraft, most production aircraft were powered by the 120 hp Mercedes.
  The Halberstadt D.I was tested with four anti-balloon rockets on each outboard interplane strut. However, they were very inaccurate and unreliable and potentially hazardous to the aircraft carrying them, so the rockets were dropped in October 1916.


Halberstadt Fighter Type Description
Type Engine Ailerons Wings Remarks
Prototype (1) 100 hp Mercedes D.I Plain ailerons Exhaust cut into wing leading edge Single fixed gun on port
D.I 100 hp Mercedes D.I Horn-balanced ailerons or unbalanced ailerons with trailing edge flush with wing trailing edge. Two-piece upper wing joined at centerline. Angular cut-out. Single fixed gun on starboard. Long exhaust on starboard.
Notes:
(1) Prototypes had frontal radiator and aileron cables over &. under wings. All others had airfoil radiators and production aircraft had aileron cables inside their lower wings.


Halberstadt Fighter Specifications
Spec \ Type D.l D.II D.III D.IV D.V
Engine 100 hp Mercedes D.l 120 hp Mercedes D.II 120 hp Argus As.II 150 hp Benz Bz.III 120 hp Argus As.II
Span, upper - 8.8 m 8.8 m 8.4 m 8.8 m
Span, lower - 7.92 m - - 7.8 m
Chord, upper - 1.52 m 1.52 m 1.5 m 1.5 m
Chord, lower - 1.52 m 1.52 m - 1.5 m
Wing Area 24.0 m2 23.6 m2 23.6 m2 24.0 m2 23.6 m2
Length - 7.3 m 7.3 m - 7.3 m
Weight empty 551 kg 520 kg 525 kg - 600 kg
Weight loaded 739 kg 730 kg - 815 kg 812 kg
Speed - - - - 160 km/h
Climb
1,000 minutes 4.5 3.5 4 - 4
2,000 minutes 10 8.5 9 - 9
3,000 minutes 18.5 14.5 15 - 15
4,000 minutes 35 22.5 - - 24
5,000 minutes - 38.5 - - -
D.II(Av) Empty Wt. 575 kg, Loaded Wt. 728 kg.
D.II(Han) Empty Wt. 561 kg, Loaded Wt. 744 kg


Halberstadt Fighter Production
Order Date Quantity Type Engine Serial Numbers & Notes
March 8, 1916 12 D.l D.II 100 hp Mercedes D.l
120 hp Mercedes D.II D.100-111/16
This is one of two Halberstadt D.I prototypes. It had a Mercedes engine of 100 hp (or 120 hp) with frontal radiator. The exhaust is cut into the wing leading edge and the wings are staggered, unlike the B.II. The ailerons are not balanced. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
This is one of two Halberstadt D.I prototypes. It had a Mercedes engine of 100 hp (or 120 hp) with frontal radiator. Unlike the B.II, the wings are staggered. The ailerons were not balanced. A synchronized machine gun is fitted to the left side of the aircraft. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
This is one of two Halberstadt D.I prototypes. It had a Mercedes engine of 100 hp (or 120 hp) with frontal radiator. The ailerons are not balanced and a synchronized machine gun is fitted on the left side of the aircraft. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Первый прототип "Хальберштадта". Январь 1916 года
Halberstadt D.I D.100/16 was the first D-type fighter accepted by the German air service. Here it is shown in the winter of 1915/1916 undergoing flight test. The radiator has been moved from the nose and an airfoil radiator installed in the upper wing. The engine was a Mercedes D.I engine of 100 hp. The ailerons are balanced with an aerodynamic horn balance. The horn-balanced ailerons are the easiest way to distinguish a D.I. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.I fitted with rockets for anti-balloon attacks under test at Doberitz. The aileron horn balances identify it as a D.I. The massive Staaken VGO.III is in the background. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.I under test at Doberitz. The ailerons are balanced with an aerodynamic horn balance. The horn-balanced ailerons are the easiest way to distinguish a D.I. It was fitted with rockets for anti-balloon attacks. The rockets were apparently inspired by the Allied La Prier rockets used for the same purpose. Like the Allied rockets, these were abandoned after field testing due to technical problems, including lack of accuracy. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.I armed with anti-balloon rockets. The rockets were evaluated at the Front in October 1916. However, the trials were not successful. These aircraft have also been identified as D.II fighters; however, the aileron horn balances identify this aircraft as a D.I. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II

  The first truly mass-production version of the Halberstadt fighter was the D.II that was powered by the 120 hp Mercedes D.II engine. The aircraft was armed with a single fixed machine gun mounted on the right side of the centerline. The upper wing had an angular cut-out at the rear of the center section to provide better field of view for the pilot.
  The planform of both wings was rectangular with a chord of 1520 mm. D.II and D.III production machines had unbalanced ailerons that did not extend beyond the wing tips but did protrude rearward beyond the trailing edge of the wing. The wing chord over the ailerons was 1670 mm, so the ailerons projected 150 mm beyond the wing trailing edge.
  Upon reaching the front, the Halberstadt D.II proved superior to the Fokker E.III in all respects and immediately became popular with their pilots. The Halberstadts were faster than the E.III, had better climb rate, were more maneuverable, and were much more stable, enabling the pilot to 'fly the mission, not the airplane.'
  The Fokker E.IV did have two guns to the Halberstadt's single gun and was as fast as the Halberstadt. However, the Halberstadt still climbed better and was much more maneuverable. Very importantly, the Halberstadt was much stronger and more robust than any of the Fokker Eindeckers.


Halberstadt D.III

  The Halberstadt D.III shared its airframe with the D.II; the difference between the types is that the D.III used the 120 hp Argus As.II engine instead of the preferred 120 hp Mercedes D.II. Performance was essentially the same; however, the Argus engine tended to lose power with altitude a little faster than the Mercedes, giving the D.III slightly less climb rate than the D.II at altitude. Given the shared airframe, the D.III inherited the delightful handling characteristics of the D.II and was similarly popular with its pilots.
  Some units, for example Jasta 4, mounted a second machine gun on the D.III to improve its firepower. Normally this added gun was fitted below the standard gun on the right side of the aircraft. The additional weight of the second gun somewhat reduced performance and agility, which could reduce the D.III's performance in a dog-fight with another fighter. However, the fire-power and reliability of the second gun was much compensation for that, especially when in combat against a two-seater.
  On December 22, 1916, a meeting was held with experienced fighter pilots at Cambrai to discuss the future of fighter development. Most of the pilots strongly preferred a Halberstadt D.V powered by the 120 hp Mercedes engine and armed with two machine guns. The reason given was that the Halberstadt was a 'delight to fly.'
  Only one of the participants advocated the 150 hp engine, a then little-known ace named Manfred von Richthofen. He preferred a more powerful fighter armed with two guns and having a faster dive than the Halberstadt. This design, embodied in the Albatros fighters, was more suited to aggressive squadron tactics that emphasized a powerful unit diving attack as the key offensive move.
  Although much more maneuverable and 'delightful to fly' than Albatros scouts and better in a dog-fight, the Halberstadt fighters were not as effective in a diving attack due to their slow dive. The performance of the Albatros fighters was better suited to the offensive tactics of the new Jastas.
  As more Albatros fighters reached the front, the Halberstadt fighters were gradually replaced and send to the training units where they were used for advanced fighter pilot training.


Halberstadt Fighter Type Description
Type Engine Ailerons Wings Remarks
Prototype (1) 100 hp Mercedes D.I Plain ailerons Exhaust cut into wing leading edge Single fixed gun on port
D.I 100 hp Mercedes D.I Horn-balanced ailerons or unbalanced ailerons with trailing edge flush with wing trailing edge. Two-piece upper wing joined at centerline. Angular cut-out. Single fixed gun on starboard. Long exhaust on starboard.
D.II (2)(3) 120 hp Mercedes D.II Unbalanced ailerons that extend beyond the wing trailing edge. Two-piece upper wing joined at centerline. Angular cut-out. Single fixed gun on starboard. Second gun sometimes added.
D.III 120 hp Argus As.II Unbalanced ailerons that extend beyond the wing trailing edge. Two-piece upper wing joined at centerline. Angular cut-out Single fixed gun on starboard. Second gun sometimes added. Short 'rino' vertical exhaust
D.IV 150 hp Benz Bz.III Inset triangular balanced ailerons. Aileron push-pull rod controls Prototypes only. Twin machine guns
D.V 120 hp Argus As.II (4) or, some aircraft 120 hp Mercedes D.II Inset balanced ailerons with trailing edge flush the wing trailing edge. Three-piece upper wing, cabane joined to the center section. Semi-circular cut-out. 31 (33?) to Turkey, both engine types used. Single fixed gun on port. Second gun sometimes added to starboard. Short, downward exhaust on starboard.
Notes:
(1) Prototypes had frontal radiator and aileron cables over &. under wings. All others had airfoil radiators and production aircraft had aileron cables inside their lower wings.
(2) D.II(Av) was originally designated Aviatik D.I. When aircraft designations were rationalized, it became the Halberstadt D.II(Av). Visual distinctions of the Aviatik-built D.II were the exhaust pipe exiting the engine cowling and extreme aft location of Militar Nummer on rear fuselage painted in black.
(3) D.II(Han) was Hannover D.I until aircraft designations were rationalized. Visual distinctions of the Hannover-built D.II were the Militar Nummer on rear fuselage painted in white. They usually wore two-tone green/red-brown camouflage from the factory.
(4)Mercedes engines used an overhead camshaft; Argus engines used pushrods.


Halberstadt Fighter Specifications
Spec \ Type D.l D.II D.III D.IV D.V
Engine 100 hp Mercedes D.l 120 hp Mercedes D.II 120 hp Argus As.II 150 hp Benz Bz.III 120 hp Argus As.II
Span, upper - 8.8 m 8.8 m 8.4 m 8.8 m
Span, lower - 7.92 m - - 7.8 m
Chord, upper - 1.52 m 1.52 m 1.5 m 1.5 m
Chord, lower - 1.52 m 1.52 m - 1.5 m
Wing Area 24.0 m2 23.6 m2 23.6 m2 24.0 m2 23.6 m2
Length - 7.3 m 7.3 m - 7.3 m
Weight empty 551 kg 520 kg 525 kg - 600 kg
Weight loaded 739 kg 730 kg - 815 kg 812 kg
Speed - - - - 160 km/h
Climb
1,000 minutes 4.5 3.5 4 - 4
2,000 minutes 10 8.5 9 - 9
3,000 minutes 18.5 14.5 15 - 15
4,000 minutes 35 22.5 - - 24
5,000 minutes - 38.5 - - -
D.II(Av) Empty Wt. 575 kg, Loaded Wt. 728 kg.
D.II(Han) Empty Wt. 561 kg, Loaded Wt. 744 kg


