Самолеты (сортировка по:)
Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Fokker D.V / M.22

Страна: Германия

Год: 1916

Истребитель

Fokker - D.IV / M.20 / M.21 - 1916 - Германия<– –>Fokker - V1 / V2 / V3 - 1916 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


Первой самостоятельной разработкой талантливого немецкого авиаконструктора Рейнольда Платца на фирме "Фоккер" стал истребитель под заводским обозначением М.22. Он продолжал линию развития бипланов с ротативными моторами D.II и D.III, отличаясь от них значительно улучшенной аэродинамикой.
Фюзеляж новой машины приобрел "граненое" сечение с более плавным переходом от круглого капота к бортам. Мотор полностью закапотирован, а на винт установлен полукруглый кок.
Самолет по размерам был аналогичен D II, но имел одностоечную коробку крыльев. Кроме того, с целью улучшения обзора передней полусферы верхнее крыло было вынесено вперед и имело ярко выраженную стреловидность. Двигатель Оберурсель U.1 был закрыт капотом и коком винта по типу французского истребителя Ньюпор 17. Вооружение включало один пулемет "Шпандау", хотя иногда устанавливались и два.
В сентябре 1916 года самолет успешно прошел испытания и был принят на вооружение под обозначением "Фоккер" D.V. Истребитель выпускался серийно и до конца следующего года успешно применялся в немецких фронтовых эскадрильях западного и восточного фронтов. Из-за недостаточно мощного двигателя самолет не получил широкого распространения, поскольку к моменту его поступления в авиачасти уже существовали машины, обладавшие более высокими летными характеристиками и более мощным двухпулеметным вооружением.
Всего в конце 1916-го и первой в половине 1917 года построено по разным данным от 216 до 300 экземпляров D.V.
В 1918 году уцелевшие "пятерки" перевели в летные школы и учебные подразделения, где они прослужили до полного физического износа. В качестве учебно-тренировочного истребителя самолет зарекомендовал себя весьма положительно.
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
Размах, м 8,75
Длина, м 6,05
Площадь крыльев, м2 15,5
Сухой вес, кг 363
Взлетный вес, кг 566
Скорость максимальная, км/ч 170
Время набора высоты
   2000 м., мин. 6,9
Потолок, м 5000


A.Weyl Fokker: The Creative Years (Putnam)


