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Albatros J.I

Страна: Германия

Год: 1917

Two-seat armoured, close support

Albatros - Dr.I - 1917 - Германия<– –>Albatros - C.XIV / C.XV - 1918 - Германия


В.Обухович, А.Никифоров Самолеты Первой Мировой войны



  После того как в 1916 г. под Верденом авиация была впервые и довольно успешно применена для непосредственной поддержки наземных войск на поле боя, военное командование Германии стало придавать большое значение этому виду воздушных операций. В 1917 г. была принята специальная программа, предусматривавшая создание самолетов такого типа. Когда компания "Альбатрос" предложила свой проект, на фронте уже действовали наскоро доработанные для этих целей "пехотные машины" фирм AEG и "Юнкерс". Самолет, созданный под руководством Телена и Шуберта, получил обозначение Альбатрос J 1 и представлял собой биплан смешанной конструкции.
  Чтобы ускорить процесс внедрения в производство, в проекте был использован целый ряд узлов и агрегатов от разведывательного самолета Альбатрос С XII: бипланная коробка, задняя часть фюзеляжа с хвостовым оперением и система охлаждения двигателя. Передняя часть имела ферменную конструкцию, мотокапот был дюралевый, далее до бронекорпуса обшивался фанерой.
  Средняя часть фюзеляжа Альбатроса J 1 была выполнена в виде короба из стального листа толщиной 5 мм. Чтобы упростить процесс изготовления, бронекороб склепывался из плоских листов брони. Хвостовая часть фюзеляжа представляла собой деревянный полумонокок с фанерной обшивкой. Кабины размещались высоко от земли, поэтому для удобства экипажа в бортах фюзеляжа были сделаны небольшие створки. Поскольку полубронированный фюзеляж был тяжелым, шасси Альбатроса С XII пришлось доработать.
  В качестве силовой установки использовался двигатель жидкостного охлаждения Бенц Bz.IV (200 л. с), хотя фактически на малой высоте двигатель развивал мощность, близкую к 225 л. с. Альбатрос J 1 был на 380 кг тяжелее Альбатроса С XII и имел менее мощный двигатель. В результате практический потолок был небольшим. Однако это обстоятельство не рассматривалось авиационным командованием как недостаток, так как главным назначением самолета была поддержка пехоты. Штурм позиций пехоты и артиллерийских батарей противника обычно велся тройками или парами "альбатросов" на высотах от 50 до 500 м.
  Вооружение самолета состояло из двух неподвижных пулеметов "Шпандау", установленных снизу фюзеляжа под углом 45· вниз, и одного турельного пулемета в задней кабине с боезапасом по 500 патронов. Иногда ставилась 20-мм пушка Беккера.
  Альбатрос J 1 был тяжелым и маломаневренным самолетом. Несмотря на бронирование, он был уязвим от наземного огня. Эскадрильи несли большие потери, однако эффективность боевой работы "альбатросов" была довольно высокой, и командование наземных войск постоянно требовало увеличить темпы их производства. Всего было выпущено около 240 машин.


Двигатель 1 х Бенц Bz.IV (200 л. с.)
Размеры:
  размах х длина х высота 14,25 х 8,83 х 3,62 м
Площадь крыльев 41,8 м2
Вес:
  пустого 1400 кг
  взлетный 1808 кг
Максимальная скорость 160 км/ч
Скороподъемность 3,3 м/сек
Дальность 400 км
Вооружение:
  стрелковое 2 х 7,92-мм неподвижных пулемета "Шпандау" 08/15 и
   1 х 7,92-мм турельный пулемет "Парабеллум"
Экипаж 2 чел.