Halberstadt Fighter Production
Order Date Quantity Type Engine Serial Numbers & Notes
March 8, 1916 12 D.l D.II 100 hp Mercedes D.l
120 hp Mercedes D.II D.100-111/16
March 8, 1916 3 D.IV 150 hp Benz Bz.III (*) Unknown
May 1916 24 D.II 120 hp Mercedes D.II D.115-138/16
July 1916 30 D.III 120 hp Argus As.II D.392-421/16
July 1916 30 D.II(Av) 120 hp Mercedes D.II D.582-611/16 (was Aviatik D.l). From D.401/16 onwards these may have been D.V fighters.
July 1916 30 D.II(Han) 120 hp Mercedes D.II D.800-829/16 (was Hannover D.l)
August 1916 20 D.III 120 hp Argus As.II D.1099-1118/16. According to Reinhard Zankl these were D.Vs.
October 1916 20 D.V 120 hp Argus As.II D.2310-2329/16
January 1917 12 D.V 120 hp Argus As.II D.200-211/17 (not confirmed). No documentation was found on this series before and after it went to Turkey.
June 1917 25 D.V 120 hp Argus As.II D.3500-3524/17
(*)Other sources give the engine as a 160 hp Mercedes D.III.
Halberstadt D.II(Av) 605/16, Lt. Klein, Jastaschule Valenciennes Valenciennes Aerodrome, February 1917
Halberstadt D.II(Han) D.805/16, 'H' of Jasta 11, Uffz. Erwin Howe, Winter 1916-1917
Halberstadt D.II flown by Oblt. Stefan Kirmaier, JAFU, Jasta 2, November 1916.
Halberstadt D.III flown by Lt. Ernst von Althaus of Jasta 4. Von Althaus won the Pour le Merite and scored 9 victories.
Halberstadt D.III flown by Lt. Bernert of Jasta 4. Bernert won the Pour le Merite and scored 27 victories.
Halberstadt D.III with streaked finish. Pilot and unit unknown. (Color unconfirmed)
Halberstadt D.II 102/16 in dark finish and outlined national insignia. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II(Av) D.605/16 with JastaSchule I; the Aviatik decal was in the middle of the rudder cross. The wider chord of the ailerons at the wing tips is clearly visible. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB))
Halberstadt D.II(Av) 605/16 painted in a dark color with updated insignia. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II(Av) of Lt Bauhofer serving with Jasta 25 in Macedonia. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II(Av) serving at the front. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II(Av) '7' flown by Rolf Freiherr von Lersner at Jasta 5.
Halberstadt D.II(Av) serving at the front with a formation of officers. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Close-up of a Halberstadt D.II(Av) with its Mercedes engine. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
With wings removed for transportation, this aircraft shows the engine details and single synchronized machine gun.
This photo shows the completed fuselage of the Aviatik D.I detailing the metal cowling panels, plywood cladding of the front fuselage, and the fabric-covered rear portion, which were joined to the front portion by vertical lacing. The exiting of the exhaust from under the cowling is also an Aviatik trademark. Also note the radiator fastened to the cabane as part of the structure along with the gravity tank. The Aviatik D.I was later redesignated Halberstadt D.II(Av) when Idflieg rationalized aircraft designations. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Aviatik D.I fighers, later known as the Halberstadt D.II(Av), are packed on railroad cars for shipment to the front. Trains were more reliable over long distance than the airplanes of the time, hardly an encouraging thought for the aircrews.
Finished Aviatik D.I aircraft are loaded and fastened on top of the railway carriages for delivery to the front. Note the extreme rear location at the tailplane of the black style of Militar Nummer. The aircraft in the foreground is D.583/16. This was the standard location for Aviatik-built D.IIs. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Disassembled and crated Halberstadt D.II(Av) enroute to the front; during WWI trains were more technically mature and reliable than airplanes. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II(Han) 805/16 was assigned to Jasta 11. The 'H' on the fuselage was pilot's initial. This was the standard Jasta 11 practice until Manfred von Richthofen assumed command. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II(Han) 805/16 at Pronville in February 1917.
A full view of Kampfstaffel 1 of Kagohl I in Macedonia with Halberstadt D.II(Han) 810/16 and 813/16 heading the line up.
Halberstadt D.II(Han) D.811/16 captured by the French in Macedonia.This was probably a Jasta 25 aircraft (Christophe Cony)
Halberstadt D.II(Han) 812/16 after repainting and used as a trainer or communications machine in 1918. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Different views of Halberstadt D.II(Han) 816/16.
Different views of Halberstadt D.II(Han) 816/16.
Halberstadt D.II(Han) 818/16 (work no. 141) was part of a batch of 30 Halberstadt D.II fighters built under license by Hannoveranner. The Hannover-built aircraft had two-color camouflage on the upper surfaces. The stenciled serial numbers in white on the rear fuselage are a key identifier of Hannover-built aircraft. Rumpler C.I 2623/16 is in the background. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
The Halberstadt fighter at left with the initial 'M' (for Meier?) was Halberstadt D.II(Han) 820/16 serving with Jasta 25 in Macedonia. The serial is not visible on the Halberstadt D.V at right with initial 'L'.
Enlarged view of Halberstadt D.II(Han) 820/16 serving with Jasta 25 in Macedonia.
Halberstadt D.II(Han) at the front in the snow. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Its pilot poses with Halberstadt D.II(Han) 8xx/16 at its unit.
Halberstadt D.II(Han); the wider chord of the ailerons at the wing tips is clearly visible., as is the angular cutout in the upper wing. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II(Han) at the factory before camouflage was applied. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II fighter of Jasta 14 takes off.
Halberstadt D.II(Han) in flight. (Taz Phillips)
Halberstadt D.II fighter in flight.
Halberstadt D.II '7' of Jasta 5 in flight.
Halberstadt D.II in flight.
Halberstadt D.II Typenprufung fighter in February 1916. The later-style insignia are consistent with early 1917, but documentation indicates February 1916. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II fighter in the field. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II fighter in a hangar. Insignia are painted over white panels despite its light finish.
Halberstadt D.II fighter photographed for a recognition manual. The distinctive extended ailerons and 'all flying' tail surfaces are well shown. The airfoil radiator is also prominent. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II of Kampfstaffel Metz in 1916. A flare pistol is built into the fuselage. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II of Kampfstaffel Metz in 1916. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II in dark finish and outlined national insignia. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II in the field.
Halberstadt D.II fighter photographed for a recognition manual. The extended ailerons are notable. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II fighter photographed for a recognition manual. Lack of fixed tail surfaces is distinctive.
Halberstadt D.II fighter with part of its cowling missing. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II, reportedly flown by Wintgens, in a hangar.
Halberstadt D.II fighter in the field. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II assigned to FliegerAbteilung 280.
Halberstadt D.II fighter in the field. A rare SSW E.I is at right background. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II with pilot and mechanics, all unknown.
This rare photo reportedly shows Hohndorf's Halberstadt D.II that was specially modified in the field to carry two machine guns on its starboard side. Similar modifications were later made to two other D.II fighters flown by Wilhelm Frankl and Fritz Otto Bernert. (photo courtesy of Reinhard Kastner)
Pristine Halberstadt D.II.
An unidentified Halberstadt D.II at the front. The translucent wing enables us to see the wing insignia are painted over white panels despite its overall light finish.
The Halberstadt D.II powered by the 120 hp Mercedes D.II was the first German biplane fighter to reach the front. Despite its delicate appearance, with no fixed fin, it was a very robust aircraft. Fitted with a single machine gun, it out-performed and out-maneuvered the preceding German Eindeckers in every respect and was at least as good as the DH.2 and Nieuport 11 fighters the Allies were using when it appeared. Some aircraft were modified at the unit level to carry two synchronized machine guns. The later Halberstadt CL.II bears a strong family resemblance.
Halberstadt D.II in the snow at the front. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II 'P' second from left and a Fokker E.III at left together with two-seaters at right indicate a Flieger Abteilung.
Halberstadt D.II fighter in the field.
Halberstadt D.II fighter, reportedly in Macedonia.The pilot is unknown.
The Jastaschule at Famars airfield near Valenciennes with Halberstadt fighters. At right is a D.V; the other two fighters are D.II. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Lineup of Halberstadt D.II, D.III, and D.V fighters at Jastaschule I. Third aircraft from the right is an Albatros D.I.
Leutnant Ernst Freiherr von Althaus of Jasta 4 in his Halberstadt D.II. He is sitting in the cockpit with engine running.
Pour le Merite holder Ernst von Althaus inspects his Halberstadt D.II. The upper cowling panel is not fastened.
Oblt. Ernst von Althaus (second from left), Lt. Alfred Lenz (third from left), Oswald Boelcke and Lt. Dietsch stand close to a pristine-looking Halberstadt D.II. This may have been the early model delivered to Douai just a few days after Immelmann's death that Boelcke test flew and took into combat after attending Immelmann's memorial service. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Having just landed in his Halberstadt D.II fighter following his sixth confirmed victory, Rudolf Berthold receives a congratulatory hand shake from FFA 23's CO, Hptm. Hermann Palmer. (DEHLA collection/Marton Szigeti)
Oblt. Hermann Goring in a Halberstadt D.II at Metz.
Oblt. Hermann Goring in a Halberstadt D.II at Metz.
Bruno Loerezer (at left) and Oblt. Hermann Goring (at right) at Kampfstaffel Metz. The man in the middle is unidentified.
Hohndorf sits in the cockpit of his Halberstadt D.II fighter. The ammunition access panel forward of the cockpit has been removed for servicing. (DEHLA collection/Marton Szigeti)
Hohndorf makes final adjustments to his flight clothing as he prepares take off in his D.II fighter (engine already warming up). Oblt. Ernst von Althaus stands next to him and their Jasta 4 CO, Oblt. Hans-Joachim Buddecke, is second from left.
Halberstadt D.II powered by a 120 hp Mercedes D.II engine. Oblt. Stefan Kirmaier, who assumed command of Jasta 2 after Boelcke's death, poses in front while a mechanic sits in the cockpit ready to start the engine. Kirmaier scored 11 victories before his death in action on 22 November 1916.
Halberstadt D.II. Oblt. Stefan Kirmaier, who assumed command of Jasta 2 after Boelcke's death, poses in front while a mechanic sits in the cockpit; he has now started the engine.
Halberstadt D.II serving as a trainer at a Jastaschule with Flieger Walther Krause in the cockpit. Krause was killed at the Jastaschule on 13 March 1917. The pilot aimed the fixed gun by looking through the square cut-out in the windscreen. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Pour lr Merite holder Lt. Gustav Leffers of Jasta 1 visited Jagdstaffelschule 1 on leave; here he is with fellow pilots and a Halberstadt D.II.
Lt. Werner Marwitz of Jasta 9 and his Halberstadt D.II fighter.
Pour le Merite ace Otto Parschau in a Halberstadt D.II.
Pour le Merite winner Lt. Otto Parschau smiles for the camera in a new Halberstadt D.II fighter that was likely the one he used to down his fifth and sixth victims. Parschau scored eight victories before he died of wounds suffered in combat.
Oblt. Kurt Guido Scheffer with his Halberstadt D.II. Some engine cowling panels have been removed. Scheffer was one time adjutant {OzbV) of Jasta 11. However, this photo was not taken at Jasta 11 - possibly at FEA 6.
Halberstadt D.II of Jasta 13, Lt. Schurz at left.
Idflieg test pilot Uffz. Wendeler with a Halberstadt D.II at Adlershof. Under the fuselage the aileron controls can be seen. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Kurt Wintgens (sans Pour le Merits) with his Halberstadt D.II.
Lt. Kurt Wintgens poses in front of his Halberstadt D.II that had been adorned by garlands and a wreath in celebration of a special event that most likely was his Pour le Merite - qualifying eighth victory on 30 June 1916. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Lt. Kurt Wintgens (second from left), Generaloberst Ludwig von Falkenhausen (third from left), Lt. Walter Hohndorf (second from right), and two other men who all appeared in another group portrait taken shortly after Falkenhausen had bestowed the Pour le Merite upon Wintgens.
A lineup of pilots in front of a Halberstadt D.II at Jastaschule I's Famars airfield. Left to right: Offz-Stv. Kohler, Lt. Ferdinand Groner, Lt. Karl Stock, Oblt. Hans Berr, Lt. Hans von Schell, Lt. Breitbach, Lt. Walter Krause, Lt. Karl Spitzhoff, Lt. Josef Jacobs. Berr and Jacobs were awarded the Pour le Merite as fighter aces. Berr commanded the Jastaschule from 19 December 1916 to 5 February 1917, and Jacobs was one of his temporary instructors.
Closeup of a Halberstadt D.II type-test fighter showing its 120 hp Mercedes D.II engine and airfoil radiator. The pilot's field of view was constrained by the cramped struts and plumbing. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.III of Jasta 5. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.III fighter in the snow. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.III fighter preparing for take-off at the front. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Lt. Hans von Keudell's Halberstadt D.III of Jasta 1, marked with his personal "K" emblem.
Halberstadt D.III fighter at the front. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Хальберштадт D.II. Македония, 1917 год
The D III with an Argus As II (on photo) was otherwise similar to the Mercedes-powered D II.
Halberstadt D.III with streaked camouflage that was unusual for a Halberstadt. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB).
An unknown pilot and his Halberstadt D.III fighter.
Halberstadt D.III fighter at the front. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.III fighter in front of a permanent hangar at Metz-Frescaty airfield. A belt of signal flares are behind the cockpit. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.III 'F' of Jasta 5 on its airfield after landing. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
A Halberstadt fighter of Jasta 5 approaching to land. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
From left, an Albatros D.III, a Halberstadt D.III, and a Spad 7 at Jastaschule I at Famars airfield near Valenciennes. The Albatros D.III is Hptm. Martin Zander's personal machine. It is marked with the letter 'Z' on the bottom wing undersurfaces and is faintly seen on the original image.
This is a Halberstadt D.III at Jastaschule I at Famars airfield near Valenciennes, along with an Albatros D.III. The Spad was one of a whole flight of captured Allied aircraft at the Jastaschule, something of an aggressor squadron. The man on the left is Hptm. Martin Zander, the commander of the school. Zander (five victories) had been pulled from his command of Jasta 1 to take over the new school when it was formed in late November 1916. The man on the right with the big ears is Oblt. Erich Hahn, one of Zander's former pilots at Jasta 1. Hahn appears to have merely been visiting as he was not on the staff of the Jastaschule. Hahn (six victories) commanded the new Jasta 19 until his death on 4 September 1917.
Halberstadt D.III fighters equipped with experimental wireless of the Kampfeinsitzer Staffel attached to the FT-Versuchsabteilung that experimented with ground-controlled intercepts in early 1917. The unit was commanded by Lt. Dr. Gericke. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.III fighter modified to carry two machine guns on the starboard side. This aircraft was flown by Lt. Otto Bernert of Jasta Boelcke. Bernert was awarded the Pour le Merite after 20 victories and went on to score 27 victories. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.III modified to carry two guns; it is probably of Jasta 4.
Frankl's specially-modified Halberstadt D.III fighter at Valleroy on 29 November 1916. Two machine guns were mounted on the starboard side as opposed to the usual one. Although the Halberstadt fighter clearly outperformed the Fokker E.IV, several pilots bemoaned the fact that it was armed with only one machine gun versus the E.IV's two. Apparently, someone at Jasta 4 decided to rectify this in a field modification. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Lt. Otto Bernert with his Halberstadt D.III of Jasta 4; it has been modified to carry two guns and the exhaust lowered. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB).
Lt. Otto Bernert (at left) of Jasta 4 with his Halberstadt D.III fighter.
Oblt. Ernst von Althaus poses in front of his Halberstadt D.III with men from his ground team. From left to right: Weisser (mechanic), Neumann (orderly), Althaus, Reiche (mechanic). Althaus' dog, Mousse, is at his master's feet. We know this is a D.III because of its Argus engine. However, the standard D.III machine gun configuration was one mounted on the starboard side of the nose. Here we see a machine gun on the port side. We have several photographs of another Jasta 4 D.III flown by both Otto Bernert and Wilhelm Frankl that sported two machine guns on its starboard side, so it is possible that Althaus had his D.III specially modified to carry a second machine gun on its port side.
These two photos capture Oblt. Ernst von Althaus' Halberstadt D.III fighter in a Jasta 4 lineup, ready for action. Note the letter "A" just aft of the fuselage cross. Althaus scored 9 victories and was awarded the Pour le Merite.
Vzfw Ernst Clausnitzer of Jasta 4 with his Halberstadt D.III fighter on October 5, 1916. Clausnitzer scored three victories but was captured on 16 July 1917, when his Albatros D.V 1162/17 was shot down by Spads of No. 23 Sqdn. during his attack on a balloon.
Ernst Clausnitzer of Jasta 4 in his Halberstadt D.III fighter.
Manfred von Richthofen in conversation with pre-war friend Lt. Alfred Gerstenberg (at left) during a visit to Breslau airfield in June 1917. A Halberstadt D.II or D.III fighter is in the background. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Lt. Kurt Wolff with a Halberstadt fighter of Jasta 11; although obscured by the propeller, the aileron appears to be that of a D.V. In the background is a Halberstadt D.II or D.III which can be identified by the extended ailerons.
Halberstadt fighter performing a loop over a Zeppelin hangar, probably at Metz-Frescaty airfield.
Halberstadt and Albatros D.II fighters at the Jastaschule at Famars airfield near Valenciennes. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Three Halberstadt D.III fighters are at the far end of this lineup at Grand Metz, ready for action. In this case, it is training action. At left is an Albatros C.III with an Albatros C.V second from left and two Fokker Eindeckers in the middle. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Many of the Kampfeinsitzerkommandos and the first Jagdstaffeln operated a mixed selection of aircraft types in the late summer of 1916. In the center of this view, a disassembled Fokker E.II/III can be seen, as well as four Halberstadt D-type fighters and two Fokker D.Is, with D.I 168/16 seen at right. Pictured here is the newly-formed Jagdstaffel 4 at Roupy airfield, with its characteristic barn hangar seen at right. Initial members of the Staffel included Oblt. Buddecke, Oblt. Berthold, Ltn. Bernert, Vzfw. Frankl, Ltn. Fugner and Vzfw. Clausnitzer. The six biplane fighters in the photo may well have been the initial equipment for these six men when the unit was formed on 25 August.
This Halberstadt D.II crashed in the snow. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II crash, probably from Jastaschule 1.
Above: Halberstadt D.II(Av) 605/16 crashed on February 4 1917 by Lt. Klein at Jastaschule Valenciennes. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Another view of Halberstadt D.II(Av) 605/16 crashed on February 4 1917 by Lt. Klein at Jastaschule Valenciennes. The wreckage is guarded. (Bruno Schmaling)
Two views of a somewhat badly strafed Halberstadt biplane brought down "somewhere in France." The planes, struts, chassis, &c, form the heap in the background.
Remains of a crashed Halberstadt D.II fighter showing construction details. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II
Halberstadt D.II
Halberstadt D.II
Halberstadt D.III
Halberstadt D.III
Halberstadt D.III
Halberstadt D.IV