In the autumn of 1916 the Nieuport scout was still one of the most formidable fighters on the Western Front. Forced to accept the fact that he was unable to beat the Albatros by using the same water-cooled engine, Fokker decided to try again with a small, light, rotary-powered fighter more like the Nieuport. The Fok. D.II might serve as some sort of basis for a new type. The Service version of the D.II had grown too big and too slow, and had lost in manoeuvrability. Fokker thought that the original M. 17E version was more promising, so the low-fuselage version that had been tried during March 1916 was subjected to a thorough redesign by Platz.
  The new design bore the Fokker type number M.21. Its fuselage and engine installation were virtually identical with those of the M.17E, but the width of the fuselage was reduced to 720 mm. The tail design was similar to that of the monoplanes and the Austrian M.17Es. The undercarriage had the double forward legs of the previous Service types, but in the M.21 they were faired together.
  In order to improve the pilot’s view the upper wing was appreciably further forward than that of the M.17E. To compensate for the change, the upper wing was swept back by 6 degrees. The inverted shovel-blade centre-section was retained, and the diagonal member in the centresection struts connected the lower end of the forward strut and the upper end of the rear strut on each side. Large horn-balanced ailerons were fitted to the upper mainplane only; wing warping had been abandoned for good. The lower wing of the M.21 retained practically the same shape and position as that of the M.17E.
  Fokker found the new aircraft highly manoeuvrable, and faster than the D.II with the same engine. He was at this time in the process of acquiring the major holding of the shares of the Oberursel concern and was therefore doubly anxious to make his new venture a commercial success. So much did he like the M.21 that, years later, he praised its ultimate development as the most manoeuvrable biplane he had ever flown. But the speed would have to be improved for Service use.
  Platz was therefore given the task of cleaning up the design to make it more presentable for the IdFlieg. He focused his attention primarily on the fuselage and engine installation. A close-fitting, full-circular cowling replaced the original horse-shoe cowling, and a large spinner was fitted to the airscrew. This installation reduced drag considerably but left only a narrow annular gap for cooling air; consequently the engine overheated when the aircraft was climbing in hot weather.
  The circular engine cowling was carefully faired into the fuselage sides by light formers and stringers that ran to a point just behind the cockpit. The basic fuselage structure remained that of the M.21. The M.22, as the improved design was named, appeared without the fairing over the front legs of its undercarriage, but production aircraft (Fok. D.V) had it.
  In fighters of less than 140 h.p. one machine-gun (LMG. 08/15) was regulation equipment. In the M.22, as in its predecessors, the cartridge box was placed inconveniently close to the pilot’s knees. It was directly behind the 85-litre (18-7-gal.) gravity tank. This tank now fitted the shape of the fuselage; the earlier cylindrical tanks had been abandoned because of the need to carry more fuel. The M.22 had only this one gravity tank, thus doing away with the need for petrol pumps or pressure feed.
  The wings retained the shape, ailerons and aerofoil section of the M.21, but the gap was slightly reduced. The characteristic centre-section was retained, but its diagonal strut ran the opposite way from that of the M.21. In structural details the wings resembled those of preceding Fokker biplanes, having three riblets between each pair of ribs, and wire trailing edges. The spars were spindled out from planks of Polish pine; originally they were much lighter than earlier Fokker spars, but they had to be strengthened. Ailerons, rudder and elevator were welded steel-tube frames.
  Late in October 1916 Fokker sent Fok. D.V No. 2710/16 (Factory No. 1068) to Adlershof for official strength tests. Like its predecessors, the D.V failed to pass: the wings collapsed under a sand load equivalent to a factor of 4-0 in Case A; both spars of the starboard upper wing failed in the inner bay. Fokker was frantic but again could blame no-one but himself: Platz had pleaded to be allowed to test the wings to destruction in their new experimental workshop before sending the aircraft to Adlershof, but Fokker would not hear of such waste.
  The Flugzeugmeisterei requested that the wings be strengthened before any further structural tests were carried out. A new pair of upper-wing panels were built quickly and arrived within a week. These wings had modified spars and proved satisfactory under test. Finally, a lighter and more easily made spar was proposed by Platz and was accepted by Adlershof. From this time onwards, tests in Platz’s new experimental department at Schwerin greatly reduced the time and resources that the Adlershof laboratories had to spend on Fokker products.
  The controls and control surfaces of the Fok. D.V were found to be reasonably satisfactory in strength, although the ribs of the rudder needed stiffening by the insertion of wooden webs. However, the unduly high resilience and friction in both control circuits were again criticized. The Fokker works apparently did not practise the pre-stretching of cables. Large control forces did not matter to Fokker, who flew only short test hops. He did not realize that fighter pilots often made four or more flights per day, each lasting more than an hour and probably entailing combat. In such conditions, large control forces mattered. The Fokker works were therefore asked to improve their control circuits in future designs. Fokker referred this to Platz.
  On October 11, 1916, the Type Test Committee of the IdFlieg decided to recommend the Fok. D.V for production as a promising type with very good flying qualities. It was indeed the best Fokker fighter that had been built up to that time. Admittedly, its performance was not spectacular, but nothing better could be expected of the 100-h.p. Oberursel rotary.
