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Albatros G.II/G.III

Страна: Германия

Год: 1916

Albatros - G.I - 1916 - Германия<– –>Albatros - W.3/W.5 - 1916 - Германия


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Albatros G II
  Designed as a medium bomber, the G II featured a thick high-lift wing section. The bracing was reduced to a single-bay format and the rigid "X" members of the interplane struts eliminated the need for incidence wires. Only a single prototype was built, in 1916, before an improved model, the G III, was introduced. Apart from the nose wheels, the G II presented a neat appearance for a twin of 1916. It was powered with twin 150 h.p. Benz III engines, which were neatly installed and fitted with spinnered pusher airscrews.

Albatros G III
  The G III appeared at the end of 1916, and was built in small numbers. It has not been established that it was flown on the Western Front, but some entered service in Macedonia. With its ply-skinned fuselage and fabric-covered wings, the aircraft followed established Albatros constructional practice. Engines, two 220 h.p. Benz IVa. Span, 18.0 m. (59 ft. 0 3/4 in.). Length, 11.895 m. (39 ft. 0 3/8 in.). Area, 79 sq.m. (853.2 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 2,064 kg. (4,541 lb.). Loaded, 3,150 kg. (6,930 lb.). Speed, 150 km.hr. (93.75 m.p.h.). Climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 9 min., 2,000 m. (6,560 ft.) in 25 min. Duration, 4 hr.


J.Herris Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 26)


Albatros G.II

  At the main Albatros factory at Johannisthal, Robert Thelen, assisted by George Madelung, designed the two-engine Albatros G.II based on the Kampfflugzeug specifications promulgated by Idflieg in July 1914. Madelung was responsible for the thick airfoil section chosen for the G.II that was intended to give it greater lift than the thin sections then common. The prototype C.IV was built specifically to test this thick airfoil section for the G.II.
  The G.II fuselage was covered with plywood like other Albatros designs of that time and carried three crewmen, a pilot in the middle and fore and aft gunners. The massive interplane struts eliminated the need for incidence bracing wires and the landing gear resembled that of a two-seater except for the nose gear. With 150 hp Benz Bz.III engines the aircraft was reliable but under-powered, and interest moved on to a more powerful derivative, the G.III.


Albatros G.III

  The Albatros G.III was based on the G.II and used a similar, perhaps identical, plywood-covered fuselage. More powerful engines, 220 hp Benz Bz.IV inline six-cylinder types, were fitted to improve climb and bombload. The thick airfoil section was retained, and to further improve load-carrying capability the upper wing span was increased by a meter for more lifting area. At first the ailerons were similar to those of the G.II, but later aerodynamic balances were fitted to reduced the pilot's control forces and improve maneuverability. However, the aerodynamic balance on the rudder was deleted, apparently to harmonize the control forces.
  The landing gear was modified to eliminate the nose gear and dual wheels were fitted to each main gear. More conventional interplane bracing was used, although the G.III retained the single-bay configuration. Installation of the more powerful engines was similar to the G.II but the mounting was more streamlined. However, cooling problems must have afflicted the G.III because nearly all photos of operational G.III bombers show them without any cowling panels for improved cooling at the expense of streamlining.
  Despite the improvements compared to the G.II, the G.III still had a lighter bomb load than its rivals and its flying and landing characteristics were not as good as desired. Regardless, Idflieg ordered a small number of G.III bombers, perhaps 10-12, for operational evaluation. In early 1917 some were assigned to Kagohl 4 in the Balkans, and others were assigned to Kagohl 2 on the Western Front. The G.III front-line inventory peaked at nine aircraft in April and only one was at the front by the end of 1917.
The Albatros G.III thus made a limited contribution to the German war effort and was the least successful operational bomber. Its qualities were such that Albatros abandoned further development of two-engine bombers to focus on their more successful fighters and two-seaters.