  The Halberstadt D.IV was more powerful than the other Halberstadt fighters, being fitted with a 150 hp Benz Bz.III engine. At the request of frontline pilots, it was fitted with two machine guns for increased fire power.
  As was typical for Idflieg, three prototypes were ordered; one for flight testing, one for static load testing, and one spare. The order was awarded on March 8, 1916 which is before the Halberstadt fighters arrived at the front.
  The D.IV arrived at Adlershof for testing in October 1916. Elegant and well-streamlined, the D.IV also had only a single bay of bracing for reduced drag.
  Rejected by Idflieg for the 'unfortunate choice of cabane design' no further information was given. However, inspection of the photos shown here may reveal the problem. It is easy to see that the explanation of the "unfortunate choice of cabane design" likely referred to the aileron push-pull rod design for the operation of the aileron control horns. This feature was not used by later Halberstadt designs. Idflieg reported that 'the D.IV will be demonstrated again after modifications have been made' but no results are known.
  Although not selected for production, the D.IV was developed into the very successful Halberstadt CL.II.
  It is not known why the D.IV was not successful in being chosen for production. The D.II and D.III were successful fighters that were well-liked by their pilots. They were more robust and maneuverable than the competing Albatros D.III fighters and, unlike the somewhat fragile Albatros D.III, never suffered a reported structural failure.
  With a modified cabane, the D.IV would seem to be natural for production, especially given the ease with which it was developed into the very successful CL.II. Was the powerful Albatros company involved in the decision to not produce the Halberstadt D.IV fighter but instead develop it into the CL.II? Through close personal relationships that likely involved corruption, Albatros had a special influence on the Prussian authorities who procured aircraft. Did they establish a somewhat corrupt monopoly on fighter orders in late 1916/early 1917, with the relatively small Halberstadt company given a consolation prize with orders for a new, unproven category of aircraft? Or did the Albatros fighters win their predominance in fighter production purely through their obvious merit? At this remove, we will never know the answer to these interesting questions.


Halberstadt Fighter Type Description
Type Engine Ailerons Wings Remarks
D.IV 150 hp Benz Bz.III Inset triangular balanced ailerons. Aileron push-pull rod controls Prototypes only. Twin machine guns


Halberstadt Fighter Specifications
Spec \ Type D.l D.II D.III D.IV D.V
Engine 100 hp Mercedes D.l 120 hp Mercedes D.II 120 hp Argus As.II 150 hp Benz Bz.III 120 hp Argus As.II
Span, upper - 8.8 m 8.8 m 8.4 m 8.8 m
Span, lower - 7.92 m - - 7.8 m
Chord, upper - 1.52 m 1.52 m 1.5 m 1.5 m
Chord, lower - 1.52 m 1.52 m - 1.5 m
Wing Area 24.0 m2 23.6 m2 23.6 m2 24.0 m2 23.6 m2
Length - 7.3 m 7.3 m - 7.3 m
Weight empty 551 kg 520 kg 525 kg - 600 kg
Weight loaded 739 kg 730 kg - 815 kg 812 kg
Speed - - - - 160 km/h
Climb
1,000 minutes 4.5 3.5 4 - 4
2,000 minutes 10 8.5 9 - 9
3,000 minutes 18.5 14.5 15 - 15
4,000 minutes 35 22.5 - - 24
5,000 minutes - 38.5 - - -
D.II(Av) Empty Wt. 575 kg, Loaded Wt. 728 kg.
D.II(Han) Empty Wt. 561 kg, Loaded Wt. 744 kg


Halberstadt Fighter Production
Order Date Quantity Type Engine Serial Numbers & Notes
March 8, 1916 3 D.IV 150 hp Benz Bz.III (*) Unknown
(*)Other sources give the engine as a 160 hp Mercedes D.III.
Хальберштадт D IV представлял собой существенно переработанный вариант истребителя D II. На самолете одностоечная коробка крыльев. Ось вращения руля поворота стала консольной.
Two prototypes of the D IV were tested in October 1916, but were found wanting by Idflieg.
For many years this was the only known photograph of the Halberstadt D.IV. Tested at Adlershof in October 1916, it was rejected because of the 'unfortunate choice of cabane design'.
The Halberstadt D.IV prototype photographed on September 20, 1916. Tested at Adlershof in October 1916, it was rejected because of the 'unfortunate choice of cabane design,' likely due to the push-pull rods for aileron control. These were near the cockpit and obstructed the pilot's field of view; this design was eliminated in subsequent Halberstadt aircraft. The wing cellule was redesigned to single-bay bracing for reduced drag. No spinner is fitted at this time. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
The Halberstadt D.IV retained the all-movable tail surfaces of earlier Halberstadt fighters but the shapes were slightly different. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
The Halberstadt D.IV prototype photographed under evaluation. The vertical push/pull rods for aileron control are too close to the cockpit and impede peripheral view of the pilot. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
The Halberstadt D.IV prototype photographed on September 20, 1916. Tested at Adlershof in October 1916, it was rejected because of the 'unfortunate choice of cabane design,' likely due to the push-pull rods for aileron control. These were near the cockpit and obstructed the pilot's field of view; this design was eliminated in subsequent Halberstadt aircraft. The wing cellule was redesigned to single-bay bracing for reduced drag. No spinner is fitted at this time. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt G.I

  Halberstadt only built one twin-engine aircraft during the war, the sole G.I prototype. The G.I was powered by two 160 hp Mercedes D.III engines. The aircraft was of conventional design and construction. The engines were mounted between the wings in tractor configuration. The biplane wings had two bays of bracing outboard of the engines and the tail had three rudders; only the central rudder had a fixed vertical fin.
  A crew of three was carried; the pilot sat in the middle cockpit and there were gunners fore and aft, each with a flexible machine gun. A bomb load of 200 kg could be carried.
  A single prototype was built during the winter of 1915/1916 but no series production was undertaken. The successful competitors were powered by more powerful engines and could carry a larger bomb-load.


Halberstadt G.I Specifications
Engines: 2 x 160 hp Mercedes D.III
Wing: Span 15.50 m
General: Length 9.00 m
Height 3.2 m
Empty Weight 1,220 kg
Loaded Weight 1,895 kg
Maximum Speed: 152 km/h
Climb: 1,000 m 7 min.
Duration: 4 hrs.
The sole prototype of the Halberstadt G.I is shown with its 160 hp Mercedes D.III engines running. The G.I was a relatively clean design with frontal radiators, nicely-cowled engines, and simple landing gear. It was compact for a twin-engine bomber and faster than most competitors, but was not selected for production; perhaps its bomb load was too small.
The sole prototype of the Halberstadt G.I powered by 160 hp Mercedes D.III engines. The exhaust pipes led upward through the upper wing, a feature reminiscent of the prototype Halberstadt fighters. It needed more power.
Afterword: Halberstadts Postwar by Colin Owers

  The Allies had a number of Halberstadt CL.II biplanes fall into their hands during the war, but the most famous is 15342/17 that was captured in flight by an R.E.8 of No. 3 Squadron, Australian Flying Corps. Lts R.C. Armstrong and EJ Mart were carrying out an reconnaissance patrol near Moriancourt in their R.E.8 D4689 when they noticed a German aircraft making for its own lines. Armstrong immediately moved to head it off and after a few feeble attempts to escape the crew surrendered. The machine was herded to the Squadron's airfield where it made a perfect landing. The crew were inexperienced and had become lost.
  15342/17 became the subject of a Ministry of Munitions report on the type and was also featured in the British magazine Flight commencing in their 10 October 1918, issue. Given the British serial G/5Bde/16 the machine was sent to the UK where it was tested and eventually placed on displayed in the "Enemy Viewing Room" at Islington. A comprehensive range of German aeroplanes, instruments and equipment was placed on view for "the benefit of officers and men of the R.A.F., aircraft designers and others." This Halberstadt was claimed by Australia and was to be sent back for the proposed War Museum, however another Halberstadt, serial unknown, was substituted instead. This was uncovered when the machine was uncrated in Australia. It was sent to Tasmania for display in an art gallery, but when no permanent home could be found for it, it was apparently sold to a private individual who was building his own aircraft. Legend has it that it was destroyed in a bushfire. The Mercedes engine is stated to have survived but has not turned up to date.
  Some 13 CL.II and nine CL.IV fighters, together with 18 C.V reconnaissance biplanes were taken into US custody and inspected in Europe, but very few made it back to the USA. An inventory of Enemy Material in the USA of 27 August 1919, lists five Halberstadt C types, five Halberstadt C.V and one Halberstadt (spares). One of these was a CL.II as 6312(/17) that was offered for sale without engine for $250 in the 1920s at an Army sale of unwanted aircraft. This particular CL.II had been found in a Zeppelin hangar at Treves in France in an unserviceable condition.
  The first foreign country to use the CL.II was the Netherlands. Four CL.II fighters found their way into the Netherlands and landed to be interned. The Luchtvaartafdeling (EVA) (Dutch Army air service) acquired most of its inventory during 1914-1918 from straying aircraft that were forced by circumstances to land in their territory. 6315/17 was interned on 31 December 1917, at Sas van Gent, Zeeland. It was in perfect condition and was taken into EVA service as H414. Cpl Paul Zeidler then delivered 14252/17 (w/n 594) on 2 April 1918. Neither of these machines was purchased. This machine became H415. 1543/17 was not so lucky as it became lost in fog on a flight from Ghent. When over Knocke it was fired upon by the Dutch forces and made a crash landing at Oostsburg. Kiel, the pilot, was wounded and the fuel tank pierced. He attempted to land the aircraft but the machine was wrecked. His observer was unharmed. The engine was unharmed and later pressed into service. The same was true of 1220/18 after it landed near Guipen, Limburg on 14 November 1918. These aircraft and other German types were operated until late 1918, then were stored after the Armistice had stopped hostilities. It is believed that they were sold off around 1925 as scrap.
  The Estonian Aviation Regiment obtained a number of Halberstadts of different varieties as illustrated. C.V 6905/18 was captured at Narva in 1919 and given the Serial No. 9. This was the C.V that was turned into a floatplane. In 1921 four C.V biplanes, four CL.IV (Rol) were purchased from the German stores at Vamdrup in Denmark.
  Amongst the approximate one hundred German aircraft that Lithuania captured or purchased were the following Halberstadt biplanes as tabulated at right.
  Polish Aviation used more than 20 Halberstadt CL.II, CL.IV, and C.V aircraft, which were found at Lawica/Poznan airfield after the end of WWI. The biggest part were remnants from the German Fliegerersatz-Abteilung 4 Posen and smallest come from Mokotow / Warszawa, ex German Fliegerbeobachterschule Warschau and Albatros-Militar-Wekstatten (REFLA) Warschau. Thirteen Halberstadt CL.IIs and CL.IIAs were refurbished at Poznan (most received new Polish numbers) and two were refurbished at Warsaw/Mokotow. All went to Squadrons at the front or to flying schools. Four Polish Halberstadt CL.IIs were lost during the Polish-Russian war. All Polish Halberstadt CL.IVs came from Lawica (two had Mercedes D.III engines and one (C.5894/18) had a Benz Bz.IV engine) and were used by 2 EW and 14 EW squadrons. One of them was captured and used by Russia, one was lost in Germany after the war (pilot got lost and crashed during a storm). All twelve Polish Halberstadt C.Vs were refurbished at Lawica. Most of them were from BFW production. Most were used during the Polish-Russian war in 2. Eskadra Wielkopolska. One aircraft, C.V C.8843/18, mounted a carrier for four 12.5 kg P.u.W. bombs. At least three Halb. C.Vs were lost during the Polish-Russian war and one fell into Russian hands.
<...>
Halberstadt CL.IV '3' and a Halberstadt CL.II of Schlasta 33 and Hannover CL.IIIa aircraft of Schlasta 20. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV second from left from Schlasta 33 and Hannovers in the background of (probably) Schlasta 20 on August 10,1918. Aircraft at left is a Halberstadt CL.II with another behind the CL.IV. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.V

  The last Halberstadt fighter was the D.V. Very similar to the D.II and D.III, it had the same 120 hp Argus As.II engine used in the D.III, probably due to the high demand for Mercedes engines. However, the preferred 120 hp Mercedes D.II did find its way into some D.V fighters. The single fixed machine gun was now mounted left of the center-line and the cabane structure was redesigned to be more open to provide the pilot a better field of view. Furthermore, the cut-out in the middle of the upper wing was reshaped to be semi-circular.
  The ailerons were within the rectangular planform of the upper wing but were given inset aerodynamic balances.
  At least 31 Halberstadt D.V fighters were supplied to Turkey out of the 57 built. Some of these had Mercedes engines and two machine guns. And some of the Halberstadt D.V fighters sent to Turkey had small side radiators added to them to supplement their standard airfoil radiators in the hot climate in the Middle East.
  Supplying Halberstadt fighters to Turkey late in the war when more powerful Albatros fighters were available may have been due to the delightful flying characteristics of the Halberstadts. Buddecke's experience as the leader of Jasta 4, which was equipped with the Halberstadt D.II, D.III, and D.V types, along with his PLM buddies von Althaus, Hohndorf, Berthold, Frankl, etc., was the determining factor in obtaining the type for Turkey. As Serno's eyes and ears, bringing important experience back to Turkey was key in this decision. It was based on the experience of one man, Buddecke, the "Shooting Hawk" that made that type the main choice for Turkey. Photos show that the type was used there well into 1918 and was still on the airfield until the end of the war. This was important when assigned to inexperienced pilots.
  Records show two guns were sent to Halberstadt on 19 October 1916 for a D.VI fighter but it was not built.


