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Aviatik C.II

Страна: Германия

Год: 1916

Aviatik - C.I/C.Ia - 1915 - Германия<– –>Aviatik - C.III - 1916 - Германия


J.Herris Aviatik Aircraft of WWI (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 10)


Aviatik C.II

  As the air war intensified and better opposing fighters appeared, faster C-types were needed to keep pace. The Aviatik C.II was developed from the earlier C.I in an attempt to provide the improved performance required. Like the C.I, it retained the awkward, observer-in-front seating arrangement and similar configuration and conventional construction. It was one of the first C-types to be powered by the 200 hp Benz Bz.IV, giving it significantly more power than the C.I. In addition to greater power, the C.II had a more streamlined nose than the C.I that included a propeller spinner, and the boxy, underwing radiator of the C.I was replaced with a radiator of airfoil shape mounted in the upper wing. These aerodynamic improvements in the C.II were all based on the C.Ia prototype.
  To further reduce drag, the wing span and area were reduced. A distinctive C.II feature was its vertical tail, which eliminated the fixed fin of the C.I in favor of a larger, strut-braced, horn-balanced rudder. Another distinctive C.II spotting feature was the pilot's headrest, which was unusual for a two-seater.

C.II Production and Service

  In July 1916 an order was placed for 75 Aviatik C.II aircraft with 200 hp Benz Bz.IV engines, serials C.3075/16 to C.3149/16. An Aviatik C.II prototype (C.3685/16) was load tested between 23 September and 2 October 1916. The higher serial number [Militarnummer] for the prototype is explained by the fact, that prototypes - at least in 1916 - were bought or accepted by the authorities later than the series planes. Although later general practice was to order three prototypes for aircraft considered for production - a flying airframe, a static airframe for structural testing, and a spare - as far as is known only one C.II prototype was built. The date of the initial flight is unknown, so it is not known if the production order was placed before or after flight tests.
  The Aviatik C.II appeared at the front in small numbers from late 1916 through mid 1917, a maximum of 62 being at the front at the end of February, 1917. The entries in the Frontbeststand table showing the C.II at the front before late 1916 are either transcription errors or a mix-up with license-builder designations, because the C.II production series was not ordered until July 1916.
  The Aviatik C.II was used on operations primarily, and perhaps solely, on the less demanding Eastern Front. Units known to have flown the C.II include Flieger-Abteilung 47b, Flieger-Abteilung (A) 244, and Flieger-Abteilung (A) 283. In addition, Aviatik C.II aircraft were noted at AFP 10, 12 and 14, all in the East, and later at various school units.


The specifications of the production Aviatik C-types are given in one table for ease of comparison.
Aviatik C-Type Specifications
Aviatik C.I Aviatik C.II Aviatik C.III
Engine: 150 hp Benz Bz.III 160 hp Mercedes D.III 200 hp Benz IV 160 hp Mercedes D.III
Span, Upper: 12.5 m (41.0 ft.) 11.71 m (38.4 ft.) 11.8 m (38.7 ft.)
Span, Lower: 10.75 m (35.3 ft.) 11.71 m (38.4 ft.) 10.2 m (33.5 ft.)
Chord, Upper: 1.88 m (6.17 ft.) 1.70 m (5.58 ft.) 1.70 m (5.58 ft.)
Chord, Lower: 1.88 m (6.17 ft.) 1.70 m (5.58 ft.) 1.70 m (5.58 ft.)
Length: 7.91 m (25.95 ft.) 6.95 m (22.8 ft.) 8.08 m (26.5 ft.)
Track: 1.94m (6.36 ft.) - 1.95 m (6.40 ft.)
Gap: 2.0 m (6.56 ft.) 1.80 m(5.91 ft.) 1.80 m (5.91 ft.)
Wing Area: 43 sq. m. (463 sq. ft.) 37.9 sq. m. (408 sq. ft.) 35.0 sq. m. (377 sq. ft.)
Empty Weight: 745 kg. (1,642 lb.) 916 kg. (2,019 lb.) 895 kg. (1,973 lb.)
Loaded Weight: 1,245 kg. (2,745 lb.) 1,509 kg. (3,327 lb.) 1,220 kg. (2,690 lb.)
Maximum Speed: 120 km/h (74.6 mph) 155 km/h (96.3 mph) 155 km/h (96.3 mph)
Cruise Speed: - - 140 km/h (87 mph)
Climb to 1,000 m: 5 minutes - 6.5 minutes
Climb to 2,000 m: 16 minutes - 16 minutes
Climb to 3,000 m: 33 minutes - 31 minutes
Climb to 4,500 m: - - 55 minutes
Service Ceiling: - - 4,500 m
Duration: 3 hours - Range: 480 km
Armament: 1-2 flexible machine guns 1-2 flexible machine guns 1-2 flexible machine guns
Note: The C.III had 1 degree of dihedral on both upper and lower wings.


Aviatik C.II Production Orders
Date Qty Serial Numbers
Unknown 1 Prototype
July 1916 75 C.3075-3149/16
Total Ordered 76


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Aviatik C II
  Used briefly between Aviatik types C I and C III, the C II was generally similar, although the tail surfaces were noticeably different in having no vertical fin surface. The fuselage appearance was enhanced by the inclusion of a headrest aft of the rear cockpit. The observer still occupied the front cockpit, operating his Parabellum machinegun from rails along the cockpit sides. 43 aircraft of this type were ordered and delivered. Serial Nos. identified: 3108/16, 3135/16 and 3142/16. Engine, 200 h.p. Benz Bz IV. Span 11.71 m. (37 ft. 7 in.). Weight loaded 1,509 kg. (3,320 lb.).

