В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны
ХАЛЬБЕРШТАДТ CL-IV / HALBERSTADT CL-IV
Кроме CL-II, выпускался CL-IIa с двигателем повышенной мощности.
В январе 1918-го на его базе был разработан "Хальберштадт" CL-IV с укороченным фюзеляжем, винтом без кока, округлой носовой законцовкой и слегка видоизмененными контурами оперения.
К началу августа в немецких "шлахтштаффелях" (штурмовых авиаэскадрильях) на западном фронте числилось 175 "Хальберштадтов" CL-IIa и 136 - CL-IV.
Помимо фирмы-разработчика, CL-IV строили на заводе "Роланд", a C-V выпускали по лицензии на предприятиях фирм Авиатик, BFW и DFW. По окончании войны единичные экземпляры "Хальберштадтов" оказались в Голландии, Эстонии, Польше, на Украине и в Советской России. В 1922 году правительство РСФСР закупило в Германии еще 20 машин.
BMW, 185 л.с. (CL-IV).
1-2 синхронных "Шпандау" и 1 турельный "Парабеллум", до 50 кг бомб.
O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)
Halberstadt CL IV
The Halberstadt CL IV was introduced with the vast expansion of the Schlachtstaffeln for the March 1918 offensive to supplement - and eventually supersede - the Halberstadt CL II.
By this period the Schlastas had become highly organised formations and operated with devastating effect in close support of their own infantry or in breaking up Allied counter-attacks. The effective fighting strength of a Schlasta had not to be less than four aircraft; the actual establishment was six. This number was found to be the maximum for efficient command - or co-ordination - once airborne. They were intended for use only at decisive points of attack, and not squandered singly over the whole front of an attack. Less-important sectors had to dispense with their services. Utmost precision in the time of their attack was necessary. To arrive too soon would draw enemy attention prematurely to the point of the attack; if too late they became a danger to their own advancing troops. Consequently, highly detailed and precise orders were compiled by the German Staff. In attack the prior objective of the "Battle Flights" was to fly ahead of the infantry, straffing, and to keep down the fire of the enemy's infantry and their artillery batteries. Each flight was given a specific target, and there were orders not to abandon this for a more favourable one.
In defence, as soon as the enemy's preparations indicated an imminent offensive, the Schlastas were ordered in to relentlessly attack and disorganize assembly points in an endeavour to delay or break up the attack. As the infantry battle swayed to and fro the "Battle Flights" were held in readiness until local reserves could be mustered to mount an organised counterattack, to which the air support could be added.
During the final German onslaught of March 1918 no less than thirty eight Schlachtstaffeln had been formed and were largely equipped with Halberstadt CL II and CL IV aircraft, supplemented by Hannover CL IIIa units. Some twenty-seven of these units were opposed to the British forces.
Although intended as a replacement for the CL II, the Halberstadt CL IV was not unlike its predecessor in concept, and did not offer much improvement in performance other than in manoeuvrability, which, for the duties required, was a prerequisite quality. The same 160 h.p. Mercedes D III power plant was retained, although the airscrew spinner was omitted, and modified bulbous panels encowled the nose, imparting a more aggressive appearance. As before, the wooden fuselage was ply-skinned and still incorporated the communal cockpit with an elevated gun ring for the observer.
Horizontal tail surfaces were considerably redesigned, being of greater span and higher aspect ratio than in the CL II. The one-piece elevator was horn balanced, which, together with the shorter fuselage, afforded a much greater degree of fore-and-aft sensitivity and all-round improvement in manoeuvrability.
The wings were of normal wooden construction as in the CL II, but due to the fuselage being some 3 ft. shorter, it was necessary for them to be repositioned to ensure location of the centre of gravity around the crew compartment. Particular attention was paid to the lower wing/fuselage junction to ensure a smoother airflow over the tail surfaces. No actual fairing was used, but the wing root was washed out, and to achieve this the rear spar had to be both bent and twisted. The upper wing was largely the same as on the earlier machine, with swept outer panels; radiator and gravity fuel tank were located in the starboard and port sides of the centre-section, respectively. The large balanced ailerons were retained at the upper wingtips, operated through torque tubes as before.
Steel-tube vees of streamline section, with two spreader bars, were employed in the undercarriage chassis and the axle sprung with multiple steel springs. The ash tailskid was hinged to a small underfin, which was added to increase directional stability.
Provision was made for the mounting of two fixed forward-firing machine-guns, but only one was usually fitted. Anti-personnel grenades in shallow boxes were carried on the fuselage sides, and rows of Very cartridges were often strapped across the rear fuselage decking.
After the failure of the 1918 offensive when the Allies began to counterattack, the Schlastas came to be used more and more in defensive support of their own infantry instead of in their intended offensive role. Life was indeed very hectic and uncertain in these units and, not being armoured, they had only their manoeuvrability to avoid the small-arms fire to which they were increasingly exposed and to which they so often became victims.