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Albatros J I

  In 1917, with the expansion of the Flieger Abt. (Infanterieftieger) Close Support units, Albatros Werke introduced the J I to supplement the A.E.G. and Junkers panzer aircraft already serving. This aircraft, like its contemporary from the A.E.G. company, was something of a hybrid, in which the complete wing cellule of the Albatros C XII was married to an ugly and cumbersome semi-armoured fuselage.
  With only the 200 h.p. Benz Bz IV for a power plant (although the actual power output of this engine was closer to 225 h.p. at the low altitudes these aircraft worked), as compared with the 260 h.p. Mercedes D IV installed in the C XII, and an increase of some 350 kg. (770 lb.) in loaded weight, a drastic reduction in performance could only be expected. The reduction in climb performance did not have such serious repercussions as might be imagined, since the operational requirements for this class of machine rarely called for much altitude. When in action they could most effectively fulfil their chief offensive role, harassing the troops in the trenches, at altitudes between 50 and 500 m. (164 and 1,640 ft.).
  The Albatros J I represented another trend of thought in the development of close support aircraft, coming between some earlier D.F.W.s and L.V.G.s, which had only the seats and tanks armoured, and A.E.G.s with the almost fully armoured nose.
  The fuselage of the J I was basically to the well-tried Albatros formula of multi-ply formers, six main longerons (ash forward, spruce aft), with the ply skin pinned and glued to the basic structure, obviating the need for internal bracing. Unlike the A.E.G. J I, the whole of the nose was not armoured, only the actual cockpit area being covered with 5 mm. chrome nickel steel armour on the sides and underneath. To simplify manufacture the armour on the sides was largely in its original slab sheet form, cut to size, and bolted to the basic structure. To provide maximum protection for the pilot the side armour was not cut away on the front cockpit sides, but to facilitate entry and egress a panel was hinged to fold outwards and down.
  Somewhat austere nose contours prevailed. The extreme nose and forward belly panels were of sheet metal, the latter with an additional bulged fairing to encase the engine sump. The panelling adjacent to the Bz IV engine was also fashioned to follow a rounded contour, but these panels also were not of armoured sheet. The remaining side nose panels, back to the armour, were of ply. The nose sloped down quite sharply from the front cockpit, thereby affording a reasonably good degree of forward vision.
  Aft of the cockpit section the fuselage was ply covered, the perfectly straight slab sides being continued between the upper and lower longerons to the terminal horizontal knife-edge. The bottom surface was quite flat, but the top decking had a considerable, almost semi-circular, degree of curvature. The complete empennage was that of the C XII, with the ply-skinned tailplane and upper and lower fins and the fabric-covered, steel-tube rudder and elevator.
  Although use was also made of the complete C XII wing assembly, it was mounted farther forward, with a 2° sweep on each panel to compensate for the added 490 kg. (1,078 lb.) weight of the armour and to preserve the C/G position. Installation of the radiator differed from that of the C XII, a large rectangular cooler being mounted on the centre-section leading-edge.
  Due to the altered fuselage contours, it was not possible to use the original C XII undercarriage chassis, although only a slight modification to the steel-tube vee-strut lengths was necessary to employ the majority of the undercarriage components.
  Operating in flights of three to six aircraft from the autumn of 1917 onwards, this class of machine was a continual thorn in the side of the Allied ground troops and artillery batteries as their downward-firing machineguns viciously probed and stabbed into trenches, gun pits and horse lines.

TECHNICAL DATA
  Description: Two-seat armoured, close support.
  Manufacturers: Albatros Werke G.m.b.H. (Alb.).
  Power Plant: One 200 h.p. Benz Bz IV 6 cylinder in-line water-cooled engine.
  Dimensions: Span, 14.14 m. (46 ft. 4 3/4 in.). Length, 8.83 m. (28 ft. 11 3/4 in.). Height, 3.37 m. (11 ft. 0 3/4 in.). Wing area, 42.82 sq.m. (462.45 sq.ft.).
  Weights: Empty, 1,398 kg. (3,075 lb.). Loaded, 1,808 kg. (3,978 lb.).
  Performance: Maximum speed, 140 km.hr. (87.5 m.p.h.). Initial climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 11.4 min.; 3,000 m. (9,840 ft.) in 50 min. Duration, 2 1/2 hr.
  Armament: Two Spandau machine-guns fixed to fire downwards at 45° through floor. One free Parabellum machine-gun for observer for defence.


