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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Gotha G.I (Gotha-Ursinus)

Страна: Германия

Год: 1915

Бомбардировщик

Gotha - WD.1/WD.2 - 1914 - Германия<– –>Gotha - LD.6/LD.7/B.I - 1915 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


ГОТА G-I (ГОТА-УРСИНУС) / GOTHA G-I (GOTHA-URSINUS)

  Первой немецкой фирмой, сумевшей построить вполне удачный многомоторный аэроплан, было предприятие Готаэр Ваггонфабрик AG, ранее занимавшееся выпуском железнодорожной техники. В марте 1915 года завершилась постройка двухмоторного бомбардировщика, сделанного по проекту инженера Урсинуса при содействии полковника Фриделя.
  Самолет назвали по фамилии создателя "Гота-Урсинус". Позднее он получил военное обозначение G-I. Аппарат представлял собой двухкилевой трехместный многостоечный биплан смешанной конструкции с фанерно-полотняной обшивкой.
  Двигатели в обтекаемых дюралевых капотах крепились к нижнему крылу, а фюзеляж - к верхнему. Такое оригинальное решение обеспечивало, по замыслу Урсинуса лучшие условия обзора для экипажа и практически неограниченное поле обстрела турельного пулемета.
  Первый полет состоялся 29 июля. Летные данные аппарата признали удовлетворительными, однако его необычная схема вызвала противоречивые отклики. С одной стороны, обзор действительно был великолепен. С другой же, летчики резонно опасались, что в случае капотирования машины (а это в те годы случалось нередко) они будут попросту раздавлены.
  Кроме того, при сбрасывании бомб из кабины, они могли угодить в винты или в нижнее крыло. Для устранения этого недостатка между фюзеляжем и крылом установили вертикальную решетчатую трубу-"бомбопровод", который выводил сбрасываемые боеприпасы за габарит машины.
  Еще одним серьезным недостатком "Готы" был малый запас устойчивости, обусловленный слишком высоким расположением центра тяжести. Но эту проблему можно было решить только путем коренного изменения общей схемы аппарата.
  В августе фирма Гота начала серийную постройку бомбардировщика. Всего было выпущено 18 или 19 экземпляров. По крайней мере один из них имел бронированную носовую часть фюзеляжа. На некоторых машинах устанавливался небольшой ящик-контейнер для мелких бомб под центропланом нижнего крыла. В конце 1915 года, в связи с успешной разработкой более перспективного самолета "Гота" G-II, выпуск G-I прекратили.
  Бомбардировщики Урсинуса прослужили в частях первой линии примерно до осени 1916 года. Несмотря на то, что их было не так уж много, они успели проявить себя и на западном и на восточном фронтах.
  В октябре 1915 года в двух боевых эскадрах германской армии числилось 8 самолетов этого типа. Один из них прославился тем, что он бомбил царскую ставку в Виннице, незадолго до того, как туда прибыл последний русский император. Первые "Готы" применялись также для поиска английских субмарин в Северном море.
  
  
ДВИГАТЕЛИ
  
  2 "Бенца" по 150 л.с.
  
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ
  
  Пулемет "Шпандау" или "Парабеллум" в носовой турели с круговым обстрелом, до 300 кг бомб.
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
  
  Размах, м 22,0
  Длина, м 12,9
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 82,0
  Сухой вес, кг 1800
  Взлетный вес, кг 2800
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 130
  Дальность полета, км 540
  Время набора высоты, мин/м 35/3000
  Потолок, м 3000


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Gotha Ursinus G.U.H. G I and U.W.D.
  This unique aeroplane, to the design of Oskar Ursinus (editor of Flugsport), was built by Gothaer Waggonfabrik A.G., in both land and seaplane versions. The landplane first flew on 27th July 1915 and the seaplane early in 1916. Several of the former version were constructed and designated G I. A crew of three was carried, and the gunner in the front cockpit had an unparalleled field of fire. The idea of raising the fuselage was to enable the engines to be placed as close together as possible - airscrew tips almost touching - in order to retain a good degree of control in asymmetric flight should failure of either engine occur. In both types "handed" airscrews were employed.
  Engines, two 150 h.p. Benz Bz III. Span, 20.3 m. (66 ft. 7 1/4 in.). Length. 12.1 m. (39 ft. 8 1/2 in.). Height, 4.0 m. (13 ft. 1 1/2 in.). Area, 82 sq.m. (885.6 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 1,860 kg. (4,092 lb.). Loaded, 2,830 kg. (6,226 lb.). Speed, 130 km.hr. (81.25 m.p.h.). Ceiling, 2,750 m. (9,020 ft.) in 34 min. Duration, 4 hr. (G.U.H. G I land machine.)
  Armament, two Parabellum machine-guns, both types.