When not on close-support duties they were used as ordinary two-seat fighters on escort work, and were able to give an extremely good account of themselves when attacked by Allied aircraft. They also found employment towards the end of the war on bright moonlight nights when they attempted to intercept and destroy Allied bombing machines as they returned from their missions. Night sorties against Allied billets and aerodromes were also made. Although these lacked the decisiveness of the daylight attacks, they had a considerable nuisance value and caused many casualties.
Description: Light two-seat C type, ground attack and escort.
Manufacturers: Halberstadter Flugzeug-Werke G.m.b.H. (Halb.).
Sub-contractor: Luftfahrzeug Gesellschaft m.b.H. (Rol.).
Power Plant: One 160 h.p. Mercedes D III 6 cylinder in-line water-cooled engine.
Dimensions: Span, 10.742 m. (35 ft. 2 7/8 in.). Length, 6.538 m. (21 ft. 5 1/2 in.). Height, 2.67 m. (8 ft. 9 1/8 in.). Area, 27 sq.m. (297 sq.ft.).
Weights: Empty, 728 kg. (1,602 lb.). Loaded, 1,068 kg. (2,349.6 lb.).
Performance: Maximum speed, 165 km.hr. (103.12 m.p.h.). Climb, 5,000 m. (16,400 ft.) in 32 min. Duration, 3-3 1/2 hr.
Armament: One or two fixed Spandau machine-guns forward and one manually operated Parabellum machine-gun in rear cockpit. Anti-personnel grenades and four or five 10 kg. (22 lb.) bombs.
W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters
HALBERSTADT CL IV Germany
Early in 1918, the Halberstadter Flugzeugwerke began work on a higher-performance and more manoeuvrable derivative of the CL II. By February the prototype of this CL IV had arrived at Adlershof for its official type test. Lighter than its predecessor as a result of some structural refinement, the CL IV possessed a similar armament and a 160 hp Mercedes D IIIa engine. It passed its type test during March-April 1918, the official report referring to its ‘‘very favourable climb rate and superlative handling qualities”. Commencing in May 1918, a total of 450 CL IVs was ordered from Halberstadt and a further 250 were ordered from the Luftfahrzeug Gesellschaft (Roland). The CL IV supplemented the CL II in the Schlachtstaffeln, and a total of 136 was recorded at the Front on 31 August 1918, deliveries still being under way when hostilities terminated.
Max speed, 104 mph (168 km/h) at 16,405 ft (5 000 m).
Time to 16,405 ft (5 000 m), 32 min.
Endurance, 325 hrs.
Empty weight, 1,605 lb (728 kg).
Loaded weight, 2,354 lb (1 068 kg).
Span, 35 ft 2 3/4 in (10,74 m).
Length, 21 ft 5 1/2 in (6,54 m).
Height, 8 ft 9 in (2,67m).
Wing area, 311.7 sqft (28,96 m2).
Flight, December 12, 1918.
THE HALBERSTADT TWO-SEATER TYPE C.L. IV
[Issued By Technical Department (Aircraft Production), Ministry of Munitions]
THIS machine, which is allotted G/5Bdr./22, landed near Chipilly on August 23rd, 1918. Dates stamped on the main planes give the date of construction as July, 1918.
It is very similar in design and construction to the C.L. II type, which has already been fully reported upon (see issue of "FLIGHT" for October 10th), but many detail differences are incorporated.
Below is a comparative list of the principal dimensions of both C.L. II and C.L. IV types :-
C.L. IV C.L. II
Span of upper plane 35 ft. 2 1/4 in. 35 ft. 3 1/4 in.
Span of lower plane 34 ft. 9 1/4 in. 34 ft. 11 in.
Chord of upper plane 5 ft. 2 5/8 in. 5 ft. 3 1/4 in.
Chord of lower plane 4 ft. 3 1/2 in. 4 ft. 3 1/2 in.
Gap, maximum 4 ft. 4 in. 4 ft. 0 in.
Gap, minimum 4 ft. 0 in. 3 ft. 8 1/2 in.
Dihedral angle of lower plane 2 deg. 2 deg.
Horizontal dihedral of main planes 4 deg. 4 deg.
Total area of main planes 308 sq. ft. 310 sq. ft.
Area of each aileron 12 sq. ft. 12 sq. ft.
Area of aileron balance 2.0 sq. ft. 2.0 sq. ft.
Area of tail planes 16 sq. ft. 13.6 sq. ft.
Area of elevator 13.6 sq. ft. 12.4 sq. ft.
Area of fin 11.4 sq. ft. 6.4 sq. ft.
Area of rudder 7.9 sq. ft. 7.9 sq. ft.
Area of rudder balance 1.0 sq. ft. 1.0 sq. ft.
Horizontal area of body 36 sq. ft. 44 sq. ft.
Vertical area of body 41 sq. ft. 52.8 sq. ft.