J.Herris Development of German Warplanes in WWI (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 1)


J-Class Armored Aircraft

  Albatros was the third manufacturer to produce a J-type. The Albatros J.I inherited its wooden structure from the C.XII reconnaissance two-seater from which it was developed. Unlike all the other J-types, the Albatros J.I had armor around the cockpit but, to save weight, it had no armor protecting the engine. Like the AEG J.II, 20 Albatros J.Is were fitted with a 20mm Becker cannon on a flexible mount for the gunner for destroying tanks. Others had the pair of downward-firing machine guns as installed on the AEG J.I.
  Complaints from crewmen about the vulnerability of the Albatros J.Is engine to ground fire resulted in a new design, the J.II, with fully-armored engine, that succeeded the Albatros J.I in production.


J.Herris Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 26)


The Albatros J-Types
  
  Albatros was one of three manufacturers that responded to Idflieg's requirement for an armored infantry contact aircraft with their J.I and later J.II. Significantly, the large Albatros firm produced the fewest J-types; moreover, they were the last to reach the front. Given the huge production capacity of Albatros, this is a strong indication that the competing Junkers and AEG J-types were superior to the Albatros J-types. Certainly the Albatros J.I, with its exposed radiator and no engine armor, was the J-type most vulnerable to ground fire, and thus the least successful. Although the Albatros J.II rectified those weaknesses, the wood structure of the Albatros J-types made them more vulnerable to ground fire than the metal Junkers and AEG designs; therefore they were produced in the smallest numbers despite Albatros's production capacity.
  Despite its installation in all operational J-types, the Benz B.IV/IVa of 200/220 hp was clearly insufficient for these heavy aircraft. For example, the Albatros J.I was developed from the C.XII and its armor meant it was more than 800 pounds (almost
400 kg) heavier, yet the 260 hp Mercedes in the C.XII was replaced with a 200 hp Benz! Thus the J-types were significantly underpowered even by the modest standards of the time, resulting in long take-off runs, thereby reducing the number of airfields that could be used. Their low power also resulted in low speed, which, together with their higher stall speed due to their heavy armor, provided a relatively small maneuvering speed margin above the stall compared to their unarmored contemporaries. This reduction in their flight envelope made them less forgiving to fly and reduced their safety margin during normal flight operations. Being underpowered also reduced their agility and made them more vulnerable to fighters. Aware of aircrew criticism, in April 1918 Idflieg suggested use of the more powerful 260 hp Mercedes D.IVa engine in J-type aircraft to improve their ability to operate from small fields. Because the Mercedes D.IVa engine was not an overcompressed, high-altitude design, it was suitable for the low-flying J-types, but this upgrade was never implemented during the war.