J.Herris Gotha Aircraft of WWI (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 6)


Gotha G.I

  At the dawn of aviation, the military authorities of the major powers considered how aviation might be used in war. Reconnaissance and bombing immediately suggested themselves as potential roles for aviation, and in fact both were important in WWI and since. Of course, the next thought was, how to defend against the enemy using his aviation assets against your own forces? This concern lead to anti-aircraft guns and the idea of using airplanes for air-to-air combat.
  But what kind of airplane would be best for defeating other aircraft? In retrospect the answer is clear, but it was far from obvious before the war. Synchronizers to enable machine guns to fire between the blades of a rotating propeller were being designed, but got little notice at the time. The concept that resonated with many designers and military authorities before the war, before there was any experience in air-to-air combat, was the idea of aerial cruisers. The aerial cruiser theory was derived from the warships of the day,- the pilot would fly the aerial cruiser within range of the enemy aircraft and gunners would fire flexibly-mounted machine guns and cannon to destroy the adversary. Thus was born the idea of the battleplane, and Britain, France, and Germany all built aircraft to this concept.
  In early 1914 key German aviation authorities, including Idflieg, the VPK (Verkehrstechnische Prufungs Kommission = transport technical investigation commission) and aviation industry executives, discussed the role of military aircraft and reached a consensus. The VPK then issued a directive outlining the tactical role of aircraft and specified three categories: Typ I was a fast two-seater intended for extended flights for reconnaissance and light bombing; Typ II was a light, maneuverable two- seater for short flights over the lines and armed for self-defense; and Typ III was three-seater designed to carry a large payload and fly low within range of enemy fire. The Typ III was required to have a speed over 120 km/h, climb to 800m in 10 minutes, have a flight duration of 6 hours, and a useful load of 450 kg. In essence the Typ III was a battleplane (Kampfflugzeug in German).
  The German army approved the VPK recommendations on 28 April 1914, and demanded that these airplanes be developed as soon as possible. The Typ I was essentially the B-type two-seat biplane, of which numerous designs were available, while the Typ II eventually converged with the developed B-type to become the C-type armed two-seater. In parallel, a number of companies responded with designs to the Typ III requirements.
  However, the design that was to evolve into the Gotha G.l stemmed from an independent effort. Oskar Ursinus, founder and editor of Flugsport magazine and a civil engineer, received orders to report to FEA 3 (FEA for Flieger Ersatz Abteilung = aviation replacement unit) in Darmstadt on 1 August 1914. On 9 August Ursinus proposed building a twin-engine Kampfflugzeug to Major Friedel, FEA 3's new commander, using under-utilized military personnel from the unit. Friedel accepted and the new airplane would be known as the Friedel-Ursinus Kampfflugzeug, also known as the type FU. The aircraft was certainly built with the Typ III requirements in mind; for example the fuselage and engine nacelles were armored.
  Design work started immediately, and on 1 September FEA 3 personnel began to build the aircraft, which was assigned the military designation B.1092/14. This indicates Idflieg approved the aircraft and may have provided funds. On 30 January 1915 pilot Herold performed the aircraft's first flight.
  The aircraft was powered by two 100-hp Mercedes D.I engines. The high fuselage enabled the engines to be very close to the centerline, reducing asymmetric control forces in event of engine failure. It also gave a wide field of fire to the gunner in the nose. However, with no protective structure above the crew, a turnover on landing would be extremely dangerous to the crew.
  According to Ursinus's biography, the type FU was eventually sent to Ujatz, near Lodz, for operational trials on the Russian Front, but there is no further information.
  A production license for the type was offered to Fokker and Gotha; Gotha signed a license in March 1915. Likely in anticipation of that event, in February 1915 FEA 3 was transferred to Gotha. On 1 April 1915 Idflieg awarded a contract for six Gotha G.I aircraft to Gotha. The internal Gotha company designation was type UKL or type GUK; both were used. Of the first batch of six aircraft, five were to be powered by the 150 hp Benz Bz.III and the other was to be powered by two 160 hp Mercedes D.III engines. The contract required a crew of two with one machine gun, 200 kg of bombs, 150 kg of armor, and a maximum speed of 125 km/h.
  Ursinus worked with Gotha engineer Hans Burkhardt to prepare manufacturing drawings. Starting on 27 July the aircraft were delivered as G.9/15 - G.14/15; the last was delivered on 8 September. The first three went to FEA 7 for defense of the Krupp works in Cologne, the next two went to FEA 3 at Gotha for training, and the last went to Armeeabteilung Falkenhausen. The production G.I differed in detail from the Type FU.
  On 15 July 1915 a second series of six Gotha G.I aircraft were ordered, all to be powered by the 150 hp Benz Bz.III. These aircraft were accepted between 22 September and 5 November, and all remained at FEA 3 in Gotha.
  The third and final series of six Gotha G. I aircraft was ordered on 17 October 1915. These were powered by the 160 hp Mercedes D.III engine. The Kampfflugzeug concept now having failed, bombing was emphasized and the required bomb load was raised to 350 kg. A third crewman with a second gun carried between the pilot and front gunner was now specified. Idflieg also asked that a machine cannon be installed in addition to a machine gun, leading to weapons trials with a 20mm Becker cannon and 37mm cannon. The final batch was delivered between 24 January 1916 and 20 March 1916. One machine went to FEA 1 at Doberitz; the other five went to the Prufanstalt und Werft (Idflieg’s test establishment and workshop) at Doberitz.
  In service the slow G.l accomplished little as a battleplane, the basic concept being fundamentally flawed. Battleplanes of all designs soon demonstrated they were too slow to catch enemy aircraft. Furthermore, even when the enemy was within range, so were they; the enemy had as good a chance at victory as they did. Operational experience soon showed that large, twin-engine types were better suited for bombing than air superiority missions, leading to the last batch of G.Is being modified for a greater bomb load. More specifically to the unique design the G.I inherited from the Type FU, turnovers on landing were always a possibility and, if they occurred, were invariably fatal to the crew. Moreover, the G.I was structurally fragile.
  The German Navy purchased one float-equipped version of the G.I as the Gotha UWD, Marine Number 120.