Halberstadt Fighter Type Description
Type Engine Ailerons Wings Remarks
D.V 120 hp Argus As.II (4) or, some aircraft 120 hp Mercedes D.II Inset balanced ailerons with trailing edge flush the wing trailing edge. Three-piece upper wing, cabane joined to the center section. Semi-circular cut-out. 31 (33?) to Turkey, both engine types used. Single fixed gun on port. Second gun sometimes added to starboard. Short, downward exhaust on starboard.
Notes:
(4)Mercedes engines used an overhead camshaft; Argus engines used pushrods.


Halberstadt Fighter Specifications
Spec \ Type D.l D.II D.III D.IV D.V
Engine 100 hp Mercedes D.l 120 hp Mercedes D.II 120 hp Argus As.II 150 hp Benz Bz.III 120 hp Argus As.II
Span, upper - 8.8 m 8.8 m 8.4 m 8.8 m
Span, lower - 7.92 m - - 7.8 m
Chord, upper - 1.52 m 1.52 m 1.5 m 1.5 m
Chord, lower - 1.52 m 1.52 m - 1.5 m
Wing Area 24.0 m2 23.6 m2 23.6 m2 24.0 m2 23.6 m2
Length - 7.3 m 7.3 m - 7.3 m
Weight empty 551 kg 520 kg 525 kg - 600 kg
Weight loaded 739 kg 730 kg - 815 kg 812 kg
Speed - - - - 160 km/h
Climb
1,000 minutes 4.5 3.5 4 - 4
2,000 minutes 10 8.5 9 - 9
3,000 minutes 18.5 14.5 15 - 15
4,000 minutes 35 22.5 - - 24
5,000 minutes - 38.5 - - -
D.II(Av) Empty Wt. 575 kg, Loaded Wt. 728 kg.
D.II(Han) Empty Wt. 561 kg, Loaded Wt. 744 kg


Halberstadt Fighter Production
Order Date Quantity Type Engine Serial Numbers & Notes
October 1916 20 D.V 120 hp Argus As.II D.2310-2329/16
January 1917 12 D.V 120 hp Argus As.II D.200-211/17 (not confirmed). No documentation was found on this series before and after it went to Turkey.
June 1917 25 D.V 120 hp Argus As.II D.3500-3524/17
Halberstadt D.V, Oblt. Hans-Joachim Buddecke, JAFU of Jasta 4, 1916. Buddecke was the 3rd ace awarded the Pour le Merite and scored 13 victories before his death in combat on 10 March 1918.
Halberstadt D.V 421/16 '234'. After capture, recovering with new fabric, and British markings applied for technical evaluation.
Halberstadt D.V HK29, Lt. Emil Meinecke, 6 victories, Turkish Air Service, January 1918
Late Halberstadt D.V with Mercedes engine. The plane has been rebuilt and given 1918 markings. The aircraft was probably used for training or communications duty. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Closeup view of a Halberstadt D.V shows details of its Argus As.II engine. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
This Halberstadt D.V with happy airmen shows the inset aileron balances of the type. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Oblt. Hans Joachim Buddecke in his Halberstadt D.V while serving as commanding officer of Jasta 4 at Vaux on the Western Front. This D.V has an Argus engine. The seam between the aft fuselage fabric and forward fuselage plywood is clearly seen. In his autobiography (El Schahin) he described his unit's planes as "unsere braunen Ratten" ("our brown rats"). Buddecke was awarded the Pour le Merite on April 14, 1916 while serving in Turkey, the third ace to be so honored after Boelcke and Immelmann. After serving as CO of Jasta 4, he returned to Turkey in December 1916, returning to the Western Front in February 1918, where he was KIA on March 10. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Oblt. Hans Joachim Buddecke in his Halberstadt D.V while serving as commanding officer of Jasta 4 at Vaux on the Western Front. This D.V has an Argus engine. The seam between the aft fuselage fabric and forward fuselage plywood is clearly seen. In his autobiography (El Schahin) he described his unit's planes as "unsere braunen Ratten" ("our brown rats"). Buddecke was awarded the Pour le Merite on April 14, 1916 while serving in Turkey, the third ace to be so honored after Boelcke and Immelmann. After serving as CO of Jasta 4, he returned to Turkey in December 1916, returning to the Western Front in February 1918, where he was KIA on March 10. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Lt. Douglas Schnorr of Jasta 30 in the pilot's seat of the Halberstadt D.V "arranged" for him; the guns have been removed. One-legged Schnorr, Offizier zur Besondere Verwendung (Special Duty Officer) of Jasta 30, no longer flew combat missions, but was provided with a unarmed Halberstadt D.V to fly. (Bruno Schmaling)
Lt. Kurt Wolff with a Halberstadt fighter of Jasta 11; although obscured by the propeller, the aileron appears to be that of a D.V. In the background is a Halberstadt D.II or D.III which can be identified by the extended ailerons.
Vzflgm. Max Winkelmann (center) and Vzfw. Heinrich Bussing look toward the camera in this picture taken at Jasta 5's Gonnelieu airfield. The Halberstadt D.V fighter in the background, designated with a 'T' on its fuselage, was flown by their CO, Hans Berr.
Halberstadt D.V in flight. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
The Halberstadt fighter at left with the initial 'M' (for Meier?) was Halberstadt D.II(Han) 820/16 serving with Jasta 25 in Macedonia. The serial is not visible on the Halberstadt D.V at right with initial 'L'.
The Jastaschule at Famars airfield near Valenciennes with Halberstadt fighters. At right is a D.V; the other two fighters are D.II. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Lineup of Halberstadt D.II, D.III, and D.V fighters at Jastaschule I. Third aircraft from the right is an Albatros D.I.
Halberstadt D.V 421/16 (work no. 234) of Jasta 30 was brought down by anti-aircraft fire on February 15, 1917. It was powered by a 120 hp Argus As.II. The pilot, Unteroffizier Heinrich Schneider, was taken prisoner. The British assigned it captured enemy aircraft number G.12. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.V 421/16 being paraded through London during the Lord Mayor's Show of 1917. It had been entirely recovered and painted up with fake Iron Crosses. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.V 421/16 being paraded through the streets of London during the Lord Mayor's Show in November 1917. Apparently this was after it had been completely re-covered in clear-doped fabric. Its British markings were painted over with "German" ones for the parade.
Halberstadt D.V 421/16 was refurbished and test flown by the British. The work number was painted on the rudder, (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.V with Mercedes D.II engine in Turkish service. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
This Halberstadt D.V in Turkish service and the one behind both have Mercedes engines. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.V in Turkish service with the ground personnel of Turkish FA 5. The fighter has an Argus engine and supplementary cheek-style radiators in addition to the regular airfoil radiator.
Hans-Joachim Buddecke (wearing tropical helmet) shows a Halberstadt D.V to General Liman von Sanders (wearing Turkish Kalpak hat) sometime during Buddecke's second tour of duty in Turkey in 1917. (Tobias Weber)
Halberstadt D.V in Turkish markings flown by German ace Lt. Emil Meinecke, who achieved six victories over the Dardanelles. Here Meinecke is shown on January 27, 1918 after a tough combat with six British fighters. The maneuverability of the Halberstadt must have been a factor in his survival. This aircraft is fitted with a Mercedes D.II instead of the Argus As.II and has a protective plate installed to protect the carburetor intake manifold from the blast effects of the machine gun or certain types of ammunition. This slightly alters the nose contours. HK29 is marked on the Turkish insignia.
Halberstadt D.V in Turkish markings with an Argus As.II engine which did not have an overhead camshaft to operate the intake and exhaust valves. It had push rods and rocker arms instead, whose double springs could be seen and not hidden under the valve gear covers. The cowling panels are modified to cover a higher area over cylinders to provide better streamlining and altering the nose contours. This is apparent in the Argus-engined models. Ace Lt. Emil Meinecke is second from left.
Cockpit of Halberstadt D.V 421/16. The mounting for the gun on the left is visible and the RPM indicator is mounted centrally high in the pilot's line of sight. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Cockpit of Halberstadt D.V 421/16. The mounting for the gun on the left is visible and the RPM indicator is mounted centrally high in the pilot's line of sight. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
A somewhat unsuccessful landing by Lt. Schnorr on Jasta 30's airfield. Three Halberstadt D.Vs were provided to Jasta 30 as initial equipment. They had formerly been flown by Jasta 11 who had completed turning them in on February 28, 1917 to the Armee Flugpark 6. (Bruno Schmaling)
Halberstadt D.V crashed by Josef Jacobs while he was an instructor at Jastaschule Ia.
Halberstadt D.V
Halberstadt D.V
Halberstadt D.V
Halberstadt C.V

  The Halberstadt C.V looked like an enlarged, two-bay development of the Halberstadt CL.IV. When the C.V first flew in early March 1918, it demonstrated excellent climb and flying qualities much better than existing C-type aircraft. In fact, the flying qualities of the C.V approached those of the much smaller and lighter Halberstadt CL-types. It was considered to be the best Nahaufklarung und Artillerieflugzeug (short-range reconnaissance and artillery spotting aircraft). These aircraft, including the Halberstadt C.V, were powered by the 200 hp Benz Bz.IVu engine, a high-altitude version of the standard 200 hp Benz Bz.IV that had higher compression. Due to its excellent climb and maneuverability, the Halberstadt C.V was considered superior to the LVG C.V, LVG C.VI, Rumpler C.IV, and the DFW C.V.
  On 14 March 1918, a C.V flown by company test pilot Karl Voight, reached 5,000 m in 24.3 minutes, an excellent time; it was the fastest rate of climb of any C-type powered by the Benz Bz.IVг engine. The Albatros C.XV required 27.9 minutes to reach 5,000 m, the second fastest climb of a C-type powered by the Benz Bz.IVu. Only the Hannover C.IV and Rumpler C.VII, powered by the 245 hp Maybach Mb.IVa engine, exceeded this climb rate (the Hannover C.IV took 21 minutes and the Rumpler C.VII took 23.8 minutes).
  Idflieg reported that the flight evaluation of the Halberstadt C.V was completed by the end of March 1918 and the aircraft was in production at Halberstadt.
  Static load tests performed between 26 March and 22 April revealed all tests were passed except Case A, pulling out of a dive. In this case, the wing attachment fittings and turnbuckles had to be strengthened. The fin and rudder also required reinforcing gussets and the rear fuselage required strengthening (lightened longerons were replaced by solid ones).
The first ten C.V aircraft reached the front by the end of June, 1918. Evaluations from front-line units revealed a few further modifications for strengthening were needed. In particular, the lift cables had to be changed from 4mm to 5mm diameter.
  Operational experience revealed the C.V was very maneuverable and had a good upward view for the pilot. However, due to the short fuselage, pitch sensitivity was high and landing the C.V was difficult. The C.V bounced easily on landing and a tail skid land was impossible. Strengthened undercarriages built by Halberstadt and Aviatik were load tested on 8 October 1918, indicating that was also an issue.
  License production was first undertaken by BFW in Munich. Soon DFW of Leipzig also received an order. It is not known when the BFW-built C.V aircraft started reaching the front, although Idflieg's 1918 production quotas promulgated in March called for BFW to start delivering 80 aircraft a month from July and continue that pace through December. C.V(DFW) 4101/18 was load tested between 16 July and 6 August, the prolonged testing due to modifications to the basic design by DFW.
  C.V production was also ordered at Aviatik, with the load test of C.V (Av) 6801/18 performed between 28 August and 13 September 1918. Again some strengthening was required to pass the test; only on the third version of the undercarriage did Aviatik pass that portion of the test. Unfortunately, the companies assigned license production often made unauthorized 'improvements' that had to be re-engineered to pass the load tests, wasting valuable time and engineering resources.
  Used in its intended role, the Halberstadt excelled, having excellent flight qualities, maneuverability, and climb rate. However, when used for long-range reconnaissance missions for which it was not designed, crews were disappointed. The Rumpler C.VII was designed for high-altitude, long-range missions. It could handle the high altitudes and additional weight of the cameras and other equipment.


Halberstadt C.V Specifications
Engine 200 hp Benz Bz.IVu
Span, upper 13.62 m
Span, lower 12.85 m
Chord, upper 1.60 m
Chord, lower 1.60 m
Gap 1.49 m
Wing Area 38.94 m2
Length 6.92 m
Weight empty 930 kg
Weight loaded 1,360 kg
Speed 180 km/h
Climb
2,000 minutes 4.5
3,000 minutes 9.7
4,000 minutes 15.7
5,000 minutes 25.9
Benz Bz.IVu rated above 2,000 m; often given as 240 hp


Halberstadt C.V Production Orders
Date Quantity Serials Notes
March 1918 50 Not known Work # 1219, 1246 known
April 1918 150 C.3350-3499/18 Work # 1248-1397
April 1918 100 C.2900-2999/18 Bay built
May 1918 200 C.4100-4299/18 DFW built
June 1918 2 C.5974-5989/18 Known number range
June 1918 150 C.6800-6949/18 Aviatik built
June 1918 100 C.6600-6749/18 Bay built
August 1918 200 C.8700-8899/18 Bay built
September 1918 100 ? Aviatik built
September 1918 100 2 DFW built
October 1918 60 2
November 1918 50 2 Cancelled?
November 1918 100 2 Aviatik built; cancelled?
November 1918 100 2 Bay built; cancelled?
License production by Aviatik, Bay (also called BFW for Bayerische Flugzeug Werke), and DFW.



Halberstadt C.IX

  The Halberstadt C.IX was simply a C.V airframe fitted with a 230 hp Hiero engine. The Hiero was an Austro-Hungarian engine and the resulting prototype was intended for evaluation by the Austro-Hungarians to determine if the aircraft should be built for the Luftfahrtruppen.
  By the time this aircraft was built the end of the war was in sight and apparently only the one prototype was built.