Albatros J.I

  The initial Albatros armored design, the Albatros J.I used the same basic wood wings and tail surfaces as the preceding Albatros C.XII reconnaissance plane. These readily-available components were coupled with a new engine and forward fuselage featuring 5 mm steel sheet armor around the crew cockpits. To maintain center of gravity with the lighter engine, the wings were given 2° of sweepback. In contrast to the airfoil radiator of the Albatros C.XII, the J.I had a box radiator installed in front of the leading edge of the upper wing. To limit weight, the J.I engine cowling and radiator were left unarmored; this led to frequent engine failures due to damage from ground fire.
Like all production J-types, the Albatros J.I used the Benz Bz.IV engine. This 200 hp engine was substantially less powerful than the 260 hp Mercedes D.IVa used in the C.XII from which the J.I was derived. The reduced power, coupled with the increased weight of the armor and increased drag, significantly reduced J.I performance and agility compared to its reconnaissance aircraft predecessors. Initially the Albatros J.I had a very streamlined nose complete with propeller spinner, but this was soon found to be unnecessary for such a slow aircraft and later production aircraft replaced the spinner with a rounded nose, which actually reduced drag.
  Initially, the armament consisted of one flexible Parabellum MG 14/17 for the observer. Later, some aircraft were equipped with two LMG 08/15 machine guns fixed in the fuselage floor, which could fire diagonally forward and down at a 45° angle. Furthermore, the crews carried light bombs and grenades, which were thrown by hand to attack troops and other ground targets.
  The Albatros J.I was the first German aircraft that deployed a cannon in unrestricted operational service, as distinct from operational trials. In November 1917 the first tests began with the 20 mm Becker cannon, which was installed on the left side of the observer's cockpit of Albatros J.I J.710/17.
  After firing 600 rounds in ground tests with the machine's rear fuselage elevated, in-flight firing tests began from the Albatros on 12 December 1917. It was shown that the recoil of the cannon proved substantially less than during the ground tests. Moreover, installation of the cannon hardly affected the in-flight handling characteristics. Target acquisition was deemed good, but the ammunition clip proved difficult to change in the slipstream. By the end of January 1918 testing was successfully completed with the exception of the clip-loading problem. In February this appeared to be solved by provision of a special handgrip on the ammunition clip. Three cannon-armed J.I aircraft were then sent to the front, primarily intended for tank busting, followed by five more in April. Each of these machines had a captured Lewis machine gun installed in the observer's cockpit for defense against fighters; the Lewis was used to save weight.
  These eight cannon aircraft underwent combat evaluation with Schlachtstaffeln 10, 17, and 28b during May-June 1918, producing mixed results. Lt. Umlauff, the Idflieg cannon expert who visited various units to demonstrate the new weapon, flew Albatros J.I 734/17 on six missions over the front, but was severely wounded by an enemy fighter while attached to Schlachtstaffel 17. The "expedient" fuselage mounting was criticized because the side location restricted the field of fire, which depended too much on aircraft position and attitude in relation to the target. In addition, it was impossible to repair stoppages aloft. Schlachtstaffel 28b, experiencing problems with stoppages and handling the 15-round magazine, was convinced that a valuable weapon would result from adoption of belt-fed ammunition. Schlachtstaffeln 10 reported no gun stoppages, but noted the ammunition clip did not function smoothly and the side mounting restricted the field of fire. Moreover, accurate aiming was difficult because the tracer and explosive ammunition exhibited different ballistic characteristics. The Schlachtstaffeln expressed the unanimous opinion that the effectiveness of cannon-armed ground-attack aircraft depended wholly on keeping enemy fighters at bay.
  Kofl 6 reported that in 12 missions the cannon had proved extremely effective, especially in dawn or dusk attacks on rear-area transportation, and more cannon-armed aircraft were urgently requested. For destroying tanks it was suggested that armor-piercing ammunition be supplied. The recommendation to install the cannon on a pivot mount in the cockpit floor was accepted and tested in at least one Albatros J.I. On 11 June 1918, the first Albatros J.I with a Becker cannon, J.768/17, was forced down in enemy lines by ground fire.
  In December 1917, three Albatros J.I without engines were purchased by the k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe, as Series 09, and received the serial numbers 09.01-09.03. Originally, Albatros J.I 09.01 carried the German Militar-Nummer J.400/17; 90.02 was formerly J.726/17, and 90.03 was formerly J.730/17. Marta-built 250 hp Benz engines were installed. On 28 February 1918, aircraft 09.02 crashed in flames during evaluation tests at Aspern. On 5 May 1918, aircraft 09.01 was damaged at the front and returned to Aspern for repairs. The only J.I used operationally by the Luftfahrtruppe was 09.03, which served with Flik 69/S between July and September 1918.