Friedel-Ursinus B.1092/14 Specifications
Engines: 2 x 100 hp Mercedes D.I
Wing: Span Upper 22.00 m
Span Lower 19.00 m
Chord [Upper &. Lower) 2.2 m
Sweepback 4°
General: Length 17.60 m
Height 6.00 m
Empty Weight 4700 kg
Loaded Weight 6860 kg
Maximum Speed: 90-95 km/h

Gotha G.I Specifications
Engines: 2 x 150 hp Benz Bz.III
Wing: Span Upper 20.30 m
Span Lower 19.70 m
Chord [Upper &. Lower) 2.20 m
Gap 1.95 m
Sweepback 10°
Area 82 m2
General: Length 12 m
Height 3.9 m
Empty Weight 1800 kg
Loaded Weight 2966 kg
Maximum Speed: 130 km/h
Climb: 2000m 47 min


Gotha G.I Production Summary
Production Batch Serial Numbers Qty Engines Crew/Armament
#1 (ordered 1-4-15) G.9/15-G.14/15 6 2x150 hp Benz Bz.III (five) 2x160 hp Mercedes D.III (one) 2 crew, 1 gun, 250 kg bombs
#2 (ordered 15-7-15) G.40/15-G.45/15 6 2x150 hp Benz Bz.III 2 crew, 1 gun, 250 kg bombs
#3 (ordered 17-10-15) G.100/15-G.105/15 6 2x160 hp Mercedes D.III 3 crew, 2 guns, 350 kg bombs
The Friedel-Ursinus prototype was assigned designation B.1092/14. It had one gun.


Gotha G-Type Bomber Production Summary
Order Date Type Qty Serials Notes
April 1, 1915 G.I 6 9-14/15 Plus one Friedel-Ursinus prototype, B. 1092/14. Production G.Is delivered 27 July-8 Sep. 1915.
July 15, 1915 G.I 6 40-45/15 Delivered 22 Sep.-5 Nov. 1915.
Oct. 10, 1915 G.I 6 100-105/15 Delivered 24 Jan.-20 March 1916.

