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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Pfalz E.I/E.II/E.IV/E.VI

Страна: Германия

Год: 1915

Истребитель

Pfalz - biplane - 1915 - Германия<– –>Pfalz - D.4 - 1916 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


"ПФАЛЬЦ" E.I/E.II/E.III/E.IV / PFALZ E.I/E.II/E.III/E.IV
  
  Основанная в 1913 году южногерманская фирма "Пфальц Флюгцойгверк" начала свою деятельность с лицензионного копирования французских двухместных аэропланов "Моран-Солнье" типов H (среднеплан) и L (моноплан-парасоль) с 80-сильными ротативными моторами "Оберурсель" U.O. Первый из них получил в Германии обозначение "Пфальц" E.I, а второй - "Пфальц" A.I. Те же машины, оснащенные 100-сильными двигателями "Оберурсель" U.I, назывались, соответственно, "Пфальц" E.II и А.II. Выпуск этих машин продолжался в 1914 и 1915 годах. На раннем этапе Мировой войны они применялись для разведки и аэрофотосъемки.
  Когда летом 1915-го на фирме "Фоккер" был создан первый работоспособный пулеметный синхронизатор, инженеры завода "Пфальц" решили превратить E.I в истребитель. Машину оснастили синхронным пулеметом LMG 08, установленным над капотом. В остальном самолет практически ничем не отличался от своего французского "предка". Всего в течение лета и осени 1915 г. построено порядка 60 вооруженных E.I и Е.II, которые, в основном, поступали в баварские авиаэскадрильи и воевали на западном фронте.
  Обозначение E.III носил оснащенный синхронным пулеметом парасоль A.II. Этот аппарат также строился малой серией и поступал в войска.
  Завершающим в "линейке" истребителей-монопланов фирмы "Пфальц" был
E.IV, оснащенный двухрядным 14-цилиндровым ротативным мотором "Оберурсель" Ur.III мощностью 160 л.с. Самолет отличался увеличенными размерами и массой, усиленной конструкцией планера, а также - более мощным вооружением, состоящим из двух синхронных пулеметов LMG 08. По своим летным характеристикам E.IV превосходил более ранние модификации "Пфальца", но его "ахиллесовой пятой" стала низкая надежность двигателя. Серийный выпуск этой машины составил всего 24 экземпляра.
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
   E.I E.IV
Размах, м 9,26 10,2
Длина, м 6,3 6,6
Площадь крыла, м2 14,0 16,0
Сухой вес, кг 345 471
Взлетный вес, кг 535 695
Скорость макс, км/ч 140 160
Время набора высоты
   2000 м., мин. - 8,5
Потолок, м 3900 4200