Afterword: Halberstadts Postwar by Colin Owers

<...>
  Some 13 CL.II and nine CL.IV fighters, together with 18 C.V reconnaissance biplanes were taken into US custody and inspected in Europe, but very few made it back to the USA. An inventory of Enemy Material in the USA of 27 August 1919, lists five Halberstadt C types, five Halberstadt C.V and one Halberstadt (spares). One of these was a CL.II as 6312(/17) that was offered for sale without engine for $250 in the 1920s at an Army sale of unwanted aircraft. This particular CL.II had been found in a Zeppelin hangar at Treves in France in an unserviceable condition.
  The Estonian Aviation Regiment obtained a number of Halberstadts of different varieties as illustrated. C.V 6905/18 was captured at Narva in 1919 and given the Serial No. 9. This was the C.V that was turned into a floatplane. In 1921 four C.V biplanes, four CL.IV (Rol) were purchased from the German stores at Vamdrup in Denmark.
  Amongst the approximate one hundred German aircraft that Lithuania captured or purchased were the following Halberstadt biplanes as tabulated at right.
  Polish Aviation used more than 20 Halberstadt CL.II, CL.IV, and C.V aircraft, which were found at Lawica/Poznan airfield after the end of WWI. The biggest part were remnants from the German Fliegerersatz-Abteilung 4 Posen and smallest come from Mokotow / Warszawa, ex German Fliegerbeobachterschule Warschau and Albatros-Militar-Wekstatten (REFLA) Warschau. Thirteen Halberstadt CL.IIs and CL.IIAs were refurbished at Poznan (most received new Polish numbers) and two were refurbished at Warsaw/Mokotow. All went to Squadrons at the front or to flying schools. Four Polish Halberstadt CL.IIs were lost during the Polish-Russian war. All Polish Halberstadt CL.IVs came from Lawica (two had Mercedes D.III engines and one (C.5894/18) had a Benz Bz.IV engine) and were used by 2 EW and 14 EW squadrons. One of them was captured and used by Russia, one was lost in Germany after the war (pilot got lost and crashed during a storm). All twelve Polish Halberstadt C.Vs were refurbished at Lawica. Most of them were from BFW production. Most were used during the Polish-Russian war in 2. Eskadra Wielkopolska. One aircraft, C.V C.8843/18, mounted a carrier for four 12.5 kg P.u.W. bombs. At least three Halb. C.Vs were lost during the Polish-Russian war and one fell into Russian hands.
  Soviet Russia used a number of Halberstadt types either captured during the Civil War and following conflicts, or purchased in the 1920s. Halberstadt CL.IV and C.V biplanes are known to have carried the Red star of the Soviets.
  Switzerland purchased Halberstadt C.V (DFW) 4146/18 via the IAACC in January 1920, and entered service with the Swiss air force as Serial 704. This machine was used mainly for high altitude training flights, however the lack of spares caused the Halberstadt to be withdrawn in June 1921 after only about 20 flying hours. It was then scrapped. Three Halberstadts also came onto the Swiss civil register. CH68 was registered as a CL.II but was a modified CL.IV with two-bay wings; two C.V biplanes were CH72 and CH85.
<...>
Halberstadt C.V early production as shown by national insignia, Summer 1918
Halberstadt C.V 3415/18, Fl.Abt.(A) 222, Summer 1918
Halberstadt C.V(D.F.W.) 4165/18
Halberstadt C.V(Av) 6863/18 War Prize sent to Canada postwar
Halberstadt C.V ‘3', FA(A) 199b, Summer 1918
Halberstadt C.V(Bay), Unknown unit, Summer 1918
Halberstadt C.V Star Unknown unit
Polish Halberstadt C.V(Bay) C.6644/18 "I" from II Eskadra Wielkopolska, Spring 1919.
Halberstadt C.V floatplane conversion. Estonian '53', formerly C.V(Av) 6898/18
Halberstadt C.IX prototype
Prototype Halberstadt C.V at Adlershof in February-March 1918. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Prototype Halberstadt C.V at Adlershof. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V(Bay) 2901/18 at Adlershof. It was the second aircraft of the first batch built by Bay. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V(Bay) 2914/18 ready for a mission with a good supply of signal flares.
Halberstadt C.V(Bay) 2942/18 of FliegerAbteilung (A) 222 with its air crew and ground crew. (Reinhard Zankl)
Halberstadt C.V C.3415/18 of FliegerAbteilung (A) 222 with its crew. The white/dark/white fuselage band is probably the unit marking.
This detail of the photo above shows the number '1313' on the fin. This is the works number. This is the works number for C.3415/18.
Halberstadt C.V work number 1334 was likely C.3436/18. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V in the hands of French Escadrille 35, postwar. The works number on the rudder is 1376, which may have corresponded to C.3478/18. LVG C.VI W/Nr 4732 is in the background. (Reinhard Zankl).
The crew of Halberstadt C.V(DFW) 4135/18 of FI.Abt.(A) 298b ready for flight. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halb C.V (DFW) 4135/18 of FI.Abt.(A) 298b. The crew is observer Lt. Karl Gross and pilot Offstv. Kapfhammer All photos were taken at Les Baraques airfield in the summer of 1918.
Halberstadt C.V(DFW) 4183/18 on a home visit surrounded by teachers and children. A bulge along the side of the observer's cockpit characteristic of DFW-built Halberstadt C.V likely provided storage for flare cartridges. (Peter M. Grosz collection/ STDB)
Halberstadt C.V(DFW) 4185/18 from FliegerAbteilung (A) 279 was captured on 28 October 1918 after it landed in the vicinity of Manacourt, 15 km from Toul. The crew identified the location of their unit as Les Baroches. These photos show the aircraft with its original German markings.
Halb C.V (DFW) 4185/18 retouched to try to remove all of the background detail. The cross insignia on the upper right wing has been completely overpainted with an American cockade, but the painting of the cockade on the left upper wing was not yet complete.
Halberstadt C.V(DFW) 4185/18 from FliegerAbteilung (A) 279 captured on 28 October 1918 after its original German markings were over-painted by Allied markings. The aircraft flying surfaces were covered by camouflage fabric. The fuselage was slate gray fading to dull green near the tail with a white rudder. The aircraft had a wireless and electrical heating, but no bomb racks. The date stamped on the lower left wing was 12/8/18, indicating manufacture on August 12, 1918. The crew were on a mission to drop propaganda leaflets over the American lines. They claimed they lost their way in the fog, mistook Italian soldiers for Austrians, and decided to land and orient themselves. There they surrendered to five unarmed Americans.
Halberstadt C.V(DFW) 41xx/18. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
The crew pose with their aircraft, Halberstadt C.V(Bay) 6619/18. The characteristic speckled camouflage is well-shown. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V(Bay) 6729/18 at Trier postwar before being flown (above) and after being overturned on landing (below).
Halberstadt C.V(Av) 6803/18 at Trier postwar. Benz Engine Number 35202 was installed. (Charles G. Thomas)
Halberstadt C.V(Av) 6804/18 with outer wings removed at Trier postwar. The white lettering on the fin seems to say "In Treue Fest" (Firmly Devoted) which is the motto of the Bavarian Royal Family.
Halberstadt C.V(Av) 6863/18 postwar photographed at Chingford aerodrome in the UK before being shipped to Canada as war reparations. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V(Av) 6863/18 upon its arrival in Canada. There were no visible differences between C.V aircraft built by Halberstadt and the license manufacturers other than the style of markings and camouflage and the Aviatik decals on Aviatik-built aircraft. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V(Av) 6863/18; a two-color diagonal band has been over painted and is barely visible. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V(Av) 6863/18 upon its arrival in Canada. There were no visible differences between C.V aircraft built by Halberstadt and the license manufacturers other than the style of markings and camouflage and the Aviatik decals on Aviatik-built aircraft. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
The best German short-range two-seater was the Halberstadt C.V. Its wingspan was twice its length, giving it good climb and maneuverability but making it hard to land due to its short-coupled fuselage.
Halberstadt C.V(Av) 6930/18 with its Benz Bz.IVu removed for maintenance. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Early production Halberstadt C.V. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Early production Halberstadt C.V on the factory airfield. The C.V combined a long, two-bay wing for climb and maneuverability with a short fuselage to minimize weight. The short fuselage gave minimal pitch stability that caused problems during landing. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Early production Halberstadt C.V. Introduced into combat late in June, 1918, the Halberstadt C.V was the best German short-range reconnaissance aircraft of the war based on its good maneuverability, good climb rate, and excellent handling qualities.
Halberstadt C.V(Bay) aircraft in Allied hands at Trier after the Armistice. On January 8, 1919, 21 C.V aircraft were delivered to the USAS at Trier as part of the Armistice agreement. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Looking like a larger, two-bay Halberstadt CL.IV, the Halberstadt C.V was the best general-purpose German two-seater in the last months of the war. For good high-altitude performance it had a large wing that spanned twice the length of the fuselage. It was powered by the 240 hp Benz Bz.IVau overcompressed engine.
Halberstadt C.V(Bay) at its factory in Munich fitted with wood wheels to conserve rubber.
Halberstadt C.V(Av) at Adlershof in August-September 1918 during the Typenprufung (type-test) for this license-built aircraft. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V being given a pre-flight inspection. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
From left, Junkers D.I, Fokker D.VII, and Halberstadt C.V of Kampfgeschwader Sachsenberg aircraft at Swinemunde (today's Swinoujscie, in Poland) on the Baltic in 1919.
Halberstadt C.V(Bay) in US hands, photographed after the armistice. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V(Bay) aircraft in American hands at Trier postwar.
Halberstadt C.V with personal five-pointed star insignia initials 'H7' painted on the tail. (Charles G.Thomas)
Halberstadt C.V in the field.
Halberstadt C.V(Bay); C.V aircraft built by Halberstadt and BFW (Bay) generally had an all white fin and rudder. The fins of C.V aircraft built by Aviatik and DFW generally was covered by camouflage printed fabric. Most C.V aircraft had a white rudder. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V(DFW) photographed at Adlershof. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V(Bay) of an unknown unit. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V(Av) at Adlershof in August-September 1918 during the Typenprufung (type-test) for this license-built aircraft. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V(Bay) after the Armistice with American soldiers outside the famous Zeppelin hangar at Trier. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V flown by FliegerAbteilung (A) 287b. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Close-up of Halberstadt C.V of FliegerAbteilung (A) 287b in the field.
Halberstadt C.V of postwar FliegerAbteilung 429 at Vilkaviskis, Lithuania, in early May 1919. FA 429 had 7 aircraft at this time. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V '7' of Bavarian Flieger Abteilung (A) 199 and crewman.
Halberstadt C.V '7' of Bavarian FliegerAbteilung (A) 199 and crewman, who may be the same person shown on the facing page. Perhaps this is aircraft '7' as shown with him?
A pilot photographed with his Halberstadt C.V of an unknown unit. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V with Halberstadt designer Karl Theis (2nd from left) and Pour le Merite naval ace Gotthard Sachsenberg (3rd from left). (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V of Bavarian FliegerAbteilung (A) 199 with ground crew.
Halberstadt C.V and personnel of Flieger Abteilung 429 at Vilkaviskis, Lithuania, in early May 1919. FA 429 had 7 aircraft at this time. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Personnel of Freikorps FliegerAbteilung 429 in late May 1919 and one of their Halberstadt C.V aircraft at Schloss Schoneberg/Deutsch-Eylau, East Prussia. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Personnel of Freikorps FliegerAbteilung 429 in late May 1919 and one of their Halberstadt C.V aircraft at Schloss Schoneberg/Deutsch-Eylau, East Prussia. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V(Av) fuselage at the German stores at Vamdrup in Denmark. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V aircraft; the C.V on the right was C.3388/18. A Fokker D.VII in the left background indicates it was not the Halberstadt factory, but likely a postwar collection point in Germany, possibly Furth or Schleissheim. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V is among Junkers monoplanes and a Fokker D.VII on the right of the Wainoden Zeppelin hall postwar. Junkers D.I(Jco) D.9166/18 is first in line on the left. This location is now Vainode in Latvia. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V '3' of Bavarian Flieger Abteilung (A) 199 in flight.
Halberstadt C.V(DFW) with DFW Logo on the nose being transported. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V data plate.
A pilot and his girlfriend photographed in unarmed Halberstadt C.V 3382/18, probably soon after the Armistice. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V CH-181 in Swiss postwar civil service. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V with USAS cockades and Allied personnel after the Armistice. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Personnel and guests of the II Eskadra Wielkopolska in front of Halberstadt C.V C.6646/18 with painted on white shield girl's name Janka (?) at nose. Kleka airfield, Spring 1919. (Piotr Mrozowski)
Group of airmen from II Eskadra Wielkopolska at front of unknown Halberstadt C.V with Death poster fastened to the nose. Kisielewicze n/Bobrujsk Airfield, winter 1919/1920. (Piotr Mrozowski)
Halberstadt C.V (number not known) from II Eskadra Wielkopolska with poster "Pilot and Death" motive. At front of the aeroplane from left: Observer Leon Rader and Lt. Pilot Stefan Luczak, Winter 1919/1920. (Piotr Mrozowski)
Fragment of poster showing The Death playing to Pilot motive. This poster was fastened to the nose of one Halberstadt C.V from II Eskadra Wielkopolska. (Piotr Mrozowski)
Halberstadt C.V used by Red Russian aviation with early national insignia; German markings were overpainted by red rhombuses. (Peter M. Grosz collection/ STDB)
Latvian Halberstadt C.V(DFW) 4237/18 as originally restored in 1920, Latvian serial '19'. It served in the 3rd Squadron between 1921 and 1923.
Fokker D.VII(OAW) 8595/18 (#4) flown by Lt. Munters, has crashed into Halberstadt C.V(DFW) 4237/18 (#19), both ex-Sachsenberg. (Moshe Bukhman)
This is thought to be the accident that finally ended in it being written off when it hit a Halberstadt C.V at the training squadron.
Latvian Halberstadt C.V(DFW) 4237/18 '19' on skis after a minor crash by Karlis Skaubitlis on 20 February 1922. It was subsequently repaired and returned to service.
Halberstadt C.V(DFW) 4237/18, formerly with KG Sachsenberg, was given Latvian serial '19'. It was still in service with the Training Squadron on 1 September 1935. The crash details are unknown, but after the crash it was assigned to the Aviation School/Training Squadron as an instructional airframe.
Halberstadt C.V(DFW) 4237/18, Latvian serial '19', here as an instructional airframe with the Latvian Aviation School/Training Squadron after 1935.
Lithuanian Halberstadt C.V in flight over a winter landscape circa 1922. (Moshe Bukhman)
Parade of the Estonian Airforce at Lasnamae/Tallinn in 1923. Fourth from right is Halberstadt CL.IV(Rol) '61' (work no.4328); sixth from right Halb. C.V(DFW) '62' (work no. 2436). The C.V was written off as the result of a crash on 2 July 1923.
Halberstadt C.V(Av) 6898/18, formerly of postwar FA 413 /KG Sachsenberg, being repaired and converted to a floatplane in Estonia in 1920. Assigned Estonian serial '53', it was in service with the Sea Squadron until 26 August, 1926, when, in its wheeled configuration, it was crashed by Sub.-Lt. Mickel Parsman. It had been converted back to landplane configuration earlier in 1926. After that crash it was not repaired.
Halberstadt C.V(Av) 6898/18 under restoration and modification into a floatplane in Estonia. It was assigned Estonian serial '53'. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Estonian Halberstadt C.V(Av) 6898/18 '53' modified to have floats with crewmen. It is almost restored in the upper photo and fully restored in the lower photo.
Halberstadt C.V(Av) 6898/18 '53' (ex-FA 417/KG Sachsenberg) fully restored and ready to enter service with the Estonian Sea Squadron. It was captured east of Narva on 9 June 1919 and initially given serial '13'. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V(Av) 6898/18 '53' (ex-FA 417/KG Sachsenberg) fully taxiing on the water after its conversion to a floatplane. (Moshe Bukhman)
Estonian Halberstadt C.V(Av) 6898/18 '53' after being crashed by Sub.-Lt. Mihkel Parsman on 26 August, 1926. Converted by the Estonians into a floatplane, it was used for years until being converted back to landplane configuration in 1926. After the above crash it was not repaired. It was formerly with KG Sachsenberg and was captured at Narva on 9 June 1919. The radiator was right of centerline and the fuel tank was to the left. (Moshe Bukhman)
Unrestored Halberstadt C.V 3470/18 on display in the Belgian Army Museum in Brussels. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V 3470/18 in the Belgian Army Museum, Brussels. The C.V did not feature a spinner and the spinner backing plate was not normally fitted. The aircraft is now being restored.
Halberstadt C.V 3470/18 in the Belgian Army Museum, Brussels. The C.V did not feature a spinner and the spinner backing plate was not normally fitted. The aircraft is now being restored.
Unrestored Halberstadt C.V 3470/18 on display in the Belgian Army Museum in Brussels. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V 3470/18 on display in the Belgian Army Museum in Brussels. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V 3470/18 in the Belgian Army Museum. The lighter, unfaded color is where the engine cowling covered the fuselage camouflage.
Halberstadt C.V 3470/18 on display in the Belgian Army Museum in Brussels. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.IX prototype. The C.IX was simply a C.V fitted with a Hiero engine. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
The Halberstadt C.IX, powered by a 230 hp Hiero engine, was built on order for the LFT. It is shown here prior to its maiden flight on 19 August 1918 on the Halberstadt airfield.
Halberstadt C.IX prototype showing its Hiero engine. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.IX prototype. The cockpit picture shows Austro-Hungarian instruments and a Schwarzlose machine gun mounted for pilot. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.IX prototype cockpits. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Austro-Hungarian Halberstadt C(?) with Hiero engine. Note replaced position wing cooler with gravity tank at wing center section typical for Hiero engines.
Halberstadt C.V(Bay) 6609/18 from FAA 275 on its nose. The C.V was difficult to land due to minimum pitch stability from the short fuselage. The long wings meant that the wings needed to be level on touch-down or a wing tip could dig in as here. The zig-zag around the rear fuselage is a unit marking. Note the center-section canvas covering on the right side only. The left side was made of plywood so the pilot could grab it when entering and leaving the cockpit. Note: the lozenge 90 degree wings covering typical for licence-built Halberstadt (BFW) manufacture. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Crashed Halberstadt C.V of an unknown unit. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V after its landing gear collapsed displayed its light rib tapes. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Two views of a BFW-built Halberstadt C.V after the landing gear collapsed while being flown by an American pilot at Trier postwar. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V 3448/18 of FliegerAbteilung 46b after wrecking its undercarriage in a rough landing. A few signal flares remain it is large flare storage rack beside the observer's cockpit. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
The Halberstadt C.V had limited pitch stability due to its short fuselage, causing many landing accidents. This page and the facing page show that. Halberstadt C.V(Av) 6911/18 of FA 417//LG Sachsenberg at Peterfeld, Latvia, the WWI airfield of Artillerie Fliegerschule Ost II, after a bad landing probably the end of April, 1919, during the spring thaw. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V(Av) 6902/18 of FA 417/KG Sachsenberg, crashed by Averdam and Ruppricht at Vainode, probably in May 1919. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V(Av) 6920/18 after a landing accident. The marginal pitch stability of the C.V made landings much more difficult than usual.
Hit by Estonian ground fire, Halberstadt C.V(Av) 6905/18 of KG Sachsenberg, nosed over in a field behind a broadcloth factory between the Sala railway station and the Yamburg road east of Narva (Yudenich's territory) on 9 June 1919. The plane was apparently crewed by pilot Vzfw. Preis and observer Lt. Friedrich von Patze on a diplomatic mission from Riga. Preis was dressing Patze's wounds when shot and severely injured by an Estonian soldier. Both men were arrested and placed in a POW camp, where Preis was severely mistreated despite his wounds. He was freed by the Danish Red Cross on 12 August 1921, but Patze remained behind until September. Damage to the aircraft was substantial, hence it was never repaired nor flown, although issued Estonian serial '12' "under repairs" in 1921. It was declared derelict in 1922 and written off in 1923. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Hit by Estonian ground fire, Halberstadt C.V(Av) 6905/18 of KG Sachsenberg, nosed over in a field behind a broadcloth factory between the Sala railway station and the Yamburg road east of Narva (Yudenich's territory) on 9 June 1919. The plane was apparently crewed by pilot Vzfw. Preis and observer Lt. Friedrich von Patze on a diplomatic mission from Riga. Preis was dressing Patze's wounds when shot and severely injured by an Estonian soldier. Both men were arrested and placed in a POW camp, where Preis was severely mistreated despite his wounds. He was freed by the Danish Red Cross on 12 August 1921, but Patze remained behind until September. Damage to the aircraft was substantial, hence it was never repaired nor flown, although issued Estonian serial '12' "under repairs" in 1921. It was declared derelict in 1922 and written off in 1923. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V(Av) C.6905/18 of FA 417/KG Sachsenberg being righted by Estonian soldiers at Narva. Assigned Estonian serial 12, it was never restored..
Also hit by Estonian ground fire, Halberstadt C.V(Av) C.6898/18 of KG Sachsenberg nosed over next to 6905/18 on the Yamburg road at about the same time. Apparently it was piloted by Lt. Horst Sawatzke with passenger Herbert Buschmann on a diplomatic assignment to General Rodzyanko, who happened to be on the spot and insisted on Buschmann's release, without success. Both were also placed in a POW camp; Sawatzki was released along with Preis and Buschmann - due to Gen. Gough's (Head of the Allied Mission in the Baltics) intervention. Damage to 6898/18 was less than that to 6905/18, and 6898/18 was initially given Estonian serial '13' but then repaired with afloat undercarriage under serial '53'.
Halberstadt C.V(Bay) crashed by an American pilot at Trier postwar.
These photos illustrate the story of Halberstadt C.V(Bay) 6729/18 at Trier postwar. In accordance with the Armistice terms the US Air Service received 21 Halberstadt C.V aircraft at Trier on January 8, 1919. Many, including C.V(Bay) 6729/18, were flown by the Americans. Many of these were crashed because the short fuselage gave them limited pitch stability and they were difficult to land. Above C.V(Bay) 6729/18 on its back after a bad landing, and below American troops right the aircraft.
Halberstadt C.V(Bay) 6655/18 of FliegerAbteilung (A) 222 after it was crashed. An Ica camera in its mounting bracket is visible in the foreground. (Reinhard Zankl)
Halberstadt C.V crashed by an American pilot at Trier postwar. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V (Bay) 6620/18, which was crashed at Trier by a US pilot.
Halberstadt C.V(Bay) 6620/18 crashed at Trier while in US possession postwar. (Peter M. Grosz collection/ STDB)
Halberstadt C.V(Bay) after a crash.
Halberstadt C.V Factory Colors
Halberstadt C.V(DFW) Factory Colors
Halberstadt C.V(Av) Factory Colors
Halberstadt C.V(Bay) Factory Colors
Halberstadt C.V
Halberstadt C.V
Halberstadt C.V
Halberstadt C.VII

