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LFG Roland D.I

Страна: Германия

Год: 1916

Истребитель

LFG Roland - C.III - 1916 - Германия<– –>LFG Roland - D.II - 1916 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


"РОЛАНД " D.I / ROLAND D.I

  "Роланд" D.I был создан летом 1916 года на фирме "Люфтфарцойг Гезельшафт" (LFG), выпускавшей самолеты под торговой маркой "Роланд". Машина разработана под руководством инженеров Танцена и Хоффмана на базе весьма удачного двухместного многоцелевого аэроплана " Роланд" C.II.
  При переделке в истребитель самолет был значительно уменьшен в размерах, а оригинальные I-образные стойки крыла заменены на обычные. Неизменной осталась конструкция фюзеляжа, являвшаяся отличительной чертой самолетов фирмы LFG. Продольные половины фюзеляжа выклеивались на болванках из нескольких слоев тонкого соснового шпона, а затем соединялись по осевой линии. В результате получалась легкая, прочная и жесткая "скорлупа" очень чистых аэродинамических форм.
  Еще одной отличительной особенностью "Роланда" было то, что его верхнее крыло крепилось без центральных стоек непосредственно к фюзеляжу. Это обеспечивало пилоту прекрасный обзор вверх, лучший, чем у любых других бипланов, но обзор вниз был явно недостаточен, что особенно опасно на рулении и при посадке. К тому же, в случае капотирования машины летчик подвергался повышенному риску. Из-за этого перед кабиной пришлось установить стальную противокапотажную раму.
  В качестве силовой установки использовался стандартный для тогдашних немецких истребителей мотор "Мерседес" D.III мощностью 160 л.с. Вооружение - один синхронный пулемет LMG 08/15.
  Первый полет прототипа состоялся в июле 1916 г. Самолет начал строиться серийно, но после выпуска 60 экземпляров, авиасборочный завод LFG в Адлерсхофе сгорел при пожаре.
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
  
  Размах, м 8,94
  Длина, м 6,93
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 22,80
  Сухой вес, кг 699
  Взлетный вес, кг 932
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 175
  Время подъема на высоту
   2000 м, мин. 6,5
  Потолок, м 5000


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


L.F.G. Roland D I
  The D I of 1916 was built in small numbers until superseded by the D II /D IIa. It was very similar in size and construction to the later machine, differing mainly in the less-powerful motor and its attendant "ear"-type radiators. Engine, 100 h.p. Mercedes D I. Although not confirmed, dimensional data probably closely approximated that of D II. Armament, probably only one fixed Spandau machine-gun.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


LFG ROLAND D I Germany

  Shortly before World War I, the Luft-Fahrzeug Gesellschaft (LFG) adopted the corporate tradename "Roland” to avoid confusion with the Luft-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft (LVG). In 1916, the company initiated the design of a single-seat fighter under the direction of Dipl-Ing Tantzen. It was proposed that the new fighter should embody the innovative structural techniques adopted for the highly successful C II Walfisch (Whale) which utilised the so-called Wickelrumpf, or "wrapped fuselage”, a moulded two-piece shell composed of thin bands of spruce veneer reinforced with fabric. Three prototypes of the new D I fighter were ordered in April 1916, and with the completion of Idflieg (Inspektion der Fliegertruppen) testing in August, LFG was awarded a contract for 60 aircraft. Concurrently, the Pfalz Flugzeugwerke received a contract for a further 20 aircraft. The D I was powered by a 160 hp Mercedes D III water-cooled engine and carried an armament of two synchronised LMG 08/15 machine guns. Although the D I made its appearance at the Front in October 1916, a severe fire at the LFG factory in the previous month had reduced deliveries to little more than a token quantity. The D I inventory at the Front attained a peak of 12 aircraft in February 1917, and the type had disappeared from front-line units in the following June, a few continuing to serve as fighter trainers through 1918. The D I was unofficially known as the Haifisch (Shark).

Max speed, 112 mph (180 km/h) at sea level.
Time to 3,280 ft (1 000 m), 7 min.
Empty weight, 1,541 lb (699 kg).
Loaded weight, 2,055 lb (932 kg).
Span, 29 ft 2 1/3 in (8,90 m).
Length, 22 ft 3 2/3 in (6,80 m).
Height, 9 ft 6 in (2,90 m).
Wing area, 247.58 sq ft (23,00 m2).