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Pfalz E I and E IV
  
  Some time before the First World War the Pfalz Flugzeug-Werke, founded in July 1913, had been financed through the Bavarian Government in an endeavor to ensure it had some control of the equipment its flying services would use. The factory, which was established at Speyer am Rhein, was in the hands of the three Eversbusch brothers, Alfred, Walter and Ernst (until the untimely death of Walter in a flying accident on 1st June 1916), who not only designed but also tested the machines they built.
  Initial product of the firm was a pusher biplane, under an Otto license, which was fitted with a 100 h.p. Rapp motor. Subsequently a license was obtained from the French Morane-Saulnier firm to manufacture their type "H" shoulder wing and type "L" parasol monoplanes, which latter type, with the application of the military designation, became the Pfalz A.I fitted with 80 h.p. Oberursel (Gnome license) rotary engine and the A.II when the 100 h.p. Oberursel was installed. These machines were used in 1914 for reconnaissance and photographic work.
  The Pfalz E.I was a shoulder-wing monoplane (actually a license-built Morane-Saulnier type "H", slightly modified) with a rotary engine. Helmut Hirth, a well-known figure in German flying circles before the First World War, was nearly court-martialed for refusing to fly it. However, not all pilots held it in such poor esteem, for one who flew it with enthusiasm was the bespectacled Kissenberth. At first the type was used upon unarmed scouting duties (Kavallerie Flugzeug), but with the success of the Fokker synchronizing gear in 1915, a similar installation was tried on this Pfalz built monoplane, which then went into production as the Pfalz E.I. Some sixty examples were constructed before the next variant was produced. This was the Pfalz E.II, which was little more than an E.I with a 100 h.p. Oberursel engine fitted; the armament, consisting of a single machine-gun, remained the same. The E.III, which next appeared, was not strictly in the same lineage, as it was nothing more than the A.II parasol type now fitted with a single forward-firing machine-gun, and very few were built, only four being at the Front in April 1916.
  Next of this line of machines to appear was the Pfalz E.IV, in which model the airframe was strengthened and adapted to take the twin-row 160 h.p. Oberursel U.III engine. Only twenty-four machines of this type were built. As was the case with the Fokker E.IV, the engine was not too reliable, and it did not produce the improvement in performance that was anticipated. The E.V was little more than a standard E.II airframe modified to take the 100 h.p. Mercedes D.I engine with a car-type nose radiator. It was a good machine, but became available too late; twenty aircraft were ordered, but it is not certain all were completed.
  Pfalz E.Is and E.IIs, which were the main production aircraft, were allocated in twos and threes to the Bavarian Fl. AN. units to protect and escort their less-nimble two-seater brethren. Due to their great similarity in appearance to the Fokker monoplanes, the Pfalz machines automatically became "Fokkers" to their Allied opponents; indeed, it was only through the shape of their steering surfaces that the types could be positively identified; they differed little in size and weight.
  In contrast, the Pfalz monoplane differed considerably structurally from the Fokker product, insofar as it had a completely wooden airframe instead of the welded steel-tube fuselage of the Fokker. The fuselage was a simple rectangular-section braced box-girder structure, based on four spruce longerons which tapered to a horizontal knife-edge aft. The forward panels back to the cockpit were covered with plywood sheet, that on the top decking being curved to the same radius as the engine cowling; the remainder of the fuselage was covered with fabric. Engines were mounted with back bearer plates and housed in horse-shoe style cowlings, which were cut away to the bottom longerons to allow free escape of exhaust. On the E.IV, which had the larger two-row engine, the cowling differed in almost completely enclosing the motor, yet being fretted with large ovoid vent apertures.
  There were no fin surfaces in the tail assembly. The tubular spar of the balanced elevators served also as the axis and was mounted through the tubular sternpost. The balanced rudder was hinged to the sternpost and to the inverted steel-tube pylon which served as the anchorage for the ash tailskid. All tail surfaces were covered with fabric and were of approximate trapezoidal shape.
  The fabric-covered wing was of constant chord, with angularly raked tips and, in view of the warp control, was of necessity a flexible structure. Of conventional two-spar layout, the front spar was rigidly braced by cables running from a pylon in front of the cockpit to the compression tube anchorages, and from the underneath to a similar pylon between, and forming part of, the undercarriage chassis. The warp control cables were connected to actuating cranks at the base of a pylon underneath the cockpit and ran out to the underside of the rear spar. They then ran from the top surface over a pulley wheel in the top pylon, thereby completing the return linkage.
  Although apt to look complicated, the undercarriage was a simple vee-type chassis which additionally incorporated the inverted bracing pylon between the front legs where it joined the center of the straight-through axles. The undercarriage was considerably raked forward, even the front legs, which gave the machine good stability when taxiing and dampened any tendency to nose over occasioned by the extremely sensitive elevator control.
  As was the case with the Fokker monoplanes, more efficient and powerful biplanes were soon to come into service, and the operational life of the Pfalz E types was comparatively short on the Western Front, although they continued to serve on the Eastern Front and also in a training capacity. An unusual feature in the finish of the Pfalz monoplanes was the painting of the national insignia on all four elevator surfaces in addition to the usual locations, which probably stemmed from the firm's independence of the Flugzeugmeisterei controls.
  