Albatros Bomber Specifications
G.I G.II G.III
Engines 4 x 120 hp Mercedes D.II 2 x 150 hp Benz Bz.III 2 x 220 hp Benz Bz.IV
Span (Upper) 30 m 17.0 m 18.0 m
Span (Lower) - 17.0 m 17.0 m
Length - 11.9 m 11.9m
Height - 4.2 m 4.2 m
Empty Weight - - 2,004 kg
Loaded Weight 4,319 kg - 3,086 kg
Max. Speed - - 150 km/h
Climb, 1,000 m - 9.3 minutes 10.0 minutes
Climb, 2,000 m - 25 minutes 30 minutes
Climb, 3,000 m - 70 minutes 45 minutes
Service Ceiling - 3,000 m 3,000 m
Range/Endurance - 4 hours 595 km
Bomb Load - - 325 kg
Armament - 2 flexible MGs 2 flexible MGs
Note: Only one G.I and one G.II were built. The highest number of Albatros bombers at the front was 9, indicating a short production run. Known serials were in the range G.126-132/16.

J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros G.III G.126/16, unit unknown.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros G.III G.130/16, Hansi, unit unknown.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
The Albatros G.II was powered by 150 hp Benz engines mounted as pushers above the lower wing in streamlined nacelles. Its thick wing section is unusual for the time, as are the interesting interplane struts. The simple undercarriage is designed to prevent nose-overs on soft fields.
AN INTERESTING ENEMY BOMBER. - The Albatros type G. biplane. This machine, it will be noticed, has only one pair of inter-plane struts outside the engine on each side. The formation of these struts is unusual, diagonal struts having, apparently, taken the place of incidence wires. The upper plane appears to be of a very deep section, as in the latest Fokker machines, and it would seem probable that this feature accounts for the small number of inter-plane struts.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
More images of the sole Albatros G.II prototype under test at Johannisthal. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
The Albatros G.II was a compact, streamlined bomber with good flying characteristics. However, climb and ceiling were poor and it was evident that more power was needed than the 150 hp Benz Bz.III engines delivered. Design of the G.II was unrelated to the G.I other than company name.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
The sole Albatros G.II looked like a member of the Albatros family of aircraft with the exceptions of the thick airfoil and the balanced rudder needed to give more directional control in case of engine failure.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
The sole Albatros G.II prototype under test at Johannisthal. Its thick airfoil, equal span wings, and massive single-bay interplane struts were hallmarks of this distinctive design.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
The sole Albatros G.II prototype under test at Johannisthal. An Albatros C.V is in the background. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
This appears to be the Albatros G.III prototype. The engines are mounted above the lower wing in streamlined nacelles, the single-bay interplane struts are normal size, and the upper wing span has been increased but the ailerons have no aerodynamic balances.The G.III discarded the nose landing gear used by the G.II.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros G.III, likely the prototype, undergoing winter testing with its engine cowlings fitted. Bomb racks are visible under the center section. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros G.III bomber, possibly the prototype, undergoing flight testing in wintery conditions with close-fitting radiators. A refinement of the earlier G.II design with several improvements, it still failed to meet the demands of carrying a greater bomb load.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros G.III, likely the prototype, undergoing winter testing with its engine cowlings fitted. The bomb racks are clearly visible on the fuselage sides and under the center section. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
This appears to be the prototype Albatros G.III after the ailerons were fitted with aerodynamic balances to reduce the control forces. The G.III was streamlined for a 1916 two-engine bomber. The thick airfoil section for high lift, unusual for an Albatros design, is clearly evident.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
This G.III, likely the prototype, had its engine cowlings removed even when flying in winter.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
This rear quarter view of the Albatros G.III prototype emphasizes its aerodynamic design for a two-engine bomber of the period. The engines are mounted in streamlined nacelles, the wing bracing is single-bay, and the landing gear is simple. The tail surfaces are shaped like the successful, contemporary Albatros two-seaters and fighters, although the fuselage was rectangular in cross section, unlike Albatros fighters with their oval fuselage designs. The G.III had three crewmen, a pilot and fore and aft gunners, and each gunner had a single, flexible machine gun. The thick airfoil section was chosen for high lift and within Albatros designs was unique to the G.II, G.III, and the C.IV airfoil testbed. Flight testing led to addition of aerodynamic balances on the ailerons to reduce control forces and improve maneuverability. The number of Albatros G.III bombers built is not known; but the maximum front-line inventory was nine in April 1917.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros G.III in dark colors displays its bomb load. Six heavier bombs (in this case apparently 50 kg P.u.W. bombs) are carried under the fuselage near the center of gravity and smaller (12.5 kg P.u.W.) bombs are carried in racks on the fuselage sides. The bomb load could total at least 325 kg, and this G.III appears to be carrying more than that.