  The Halberstadt C.VI apparently remained an unbuilt project so the next Halberstadt C-type design built was the Halberstadt C.VII.
  The C.V excelled at the short-range reconnaissance role but crews were disappointed with it for long-range, high-altitude reconnaissance and preferred the Rumpler Rubild Mb for that task.
  Ordered in June 1918, the Halberstadt C.VII was a somewhat lighter, smaller, single-bay development of the C.V intended for the long-range, high-altitude reconnaissance role. The engine was a 260 hp Maybach Mb.IVa six-cylinder engine high-altitude motor.
  With the C.VII Idflieg wanted to retain the excellent maneuverability and flight qualities of the C.V combined with improved climb and ceiling.
  At Adlershof in June the C.VII climbed to 6,000 m in 30 minutes with full load; when it was accepted from the factory the C.VII accomplished it in 29.5 minutes. Idflieg reported that negotiations were in progress regarding the installation of photographic equipment.
  On July 27 the C.VII arrived in Adlershof again. Idflieg expected high-altitude flights to be made by the beginning of August. Afterward comparison flights with the Rumpler C.X and Hannover CL.V were to take place since they were also designed for this role. The Rumpler C.X was selected for production.
  No further information is available on the Halberstadt C.VII as the similar C.VIII offered better climb and ceiling.



Halberstadt C.VIII

  The airframe of the Halberstadt C.VIII was identical to the C.VII except the wing was slightly longer in span. Like the C.VII, the C.VIII was intended for the long-range, high-altitude reconnaissance role. The C.VIII even used the same 260 hp Maybach Mb.IVa six-cylinder engine high-altitude motor used in the C.VII. Only a single prototype with works number 1798 was built.
  Due to its slightly larger wing the C.VIII demonstrated better climb and ceiling than the C.VII. The climb performance in the adjacent table was recorded by Idflieg in September 1918.
  By 2 October the C.VIII had demonstrated a significant improvement over the C.VII, especially in flight characteristics at high altitude.
  Both C.VII and C.VIII mounted a fixed Spandau 08/15 machine gun for the pilot and a flexible Parabellum 14 for the observer. Furthermore, neither arrived in time to be selected for production.


Halberstadt C.VIII Climb
Height in Km. Time in Minutes
0-1 2.5
1-2 3.5
2-3 4.3
3-4 5.7
4-5 7.2
6-6 16.8
6-6.6 80.-
Notes:
The above times were recorded with a 435 kg payload.
With a 510 kg payload the absolute ceiling was 6,300 meters.
The tests were recorded by Idflieg in September 1918.
Halberstadt C.VIII prototype
Halberstadt C.VII prototype. It used the same airframe and engine used by the later C.VIII except the wing was slightly smaller, which gave it inferior climb and ceiling. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.VII prototype. The observer is giving a good-natured wave to the photographer. The photo was taken on September 3, 1918. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.VIII prototype. It used the same airframe and engine used by the C.VII except the wing was slightly larger, which gave it better climb and ceiling. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Prototype Halberstadt C.VIII. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.VIII prototype. The fuselage was raised around the gunners'cockpit to shelter him from the blast of wind. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.VIII
Halberstadt C.VIII
Halberstadt C.VIII
Halberstadt CL.IV

  Developed from the highly successful Halberstadt CL.II, the CL.IV had a shorter fuselage and lighter weight due to careful attention to detail design and the reduced fuselage size. Powered by the same 170 hp Mercedes D.IIIa inline engine as used in later production CL.II aircraft, the empty aircraft weighed 161 pounds (73 kg) less than the CL.II. Aerodynamics were improved with better streamlining and a new wing section. The Mercedes D.IIIa was generally referred to as an 160 hp engine like the D.III, but had slightly more power due to its refinements and actually produced 165-170 hp.
  The CL.IV first flew in February 1918. It immediately demonstrated excellent climb and maneuverability. The type test was performed between 5-27 March. The load tests took three weeks because the designer, Karl Theis, had submitted three different sets of wings each with a slightly different structure. The strongest wings were chosen for production.
  In April-May Idflieg assigned the first production order for 150 of the Halberstadt CL.IV. An engine shortage delayed production. In May and June, Idflieg reported that comparative flight trials had demonstrated that the CL.IV was the best aircraft in the CL-category. The CL.IV arrived at the front in June 1918 and was reported as "unsurpassed by any CL-aircraft at the front."
  Pilots did report slight pitch instability due to the shorter fuselage. This made the aircraft tiring to fly and less suitable as a gun platform. Halberstadt engineers solved the problem by adding a frame to the tail section, increasing the fuselage length by about 0.4 m (15.7 inches). This longer fuselage was required for the Roland-built aircraft. However, Idflieg delayed making the change in Halberstadt-built aircraft pending evaluation of front-line reports. It is not known if later Halberstadt-built CL.IV aircraft had the extended fuselage.
  An early-production Roland-built CL.IV was static load tested between July 22 and August 14, 1918. Unfortunately, Roland engineers had 'improved' the wing structure and weakened it. The wings had to be built essentially on the original Halberstadt design. Conditional approval was granted for operational service pending a second load test. These were performed between 11-25 September. Minor structural problems were discovered requiring more strengthening. All Roland-built aircraft were delivered with the longer fuselages. All these changes made the Roland-built aircraft 20 kg heavier than Halberstadt-built aircraft.


Halberstadt CL.IV Production Orders
Date Quantity Serials Notes
May 1918 150 4600-4749/18
June 1918 200 5770-5969/18
July 1918 150 8050-8199/18 Roland
August 1918 200 6439-6589/18 Only aircraft in the 6500-6599/18 range have been seen
August 1918 200 9400-9599/18
November 1918 300 Not known Roland, cancelled
November 1918 100 Not known cancelled
3 prototypes normally ordered, one for flight tests, one for static tests, and one spare.