Albatros J-Type Specifications
Albatros J.I Albatros J.II
Engine 200 hp Benz Bz.IV 220 hp Benz Bz.IVa
Span, Upper 14.14m 14.1m
Span, Lower 13.45m 13.45m
Chord, Upper 1.70m 1.70m
Length 8.83m 8.44m
Track 2.0m 2.0m
Wing Sweepback 2° 1.5°
Wing Area 42.82 m2 43.2 m2
Empty Weight 1,398 kg. 1,515 kg.
Loaded Weight 1,808 kg. 1,927 kg.
Maximum Speed 140 km/h 140 km/h
Climb to 1,000m 11.2 minutes 11.2 minutes
Flight Duration 2.5 hours 2.5 hours
Armament 1 flexible machine gun, some aircraft 2 fixed machine guns 1 flexible machine gun, 2 fixed machine guns
Optional 20mm Becker Cannon 20mm Becker Cannon


Albatros J-Type Production Orders
Serial Numbers Qty Type and Order Date Lowest Known Serial Highest Known Serial

1917 Serials
J.400-424/17 25 Albatros J.I J.400/17 J.424/17
J.700-774/17 75 Albatros J.I J.701/17 J.758/17
1917 Subtotal 100

1918 Serials
J.100-124/18 25 Albatros J.I J.101/18 -
J.125-174/18 50 Albatros J.II ordered Feb. 1918 J.126/18 J.169/18
J.616-715/18 100 Albatros J.II J.616/18 J.714/18
1918 Subtotal 175

- 125 Albatros J.l were ordered and delivered.
- 150 Albatros J.II were ordered and most, perhaps all, were delivered.
  

Albatros J.I Production Batches
Albatros J.I production orders totaled 125 aircraft in three batches. Review of available photographs appears to show these characteristics:
  First Batch of 25, serials J.400-424/17:
   Spinners, painted camouflage on top of wings and tail surfaces (like the Albatros C.XII).
  Second Batch of 75, serials J.700-774/17:
   No spinners, painted camouflage on top of wings and tail surfaces (like the Albatros C.XII).
  Third Batch of 25, serials J.100-124/18:
   No spinners, printed camouflage fabric on all flying surfaces. Some had patterned camouflage on fuselage.
Note: All Albatros J.II aircraft were apparently finished like late-production J.l aircraft.


E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918


01. — 010. Flugzeuge ausländischer Produktion (Самолеты иностранного производства)
09.01 — 09.03 Albatros J.I Bz 200