J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Clearly developed from the G.II, the Albatros G.III was powered by 220 hp Benz Bz.IV engines. The undercarriage was revised to be more robust. Bombs are visible on the rack on the fuselage side; others are under the fuselage. The engine cowlings have been removed in service. The dark finish indicates use as a night bomber.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Better known for their single engined reconnaissance and fighter types, the Albatros concern did venture into bomber design, but not with the success associated with their lighter machines. The close-up image shows the sole Albatros G II 3-man machine of 1916. This twin 150hp Benz Bz III powered machine led to the generally cleaner and more powerful Albatros G III that used two 220hp Benz Bz IVa engines. Capable of carrying up to 660lb of bombs, the G III had a top level speed of 93.8mph. With the prototype of the G III completed at the end of 1916, only a small number of G IIIs were built and delivered to a section of KG 6 in 1917, the wing, at that time, operating in Macedonia.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros G.III G.126/16 serving with an operational unit. The thick airfoil section is prominent as are the bomb racks. Although the spinners have been retained, the engine cowling has been removed for additional cooling. The wood grain of the ply-covered fuselage is noticeable in the photo above, but appears to have been painted in the photo below, probably for duty as a night bomber because the paint appears as dark as the national insignia under the wing, but lighter on the fuselage, probably as a result of the sunlight.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros G.III G.130/16 Hansi at an operational unit. The thick airfoil section and aerodynamically-balanced ailerons are unlike other contemporary Albatros warplanes, but the shape of the tail surfaces is very similar to that of contemporary Albatros fighters and two-seaters.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros G.III G.132/16 at an operational unit. The thick airfoil section - unlike other contemporary Albatros warplanes - and fuselage bomb racks are prominent. The spinners are missing and the engine cowlings have been removed for improved cooling despite the increased drag produced. Above some nurses are being given a guided tour of the aircraft.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Another photo of Albatros G.III G.132/16 at an operational unit.The spinners are missing and the engine cowlings have been removed for improved cooling despite the increased drag produced.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros G.III G.132/16 at an operational unit is the center of a lot of attention as well as a popular background for group photographs.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Aircrew and visitors relax around an Albatros G.III bomber in the field. Like most photos showing operational G.III bombers, it has had its engine cowlings removed.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Aircrew and others relax around their Albatros G.III bomber with its engine cowlings removed. The fact nearly all photos show the G.III without engine cowlings indicates cooling problems.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Albatros aircraft stored inside the airship hall at Johannisthal in 1916. A G.III bomber is in the left foreground.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Landing accidents with Albatros G.III. The aircraft, likely the prototype, was flying in winter and had its engine cowlings fitted.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Two views of a winter landing accident. The aircraft, likely the prototype, had its engine cowlings fitted. The starboard landing gear was torn from the aircraft during the accident. This appears to be the same aircraft and accident shown in the winter accident scene. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros G II of Kasta 7, Kagohl II, flown by Leutnant Graf von Guerard with Leutnant Meye as observer, crashed on Neuflize aerodrome near Le Chatelet in April 1917 on return from an operational flight. This aircraft type was produced only in small numbers and from the maximum of nine at the Front, achieved at the end of April, some were also used by Kagohl IV. The magazine rack for the horizontal stowage of six P.u.W. 12.5kg bombs can be seen attached to the fuselage in front of the port bottom wing root. Magazines of this type were also installed internally. Bombs could be dropped individually, six movements of the bomb release being required to empty the rack; each selection released the lowermost bomb, but a salvo selection was also possible so that all the bombs could be released at the same time.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Due to its dark finish this Albatros G.III appears to be from an operational unit and crashed on the railroad tracks, perhaps while attempting an emergency landing. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros G.III
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros G.III
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros G.III