J.Herris Roland Aircraft of WWI (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 9)


Roland D.I

  In 1916 LFG initiated the design of a new fighter plane under the direction of Dipl.-Eng. Tantzen. The new fighter was derived from the earlier Roland C.II two-seater; it used the same 160 hp Mercedes D.III engine, the same Wickelrumpf "wrapped fuselage" construction, and similar aerodynamic and structural technology.
  Three prototypes were ordered in April 1916. In August 1916 Idflieg completed testing of the D.I and awarded LFG a contract for 60 fighters. At the same time Pfalz was awarded a contract to produce 20 Roland D.I fighters under license. These aircraft were initially known as the Pfalz D.I, but later, after Idflieg rationalized the aircraft designation system, these aircraft were known as the Roland D.I(Pfal).
  The Roland D.I had two synchronized LMG 08/15 machine guns buried in the nose. This gave excellent streamlining but made them nearly inaccessible to the pilot in case of a malfunction, common at the time. The D.I arrived at the front in October 1916, but a fire at the LFG factory in 6 September reduced production to a trickle at this important time.
  The Roland C.II was known as the Walfisch (Whale) and the smaller D.I was nicknamed Haifisch (Shark), but this was not an official name. Like the C.II, the D.I was strong and fast, but lacked the maneuverability needed for a first-rate fighter. In addition, the pilot's field of view forward and downward was compromised by the design, so few Roland D.I fighters were built.


Roland D.I Specifications
Engine: 160 hp Mercedes D.III
Wing: Span 8.90 m
Chord (upper) 1.45 m
Chord (lower) 1.45 m
General: Length 6.93 m
Maximum Speed: 180 kmh
Climb: 1000m 4 min
2000m 8 min
3000m 13.5 min
4000m 22 min
5000m 28 min


Roland D.I Production
Ordered Qty Serials Notes
April 1916 1 112/16 Prototype
Aug. 1916 60 830-889/16 1st production
Sept. 1916 20 1680-1699/16 Pfalz-built
Oct. 1916 40 Unknown See note
Note: May have been changed to D.II


J.Herris Pfalz Aircraft of WWI (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 5)


Pfalz D.I

  Failing to develop its own competitive fighter design, Pfalz was forced to build the LFG Roland D.I fighter under license as the Pfalz D.I. Pfalz received a production contract for 20 aircraft, serial numbers 1680-1699/16, in September 1916. To produce these aircraft Pfalz had to learn the Roland Wickelrumpf wrapped-plywood fuselage technique, which remained the standard Pfalz fuselage contruction technique until the end of the war. The Pfalz D.I was powered by the 160 hp Mercedes D.III engine and reached 180 kmh (112 mph). After Idflieg rationalized aircraft designations in February 1917, these aircraft were re-designated Roland D.I(pfal).

J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Roland D.l of Jasta 5
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The LFG Roland D.I prototype was the first Roland fighter design and direct ancestor for all early Roland fighters. Clearly derived from the Roland C.II, it used the same engine and technology that made the C.II so successful and shared the strengths and weaknesses of the C.II. The upper wing was built directly into the fuselage without benefit of cabane struts, limiting the pilot's view forward. This feature required two re-designs to provide adequate forward view. Unfortunately, the mediocre maneuverability and handling qualities the D.I inherited from the C.II were a more severe limitation for a single-seat fighter than a two-seater and were not overcome until Roland developed the Roland D.VI.
The LFG Roland D.I shown here was also built under license by Pfalz as the Pfalz D.I.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
The second prototype of the Roland D.I in front of the Roland factory at Adlershof.
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The second Roland D.I prototype
Developed from the earlier Roland C.II two-seater, the Roland D.I fighter had two guns and the 160 hp Mercedes D.III engine. It was fast but the pilots' forward view was poor, and the design was quickly revised as the Roland D.II to fix that limitation, particularly problematic for a fighter.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Prototype Roland D.I 112/16 at the factory. The photo has been re-touched to outline the shape of the vertical tail surfaces which did not contrast much with the sky. The upper wing was built directly into the fuselage without benefit of cabane struts, limiting the pilot's view forward and downward. Unlike the Roland C.II, I-type interplane struts were not used. It was the first of three prototypes ordered in April 1916, the other two were built as Roland D.II fighters.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The production LFG Roland D.I shown here at Adlershof was also built under license by Pfalz as the Pfalz D.I. The crosses are of normal proportions, which indicates this may be a Pfalz-built aircraft; Roland-built aircraft had thicker crosses. Production D.I fighters did not have the fuselage side window present in the D.I prototype.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
An early production example of the Roland D.I Haifisch (Shark) at Adlershof.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Test pilot Eugen Wiencziers posing with Roland D.I(Pfal) 1680/16
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Roland D.I(Pfal) 1680/16
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D.I(Pfal) 1680/16
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Roland D.I(Pfal) 1680/16
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Roland D.I attached to Jasta 5 in Winter 1916-1917.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Roland D.I '10' of Jasta 5
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
A crashed Roland D.I '11' probably of Jasta 5
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This Roland-built D.I in typical factory sprayed camouflage has had an accident. The angular roll-over structure of the D.I resembled that used in later-production C.II aircraft and was not used in later Roland fighters.
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Roland D.I in early markings
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Роланд" D.I с характерной противокапотажной рамой перед кабиной.
Small-scale production of the Roland D I was achieved during the course of 1916.
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Roland D.I
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Front view of the same Roland D.I
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Roland D.I with pilot aboard.
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FEA 9 personnel posing with a 50kg PuW bomb.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Roland D.I and late (large fin) C.IIa airframes being built on November 8, 1916 in the Kaiserdamm factory.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Roland D.I
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Roland D.I
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Roland D.I