  E. Ditzuleit states that he never flew an aircraft with better flying qualities; he personally much preferred the Fok. D.V to the later Fok. D.VII and to the captured rotary-powered Sopwith types that he tried out. On Ditzuleit’s recommendation the Navy acquired a number of Fok. D.Vs for operational use, but the type proved too sensitive for most naval pilots and there were many crashes. The Fok. D.V had a sharp stall, following which the port wing dropped quickly. It had a very short take-off run. lifted itself off the ground without any movement of the controls, and climbed by itself, without any change in the elevator angle, to settle at a height of 2 km. (6,600 ft.).
  The Fok. D.V did not find favour with Army pilots on the Western Front. Manfred von Richthofen rejected it in favour of the new Albatros D.III, which had a better climb and higher ceiling. But the Albatros was much less manoeuvrable than the Fok. D.V. The Fokker might have had a warmer reception if its Oberursel engine had not acquired so much notoriety.
  The type saw most of its service with fighter training units, where it became a valuable instructional aircraft; as such it remained in service until the end of the war. All those who could handle it were fit to fly any other sensitive fighter; they also retained pleasant memories of its qualities.
  As an instance of the nature of the Fok. D.V, the Richthofen Fighter Wing received two Fok. D.Vs when the Fok. Dr. I triplane was introduced. Flying the D.V, pilots had to prove their ability to handle rotary-powered fighters before they were allowed to fly the triplane.
  Deliveries of D.V fighters to the Army appear to have totalled 216, beginning with an order for twenty, placed after completion of the structural tests. The first three were delivered in January 1917; by the end of the following month, twenty-five were operational.
As usual, Fokker had begun to produce the type before it was approved for production; consequently all completed components had to be modified, with considerable waste of time and effort.
  After the second of the two short-lived successors to Kreutzer had hurriedly departed from Schwerin, even Platz could not help being aware of the vacuum that existed within the firm. Somewhat diffidently he suggested to Fokker that he be allowed to try his hand at designing a new aeroplane according to his own ideas. At this time Platz had just completed the basic redesign of the M.17E as the M.21. Fokker jumped at the idea. From then on, for an uninterrupted period of eighteen years, a succession of original and successful designs earned the name of Fokker a world-wide reputation in aeronautical engineering.
  Not that life was going to be easy for Platz, for he had had another sample of Fokker’s ideas on equipment in the new experimental department for which Fokker had made him responsible. His team consisted of twenty of the best workers, a good foreman, and one draughtsman. The experimental department’s equipment was typically Fokker: that is to say, improvised from scrap, odds and ends, all at minimum expense. Any trained engineer would have insisted on having standard testing machines and the usual facilities found in such laboratories. At Schwerin there were none.
  Platz recalls that the principal device for testing anything was an eleven-foot-long steel beam of T-section; this was hinged to a wall of the shed. With this lever device (an invention of Platz’s) a load of several tons could be imposed upon experimental components in tension, compression and bending. There were also a couple of gas-welding plants, two drawing boards (one for Platz, one for the draughtsman), and some small tools - drills, vices, clamps and the like. The only equipment actually bought new was purchased on the express order of Fokker - a Yale lock for the door.
  While production of the Fok. D.II and D.III was under way, several experimental developments of the M.22 were built by Platz with the object of producing a really useful Service type.
  As the illustration shows, the single-bay variant had “D.VI” painted on the fuselage. This may have been done in anticipation of an order that did not materialize; there is no official record of a Fok. D.VI of that design and date (the true Fok. D.VI did not come into being until twelve months later, and looked quite different). It cannot even have been a government-ordered prototype.
  In external appearance this so-called D.VI resembled the production Fok. D.V, but the diagonal member in the centre-section struts ran the opposite way from that of the Fok. D.V, and the disposition of the bracing cables was different. These modifications were not requested by the Flugzeugmeisterei, and Platz cannot now recall why they were made. The experimental machine had no fairings over the front legs of the undercarriage.
  At least one other aircraft, virtually identical with the so-called D.VI, existed. This aircraft differed visibly from the other by having more stringers in the fuselage side fairings, differently arranged bracing cables, and faired front legs in its undercarriage.
  A two-bay, long-span variant was built, and was variously known as the M.22ZF, streamlined M.17Z, or streamlined Fok. D.II. In effect it was a marriage of a Fok. D.V fuselage and a set of Fok. D.II warping wings. The arrangement of its centre-section struts resembled that of the D.II.
  A somewhat similar aircraft had a Siemens bi-rotary engine, in which the cylinders and airscrew revolved in opposite directions. The engine was probably the nine-cylinder Sh. II of 110 h.p. It needed a front bearing, and a spider mounting like that for the 160-h.p. Oberursel was produced.
  The cylinders of this engine rotated at only 800 to 900 r.p.m., consequently the cowling arrangements of the Fok. D.V were no longer adequate. As the illustrations show, a smaller airscrew spinner was fitted and the cowling had a number of slots which, with internal guide vanes, provided satisfactory cooling. The slots were so placed that ejected oil could not spray into the cockpit. The slow-running Siemens engine required a large-diameter airscrew; this in turn necessitated a rather tall undercarriage, which consisted of two simple steel-tube vees with single-tube front legs. The structure of the mainplanes differed from that of the M.22ZF in minor details, and the interplane struts were slightly farther inboard.
  The Siemens-powered Fokker was armed with two LMG.08/15 guns and must therefore have been developed far enough for firing trials to be conducted. A test of a 110-h.p. Siemens aircraft at the Fokker Works is mentioned in official records. The type remained experimental, however, and never had a Service designation or order number. It is unlikely that the aircraft was built as a flying test-bed for the Siemens engine.