J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Friedel-Ursinus B.1092/14 after modification.
Friedel-Ursinus was built at Flieger Ersatz Abteilung 3 and became the prototype for the Gotha G.I. The pilot sat in the rear cockpit with the two gunners in separate cockpits in front of him. Designed as a Kampfflugzeug, or battle plane, it was more effective as a bomber.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Gotha G-I (12/15), ВВС Германии, 1915-16г.
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
Гота G I
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Gotha G.I 42/15 Feodora
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The modified Friedel-Ursinus B.1092/14 and a captured Morane monoplane at FEA 9 in Darmstadt for a size comparison. Aerodynamically-balanced ailerons have been fitted and the nose radiators have been replaced by larger, twin radiators on each engine. A long cellon window is in the fuselage side over the wing.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Completed and first flown at the beginning of 1915, the prototype Gotha G I bomber/long range reconnaissance type, 9/15, was followed by a further 17 of these three seater machines. While the prototype used two 160hp Mercedes D IIIs, the production aircraft employed two 150hp Benz Bz IIIs. Top level speed of the production G Is was 80.6mph at sea level, while optimum range was given as 335 miles.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
The early Ursinus GUH G.I. twin-engined bomber. It was produced at Darmstadt in 1914. Later it was built under license by the Gotha company first as a land machine and later as a seaplane with 2-100 h.p. motors, which were subsequently replaced by more powerful power units.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Closeup of the first Gotha G.I in the lineup above. The national insignia were painted below the top wing in addition to the usual locations. Both photos were released as Sanke cards.
Designed by Ursinus and built by Gotha, this aircraft became the Gotha G.I and started Gotha in the bomber business. The unusual configuration accomplished two primary design goals; first was to give the gunners an unobstructed field of fire horizontally and above, second was to place the engines as close together as possible to minimize asymmetric thrust in event of engine failure. Giving the gunners a clear field of fire was essential for the aircraft's primary design role of Kampfflugzeug, basically an aerial cruiser. The battle plane concept turned out to be ineffective because they were too slow to intercept enemy airplanes, but they became successful as bombers. Engines were the 150 hp Benz Bz.III. Subsequent Gotha designs were completely different from the G.I.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Three Gotha G.I aircraft stand on the Gotha airfield ready for flight testing. These may have been the first three built, G.9/15, G.10/15, and G.11/15, all of which were sent to FEA 1 to defend the Krupp steel works in Cologne.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Gotha G.I 13/15 was delivered to FEA 3 on 2 September 1915, then flown to the Eastern Front. Enroute it landed at Schneidemuhl where this photograph was taken. A streamlined bomb container is just visible between the wheels
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Gotha G.I 42/15, named Feodora, was delivered to FEA 3 in Autumn 1915 before being sent to the Eastern Front.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This may be Gotha G.I G.41/15 of the second production batch, but the serial number is partly obscured.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Gotha G.I 43/15 of the second production series.
A.Imrie - German Bombers /Arms & Armour/
"Гота" G-I. Хорошо виден "бомбопровод" и контейнер для мелких бомб под нижним крылом.
The curious configuration of the Gotha G I stemmed from fears that continued flight might not be possible if one engine failed. Because the engines were mounted close together for this eventuality, the fuselage had to be raised and this provided an ideal field of fire for the machine-gunner. The streamlined container under the centre of the bottom wing carried vertically suspended Carbonit bombs, while the cage tube allowed additional bombs carried in the fuselage to be discharged without fear of hitting the propellers. Note the use of 'handed' propellers to counter the effect of torque.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Oskar Ursinus demonstrates the use of the forward gun in a Gotha G.I. The streamlined bomb container between the wheels is clearly visible and the nose of a 20-kg Carbonit bomb just protrudes from the lower front. Together with the bomb-dropping chute beneath the gunner's cockpit the bomb container is a clear indication of the evolution of the battleplane into a bomber. The propellers rotate in opposite directions to minimize torque.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Engines running, a Gotha G.I is ready for take-off.
A.Imrie - German Bombers /Arms & Armour/
Although the twin-engined Kampfflugzeug (fighting aeroplane) designed by Oskar Ursinus, the Editor of Flugsport magazine, in association with Major Friedel, was not originally intended for bombing duties, it was used at the Front in this role early in 1915 and thus became the first German twin-engined bomber. Since the G category had not yet been introduced, the Friedel-Ursinus was designated B 1092/14. It is seen in flight with experimental aerodynamically balanced ailerons. Improved versions were manufactured by the Gothaer Waggonfabrik and by the end of 1915 six machines were operational, the first of the twin-engined Gothas.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A Gotha G.I displays its distinctive silhouette in flight.
J.Herris - Gotha Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The battleplane heritage of the Gotha G.I is demonstrated here. Oskar Ursinus handles a 20mm Becker cannon in the nose turret while the second gunner demonstrates the Parabellum machine gun; the pilot is seated aft.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Гота" G-I