А.Шепс Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Летающая лодка-истребитель М.7 стала развитием самолета М.5, но для увеличения скорости и улучшения маневренности в ее конструкцию были внесены значительные изменения. Как и последние самолеты М.5, новая машина оснащалась двигателем "Изота-Фраскини" V-6B (250 л. с.). Однако самолет имел новую конструкцию лодки. Она получила слабокилеватый редан и приподнятую хвостовую балку. Верхнее крыло стало почти на 2 м короче. Хорда крыльев, особенно нижнего, была значительно увеличена. Это позволило, сохранив ту же несущую поверхность, улучшить маневренность машины. Подкрыльевые поплавки, в отличие от М.5 (имевшей поплавки, выполненные заподлицо с крылом), устанавливались на коротких стойках. Удачная машина была пущена в серию, но принять участие в боевых действиях ей практически не пришлось - война закончилась.
М.7 - серийная машина с двигателем "Изота-Фраскини" V-6B (250л. с.).
М.7 bis - развитие М.7 с двигателем "Изота-Фраскини" (300 л. с.).
М.7 ter и ter AR - установлен более мощный двигатель "Лоррен-Дитрих" (400л. с.).
М.7 ter В - развитие предыдущего самолета с двигателем "Лоррен-Дитрих" (480 л. с.).
Показатель Макки М.7 1918г. Макки М.7 ter 1920г.
длина 8,10 8,10
размах крыльев 9,95/8,30 9,95/8,30
высота 2,95 2,95
Площадь крыла, м2 26,40 26,40
максимальный взлетный 1080 1100
пустого 775 800
Двигатель: "Изота-Фраскини" V-6B "Лоррен-Дитрих"
мощность, л. с. 250 400
Скорость, км/ч 211 200
Дальность полета, км 840 700
Потолок практический, м 5000 6500
Экипаж, чел. 1 1
Вооружение 2 пулемета 2 пулемета
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919
Type of machine Single-seater Waterplane.
Name or type No. of machine M7.
Purpose for which Intended Hunter.
Span 9.95 m.
Gap 1.96 m.
Overall length 8.10 m.
Maximum height ?. 2.95 m.
Chord Upper wing, 1.670 m.;
Lower wing, 1.31 m.
Total surface of wings 26.6 sq. m.
Span of tall 2.84 m.
Total area of tail 2.65 sq. m.
Elevator, maximum 2.84 x 0.6 m.
Rudder, maximum 1.12 x 0.6 m.
Fin, maximum 2.50 x 0.55. m
Ailerons 2.70 sq. m.
Fuselage dimensions, horizontal 1.15 m.
Fuselage dimensions, vertical 0.90 m.
Engine type and h.p. Isotta Fraschini V6. 260 h.p.
Airscrew, diam. and revs. 2.55 m., 1800.
Weight of machine empty 775 kgs.
Load per sq. m. 41.5 kilos.
Weight per h.p. 4.325 kilos.
Tank capacity In hours 4 hours.
Speed low down 210 k.p.h.
To 6,000 metres in minutes 21 mins.
Total useful load 305 kilos.
Total weight of machine fully loaded
W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters
MACCHI M.7 Italy
The M.7 was essentially a progressive development of the M.5 and entered flight testing early in 1918. Powered by a 247 bhp Isotta-Fraschini V.6 engine, the M.7 was of wooden construction similar to that of its predecessors and carried an armament of twin 7,7-mm Vickers guns. It featured a simplified wing cellule, with paired, splayed interplane struts. Series production was initiated, but orders were curtailed with the end of hostilities, 11 being completed of which three were delivered before the end of World War I. Two each were purchased by Argentina and Sweden in 1919, and three were procured by Brazil in 1921. Despite the cancellation of orders for the Regia Marina, development of the basic design continued, one example being fitted with a hull of increased fineness ratio, and two were modified to M.7 bis standard for participation in the 1921 Schneider Trophy contest. The M.7 bis had wing span and area reduced to 25 ft 5 in (7,75 m) and 256.19 sq ft (23,80 m2) respectively, and captured the Trophy in August 1921 with an average speed of 117.75 mph (189,50 km/h) in a contest in which the Macchi 'boat was, in fact, the only participant.
Max speed, 130 mph (210 km/h).
Time to 16,405 ft (5000 m), 23 min.
Endurance, 3.66 hrs.
Empty weight, 1,708 lb (775 kg).
Loaded weight, 2,381 lb (1080 kg).
Span, 32 ft 7 3/4 in (9,95 m).
Length, 26 ft 6 9/10 in (8,10 m).
Height, 9 ft 8 1/8 in (2,95 m).
Wing area, 286.33 sq ft (26,60 m2).
MACCHI M.7TER Italy
Only nominally a development of the wartime M.7 fighter, the M.7 ter, flown as a prototype in October 1923, was virtually a new design, with a redesigned hull, a revised and lighter structure and wings of revised planform and reduced area. Primarily of wooden construction, with a 247 bhp Isotta-Fraschini V.6 engine and twin-Vickers gun armament, the M.7 ter was ordered into series production to re-equip the Squadriglie Caccia Marittima as the M.7terA, the M.7terAR having folding wings for operation from the seaplane carrier Miraglia. The M.7terB was powered by a 480 hp Lorraine 12Db engine, and, in 1927, the Societa Aeronautica Italiana re-engined 14 M.7terA 'boats with the 250 hp Isotta-Fraschini Semi-Asso engine. Total production of the M.7 ter exceeded 100 machines and these equipped all six Squadriglie Caccia Marittima by 1925 at the principal Italian naval bases, these eventually forming the 80° Gruppo. Eighty-three were in service in 1927, including 29 of the folding-wing AR version, the last being withdrawn from first line service in 1930.