  
Description: Single-seat fighting scout.
Manufacturer: Pfalz Flugzeug-Werke G.m.b.H. Speyer am Rhein (Pfal.)
   E I E.II E.IV
Power Plant: 80 h.p. Oberursel U.O 100 h.p. Oberursel U.I 160 h.p. Oberursel U. III
   9-cylinder rotary engine 9- cylinder rotary engine 14- cylinder rotary engine
Dimensions:
   Span 9.26 m. (30 ft. 4 5/8 in.) 10.2 m. (33 ft. 5 5/8 in.) 10.2 m. (33 ft. 5 5/8 in.)
   Length 6.3 m. (20 ft. 8 in.) 6.45 m. (21 ft. 2 in.) 6.6 m. (21 ft. 7 7/8 in.)
   Height 2.55 m. (8 ft. 4 3/8 in.)
   Area 14 sq.m. (151.2 sq.ft.) 16 sq.m. (172.8 sq. ft.) 16 sq.m. (172.8 sq. ft.)
Weights:
   Empty 345 kg. (759 lb.) 410 kg. (902 lb.) 471 kg. (1,036 lb.)
   Loaded 535 kg. (1,177 lb.) 620 kg. (1,364 lb.) 694 kg. (1,526 lb.)
Performance:
   Max speed 145 km.h. (90.6 m.p.h.) 150 km.h. (93.75 m.p.h.) 160 km.h. (100 m.p.h.)
   Climb to
   800 m. 3 min. 2.75 min. 2 min.
   2,000 m. 12 min. 9.75 min. 8.5 min.
   Duration 1 hr.
Armament: One Spandau machine-gun One Spandau machine-gun Two Spandau machine-guns
   firing forward. firing forward. firing forward.
  

Pfalz E IV
  In every way similar to the Pfalz E types covered in the main text, the E IV differed only in its being fitted with the 160 h.p. two-row Oberursel U III rotary engine. Comparatively few were built, one reliable source putting the number at twenty-four machines. Engine, 160 h.p. Oberursel U III. Span, 10.2 m. (33 ft. 5 5/8 in.). Length, 6.6 m. (21 ft. 7 7/8 in.). Height, 2.55 m. (8 ft. 4 3/8 in.). Area, 16 sq.m. (173 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 471 kg. (1,036 lb.). Loaded, 694 kg. (1,527 lb.). Speed, ca. 160 km.hr. (100 m.p.h.) Climb, 800 m. (2,624 ft.) in 2 min. Armament, one or two Spandau machine-guns.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


PFALZ E I Germany

  Early in 1914, the Pfalz Flugzeug-Werke, which had been established in the previous year specifically to manufacture aircraft for the Bavarian Flying Service, acquired a licence to manufacture the Morane-Saulnier Types H and L. In 1915, Pfalz produced its first aircraft to carry a machine gun, this, the E I, being broadly based on the Type H and powered by an 80 hp Oberursel U 0 (Gnome) rotary engine. This shoulder-wing monoplane of wooden construction passed its Typen-Prufung in September 1915. Two were at the Front by the end of the following month and the number of E Is at the Front peaked at 27 aircraft by the end of April 1916. Their principal role was as armed escorts for observation flights, armament comprising a single synchronised LMG 08/15 machine gun. Some E Is saw action in Palestine during the 1916 Sinai desert campaign, and others were flown by Bavarian units as unarmed high-speed reconnaissance aircraft.

Max speed, 87 mph (140 km/h).
Time to 2,625 ft (800 m), 3.0 min.
Endurance, 1.5 hrs. Empty weight, 760 lb (345 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,179 lb (535 kg).
Span, 30 ft 4 1/2 in (9,26 m).
Length, 20 ft 8 in (6,30 m).
Height, 8 ft 4 2/5 in (2,55 m).
Wing area, 150.7 sq ft (14,00 m2).


PFALZ E II Germany
  
  Fundamentally an improved E I, the E II completed its Typen-Prufung in July 1916, but by that time 30 were already at the Front with various Bavarian squadrons. Following manufacture of some 60 E Is, Pfalz introduced a 100 hp Oberursel U I rotary, increased overall span by 3 ft 1 in (94 cm) and continued production as the E II. Armament remained a single synchronised LMG 08/15 machine gun, and the E II served alongside the lower-powered E I in twos and threes with two-seat reconnaissance aircraft units to undertake escort tasks. Like the E I, the E II was entirely of wooden construction and, apart from having a fabric-skinned rear fuselage, was plywood covered. The E II had disappeared from the Western Front by the end of 1916, some having served in Macedonia, Palestine and Syria.

Max speed, 93 mph (150 km/h).
Time to 2,625 ft (800 m), 2.75 min.
Endurance, 1.5 hrs.
Empty weight, 904 lb (410 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,261 lb (572 kg).
Span, 33 ft 5 1/2 in (10,20 m).
Length, 21 ft 1 9/10 in (6,45 m).
Height, 8 ft 4 2/5 in (2,55 m).
Wing area, 172.23 sq ft (16,00 m2).