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Fokker M 22
  This aircraft was a prototype machine which, with revised cowling, became the D V. This was the last design on which Kreutzer worked and the first in which Platz played some part in design.


Fokker D V

  Making its debut in September 1916, the Fokker D V was the production version of the M 22 prototype. It was the last of the M series of thin-wing Fokkers. Design work had been initiated by Martin Kreutzer, but with his untimely death the finalisation of the design is thought to have been the work of Reinhold Platz.
  Certainly a much improved appearance had been bestowed upon the D V. Although basically only a development of the D III and retaining many of the earlier characteristics, the improved lines paid dividends in increased performance. Although production figures exceeded those of any previous Fokker D types - 216 being built - few Fokker D Vs appear to have seen operational service on the Western Front, although Jasta 6 has been reported as having the type on its establishment, one aircraft with the unit being 2642/16. Undoubtedly, being contemporaneous with the Albatros D I and D II, those more powerful types were preferentially disposed to the fighting units at the Front and the Fokker D V relegated to the training of fighter pilots.
  The enclosing of the 100 h.p. Oberursel rotary engine in a completely circular cowling and the fitting of a large, blunt spinner over the airscrew-hub gave a much cleaner nose-entry than with the earlier horse-shoe cowled types. The remainder of the fabric-covered fuselage consisted of a basic box-girder welded from steel tube and wire braced, tapering to a horizontal knife-edge aft. About this were clipped light stringers on the side and top decking, rounding out the fuselage to the circular section of the cowl at the nose and gradually tapering in with a lessening number of stringers towards the tail. Finless tail surfaces followed the tradition of earlier Fokker designs, with slight dimensional adjustments to allow for the alteration of the surface area; the rounded comma rudder and trapezoidal elevators still being of welded steel tube framing with fabric covering.
  Departure from previous practice was made in the wing profile and layout, although the type of construction remained the same. The upper wing was mounted in two panels, with some 5° of sweep, to a centre-section supported on steel tube "N" struts. This mounting close to the fuselage and the staggering well forward of the upper wing, together with the large angular centre-section cut-out, gave the pilot an excellent field of view. The wings were built up on twin wooden spars which were cable braced to steel-tube compression members; thin-section ribs were of ply, with fretted lightening holes and softwood capping strips. Two false ribs were positioned between each of the main ribs. Large overhung, balanced ailerons were installed at the upper wingtips and actuated by cables running through the lower wing then vertically up to connect the operating crank. The lower wing was straight, with slightly raked tips, and was of the same construction as the upper component. Trailing edges were of wire which, with the doping and taughtening of the fabric, imparted the characteristic scalloped outline.
  The undercarriage chassis was of light-gauge steel tube, with a closely spaced pair of struts forming the front leg and a single tube the rear leg. On some aircraft the two front tubes were faired over to give the appearance of a single leg; on others they were left uncovered. The axle was mounted between these two struts and bound to the apex with elastic cord. The strong ash tailskid was mounted on a small inverted pylon of steel tube which also formed the anchorage of the bottom rudder hinge.

TECHNICAL DATA
  Description: Single-seat fighter.
  Manufacturer: Fokker Flugzeug-Werke G.m.b.H. Schwerin am Mecklenburg (Fok.).
  Power Plant: One 100 h.p. Oberursel U I 9 cylinder rotary.
  Dimensions: Span, 875 m. (29 ft. 0 1/2 in.). Length, 605 m. (19 ft. 10 1/4 in.). Height, 2.3 m. (7 ft. 6 1/2 in.). Area, 15.5 sq.m. (167.4 sq.ft.).
  Weights: Empty, 363 kg. (797 lb.). Loaded, 566 kg. (1,245 lb.).
  Performance: Speed. 170 km.hr. (106.25 m.p.h.). Climb, 3,000 m. (9,840 ft.) in 19 min. Duration, ca. 1 1/2 hr.
  Armament: One Spandau machine-gun firing forward. Some aircraft may have had twin guns fitted.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


FOKKER D V (M 22) Germany

  The last single-seat fighter to be initiated by Martin Kreutzer before his death on 27 June 1916, but productionised by his successor, Reinhold Platz, the M 22 was, from several aspects, more refined than its predecessors. The most noteworthy departure from previous practice was the pronounced sweepback and increased forward stagger applied to the upper wing. Wing warping was finally discarded for lateral control, large, overhung, balanced ailerons being fitted to the upper wing, and a single-bay configuration was standardised. Illustrations purporting to depict two-bay versions with unswept upper wing as the "M 22ZF" - a designation of purely post-WWI origin - in fact show an M 17 with fully-cowled engine and spinner, and an M19 with an Sh II experimental installation. The 110 hp Oberursel UI nine-cylinder rotary engine of the M 22 was fully cowled, a large propeller spinner was fitted and standard armament comprised a single synchronised LMG 08/15 machine gun offset to starboard. The M 22 was assigned the official designation D V, the production model making its debut in September 1916. The D V was, in fact, ordered as a trainer, but was, fortuitously, to be issued to some home-based defence squadrons of both Fliegertruppen and the Marine-Landflieger as an interceptor. Although it appeared at the Front in February 1917, and offered good flying qualities, its performance was eclipsed by more powerful contemporaries, and most of the 300 D Vs built were utilised for their originally intended training role.