Max speed, 129 mph (208 km/h).
Time to 3,280 ft (1000 m), 2.75 min.
Endurance, 3 hrs.
Empty weight, 1,775 lb (805 kg).
Loaded weight, 2,381 lb (1 080 kg).
Span, 32 ft 7 3/4 in (9,95 m).
Length, 29 ft 0 1/3 in (8,85 m).
Height, 9 ft 8 9/10 in (2,97 m).
Wing area, 252.96 sqft (23,50 m2).
D.James Schneider Trophy Aircraft 1913-1931 (Putnam)
The Societa Anonima Nieuport-Macchi, formed by Giulio Macchi in 1912 at Varese, a small Italian town near the Swiss border, undertook the manufacture of Nieuport designs until 1919 when its own designs of landplanes began to enter production. The Macchi flying-boat and seaplane tradition began in a curious manner during hostilities between Italy and Austria in 1915. When the Austrian Lohner L.I flying-boat L.40 was forced down, virtually undamaged, on the water near Porto Corsini seaplane base at Rimini, it was immediately taken to Varese, and Macchi was instructed to build a copy. The Macchi L.1 was in the air for the first time only a little over a month later, and it formed the basis of a number of successful Macchi flying-boats, among them the M.5 single-seat fighter design of Felice Buzio.
An experimental single-seater, the M.6, led on to the M.7, which was the first design of Alessandro Tonini, the Macchi company’s chief engineer. Powered by a 260 hp Isotta-Fraschini six-cylinder water-cooled inline engine, it had a maximum speed of about 210 km/h (130 mph). While the earlier Macchi fighter flying-boat designs had incorporated vee interplane struts, inherited from the classic Nieuport biplane fighters, the M.7 had the more conventional paired interplane struts and a wingspan reduced to 11-88m (39ft).
The slim, single-step, rectangular-section hull was built up from an ash framework with a spruce skin, the fin being built integral with the hull. The slightly swept unequal-span, single-bay, unstaggered biplane mainplanes of markedly curved aerofoil section had ash spars with spruce ribs, all fabric covered. The upper centre section above the engine was supported on wooden N-struts. Ailerons were carried only on the upper mainplane and were mounted at the extreme tips. The pairs of interplane struts were splayed out at the top when viewed both from front and sides, and the whole structure was braced by the conventional wires. The engine was carried above the hull on a pair of N-struts which also supported the upper centre-section struts. It was uncowled, with a large radiator mounted directly in front of the two banks of cylinders, and a smaller oil cooler was in a bulged fairing beneath the radiator. The tail unit consisted of a fabric-covered wooden-structured tailplane which was carried half-way up the quite tall and narrow-chord fin and was strut-braced to the hull. The rudder was only a little more than half the height of the fin and extended very little below the tailplane. Two square-section stabilizing floats were carried on struts under the lower wing. The open cockpit was directly below the water radiator, was protected by a small curved windscreen, and had a faired headrest for the pilot.
Determined to win the 1921 Schneider Trophy contest in Venice, and to take another step toward permanent possession of it, Italy gathered sixteen flying-boats for a series of national elimination trials to select a team. Among them were five M.7s flown variously by de Briganti, Buonsembiante, Corgnolino, Falaschi and de Sio, and with varying fortunes. De Briganti and Corgnolino won places in the Italian team, the M.7s of Buonsembiante and de Sio were withdrawn from the trials, and Falaschi crashed before they got under way.
Having won the 1921 contest, largely through the failure of the other entries either before or during the event, an M.7bis, I-BAFV, was entered for the 1922 contest when one of the selected team aircraft, the Savoia S.50, crashed. It took fourth, and last, place at an average speed of 199-607km/h (124-029mph).
Production of later versions of this tough little flying-boat fighter continued almost throughout the 1920s. One variant, the M.7ter, equipped all of the Italian squadriglie di caccia marittima (seaplane fighter squadrons) until 1929, with 163 Squadriglia retaining its M.7s for a further year.
Single-seat racing biplane flying-boat. Wood construction with wood skinning and fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
One 260 hp Isotta-Fraschini Semi-Asso six-cylinder water-cooled inline engine driving a 2-2 m (7 ft 3 in) diameter two-blade wooden pusher propeller. The 1922 variant had a four-blade propeller.
Span 9-95m (32ft 8 in); length 8-13m (26ft 61 in); height 2-97m (9ft 9in); wing area 23-8sqm (256-18sqft).
Empty weight 780kg (1,719lb); loaded weight 1,080kg (2,381lb); wing loading 45-37 kg/sqm (9-29 Ib/sq ft).
Maximum speed 209km/h (130mph); stalling speed 100km/h (62mph).
Production - five refined versions of the Macchi M.7 military flying-boat were prepared for the 1921 Schneider Trophy contest by Societa Anonima Macchi at Varese. At least one, the M.7bis, had its wings clipped by approximately 2-2 m (7 ft 3 in). It is not certain whether any more M.7s were prepared for racing, but one aircraft, registered I-BAFV, flew in the 1922 contest.
Colour - few details of colour schemes can be found but it is believed that I-BAFV had a pale green hull and silver mainplanes and tail unit. The registration letters were black, carried on a white rectangle on the hull sides aft of the mainplanes, and the contest number 10 was similarly carried on a white rectangle on the hull sides just forward of the cockpit. The name Macchi M.7 was carried on both sides of the hull nose. It is recorded that in common with all the other aircraft participating in the 1921 Italian team selection trials, the M.7s carried on the hull sides forward, a variety of coloured identity ‘patches’ of different shape, including yellow and red rectangles and a green circle or star.