J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik C.II, perhaps the prototype.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik C.II flown as a 'hack' by Manfred von Richthofen.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik C.II C.3078/16 fitted with a 200 hp Benz engine and two Parabellum LMG 14 machine guns for the front-seated observer.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
An Aviatik C.II on a normal snow-covered field on the Eastern Front preparing for a mission. The under-size rudder with no fixed fin characteristic of the C.II shows clearly, as does the pilot's headrest
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik C.II has its portrait taken with one of its aircrew.The distinctive C.II identification features of side-mounted guns, metal rods to prevent the observer from shooting through his own propeller, and pilot's headrest are all clearly visible.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rittmeister Manfred von Richthofen (second from left) at his meeting with the Kaiserin (Empress) Augusta Victoria at Bad Homburg; the Aviatik C.II he flew to the meeting is in the background in an interesting striped camouflage.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rittmeister Manfred von Richthofen (left) flew this Aviatik C.II to his meeting with the Kaiserin (Empress) at Bad Homburg. The C.II was used as a hack on the Western Front.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
On May 3, 1917, Rittmeister Manfred von Richthofen, the famous Red Baron (second from left) with his close friend Fritz von Falkenhayn (at right) visited the Kaiserin (Empress) Augusta Victoria at Bad Homburg, and flew an Aviatik C.II to the meeting.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
An Aviatik C.II with its aircraft and a ground-crewman in a primitive hangar on the Eastern Front.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik C.II at an operational unit with its aircrew and ground crew.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Aviatik C.II, developed from the C.I, used the more powerful 200 hp Benz Bz.IV engine, making it faster than the C.I. Unfortunately, at Idflieg's insistence it retained the observer in the front cockpit and the side-mounted guns, making for a cramped working environment and restricted field of fire. Unusual for a two-seater, the pilot had a headrest! Only a single production batch of 75 Aviatik C.IIs was constructed, after which Aviatik was directed to produce the DFW C.V under license. The Aviatik C.II and DFW C.V used the same engine and construction techniques, so had similar speed. However, the DFW had excellent maneuverability and handling qualities, critical attributes the Aviatik C.II lacked.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
An Aviatik C.II serving with Flieger-Abteilung 219 and its crew. The aircraft wears its factory finish with no unit or personal markings. The two machine guns for the observer, one of a rail on each side of his cockpit, are clearly shown, as are the metal rods that prevent him from shooting into his own propeller.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This front quarter view of the Aviatik C.II shows the small rudder without fixed vertical fin and one of the gun mounting rails along the side of the observer's cockpit in front of the pilot. The radiator was now an airfoil type in the upper wing center section. In typical Aviatik fashion the wheel covers are marked with crosses.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This side view of the Aviatik C.II shows its unique profile, emphasizing the small rudder without fixed vertical fin and the headrest for the pilot, who occupied the back seat. The type's limitations were designed in.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Side view of an Aviatik C.II
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Turkish officers inspect an Aviatik C.II; the unusual tail design and pilot's headrest are distinctive C.II identification features. The bars for mounting the guns and the curved metal rods to prevent the gunner from shooting into his own propeller are clearly visible.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik C.II on a typical snow-covered field on the Eastern Front. The rudder was painted in camouflage colors with a white-bordered iron cross insignia.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
An Aviatik C.II in flight over the vast Eastern Front shows its unusual tail design.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
An Aviatik C.II in the center background in a hangar at Brest-Litovsk on the Eastern Front.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Scenes of Roland D.II fighters at Brest-Litovsk on the Eastern Front. The German Army captured the city in 1915 and at the time of these photos it was a center for aircraft distribution and aviation training behind the front. At right is a hangar with Roland D.II / D.IIa fighters and Albatros C.III reconnaissance aircraft. Inset clearly shows "W" in two colors on a D.IIa.The air combat environment in the east was much more permissive than the Western Front, which had a much higher density of first-rate combat aircraft. This enabled the Germans to find useful service for mediocre aircraft like the Roland D.II and D.IIa.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
An Aviatik C.II serving with Flieger-Abteilung 219 and its crew are shown in these views. The aircraft wears its factory finish with no unit or personal markings. The two machine guns for the observer, one of a rail on each side of his cockpit, are clearly shown, as are the metal rods that prevent him from shooting into his own propeller.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Aviatik C.II retained the observer position in front, providing good field of view forward but restricting the field of fire aft. Power was the 200 hp Benz Bz.IV.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
An Aviatik C.II that has suffered engine failure. Axial produced the propeller.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
An Aviatik C.II has suffered a bad landing on a snow-covered field.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik C.II 3124/16 in an embarrassing situation.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
At left, Aviatik C.II 3108/16 has experienced a landing accident. The photos at right appear to show the same accident. The aircraft wears its standard factory finish with serial under the tail.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik C.II 3078/16 has experienced a landing accident. Invariably, Aviatik C.II aircraft are seen in factory finish without unit or personal markings.The serial number is under the horizontal tail, so is often not visible in photographs. C.II aircraft all appear to be finished in a dark, two-color camouflage scheme on upper surfaces, a contrast to the single, light color normally used on the Aviatik-built C.Is.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Another Aviatik C.II after a landing accident. This was all too common for aircraft during WWI, which had to be landed carefully into the wind. A last-moment shift in the wind direction could easily result in the aircraft touching down in a side slip; if that happened a 'ground-loop', or rotating the aircraft around the wheels that were on the ground, was common. The relatively light aircraft could easily end up in this situation.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik C.II crash on the Eastern Front.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik C.II
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik C.II
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik C.II