J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.415/17 Number "VI" of Flieger-Abteilung (A) 238. Patches covering bullet holes have been painted as cockades.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.421/17 of Flieger-Abteilung (A) 293.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.424/17, tactical '7' of an unknown unit.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.424/17, previously photographed in 1917 insignia in the markings of an unknown unit, was later seen in summer 1918 markings.
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
Альбатрос J 1
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.706/17
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.738/17
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.742/17, tactical 'X' of an unknown unit.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.745/17 of an unknown unit, 1918.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.758/17
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.769/17
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I "H"
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I "L" of Flieger-Abteilung (A) 233.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I 09.01 in Austro-Hungarian service; formerly J.400/17.
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Albatros J I 09.01
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I "6" Smok, postwar Polish Air Service.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.401/17 at Adlershof.The J.I used the wings and tail of the Albatros C.XII fitted to its armored fuselage. The fuselage behind the armor was wood like the Albatros C-types. The wireless antenna lead is hanging below the observer's cockpit.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
An early production Albatros J.I, perhaps J.401/17, showing the propeller spinner used on the early machines.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.401/17, the second production aircraft, is shown at Adlershof undergoing evaluation.The nose has a spinner and streamlined shape because there was no armor around the engine. The Albatros J.I was the only J-type without engine armor and was therefore the aircraft most vulnerable to ground-fire of all the J-types.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.402/17, the third production aircraft, is shown after a bad landing in December 1917. The J.I used the wings and tail surfaces of the C.XII but the fuselage was far less elegant. Early aircraft had a propeller spinner; that was soon abandoned as unnecessary for such a slow aircraft.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
An early production Albatros J.I with spinner, probably J.411/17, in 1918 insignia. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Two views of an early-production Albatros J.I with propeller spinner; unfortunately, the aircraft is not identified but may be J.411/17.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.415/17 with factory finish and Flieger-Abteilung (A) 238 unit markings. The early J.I aircraft used the wing and tailplane camouflage of the late Albatros C-types like the C.XII together with varnished wood rear fuselage and light-gray armor. Over this J.415/17 has black and white elevator stripes, white stripes over the upper wing, and a white field on the upper fuselage behind the gunner with a Roman numeral painted on it, in this case 'VI', which were the Flieger-Abteilung (A) 238 unit markings.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.415/17 with factory finish and Flieger-Abteilung (A) 238 unit markings. The closeup view shows the armored door to the pilot's cockpit open.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.421/17 serving with FA(A) 293; the older style iron cross has been removed and the new style straight cross painted forward. The spinner and painted upper wing camouflage are first production batch features.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.424/17 was the last aircraft of the first production batch. Here it has been repainted in 1918 insignia. Some of the engine cowling panels have been removed, possibly for maintenance, and it still retains its spinner. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.424/17 after a bad landing. It carries a dark, probably black, zig-zag marking on the rear fuselage and a stylized tactical number '7'.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Early production Albatros J.I with spinner, perhaps at Adlershof. Wind tunnel investigations eventually revealed that eliminating the spinner and rounding the nose actually reduced drag, and subsequent production J.I aircraft had no spinner. The same change was made to more well-known aircraft like the Rumpler C.IV and late-production Albatros D.III fighters built in Austria-Hungary.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
This view of an early-production Albatros J.I shows the upper surface camouflage pattern. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.706/17 is from the second production batch. In addition to the factory finish it carries a dark, probably black, zig-zag marking on the rear fuselage and tactical number '9'.
The Albatros J.I was developed from the earlier Albatros C.XII by adding armor to the cockpit and replacing the 260 hp Mercedes D.IVa with the 200 hp Benz Bz.IV. The reduced power and great weight greatly reduced performance and flying qualities, but the airplanes depended on their armor for protection. Later two machine guns firing downward at 45° were fitted in addition to the observer's flexible guns.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
The fuselage of Albatros J.I J.707/17 is moved the old-fashioned army way, soldier power.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.711/17 provides a background for this photograph of members of FliegerAbteilung (A) 257.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.714/17 of the second production batch in original 1917 insignia. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.714/17 of the second production batch after a bad landing. J.714/17 is in factory finish with no special markings. The light gray armor around the cockpit is notable and the door providing easier access for the pilot is hanging open. The tubular container under the starboard lower wing is interesting. (AL0613-010 & AL0613-012)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.727/17 of the second production batch wears only factory finish and markings.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.738/17 of the second production batch has two-color camouflage over all upper surfaces and a white V identification marking. (Courtesy Reinhard Zankl)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.742/17 of the second production batch crashed in 1918. A white "X" was the identifying marking just forward of the fuselage national insignia.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.745/17 of the second production batch has lasted long enough in service to be repainted with 1918 insignia. A dark band is painted around the fuselage and a recognition streamer is attached to the wing. The white background for the tail insignia extends onto the fin. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.756/17 poses with ground crew. Two downward-firing guns are visible.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.758/17 is shown with crew in this excellent portrait. Did 'Teddy' (rear inboard strut) fly any missions?
