А.Шепс Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Эта машина была развитием первого поплавкового самолета фирмы S.33, созданного на базе сухопутного самолета S.27 и более поздних машин S.35 и S.38 - учебных машин для британского флота. На базе этих машин и был создан двухпоплавковый трехстоечный полутораплан. Это был ферменный бесфюзеляжный самолет цельнодеревянной конструкции. Гондола имела деревянный каркас и фанерную обшивку и вмещала от 3 до 4 человек. В средней части гондолы устанавливались топливные баки, а в хвосте - силовая установка из двух 7-цилиндровых ротативных двигателей воздушного охлаждения "Гном-Моносупап" мощностью по 100 л. с., работающих на один винт. Крыло двухлонжеронное, цельнодеревянное, обтянутое полотном, причем верхнее крыло имело размах больший, чем нижнее, и соединялось кроме стоек еще и подкосами. Растяжки - стальной трос. Хвостовые параллельные фермы имели смешанную конструкцию из стальных труб и дерева. Оперение также имело деревянную конструкцию, аналогичную конструкции крыла. Стабилизатор устанавливался по верхнему поясу ферм, а рули поворота (2 шт.) навешивались на задние стойки ферм. В носовой части гондолы на выносных фермах устанавливался дополнительный руль высоты. Управление рулем осуществлялось через тросовые тяги от ручки управления и педалей. Элеронами оборудовалось только верхнее крыло. Элероны фармановского типа свободнопровисающие.
Главные поплавки понтонного типа имели деревянную конструкцию и крепились к гондоле шестью стойками и сложной системой растяжек. Хвостовые поплавки имели цилиндрическую форму и изготавливались из металла. Вооружение не устанавливалось.
Машина совершила первый полет 2 октября 1913 года, а 19 ноября - первый полет с тремя пассажирами. С началом войны командование ВМС планировало использовать S.80 как торпедоносец, но незначительная скорость и недостаточная грузоподъемность, а также отсутствие защитного вооружения не позволили применять самолет для этих целей. Поэтому S.80 использовался как учебный в течение 1914-1915 годов.
Показатель S.80 1913г.
размах крыльев 21,49
Площадь крыла, м2 50,20
максимальный взлетный 1635
число х мощность, л.с. 2x100
Скорость, км/ч 96
Экипаж, чел. 4
Вооружение 335-мм торпеда
M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)
Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing
P.Lewis British Aircraft 1809-1914 (Putnam)
In 1913 F. K. McClean decided to attempt a tour of Egypt by air by using a seaplane to be flown along the River Nile, and Horace Short was asked to design the machine. In appearance, it was reminiscent of the S.38, but the span of the wings was increased to 70 ft. 6 ins., making it, in this respect, the largest successful aeroplane built in the United Kingdom before the 1914-18 War. Three and a half bays were used in the wings, the upper tip extensions of which were braced by struts, an unusual feature being the provision of small additional ailerons set between the centre section and the main ailerons. These main ailerons were of considerable length and extended from mid-way of the upper span to the tips. The nose of the nacelle carried a small elevator mounted on outriggers as an auxiliary to that hinged to the rear of the tailplane. The engine fitted at the back of the nacelle was the 160 h.p. Gnome, the most powerful version available.
The S.70 was finished towards the end of the year and was tested at Eastchurch with a land undercarriage. On 19th November, 1913, although built as a three-seater, it took off from the same aerodrome in the course of its proving flights with five passengers - Lt. I. T. Courtney. R.N., F. K. McClean, Alec Ogilvie, Cdr. C. R. Samson, R.N., and Horace Short. The machine was then dismantled and packed for transporting by ship to Alexandria, where it was reassembled for the expedition. Frank McClean was accompanied by Alec Ogilvie as additional pilot and by A. Smith, who was the mechanic. The floats for the Nile landings consisted of a large pair at the front of the S.70 and two more fitted at the rear under the tail side-by-side.
The trip up the Nile started on 3rd January, 1914, Cairo being reached in 2 hrs. 55 mins. Unfortunately, the engine subsequently gave considerable trouble and the floats were damaged on several occasions. The tourists pressed on with their flight and reached Khartoum on 23rd March, having covered about 1,400 miles. They then decided that they had travelled far enough, and the S.70 was accordingly taken to pieces and returned home to England with its crew by ship.
Description: Three-seat pusher hydro-biplane. Wooden structure, fabric covered.
Manufacturers: Short Brothers, Eastchurch, Isle of Sheppey, Kent.
Power Plant: 160 h.p. Gnome
Dimensions: Span, 70 ft. 6 ins. Length 35 ft. 6 ins. Wing area, 725 sq. ft.
Weights: Empty, 1,050 lb.
Performance: Maximum speed, 58 m.p.h. Endurance, 5 hrs.
Short S.81 Gun-carrier
The S.81 Gun-carrier was designed by A. Camden Pratt and built by Short Brothers during 1913. The machine was a two-seat hydro-biplane developed specially for experiments with armament, and was the last Short pusher floatplane. Three-bay folding wings were fitted, with extensions on the upper planes braced by struts. Twin floats were used at the front and also at the tail. The nacelle was strong enough to withstand the recoil of the Vickers 1-5-pounder gun with which it was tested at Great Yarmouth "Naval Air Station. During 1915 the Davis 6-pounder gun was mounted for trials in the S.81. The sole example constructed was numbered 126, and was powered by the 160 h.p. Gnome.