Afterword: Halberstadts Postwar by Colin Owers

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  Some 13 CL.II and nine CL.IV fighters, together with 18 C.V reconnaissance biplanes were taken into US custody and inspected in Europe, but very few made it back to the USA. An inventory of Enemy Material in the USA of 27 August 1919, lists five Halberstadt C types, five Halberstadt C.V and one Halberstadt (spares). One of these was a CL.II as 6312(/17) that was offered for sale without engine for $250 in the 1920s at an Army sale of unwanted aircraft. This particular CL.II had been found in a Zeppelin hangar at Treves in France in an unserviceable condition.
<...>
  The Estonian Aviation Regiment obtained a number of Halberstadts of different varieties as illustrated. C.V 6905/18 was captured at Narva in 1919 and given the Serial No. 9. This was the C.V that was turned into a floatplane. In 1921 four C.V biplanes, four CL.IV (Rol) were purchased from the German stores at Vamdrup in Denmark.
  Amongst the approximate one hundred German aircraft that Lithuania captured or purchased were the following Halberstadt biplanes as tabulated at right.
  Polish Aviation used more than 20 Halberstadt CL.II, CL.IV, and C.V aircraft, which were found at Lawica/Poznan airfield after the end of WWI. The biggest part were remnants from the German Fliegerersatz-Abteilung 4 Posen and smallest come from Mokotow / Warszawa, ex German Fliegerbeobachterschule Warschau and Albatros-Militar-Wekstatten (REFLA) Warschau. Thirteen Halberstadt CL.IIs and CL.IIAs were refurbished at Poznan (most received new Polish numbers) and two were refurbished at Warsaw/Mokotow. All went to Squadrons at the front or to flying schools. Four Polish Halberstadt CL.IIs were lost during the Polish-Russian war. All Polish Halberstadt CL.IVs came from Lawica (two had Mercedes D.III engines and one (C.5894/18) had a Benz Bz.IV engine) and were used by 2 EW and 14 EW squadrons. One of them was captured and used by Russia, one was lost in Germany after the war (pilot got lost and crashed during a storm). All twelve Polish Halberstadt C.Vs were refurbished at Lawica. Most of them were from BFW production. Most were used during the Polish-Russian war in 2. Eskadra Wielkopolska. One aircraft, C.V C.8843/18, mounted a carrier for four 12.5 kg P.u.W. bombs. At least three Halb. C.Vs were lost during the Polish-Russian war and one fell into Russian hands.
  Soviet Russia used a number of Halberstadt types either captured during the Civil War and following conflicts, or purchased in the 1920s. Halberstadt CL.IV and C.V biplanes are known to have carried the Red star of the Soviets.
  Switzerland purchased Halberstadt C.V (DFW) 4146/18 via the IAACC in January 1920, and entered service with the Swiss air force as Serial 704. This machine was used mainly for high altitude training flights, however the lack of spares caused the Halberstadt to be withdrawn in June 1921 after only about 20 flying hours. It was then scrapped. Three Halberstadts also came onto the Swiss civil register. CH68 was registered as a CL.II but was a modified CL.IV with two-bay wings; two C.V biplanes were CH72 and CH85.
  As mentioned above, none of the Halberstadts that were taken to the USA after the war survived. However, now the National Museum of the USAF and the NASM Smithsonian Museum each display a Halberstadt CL.IV. How this came about is a remarkable story that has to go back to the end of the war when Paul Strahle was demobilized from the German Army Air Service. Credited with 14 victories, Strahle was a competent airman and purchased a number of surplus Halberstadt CL.IV airframes and spares from Hellmuth Hirth, the famous pre-war flyer. The actual number is unknown but included at least four. Luftverkehr Strahle was formed in 1919 and included civil conversion of the CL.IV that had a cabin over the rear cockpit for two passengers while the pilot's cockpit was unaltered. D.71, D.111 and D.144 were registered to the airline. From 1921 to 1923 he flew from Stuttgart to Constance, thence to Nuremberg. With the Depression Strahle performed aerial photography, this business lasting until 1938. D.71 was preserved along with the remaining stock of fuselages, wings, etc., in a barn. D.71 was placed on display in the Daimler-Benz Museum in 1960 until 1995 when it was restored by the staff of the Deutsches Technik Museum (MVT), Berlin. At this time, it was restored to its original colours, having previously been displayed in an inaccurate blue and white colour scheme. After negotiations, in 2004 D.71 was moved to a new museum in Schorndorf dedicated to three local technical pioneers, Strahle being the aviation pioneer.
  In the 1980s Strahle looked to have the aircraft restored. Not being able to raise any interest in Germany the airframes, etc., were purchased by Ken Hyde and Stan Parris and brought to the USA for restoration. They were traded to the USAF Museum for six surplus North American T-28 trainers. The USAF Museum did not have any genuine WWI German aircraft in its collection at this time. An arrangement was reached between the USAF Museum, the NASM and the MVT to restore three airframes. They were shipped to Berlin in 1989. Enough parts of D-IBAOD (formerly D.144), including the fuselage in two parts, enabled the machine to be restored as Strahle's aircraft as used for his photographic flights. This machine is now displayed in the MVT in Berlin. The USAF Museum's example was completed as an aircraft of Schlachtstaffel 21, a unit that had operated against US forces during the Chateau Thierry offensive in France. The Smithsonian's CL.IV was built by Roland under license and the original colors could be determined, including the fact that the serials were painted in light blue and not white as always thought. This machine required more work than the other two but enough material was available to enable a splendid restoration to be carried out.
<...>
Halberstadt CL.IV(Rol) 9455/18, III Marine Brigade, tactical '2'
Halberstadt CL.IV '5' of Schlasta 6
Halberstadt CL.IV '6' of Schlasta 6
Halberstadt CL.IV, Schlasta 9, tactical '6'
Halberstadt CL.IV flown by Lt. Ebel of Schlasta 21
Halberstadt CL.IV, Schlasta 26 tactical '6'. Note: Thin '6' shown; thick numerals also used.
Halberstadt CL.IV '2' Brunhilde, Schlasta 27
Halberstadt CL.IV of Marine Brigade
Halberstadt CL.IV '5' with axe marking
Halberstadt CL.IV
Halberstadt CL.IV(Rol) 8078/18. Taken over after the war at Bickendorf airport (Butzweilerhof), this aircraft was repainted on the top and sides with PC 10. In the list of planes taken over by the RAF there is a plane with a similar number (8070/18). Everything indicates that the number of this aircraft was read and written incorrectly. The trail ends at the end of 1919.
Halberstadt CL.IV 525/18 of the 14th Reconnaissance Sqdn., Polish Air Service. On 4 June, 1921 in this plane, Pilot Lt. Stefan Berezowski & Observer Lt. Mieczyslaw Danecki got lost during a storm and landed in German territory in Drezdenko near the Notec River. During the crash the observer was seriously injured and died in hospital two days later. The plane was scrapped.
Halberstadt CL.IV No.1770 (ex 5893/18), Obojan (Обоянь) airport 1921. This plane belonged to the Polish 2nd Reconnaissance Squadron. On June 26, 1920, Sgt. Pilot Stefan Niewitecki and Lt. observer Jan Zardecki were shot down over enemy territory and taken prisoner (from which they escaped after a few weeks). The damaged airframe was captured by the Soviets and renovated.
Restored Halberstadt CL.IV of the commanding officer of Schlachtstaffel 21. This aircraft is in the National Museum of the USAF. The compact design of the Halberstadt CL.IV is evident.
Halberstadt CL.IV restored in the colors of Lt. Ebele, commander of Schlachstaffel 21, on display at the National Museum of the USAF at Wright-Patterson AFB.
Halberstadt CL.IV restored in the colors of Lt. Ebele, commander of Schlachstaffel 21, on display at the National Museum of the USAF at Wright-Patterson AFB.
Halberstadt CL.IV restored in the colors of Lt. Ebele, commander of Schlachstaffel 21, on display at the National Museum of the USAF at Wright-Patterson AFB.
Halberstadt CL.IV restored in the colors of Lt. Ebele, commander of Schlachstaffel 21, on display at the National Museum of the USAF at Wright-Patterson AFB.
Halberstadt CL.IV restored in the colors of Lt. Ebele, commander of Schlachstaffel 21, on display at the National Museum of the USAF at Wright-Patterson AFB.
Halberstadt CL.IV restored in the colors of Lt. Ebele, commander of Schlachstaffel 21, on display at the National Museum of the USAF at Wright-Patterson AFB.
Halberstadt CL.IV restored in the colors of Lt. Ebele, commander of Schlachstaffel 21, on display at the National Museum of the USAF at Wright-Patterson AFB.
Halberstadt CL.IV restored in the colors of Lt. Ebele, commander of Schlachstaffel 21, on display at the National Museum of the USAF at Wright-Patterson AFB. The black and white stripes on the fuselage were the unit markings.
Halberstadt CL.IV restored in the colors of Lt. Ebele, commander of Schlachstaffel 21, on display at the National Museum of the USAF at Wright-Patterson AFB. The black and white stripes on the fuselage were the unit markings. The white stripes on the tailplane were applied directly over the camouflage fabric; the dark stripes on the upper surface of the tailplane were not black.
Halberstadt CL.IV restored in the colors of Lt. Ebele, commander of Schlachstaffel 21, on display at the National Museum of the USAF at Wright-Patterson AFB.
Halberstadt CL.IV(Rol) 8103/18 in the National Air & Space Museum. This aircraft was finished according to Roland factory practice; the serial and data block were applied in bright blue paint.
Restored Halberstadt CL.IV(Rol) at NASM's Udvar-Hazy facility. The factory finish of this Roland-built aircraft was well documented during its restoration. Roland finished late-production Roland D.VIb aircraft from the 6100-6149/18 and 7500-7549/18 production batches in the same colors.
Halberstadt CL.IV(Rol) 8103/18 in the National Air & Space Museum. This aircraft was finished according to Roland factory practice; the serial and data block were applied in bright blue paint.
Halberstadt CL.IV(Rol) 8103/18 in the National Air & Space Museum. This aircraft was finished according to Roland factory practice; the serial and data block were applied in bright blue paint.
Halberstadt CL.IV(Rol) 8103/18 in the National Air & Space Museum. This aircraft was finished according to Roland factory practice; the serial and data block were applied in light blue paint. Roland finished late-production Roland D.VI fighters in the same colors.
Two views of Paul Strahle's civilianized D-IBAO on display. (Michael Schmeelke)
Paul Strahle's restored Halberstadt CLIV(Rol) D-IBAO on display in the museum. The exhaust is nonstandard. (Michael Schmeelke)
Halberstadt CL.IV prototype on the factory airfield in February 1918. Note the old-style national insignia. The wooden mockup of a Parabellum LMG 14 shows its wide arc of fire. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV type-test aircraft, probably photographed in March 1918. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Early production Halberstadt CL.IV on the factory airfield on May 1918. The lower wings of the CL.II and CL.IV were very similar but not interchangeable. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
The CL IV derivative of the CL II offered greater manoeuvrability and better performance.
Early production Halberstadt CL.IV on the factory airfield on May 1918. The lower wings of the CL.II and CL.IV were very similar but not interchangeable. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV 4636/18 Medi, Wnr 1433, with crew. An identification streamer is attached to the lower left wingtip.
Halberstadt CL.IV(Rol) 8171/18 of the first production series from Roland. The camouflage of this aircraft was that normally applied by the Roland factory, not the same as the Halberstadt factory camouflage. The name and serial number were applied with light blue paint. Most parts were stencilled with the designation Halb CL.IV(Rol). (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt Cl.IV was developed from the Cl.II to improve its maneuverability and was the best German two-seat fighter used during the war.
Halberstadt CL.IV(Rol) 8171/18 of the first production series from Roland. The camouflage of this aircraft was that normally applied by the Roland factory, not the same as the Halberstadt factory camouflage. The name and serial number were applied with light blue paint. Most parts were stencilled with the designation Halb CL.IV(Rol). (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV(Rol) 8171/181 of the first production series from Roland. In this view the underside of the airfoil radiator can be seen. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV(Rol) 8176/18 with white nose of postwar Freikorps unit FA 426 at Radziwilliszki, Lithuania in September 1919. The white nose was the unit marking. The man in light colored jacket is Abteilungsfuhrer Oblt. Hellmuth Weinschenck. The remains of this aircraft were captured by Lithuanians on 21.11.1919. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Roland-built Halberstadt CL.IV(Rol) 8197/18 with members of the Polizei Fliegerstaffel Hamburg. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Crewman photographed with Halberstadt CL.IV(Rol) 9411/18. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV(Rol) 9440/18 from a manual photo showing how the seat pack version of the parachute was attached to the observer. It could also be worn as a back pack. The static line (Zugleine) was tied to the gun ring, (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV 9455/18 of III Marine Brigade undergoing maintenance, in the field. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV(Rol) 9455/18 '2' of III Marine Brigade with its crew. The aircraft has sustained damage to the lower port wing that has been repaired. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CLIV(Rol) 9466/18 with unknown crewman. The Roland logo in metal is under the exhaust.
Halberstadt CLIV(Rol) 9470/18 of the second Roland production batch carries the national insignia on the fuselage without the normal white outline. The Roland logo was a metal plate. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV probably of Schlachtstaffel 33 photographed on August 10, 1918 with Halberstadt chief engineer Karl Theis. The armament rack holds four Wurfgranaten 15 for ground-attack. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Unarmed Halberstadt CL.IV of the Polizeifliegerstaffel Hamburg in 1919-1920. The Hamburg coat of arms was painted on the fuselage side. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV at its Schlasta with two mechanics. The rear fuselage and tail are painted in black and white stripes, the Schlasta colors.
Halberstadt CL.IV '2' of an unknown unit with hammer unit insignia. On the original photo the parachute installation is seen, two metal cables as static lines were used for the crew. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CLIV in French hands in 1919.
Early Halberstadt CL.IV at Adlershof. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
A Halberstadt CL.IV(Rol) provides the background for this photo of unknown unit personnel. Tenth from the left is pilot Johan Neumann, who from Spring 1919 was in Polish aviation. During the Polish-Russian war he was pilot in the 8th Eskadra Wywiadowcza. His Bristol-Fighter was shot down during strafing Russian cavalry and crashed in enemy territory. He escaped but the gunner was WIA and made PoW.
Halberstadt CL.IV of the Fliegerabteilung of the III Marine Brigade (Lowenfeld) photographed at Dorsten. The written text on the lower photo refers to "Kapputsch"; no doubt this refers to the "Kapp-Putsch", which dates the photos to mid-March 1920. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Crew in their Halberstadt CL.IV with axe insignia. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV and crew of an unknown unit with hammer unit insignia. Note Heinecke parachute harness for crew with static lines going under the fuselage. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV '1' of an unknown unit. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV of an unknown unit with aircrew and ground crew. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
This aircraft with axe insignia has a propeller-driven electrical generator. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV and crew of an unknown unit with axe unit insignia shows that the axe insignia was also applied to the underside of the lower wings. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halb CL.IV(Rol) with light painted nose of an unknown unit and unknown personnel. A chevron marking is on the fuselage.
Halb CL.IV(Rol) with light painted nose of an unknown unit and unknown personnel. A chevron marking is on the fuselage.
Halberstadt CL.IV of the Fliegerabteilung of the III Marine Brigade (Lowenfeld) photographed at Dorsten. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Early Halberstadt CL.IV at Adlershof in mid-1918. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Early Halberstadt CL.IV at Adlershof. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV of an unknown unit with crew. The printed fabric on the lower wing is unusual. (Reinhard Zankl)
Halb. CL.IV on display in Schlachstaffel 21 colors. (Michael Schmeelke)
Uffz. August Beckerdorf (gunner, at left) and Vzfw. Binnewald (pilot) of Schlasta 10 at Eppes bei Laon in August 1918 with their Halberstadt CL.IV.
Halberstadt CL.IV with crewmen of an unknown unit. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV of Schlasta 26b with painted girl's name Else and its crew.
Halberstadt CL.IV of Schlasta 26b with its crew. The tactical number '3' is painted with a thick numeral as is '6' behind it.
Halberstadt CL.IV '3' and a Halberstadt CL.II of Schlasta 33 and Hannover CL.IIIa aircraft of Schlasta 20. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV second from left from Schlasta 33 and Hannovers in the background of (probably) Schlasta 20 on August 10,1918. Aircraft at left is a Halberstadt CL.II with another behind the CL.IV. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Two different solutions to a similar problem, the armored Junkers J.I at left shares afield with the maneuverable Halberstadt CL.IV at right.
Roland-built Halberstadt CL.IV and Junkers J.I 750/18 belonging to FliegerAbteilung 431, stationed at Breslau/Klein Gandau in 1919. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Unidentified Halberstadt CL.IV flying low during a mission. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV in flight. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CLIV '4' of an unknown unit being towed by car.
The same Halberstadt CL.IV '4' loaded on a train car for return to a repair depot.
Halb CL.IV '6' loaded on a train on to railway cars at the huge American collection center at Romorantin postwar. Some of these Halberstadts were shipped to the USA.
Halberstadt CL.IV derelicts in a group of aircraft gathered for destruction after the Armistice. The first aircraft in view in both photos is C.IV(Rol) 9433/18. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV undergoing field maintenance in a tent hangar and the mechanics who are performing it. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV prototype in February 1918. The simplified nose entry without spinner was a change from the CL.II. There were two machine guns mounted just for pilot; production CL.IV aircraft were normally fitted with one gun due to weight concerns. The speckled camouflage was a Halberstadt standard. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
ON THE BRITISH WESTERN FRONT IN FRANCE. - Winged by Australians on the Western Front. A German bombing and reconnaissance machine brought down by a machine gunner. It reminds us very much of the Halberstadt 2-seater illustrated in our Issue of August 1st.
Australian troops surround a downed Halberstadt CLIV 4675/18 'V' of Schlasta 13. The aircraft was flown by Uffz. Ackenhausen and Flgr. Amzehnhoff. The aircraft was probably downed by ground fire. The rack below the observer's cockpit held six Wurfgranaten 15; these were held by a wire running through their nose caps. The observer could pull the wire to drop a salvo of grenades. Captured on September 23, 1918. This aircraft received the British Serial G/5Bde/22 and was subject of a Ministry of Munitions report. It was sent to Islington for display in the Enemy viewing room. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
A downed Halberstadt CLIV 4675/18 'V' of Schlasta 13. The aircraft was flown by Uffz. Ackenhausen and Flgr. Amzehnhoff. The aircraft was probably downed by ground fire. Captured on September 23, 1918. This aircraft received the British Serial G/5Bde/22 and was subject of a Ministry of Munitions report. It was sent to Islington for display in the Enemy viewing room. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV of FliegerAbteilung 432 postwar. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV postwar with an interesting insignia. (Reinhard Zankl)
Closeup of the insignia of the postwar Halberstadt CL.IV. (Reinhard Zankl)
Halberstadt CLIV converted to civilian service postwar. (Michael Schmeelke)
This Dutch Halberstadt CL.IV was used on a commercial service - Hengelo-Schiphol-London. Photograph circa August 1920. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV in Lithuanian service; the pilot was Jurgis Dobkevicius and the passenger was Aleksandras Stulginskis, the president of Lithuania, Aleksotas/Kaunas, 1922. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Dobi-I (at right), design of J. Dobkevicius, next to three Halberstadt CL.IV aircraft of the Lithuanian 1st Air Squadron at Aleksotas/Kaunas, 1922. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Estonian Halberstadt CL.IV with (LtoR) A. Kaat (mechanic); P. Paev (pilot) & G. Michelson (observer). (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV in postwar Lithuanian service with Belgian or French style marking. (Moshe Bukhman)
Halberstadt modified for Swiss civil service postwar and registered as Halberstadt C II CH-68. Although these photos appear to show a C.V aircraft at first glance, it is actually a Halberstadt CL.IV modified with 2-bay wings. Note that the interplane struts are not parallel, but the C.V had parallel interplane struts. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV possibly work number 1770 in postwar Soviet Russian service. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV refurbished and in Soviet service in 1921.
Halberstadt CL.IV postwar with the gun ring removed; the German civil 'D' registration is being applied but the number has not been. The star was used to indicate that the machine was allowed by the inter Allied Control Commission for civil purposes. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Paul Strahle's Halberstadt CL.IV D111 taking off. The work number was 1410. A six-pointed star was applied to the bottom of the lower wing lower wing indicating it was approved for civil use by the IAACC. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV D144 at a postwar air show. D144 was an aircraft of the Strahle Luftverkehr. (Peter M. Grosz collection/ STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV of the postwar Luftverkehr Strahle. This was the initial flight of Strahle's D-71 on 3 January 1921, with the Stuttgart Oberburgermeister (Mayor) Lautenschlager as passenger. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
This civil CL.IV, D.71, was used by Luftverkehr Paul Strahle of Schorndorf from January 1921. Preserved in the Daimler-Benz Museum, Stuggart, In 2005 it was moved to a new museum in Schorndorf. This is the oldest existing German civil airliner. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV D71 after its restoration by MVT into its original colors. This is the oldest German civil airliner in existence.
Halberstadt CL.IV D71 after its restoration by MVT into its original colors. This is the oldest German civil airliner in existence.
Halberstadt CL.IV of the Strahle Luftverkehr on display after restoration as D71.
Halberstadt CL.IV of the Strahle Luftverkehr on display after restoration as D71.
Halberstadt CL.IV of the Strahle Luftverkehr during restoration.
Halberstadt CL.IV of the Strahle Luftverkehr during restoration.
Halberstadt CL.IV of the Strahle Luftverkehr during restoration.
Halberstadt CL.IV of the Strahle Luftverkehr during restoration.
The unrestored, remnant fuselage of CL.IV (Rol) 8103/18 which was restored from the Strahle collection and that is now beautifully displayed at the NASM at Udvar-Hazy.
Wing with original camouflage fabric of Halberstadt CL.IV D144 (probably from a Halberstadt CL.II used as a spare part) before it was restored.
Wing with original camouflage fabric of Halberstadt CL.IV D144 (probably from a Halberstadt CL.II used as a spare part) before it was restored.
Halberstadt CL.IV '5' after a bad landing. Some discussion is comically taking place.
Halberstadt CL.IV of FliegerAbteilung 426 crashed by Vzfw. Bachert at Suwalki on 13 April, 1919. The photo shows details of its upper wing center section with radiator offset to the right of centerline and fuel tank at left. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Crashed Halberstadt CL.IV shows its factory finish on the fuselage and tailplane. The notation on the photograph indicates it was taken 30 October, 1918. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Crashed Halberstadt CL.IV 4633/18 from the first production batch.
Derelict Halb CL.IV from Schlasta 9 postwar.
Derelict Halb CL.IV from Schlasta 9 postwar.
Halberstadt CL.IV '61' crashed 29 May 1925 by Ferdinand Alev in Estonian service. (Reinhard Zankl)
Halberstadt CLIV(Rol) '61' (work no. 4328) crashed in Spring 1925 in Estonian service when it ran into a wall around the airfield at Lasnamagi. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV(Rol) '59' (work no. 4315) in Estonian service. Purchased from Dansk Luft Express, Sablatnig's subsidiary, at Vamdrup, Denmark, on 5 December 1921. Crashed by pilot Lt. Alev an 29 May 1925. Mechanic Tonishof sustained severe injuries and died in hospital. Written off 2 July 1925. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt wartime advertisement. (Michael Schmeelke)
Halberstadt CL.IV 1st Production Batch Factory Colors
Halberstadt CL.IV Roland Production Batch Factory Colors
Halberstadt CL.IV
Halberstadt CL.IV
Halberstadt CL.IV
Halberstadt CL.IV
Halberstadt CLS.I