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Colorized photo of Albatros J.I J.758/17 with crew in this excellent portrait courtesy of Jim Miller.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
These gruesome photos of the demise of Albatros J.I J.769/17 were found in an album from Spa 150, suggesting a Spad from that unit downed the J.I and its unfortunate crew.The photos are dated 11 June 1918.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
This Albatros J.I may be from the second production batch; it has no spinner but does not appear to have printed camouflage fabric. It has been painted overall dark camouflage colors, probably green and lilac like other Albatros two-seaters, with white nose, nose stripe, and letter 'L' probably at Flieger-Abteilung (A) 233 where it was serving when photographed.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
This Albatros J.I serving with FliegerAbteilung 33 is likely from the second production batch.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I poses with its flight crew.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
This Albatros J.I with no spinner is likely from the second production batch.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
An Albatros J.I is the center of attention for this group of officers and officials.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
This Albatros J.I is likely from the second production batch.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.400/17 was sold to Austria-Hungary and became 09.01. Here it is ready for transport and may be on its way to Austria because the spinner has been removed and 09.01 had no spinner.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I 09.01 was formerly German Militar-Nummer J.400/17. Marta-built 250 hp Benz engines were installed. On 5 May 1918 Albatros J.I 09.01 was damaged at the front before seeing operations and returned to Aspern for repairs. It no longer has its 'as-built' propeller spinner.
Albatros J.I - "Infanterieflugzeug", Flugzeugnummer 09.01. Die Albatros-Flugzeuge wurden 1918 aus Deutschland angekauft (orig. J 400/17)
Albatros J.I - «Пехотный самолет», номер 09.01. Самолеты Albatros были куплены в Германии в 1918 г. (ориг. J 400/17).
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I 09.01 was formerly German Militar-Nummer J.400/17. A Brandenburg C.I is in the background. (AL0613-002)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I 09.03 was the last of three purchased by Austria-Hungary. Formerly J.730/17, 09.03 was the only J.I used operationally by the Luftfahrtruppe; it served with Flik 69/S between July and September 1918. The two-color camouflage painted on the upper surface of the wings and tailplane is evident below.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Post-war the new Polish state used a number of German warplanes, including the Albatros J.I. As can be seen on its fin, this J.I, named Smok and with tactical number '6', wears the irregular camouflage pattern illustrated by the Japanese artist in color.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Polish Albatros J.I tactical number '6', apparently before it was named. The photo above shows the irregular camouflage pattern on its fuselage. The photo below is too dark to show the pattern clearly but does show the printed camouflage fabric on the wings and horizontal tail surfaces. The serial, J.I 217/18, does not correspond to known serial numbers for the Albatros J.I.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Closeup of an Albatros J.I radiator reveals that it was not armored. Together with its totally exposed location, that made it especially vulnerable to ground-fire. Engine failure could be expected two-three minutes after radiator puncture. Use of a box radiator instead of an airfoil radiator like that of the C.XII did nothing to improve performance of the J.I.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Closeup of an Albatros J.I showing details of the armor, the wood rear fuselage, and the gunner with his flexible machine gun. The J.I had little of the grace of the elegant Albatros C.XII from which it was derived.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Пушка Беккера устанавливалась на борту самолета на специальном кронштейне и предназначалась для обстрела наземных целей
Some Albatros J.I aircraft mounted a 20mm Becker cannon on the left side of the aircraft for ground attack, and especially destroying tanks, as shown here. These experiments were successful enough to lead to development of improved cannon mounts for the Albatros J.II and AEG J.II, and eventually to more sophisticated anti-tank designs like the AEG G.IVk and Ago S.I. Decades later anti-tank helicopters were designed to fulfill the role pioneered by these little-known aircraft.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
By 1918 Allied tanks became a major problem for the German Army, and anti-tank weapons became more important. The 20mm Becker cannon was accordingly fitted to a number of Albatros J.Is on a simple mount on the side of the gunner's cockpit as shown here.
A slightly different Becker cannon mount reinforced with a U-profile stiffener mounted on Albatros J.I. To facilitate handling in the slipstream, a grip was fitted to the ammunition clip. Two types of magazines were supplied one for 10 and one for 15 rounds.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Albatros factory workers build the airframe of an Albatros J-type.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
The cockpits of an Albatros J.I; the pilot's control wheel and side doors of armor are visible along with some details of the observer's cockpit.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
This Albatros J.I, tactical letter 'H', has experienced a bad landing. Downward-firing guns were installed.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
A derelict Albatros J.I appears to be the victim of artillery shelling or a bombing raid.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
As war reparations several German aircraft were sent to Japan, where a contemporary artist painted details of their camouflage, which are reproduced here for the J.I.
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Albatros J.I
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J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.I J.415/17 Number "VI" of Flieger-Abteilung (A) 238. Patches covering bullet holes have been painted as cockades.