H.King Armament of British Aircraft (Putnam)
S.81 Gun-carrier. A pusher seaplane of this description (No. 126) was built in 1914 with a specially stressed nacelle for the mounting and firing of a 1 1/2-pounder Vickers gun. This development was preceded by the mounting of the gun on the Sopwith pusher seaplane No.127. It was reported in 1914 that 'excellent practice has been done in firing at targets both in the air and on the sea'. During March 1915, a 6-pounder Davis recoilless gun was tested in the same machine.
P.Lewis The British Fighter since 1912 (Putnam)
By the same year, Short Brothers had become a firmly-established company with a number of extremely successful practical designs to their credit and had already begun to specialize in floatplanes, a type of machine in which they rapidly excelled and for which they were justifiably widely known. Among their products for 1913 was the S.81 Gun-carrier, designed for them by A. Camden Pratt specifically to carry out tests of armament. The machine was destined to be the final pusher Short floatplane and was a three-bay biplane, the wings of which folded. No.126 was a fairly large machine and was supported on the water by twin main and tail floats, augmented by one under each lower wingtip. A 160 h.p. Gnome provided the power at the rear of a nacelle which had to be particularly strong to stand up against the tremendous recoil of the quick-firing Vickers 1-5-pounder gun, for the thorough testing of which the S.81 had been ordered from Short Brothers.
These trials had been instituted by the Naval Wing of the R.F.C. on 29th July, 1913, when Lt. R. H. Clark-Hall, a naval gunnery officer, had been given the job of supervising the assessment of suitable armament for naval aeroplanes. First intentions were that the Vickers 1-5-pounder received by the Navy was to be installed in the Astra Torres airship and then in a Sopwith Gunbus but the big gun finally found a home in the S.81, only one of which was built. The Gun-carrier carried out its allotted task for some two years, being used in early 1915 as a vehicle for the testing of the recoilless 6-pounder Davis gun.
F.Mason The British Fighter since 1912 (Putnam)
Short S.81 Gun Carrier
It would be anomalous to omit an entry in this work covering the Short S.81 Gun Carrier, although it is difficult to imagine this large seaplane as a fighter in any accepted sense. It was in fact the last variation in a series of single-engine pusher biplanes which had started life in 1910 as the S.27 Type, and progressed by way of such aircraft as the S.33, S.38, S.62 and S.80, and which had appeared in either land- or seaplane guise. The S.80 had been produced with both wheel and float undercarriage, and the S.81 was an immediate derivative ordered specifically to undergo air gunnery trials with a 1 1/2-pounder Vickers shell-firing gun.
Unlike most other companies’ single-engine pusher biplanes, the Short S.81’s tail booms did not converge to a single sternpost and rudder, but were rigged in parallel both in plan and elevation, each terminating in a sternpost and each supporting a balanced rudder without fixed fin, as well as a cylindrical tail float. The relatively short main floats were rubber sprung (an innovation introduced by Oswald Short) and small cylindrical stabilizing floats were mounted under the lower wingtips.
Power was provided by a 160hp Gnome two-row engine driving a four-blade pusher propeller, the top wing centresection being cut away to provide blade clearance. The reinforced nacelle itself was shortened to no more than five feet and mounted the 1 1/2-pounder gun on a superstructure in the nose; the gunner’s cockpit was located on the port side of the gun’s breech.
Designed by Arthur Camden Pratt, the sole Short S.81, Admiralty No 126, was first flown in about April 1914 at Calshot where Lieut R H Clark-Hill rn flew the gunnery trials. It is said that, when the Vickers gun was fired, the recoil was so severe that the aircraft stalled and dropped 500 feet. Needless to say, the trials were not considered to be a success, and the gun was then passed to the RFC. Further trials with another gun, the recoilless six-pounder Davis, were flown at RNAS Great Yarmouth in March and April 1915. However, with experiments imminent to develop gun synchronizing mechanisms, the gun-carrying pushers’ days were numbered, and the Short S.81 disappeared from the scene.
Type: Single pusher engine, two-seat, twin-float, three-bay biplane gun carrier.
Manufacturer: Short Bros, Eastchurch, Isle of Sheppey, Kent.
Powerplant: One 160hp Gnome two-row engine driving four-blade pusher propeller.
Structure: Light-gauge steel tubular construction with fabric and duralumin covering; twin main float undercarriage with twin wingtip stabilizing floats and twin tail floats. Ailerons on upper wings only.
Dimensions: Span, 67ft 0in; wing area, 540 sq ft.
Weights: Tare, 2,200lb; all-up: 3,600lb.
Performance: Max speed, 60 mph at sea level.
Armament: One 1 1/2-pdr Vickers gun with special mounting on nose of nacelle.
Prototype: One, No.126 (first flown in about April 1914 at Calshot). No production.
Flight, January 10, 1914.
Mr. McClean Starts.
The first stage of Mr. F. K. McClean's trip up the Nile to Khartoum was made on Saturday last, when accompanied by two passeneers Mr. McClean piloted the 160 h.p. Short waterplane from Alexandria to Cairo, the distance of about 160 miles taking 2 hrs. 55 mins. Restarting from Cairo on Tuesday morning, with three passengers on board, the machine had to battle with the wind and eventually a stop was made at Minieh.
Flight, January 24, 1914.
Mr. Frank McCIean's Progress along the Nile.
ON the 16th inst. Mr. McClean arrived on his Short waterplane at Luxor, and later went on to Assuan, while two days later he made some nights to the delight of the great crowd which had gathered to see the machine. On Monday he started to continue his flight south to Khartoum, but after flying about 130 miles had to return to Assuan, owing to trouble with the motor. He has had very bad luck with his motor, and had to spend several days at Assiut on account of a broken ball race which distributed itself in the crankcase.