  Both Hannover and Halberstadt produced successful light C-types as two-seat fighters. The CLS.I was Halberstadt's planned successor to the earlier CL.II and CL.IV. In fact, the CLS.I looked like a refined CL.IV with slightly different proportions. The engine was a 180 hp Mercedes D.IIIau, a high-altitude version of the reliable engine that powered so many fighters and the previous CL.II and CL.IV.
  Aircrew of the CL-types carried extra weapons and ammunition to carry out their missions, including hand grenades, small bombs, and extra drums of machine-gun ammunition. This overloaded the CL-types beyond their designed useful load limit and caused structural damage to the airframes. When Kogenluft addressed this issue on a conference on September 6, 1918, both Idflieg and Halberstadt were found blameless.
  Kogenluft decided that the useful load rating of CL-class Schlachtflugzeuge (infantry-support aircraft) would be raised from 346 kg to 420 kg and the CL-class design specification would be revised to meet the strength requirements (maximum G limits) of fighter aircraft.
  Furthermore, CL-type design emphasis was to be focused on speed, maneuverability, and diving ability at the expense of the fast rate of climb. This reflected the fact that the role of the CL-types had expanded and their use as Schlachtflugzeuge was now a critical role.
  Halberstadt CL.IV aircraft revised to withstand the higher load rating began to come off the production line in September 1918. At the same time, Karl Theis, the designer, was working on the CLS.I, an aircraft designed from the beginning for the stress limits of the Schlachtflugzeuge role.
  CLS.I armament was two synchronized Spandau guns for the pilot and one Parabellum for the gunner. A 3.5 cm revolver cannon was said to be planned for the CLS.II and CLS.X but this was a plan only.
  Despite having a shorter wing-span than the CL.IV, the CLS.I had a heavier loaded weight reflecting the more robust structure and heavier weight of weapons and ammunition.
  The CLS.I was type-tested on 2 October 1918, commendably soon after the changed requirements. It was intended to replace the CL.II and CL.IV but the Armistice intervened.
  Serial numbers 1797/18 and 1799/18 are known, and their were probably others. One of these was work number 2105.


Halberstadt CLS.I Specifications
Engine: 180 hp Mercedes D.IIIau
Wing: Span 9.7 m
Chord, upper 1.600 m
Chord, lower 1.400 m
General: Length 6.95 m
Empty Weight 670 kg
Payload 520 kg
Loaded Weight 1190 kg
Maximum Speed: 185 km/h
Climb: 4500m 36 min
Fuel Capacity: Main tank 60 Liters
Secondary tank 48 Liters
Armament: 3 mgs



Afterword: Halberstadts Postwar by Colin Owers

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  No complete Halberstadt CLS survived the war, but a fuselage of this prototype aircraft was in the Strahle collection and is now on display in the Stiftung Deutsches Technikmuseum in Berlin.
Halberstadt CLS.I Prototype
A Halberstadt CLS.I prototype. Engine was an 180 hp Mercedes D.IIIau. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
A Halberstadt CLS.I prototype. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
A Halberstadt CLS.I prototype. The aircraft has no tires. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
A Halberstadt CLS.I prototype. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
A Halberstadt CLS.I prototype. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CLS.I fuselage in the Deutsches Technikmuseum in Berlin. (Author's photo)
Halberstadt CLS.I
Halberstadt CLS.I
Halberstadt CLS.I
Halberstadt CL.IV '3' and a Halberstadt CL.II of Schlasta 33 and Hannover CL.IIIa aircraft of Schlasta 20. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt CL.IV second from left from Schlasta 33 and Hannovers in the background of (probably) Schlasta 20 on August 10,1918. Aircraft at left is a Halberstadt CL.II with another behind the CL.IV. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Two different solutions to a similar problem, the armored Junkers J.I at left shares afield with the maneuverable Halberstadt CL.IV at right.
Roland-built Halberstadt CL.IV and Junkers J.I 750/18 belonging to FliegerAbteilung 431, stationed at Breslau/Klein Gandau in 1919. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
From left, Junkers D.I, Fokker D.VII, and Halberstadt C.V of Kampfgeschwader Sachsenberg aircraft at Swinemunde (today's Swinoujscie, in Poland) on the Baltic in 1919.
Halberstadt C.V is among Junkers monoplanes and a Fokker D.VII on the right of the Wainoden Zeppelin hall postwar. Junkers D.I(Jco) D.9166/18 is first in line on the left. This location is now Vainode in Latvia. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Halberstadt C.V in the hands of French Escadrille 35, postwar. The works number on the rudder is 1376, which may have corresponded to C.3478/18. LVG C.VI W/Nr 4732 is in the background. (Reinhard Zankl).
Halberstadt D.II(Han) 818/16 (work no. 141) was part of a batch of 30 Halberstadt D.II fighters built under license by Hannoveranner. The Hannover-built aircraft had two-color camouflage on the upper surfaces. The stenciled serial numbers in white on the rear fuselage are a key identifier of Hannover-built aircraft. Rumpler C.I 2623/16 is in the background. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.II fighter in the field. A rare SSW E.I is at right background. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Halberstadt D.I fitted with rockets for anti-balloon attacks under test at Doberitz. The aileron horn balances identify it as a D.I. The massive Staaken VGO.III is in the background. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
This is a Halberstadt D.III at Jastaschule I at Famars airfield near Valenciennes, along with an Albatros D.III. The Spad was one of a whole flight of captured Allied aircraft at the Jastaschule, something of an aggressor squadron. The man on the left is Hptm. Martin Zander, the commander of the school. Zander (five victories) had been pulled from his command of Jasta 1 to take over the new school when it was formed in late November 1916. The man on the right with the big ears is Oblt. Erich Hahn, one of Zander's former pilots at Jasta 1. Hahn appears to have merely been visiting as he was not on the staff of the Jastaschule. Hahn (six victories) commanded the new Jasta 19 until his death on 4 September 1917.
From left, an Albatros D.III, a Halberstadt D.III, and a Spad 7 at Jastaschule I at Famars airfield near Valenciennes. The Albatros D.III is Hptm. Martin Zander's personal machine. It is marked with the letter 'Z' on the bottom wing undersurfaces and is faintly seen on the original image.