PFALZ E IV Germany
  
  Retaining the ply- and fabric-covered wooden airframe of the E II, the E IV differed primarily in having a two-row Oberursel U III rotary engine of 160 hp and an armament of two synchronised LMG 08/15 machine guns. Type-tested in January 1916, the E IV was found to be a poor gun platform and its U III engine proved unreliable. A series of 24 aircraft was built, but the E IV saw little frontline use owing to its shortcomings, and the maximum number at the Front at any one time was five aircraft (April 1916).

Max speed, 99 mph (160 km/h).
Time to 9,840 ft (3 000 m), 10 min.
Endurance, 1 hr.
Empty weight, 1,038 lb (471 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,530 lb (694 kg).
Dimensions as for E II apart from length of 21 ft 7 7/8 in (6,60 m).


PFALZ E VI Germany

  Although, by early 1916, the more rugged and manoeuvrable biplane configuration was demonstrating a clear superiority over the monoplane in the fighting role, the Pfalz Flugzeug-Werke persisted with the latter and developed the E V and E VI. The E VI differed primarily in having the 100 hp Oberursel U I rotary engine, and some redesign of the vertical tail surface, but this type saw no combat, the 20 built being assigned to the instructional role.


J.Herris Pfalz Aircraft of WWI (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 5)


Pfalz E-Type Fighters

  The Pfalz E-Type fighters were developed from the Morane-Saulnier Type H monoplane, for which Pfalz obtained a production license before the war. The Fokker monoplanes, which actually entered service months before the Pfalz fighters, had better performance, especially climb rate, and had much better maneuverability and handling characteristics. Thus the Fokkers were greatly preferred to their Pfalz contemporaries. Tony Fokker has been accused of simply copying the Morane-Saulnier Type H design, but considering his monoplane fighters were considerably superior to the Pfalz monoplanes, which were copies of the Morane-Saulnier Type H, this could not be true. Certainly the configurations were similar, but the designs were significantly different in detail. Because the Fokker and Pfalz monoplane fighters looked so similar, Allied airmen knew them all as Fokkers
  Because the inferior Pfalz monoplane fighters followed the Fokker monoplanes into service, only small numbers of Pfalz monoplane fighters saw frontline service, and they were generally unpopular with their pilots. Death notices in German newspapers have black borders and the Pfalz monoplane fighters were painted with black outlines on the wings and fuselages, leading to some gallows humor in the German air service.
  Not only were the Fokker monoplanes superior in performance, the Pfalz aircraft apparently were not as structurally sound, possibly due to their derivation from the fragile pre-war Morane-Saulniers, because in August 1916 they were ordered withdrawn from the front and cannibalized for spare parts due to numerous fatal crashes. About 100 Pfalz E-Types were destroyed as a result, and production was likewise stopped. This debacle and lack of a suitable Pfalz-designed replacement lead to Pfalz being assigned production of LFG Roland biplane fighters.

Pfalz E-Type Fighter Production Orders
Type (Total Built) Order Date Quantity Serial Numbers
Pfalz E.I (45 total) September 1915 25 E.200-224/15
November 1915 20 E.462-481/15
Pfalz E.II (130 total) September 1915 10 E.226-235/15
(September) 1915 20 E.276-295/15
November 1915 20 E.442-461/15
December 1915 20 E.649-668/15
February 1916 60 E.100-159/16
Pfalz E.IV (46 total) December 1915 6 E.643-648/15
January 1916 20 E.800-819/15
February 1916 20 E.306-325/16
Pfalz E.V (20 total) February 1916 50 (20 built) (E.256-275/16)
Pfalz E.VI (20 total) May 1916 20 Unknown


Pfalz E.I

  The Pfalz E.I was created by mounting a synchronized machine gun on a Pfalz-built Morane-Saulnier Type H powered by a 7-cylinder, 80 hp Oberursel U.O engine. Entering service too late to make a significant impact, only 45 aircraft were produced.