Length overall 20 ft. 11 1/2 in. 24 sq. ft. 0 in.
Engine 180 Merc. 180 Merc.
Capacity of petrol tanks 34 galls. 34 galls.
Capacity of oil system 4 galls. 4 galls.
Crew Two Two
Guns One fixed and one movable
The wings, both in disposition and construction, are substantially the same as in the former machine. The characteristic wash-out at the root of the lower planes is even more pronounced than was the case in the C.L. II machine. It will be seen from photograph A that the rear spar is bent and twisted by this wash-out. The exact shape of the trailing edge of one of the lower planes is shown in the scale drawings.
Fig. 1 gives a section of the upper wing drawn to scale, and Fig. 2 a comparison of the upper aerofoil of the C.L. IV with the R.A.F. 14 section, which is dotted. From Fig. 1 it will be noticed that the 3-ply surrounds to the spars are still employed. They are drawn to scale in Fig. 3.
The ailerons remain unaltered in the C.L. IV machine, and this is also true of the interplane and centre section struts.
The attachment of upper wings to centre section and of lower wings to fuselage are unaltered, except that the tube which, in the earlier machine, passed right across the fuselage and connected the spars of the port and starboard lower wings is no longer found. Its place is taken by two fuselage fittings of the type shown in Fig. 4.
Although the fuselage of the C.L. IV machine is very like that of the C.L. II type, the machine now being described has a body which is practically 3 feet shorter than that of the earlier machine.
Tail planes and Skid
It is in these components that the greatest differences between the two types are found. The tail plane is now in one piece, and is laid across the rear of the fuselage, and attached there by the bolts shown in Fig. 6. The undivided elevator is now balanced, and the aspect ratio of the whole horizontal tail is larger than was the case in the earlier model. Besides this the actual area is greater. (It has been remarked that the C.L. IV body is 3 feet shorter.)
The fin and rudder were not salved, and comparison is therefore not possible, but it is clear from the fuselage design that the fin is a separate unit simply attached to the body, and not an integral part of it. It is also established that the rudder post is now found in the same vertical plane as the leading edge of the elevator. It will be remembered that the rudder post, in the C.L. II type, was fixed more than a foot forward of the elevator fulcrum.
The inverted camber of the C.L. II tail plane is now abolished, and a symmetrical camber substituted, and the rather elaborate tail skid of the earlier model has been simplified to the type found in the modern L.V.G. biplanes. In this type the skid is entirely exposed, and is pivoted on the lower edge of a small triangular fin under the tail plane. (See photograph and general arrangement drawings.)
The landing gear is substantially the same as in the C.L. II machine, but, as may be seen in Fig. 5, two compression tubes now run parallel to the axle, instead of one, as before.
The gun ring has been additionally stayed in front, but otherwise remains the same. It was fitted with a Parabellum gun.
Two fixed guns of the Spandau type are arranged for, one each side of the camshaft, but only the one on the starboard side was fitted at the time of capture.
A ten-loop Very cartridge belt is tacked to the top of the fuselage just behind the cockpit-it may be seen in the photograph - and a total of twelve light hand grenades may be carried in the wooden racks, one of which may be seen on either side of the fuselage.
The practice of enclosing the control wires in the cockpit is still continued, but aluminium shields are used instead of the more permanent three-ply construction.
The machine is internally wired, but no wireless apparatus was on board at the time of capture. The dynamo bracket is no longer to be found alongside the engine, but is now on the front port undercarriage strut, and is driven by a propeller.
The pilot's seat is a shallow three-ply bucket, which rests on two cross pieces of wood supported on ribbed brass strips sweated to the top of the petrol tank, thus providing a fair amount of adjustment. This is the subject of a sketch (Fig. 7).
The fabric is throughout of the usual colour-printed type.
Schedule of Weights, Halberstadt, C.L. IV.
Body, with undercarriage, engine,
Spandau gun, petrol tank, gauges, and
controls 1220 0
Engine (dry), 180 Mercedes 635 0
Upper wing, complete (no bracing wires) 70 8
Lower wing, complete (with bracing wires) 64 0
Centre section, complete (with struts and
wiring) 108 8
Gravity petrol tank 11 4
Radiator 36 0
Centre section strut (Vee) 5 3
Centre section strut (straight) 2 4
Interplane strut (front), with cable 4 8
Interplane strut (rear), with cable 4 0
Undercarriage, complete, approximately 112 0
Shock absorber (one) 4 6
Axle, with bobbins and caps 14 8
Wheel, complete with tyre 20 4
Tyre and tube 8 12
Leading spar of wings (per foot run) 1 4
Trailing spar of wings (per foot run) 0 14 1/2
Tail plane and elevator (covered) 25 0
The aeroplane is in the Enemy Aircraft View Rooms, Islington, and may be seen on production of a pass, to be obtained by writing to :- The Controller, Technical Department, Ap.D. (L.), Central House, Kingsway, W.C. 2 .