Max speed, 106 mph (170 km/h).
Time to 9,840 ft (3000 m), 19 min.
Range, 149 mis (240 km).
Empty weight, 800 lb (363 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,248 lb (566 kg).
Span, 28 ft 8 1/2 in (8,75 m).
Length, 19 ft 10 in (6,05 m).
Height, 7 ft 6 in (2,30 m).
Wing area, 166.85 sqft (15,50 m2).

В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Фоккер" D.V германских ВВС, 1917г.
A.Weyl - Fokker: The Creative Years /Putnam/
The Fokker M.21.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker prototype with Tony Fokker aboard
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker D.V M 22 prototype
A.Weyl - Fokker: The Creative Years /Putnam/
The Fokker M.22, prototype of the Fok. D.V.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
A fighter pilot trainee in Fokker D.V 2669/16
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
A naval rating posing in Fokker D.V 2669/16
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Leutnant Hans Elmenhorst died in the crash of Fokker D.V 2687/16 in May 1917 at Bavarian Flieger Schule 1 at Schleissheim.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
"Фоккер" D.V 2688/16 без вооружения на немецком полевом аэродроме. Эта машина использовалась в 1917-18 гг. для тренировки летного состава.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Pilot-trainee receives last minute instructions in Fokker D.V 2699/16
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker D.V 2710/16 production machine on the Schwerin airfield in October 1916
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
A standard Fok. D.V 2710/16 dismantled for transit.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker D.V 2775/16 flown by Leutnant Hess attached to the Kampf-Einsitzer Schule Warschau in May 1917.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
A production Fok. D.V 2786/16.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
"Фоккер" D.V без вооружения на немецком полевом аэродроме. Эта машина использовалась в 1917-18 гг. для тренировки летного состава.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker D V (serial 692/17) trainer with armament removed. The D V was ordered as an advanced trainer, but was issued to some home-based defence units.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker D.V 1637/17
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Лейтенанты Баумер и фон Хиппель возле "Фоккера" D.V, принадлежавшего 5-й истребительной эскадрилье (Jasta 5) германских ВВС.
Leutnants Paul Baumer and H J von Hippel with a Fokker D.V on the Jagdstaffel 5 airfield at Boistrancourt.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Leutnant Brandenstein, later to fly with .Jagdstaffel 49 with a beat-up Fokker D.V trainer.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Fokker D V.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
The last of this series of comparative failures from Fokker, prior to the appearance of the much promoted Dr I triplane was the DV, the D IV never emerging as such. While the DV, of which 216 were built, showed far better pilot handling than its predecessors, it was deemed to be inferior to the Albatros D IIs just coming into service and, like its immediate forebears, was re-directed to advanced training units. Delivery starting at the close of 1916, the DV was powered by a 100hp Oberursal U I and carried a single 7.92mm Spandau. Top level speed of the D V was 107mph, but climb rate was a fairly tardy 19 minutes to reach 9,800 feet.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Gen. von Hoeppner visiting Schleissheim in mid 1917: three Fokker DVs and one Fokker DIII are in the line.
A.Weyl - Fokker: The Creative Years /Putnam/
A Fok. D.V airframe.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
An early production Fokker D.V framework, October 1916.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fokker D.V framework of the last production series dated April-June 1917.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
The development of the Fokker M.22 that had “D.VI” stencilled on the fuselage. This aeroplane was in no way connected with the Fok. D.VI.
A.Weyl - Fokker: The Creative Years /Putnam/
This M.22 variant was very similar to the so-called D.VI.
A.Weyl - Fokker: The Creative Years /Putnam/
Fokker M.22ZF (M 17z (versuchs)). An experimental version of the D II with additional stringers rounding out fuselage lines and large spinner fitted. Engine, 100 h.p. Oberursel U I.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
A.Weyl - Fokker: The Creative Years /Putnam/
The M.22ZF variant that had the 110-h.p. Siemens-Halske Sh.II engine.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
A well-pranged Fokker D.V 1605/17 of Flieger Schule Stolp on August 31 1918.
A.Weyl - Fokker: The Creative Years /Putnam/
Fokker D.V
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The D V, which made its debut in autumn 1916.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Фоккер D.V