Pfalz E.I Specifications
Engine: 80 hp Oberursel U.O
Wing: Span 9.20 m
Chord 1.80 m
Area 14.0 sq m
General: Length 6.30 m
Height 2.55 m
Empty Weight 360 kg
Loaded Weight 500 kg
Maximum Speed: 145 kmh
Climb: 2000m 9 min
3000m 23 min


Pfalz E.II

  The Pfalz E.II was a slightly enlarged E.I powered by a 9-cylinder, 100 hp Oberursel U.I engine. The wingspan was enlarged to provide more lifting area to support the heavier engine and the wing was braced by three sets of flying wires instead of two sets as in the E.I. The fuselage was also lengthened to balance the heavier engine. Speed was slightly higher than the E.I and climb was significantly better. Production of the Pfalz E.II was 130 aircraft.

Pfalz E.II Specifications
Engine: 100 hp Oberursel U.I
Wing: Span 10.20 m
Chord 1.80 m
Area 16.0 sq m
General: Length 6.45 m
Height 2.55 m
Empty Weight 410 kg
Loaded Weight 572 kg
Maximum Speed: 150 kmh
Climb: 2000m 7 min
3000m 12.5 min
4000m 33 min


Pfalz E.IV

  The Pfalz E.IV was powered by the 14-cylinder, 160 hp Oberursel U.III engine. This rotary engine had a double row of cylinders and was much heavier than the less powerful Oberursel U.O and U.I engines. Evolved from the earlier E.II, the E.IV had the same wing but a slightly longer fuselage to balance the heavier engine. Its more powerful engine improved performance compared to the E.II even though it mounted two machine guns. However, the Oberursel U.III had cooling problems with its second row of cylinders and was not as reliable as the single-row Oberursel U.O and U.I. A total of 46 aircraft was built, but the maximum quantity at the front only reached five aircraft in April 1916, an indication the type was out-classed and saw relatively little active service.


Pfalz E.IV & the Pour le Merite

  Despite the limited use of the Pfalz E.IV, two pilots who flew it became aces and eventually were awarded the Pour le Merite. One was Oblt. Rudolf Berthold, whose crash in his Pfalz E.IV was the first many injuries that eventually forced out of combat. Another was Lt. Otto Kissenberth.

Pfalz E.IV Specifications
Engine: 160 hp Oberursel U.III
Wing: Span 10.20 m
Chord 1.80 m
Area 16.0 sq m
General: Length 6.60 m
Height 2.55 m
Empty Weight 471 kg
Loaded Weight 694 kg
Maximum Speed: 160 kmh
Climb: 2000m 6.5 min
3000m 10 min


Pfalz E.VI
  
  he Pfalz E.VI was the final variant of the Pfalz monoplane fighter series. It was basically an improved Pfalz E.II and used the same 9-cylinder, 100 hp Oberursel U.I engine. Changes included a different rudder shape and two sets of wing bracing wires instead of the three sets used on the E.II. Like the E.V, the E.VI also passed its Typenprufung in July 1916. Again, 20 E.VI aircraft were built to keep the Pfalz factory active, and they were used for training because they were obsolete for combat; none were recorded in the frontline inventory.


E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918


Kampfflugboote
A VII Type Pfalz E.II (später A 10) Ob/Gn 100

В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Пфальц" E.I с пулеметом LMG 08 в стандартной для этого типа черно-белой "антикамуфляжной" окраске.
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
Пфальц E I
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.IV 647/15 wears the usual factory finish of white doped linen with black borders, and black struts, pylon and metal areas. The wheel covers were painted half white/half black.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.IV #719 wears the usual factory finish of white doped linen with black borders, and black struts, pylon and metal areas. The wheel covers also had iron cross markings.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The talented Bavarian artist-pilot Lt. Ferdinand 'Fritz' Grunzweig of Feldflieger Abteilung 9b considerably altered the appearance of his personal Pfalz E.IV. The cowling was decorated with detailed eyes in a manner that he would repeat on his later Fokker D.II machines; in addition the cowling was perforated with breathing holes for better cooling. The bright white finish of the monoplane was toned down by the application of a mottled finish to the upper surfaces of the wings and top and sides of the fuselage. The colors of this field-applied camouflage are unknown, and those illustrated are an arbitrary choice. The only available photos of this aircraft do not clarify if the rudder was given a similar treatment, so it is illustrated as 'white'.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A Pfalz E.I on the Speyer airfield armed with a single Spandau LMG 08 machine gun. All Pfalz monoplanes were decorated in the typical Morane-Saulnier ornamental trim with fuselage, flying surfaces and rib tapes outlined in black. The coat of arms appears to be that of Speyer. The rudder shape was significantly different than Fokker rudders.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Pfalz E.I (serial 173/15)
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Pfalz E.I 213/15 was used as a trainer.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Pfalz E.I 213/15 was used as a trainer. The designation and serial number are just above the rudder cross.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.I 215/15 at Feldflieger-Abteilung 19 on the Eastern Front. Many Pfalz E-types were relegated to the Eastern Front where they could be useful in that less demanding combat environment.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A Fokker E.II (foreground) with Pfalz E.I 215/15 and a Pfalz E.II in the background provides an opportunity to compare the fighters. Allied airmen rarely, if ever, distinguished the Pfalz E-types from the Fokker E-types; all were identified as 'Fokkers'. The rudders were different shapes, but the most noticable difference between the types is the finish; the Fokker is plain linen and metal, whereas the Pfalz aircraft are white with black trim, black cowlings and black forward fuselages. The Pfalz E-types also have crosses on their elevators, while the Fokkers do not. This is the airfield of Feldflieger-Abteilung 19 on the Eastern Front, where many of the Pfalz E-types were assigned. All these differences went unnoticed by Allied aircrew in the heat of combat! Death notices in German newspapers of the time were bordered in black, so the black borders of the Pfalz E-types resulted in some gallows humor in the German air service. After a series of structural failures, all Pfalz E-types were removed from the front. Unlike Fokker, the Pfalz company was known for good workmanship, so these failures may have been due to the light structure of the pre-war Morane-Saulnier on which the Pfalz E-types were based, which was not stressed for the high-G maneuvers of air combat.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.I (possibly 215/15) at Feldflieger-Abteilung 19, Flugplatz Porcher, thought to be December 1915. The 7-cylinder Oberursel U.O is clearly visible.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Pfalz E.I 216/15
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Пфальц E I зачастую путают с Моран-Солнье Н и даже с Фоккером E III.
Pfalz E.I 458/15 had a small, propeller-driven fuel pump mounted on the wing-warping structure below the fuselage.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Pfalz E.I 473/15 in new condition on the Speyer field.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Pfalz E.I 473/15 in new condition on the Speyer field.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Pfalz E.I 473/15 on the Speyer field.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.I 479/15 at Vilna on the Eastern Front. Many Pfalz monoplanes were assigned to the Eastern Front, where the air war was much less intense than the Western Front and the Pfalz monoplanes could be useful.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A Pfalz Eindecker taking off.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Pfalz E.I of Feld-Flieger Abteilung 7.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.I with Lt. Czermack in the cockpit.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Leutnant Fischinger of Feld-Flieger Abteilung 21 with his Pfalz E.I.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Oblt. Fischinger in a Pfalz E.I of Flieger-Abteilung 21.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Unteroffizier Max Holtzem in the Pfalz E.I he used for aerobatic demonstrations at the factory. The underside is painted black with white insignia.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Unteroffizier Max Holtzem, who for a while performed military acceptance flights.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Holtzem's crash on February 23, 1916 at Schleissheim in a Pfalz E-type.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Lt. Otto Kissenberth with a Pfalz E.I at KEK (Kampfeinsitzer Kommando) Ensisheim. The E.I shows the iron crosses beneath the wings and tailplane. The wing structure shows through the fabric, and the Pfalz logo is on the center of the engine cowling. Kissenberth first became a fighter pilot at KEK Ensisheim and went on to score 20 confirmed victories and win the Pour le Merits before crashing a captured Sopwith Camel. His last victory was in the captured Camel. His injuries kept him out of further combat. Kissenberth was one of a number of aces who wore glasses.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Oblt. Krug in front of a Pfalz E.I.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.I 205/15 with Lt. Loessl in the cockpit.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.I of Feldflieger-Abteilung 21 flown by Lt.d.R. Ernst von Lossl. Lossl was wounded on 23 May, 1917 while flying with Jasta 18; he died the next day.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
The Pfalz E.I had its origins as an unarmed reconnaissance aircraft but with the advent of the Fokker synchronization gear in 1915 it appeared, like the Fokker E.I (and E.III) with a forward-firing Spandau.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Lt. Mohring in his Pfalz E.I over a winter landscape.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Lt. Otto Parschau in a Pfalz E.I. A flare pistol is attached to the outside of the cockpit. Parschau was awarded the Pour le Merits on 10 July 1916 after 8 confirmed victories, a high number at that time.
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The Pfalz E I was broadly based on the Morane-Saulnier Type H and began to arrive at the Front from late October 1915.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Unlike the standard light factory finish, this Pfalz E.I appears to be in a dark finish.
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Pfalz E.I shares the hangar with Fokker B.I 1045/15 in the background.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.I; the serial is obscured by the wing.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.I; unlike Fokker monoplanes, Pfalz monoplanes had iron cross insignia on top and bottom of the elevators.
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Rear view of a Pfalz E-type.
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Pfalz E.I.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A Pfalz Eindecker being repositioned on the airfield.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Ammunition being loaded into a Pfalz E.I.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.II 226/15 in the foreground and a Pfalz E.I in the background; the triple wing cables of the E.II differentiate it from the E.I, which has only two cables per wing. From the front the 9-cylinder engine of the E.II differentiates if from the E.I with its 7-cylinder engine. E.226/15 was the first aircraft of the first E.II production batch ordered in Sept. 1915.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Lt. Walter von Bulow in his Pfalz E.II (278/15?), probably with Feldflieger-Abteilung 22 where he achieved the first of his 28 victories. He was awarded the Pour le Merite after 21 victories.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.II 454/15 is walked out for take-off. The light cowling was painted at unit level; it was black from the factory.
The Pfalz and Fokker Eindecker monoplane fighters were the world's first truly successful fighters and had a profound effect on the development of air power.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rear quarter view of Pfalz E.II 454/15 showing the iron cross insignia Pfalz added to the elevators and the three sets of flying wires needed for the longer wing.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Another view of Pfalz E.II 454/15.
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The end of Pfalz E.II 454/15.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.II 649/15. The Pfalz logo is on the upper center of the engine cowling, like the Morane-Saulniers from which it was derived.
J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Leutnant Hans Henkel with FA (Flieger Abteilung) 300 "Pascha" on the Palestinian Front poses with his ground crew and Pfalz E.II. This was the only Pfalz E-type to serve in Palestine. Power was the 100 hp Oberursel U.l.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Unteroffizier Max Holtzem prepares to take off in a Pfalz E.II.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.II with tactical number '5' on the rear fuselage.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A Pfalz E.II of Feld-Flieger Abteilung 64 at the end of the Eindecker era in October 1916.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Front view of a Pfalz E.II. The iron cross insignia under the elevators are visible.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Pfalz E.II was powered by a nine-cylinder 100 hp Oberursel U.I rotary engine.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.II aligned for adjusting the wing rigging. The large angle of incidence made the Pfalz monoplanes especially sensitive to asymmetric rigging
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.II at the factory. The white rectangle on the cowling is the manufacturer's nameplate.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.II. The Pfalz E-types were withdrawn from service following a number of in-flight structural failures. The Pfalz monoplanes were based on the pre-war Morane-Saulnier Type H, a lightly-build aircraft that was not designed for high "G" combat maneuvering.
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Pfalz E.II
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A Pfalz E.II heads a lineup including two Fokker E.IIIs, a Pfalz A.II, and an Ago C.I (or C.II) of Feld-Flieger Abteilung 9b.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Nose of a Pfalz E.II.
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Landing accident in a Pfalz E.II
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Landing accident in a Pfalz E.II
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Landing accident in a Pfalz E.II
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Landing accident in a Pfalz E.II
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Landing accident in a Pfalz E.II
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Landing accident in a Pfalz E.II
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Pfalz E.IV 647/15, an aircraft of the first production batch.
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Oblt. Rudolf Berthold crashed in Pfalz E.IV 803/15 at Chateau Vaux aerodrome on 25 April (22 May ???), 1916. The serious injuries Berthold experienced in this crash were the first of many wounds and injuries that finally forced his removal from the front, but not before scoring 44 confirmed victories and being awarded the Pour le Merite.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Adjusting the machine guns on Pfalz E.IV 812/15.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Two views of the Pfalz E.IV of Lt. Friedrich Grunzweig of Feld-Flieger Abteilung 9b, 1916; the aircraft has suffered an accident and is being recovered by a ground crew. Grunzweig was an artist and personally painted his aircraft with the eyes on the cowling and on the camouflage on the sides and upper surfaces of the aircraft. The cowling was perforated, most likely to provide additional air cooling to the two-row rotary engine.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Lt. Otto Kissenberth takes off in a Pfalz E.IV trailing a cloud of exhaust smoke from its two-row Oberursel U.III rotary engine. Kissenberth scored 20 victories and was awarded the Pour le Merite on 30 June 1918 as an Oberleutnant.
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Leutnant Ernst Udet crashed a Pfalz E.IV when he was attached to the Kampf-Einsitzer-Kommando Habsheim.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A Pfalz E.IV of Kampfeinsitzer-Kommando (KEK) Ensisheim takes off.
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Pfalz E.IV
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
No serial number is visible on this unarmed Pfalz E.IV.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A new Pfalz E.IV awaiting armament installation. Restricted to a small series, the E IV saw little frontline use owing to its shortcomings.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
From this head-on view it is apparent that this Pfalz E.IV has its iron cross insignia on the wings painted over white fields. This is unusual because the Pfalz monoplanes were so white overall that white fields seem redundant.
J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Pfalz E.IV is distinctive due to its twin-row 160 hp Oberursel U.III rotary engine, which required an additional front bearing support, and twin Spandau LMG 08 machine guns. The E.IV had larger wings than earlier Pfalz E-types to handle the additional weight, and a longer tail to balance the heavier engine and two guns. Pfalz was fond of the German national insignia and applied it to upper and lower surfaces of the tailplane in addition to its standard locations.The E.IV here even has the iron cross on the wheel covers.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Pfalz E IV
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Three views of a German Pfalz monoplane, from a recent German publication. This machine is, so far as one is able to ascertain, an exact copy of the pre-war French Morane. The machine has not, we believe, been built for several years.
J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Pfalz E.IV is distinctive due to its twin-row 160 hp Oberursel U.III rotary engine, which required an additional front bearing support, and twin Spandau LMG 08 machine guns.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This Pfalz E.VI, purchased by the Austro-Hungarian Navy in July 1916, shows the two-wire bracing compared to the three-wire bracing of the E.II from which it was derived. The fuselage may have been lengthened to improve handling, but by this time the basic design was obsolete.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
This Pfalz E.VI, A.10, purchased by the Austro-Hungarian Navy in July 1916, shows the different rudder shape and two-wire bracing. Pfalz painted national insignia on top and bottom of the elevators for these aircraft as well. S. Catharina, August 1916
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Three rare aircraft are captured in this photo. A Pfalz E.VI in the foreground was hand painted with lozenge patterns to test a new camouflage system; it retains the national insignia on the elevators. The Pfalz E.V Typenprufung machine in the background dates this photo to July 1916. Directly behind the E.VI is Albatros C.IV C.850/16 as can be determined by its distinctive wing and interplane struts.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This interesting photo was taken of the camouflaged Pfalz E.VI inflight, perhaps to help evaluate the effectiveness of its camouflage. The pattern was hand painted, which required too much labor to be practical. Printed fabric in lozenge pattern was later developed and widely used; it would be interesting to know if the printed fabric was related in any way to this experiment.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz poster showing a Pfalz E.II.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Poster from the Pfalz company.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This poster advertising the Pfalz E.IV illustrates the color scheme for the Pfalz monoplane fighters. Pfalz obtained a manufacturing license for several Morane-Saulnier monoplanes before the war and used essentially the same color scheme; gloss black cowling and other metal parts, wheel covers, and outlines of the flying surfaces. Iron cross national markings were applied to both sides of the wings and tailplane, the fuselage, and the rudder. The fabric was very white and reflected sunlight.The Pfalz logo on the nose replaced the Morane-Saulnier logo in the same location.The Pfalz posters were created by noted artist Max Schammler of Berlin.
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Pfalz E.II
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The Pfalz E I was broadly based on the Morane-Saulnier Type H and began to arrive at the Front from late October 1915.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Пфальц" E.I
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.I
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.I
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.I
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.II
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.II
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.II
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.IV
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.IV
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz E.IV