Эта машина стала одной из самых массовых моделей, выпускавшихся американскими фирмами за период Первой мировой войны. Их было построено около 6,5 тысячи штук различных модификаций, отличавшихся между собой незначительными деталями. Это были учебные машины, двухместные трехстоечные бипланы цельнодеревянной конструкции. Капот двигателя имел металлическую обшивку, все остальные поверхности фюзеляжа обтягивались полотном. Крыло двухлонжеронное, получило довольно толстый профиль. Конструкция его выполнялась из дерева и полотна. Элероны на обеих поверхностях. Оперение обычного типа, с килем и стабилизатором. На поплавковых вариантах последних серий киль имел увеличенную площадь. Двигатель 8-цилиндровый, жидкостного охлаждения, рядный, V-образный "Кертисс" ОХ-5 (90л. с.). Выхлопные патрубки у первых машин были вдоль фюзеляжа, затем их направляли под нижнее крыло, у последних машин они выводились над верхним крылом и оборудовались дефлекторами. Радиаторы различного типа устанавливались либо перед кабиной, либо над крылом.
Шасси обычного типа, на V-образных стойках, со сплошной осью и резиновой шнуровой амортизацией. Поплавковые машины имели главный поплавок цельнодеревянной конструкции, подкрыльевые поплавки металлические цилиндрические.
JN-4 - учебный самолет, основа серийной машины.
JN-4A - массовая серия, сухопутный вариант с колесным шасси.
JN-4B - поплавковый вариант с тем же двигателем.
JN-4D - развитие JN-4B, выхлоп направлен над крылом, увеличен гаргрот, на винт установлен кок. Двигатель мощностью 100л. с.
JN-4E - сухопутный вариант JN-4D с тем же двигателем.
Кроме американского флота, закупившего 1926 машин "Дженни", эти машины поставлялись в Великобританию, а после войны и в другие европейские страны. Несколько машин участвовали в Гражданской войне в России в армии интервентов.
Показатель JN-4D, 1916г.
размах крыльев 16,25
максимальный взлетный 1088
Двигатель: "Кертисс" ОХ-5
число х мощность, л.с. 90
Скорость, км/ч 112
Дальность полета, км 300
Экипаж, чел. 2
P.Bowers Curtiss Aircraft 1907-1947 (Putnam)
The Curtiss Jenny, to apply the popular name to the entire production JN series, was a design that achieved immortality through circumstances rather than by the normal criteria of competitive performance or a spectacular combat record.
The long production life of this model, its step-by-step evolution, its status as the principal American and Canadian primary trainer of World War I, and its unique position in the early postwar years of American civil aviation justify the devotion of a separate section of this book to this particular design.
The JN series began with the merging of the better features of the J and N models of 1914 into a new design. The name Jenny was an entirely logical phonetic corruption of the model designation JN. By coincidence, it was also a name eminently suited to that particular aeroplane. As with boats, aeroplanes are regarded by their crews as having feminine characteristics and Jenny was exactly right for the personality of the aeroplane.
The N series continued to develop separately but the Model J was dropped in favor of the JN. There was no officially designated JN or JN-1 model. The first JNs were ordered by the US Army late in 1914 as Service observation types; however, their successors were trainers. It has been said that over 95 per cent of the US and Canadian pilots trained during World War I flew a JN in some phase of their training. The JN-4 series became Model 1 in the 1935 designation system starting with the JN-4A.
With a good tractor trainer in production in America, it was logical for Britain to order the same model for its rapidly-expanding war training programme. The relatively largescale production that followed naturally led to rapid step-by-step refinement of the basic design. By the time the United States entered World War I in April 1917, the Jenny had reached the JN-4D model. Thanks to increasing US and British military orders, plus sales to neutral nations and American private owners, the Curtiss JN-4 was built in greater numbers than any other American model up to the time the US entered the war. Increased demand from Britain resulted in the establishment of a Canadian subsidiary, Curtiss Aeroplane and Motors, Ltd, in Toronto. This plant built JN-3s for Britain prior to being taken over by the Canadian Government and being renamed Canadian Aeroplanes, Ltd. The Canadian-built JN-4s became known as Canucks to distinguish them from the American built Jennies.
When the build-up of American airpower began after the country entered the war, the JN-4 was the only proven domestic design ordered into immediate mass production. A total of 6,070 Jennies, JN-4 to JN-6H, was delivered to the US Army out of 7,166 ordered after April 1917. These orders were placed with Curtiss, which delivered 4,895, and with six other firms. While the US Navy acquired 134 Jennies during the war and others after, most of the Navy's were transferred from the Army and are presumed to be included in the Army figures.
The price of a Jenny dropped steadily as the production rate increased, but rose again when larger engines were installed. Also, costs were different for similar models built by different manufacturers in 1917-18. Direct cost comparisons between early and late models are invalid because the cost of the engines, instruments, and other government furnished equipment was not included in the contract price of Army aeroplanes ordered after the JN-4B.
The following JN-4 costs, taken from the Congressional Record, were established after the postwar investigation of aircraft procurement and the final settlement of the war contracts:
JN-4, 4A, 4B $8,160 (with engine, etc)
JN-4Can $4,250 (airframe only)
JN-4H, 6H $4,750
Contrary to current belief, the era of the cheap war-surplus aeroplane did not begin right after the war. The Army and Navy did not put their surplus aircraft on the open market immediately; instead, considering the condition of some of the machines, the government invited bids for their purchase from the manufacturers and other responsible organizations with overhaul and repair facilities. Under this arrangement, Curtiss bought $20,000,000 worth of aeroplanes and engines, mostly Jennies and OX-5s, for $2,700,000, or approximately 13 cents in the dollar.
Starting in mid-1919, Curtiss launched an advertizing campaign that emphasized the skillful factory reconditioning or overhaul of these aircraft that made them safe for public use. Jennies advertized as brand-new were sold by Curtiss for $4,000 late in 1919 and new OX-5 engines were priced at $1,000. Prices quoted by other organizations selling the same items were comparable or slightly lower.
The first JNs available to the American public from sources other than Curtiss were Canadian JN-4 Canucks exported from Canada by two firms, one was John Ericson, designer of the Canuck and the other was a new sales organization established after the war by the leading Canadian war aces William A. Bishop and William G. Barker. Late 1919 prices for Canucks in as-new condition were $2,600-$3,000.
Curtiss prices dropped only slightly in mid-1920, following largescale dumping efforts by firms disposing of British war surplus. Unused JN-4Ds were $3,250, rebuilds were $2,000 to $2,750, and Canucks reconditioned by Curtiss were $1,500. Rebuilt OX-5 engines were $750 and used OX-5 engines were $300 to $500 depending on condition. While the Jenny price was close to the original selling price, it was still relatively low compared to the only comparable postwar models then in production, the Curtiss Oriole at $8,000, down from $9,850, and the Laird Swallow at $6,500.
The day when an interested purchaser could go to a government warehouse and acquire a surplus Jenny for a few hundred dollars was still in the future and did not play a large part in the early postwar sales picture. Most of the surplus aeroplanes reached their first civilian operators through organizations that had bought in quantities with the intention of reselling. Toward the end of their days, Jennies were changing hands among the private owners for $500 to as little as $50.00. Unused OX-5s dropped to a standard price of $250 by 1928.
After the war, Jenny had two careers, one civil and one military. The military use resulted in additional designations being applied to existing aeroplanes, which are identified later in this section. The civil operations produced no new designations but did result in uses and configurations undreamed of by the original manufacturers. These two careers are described separately.
After the war the Army decided that the 90 hp Jennies were marginal even for primary training and quickly withdrew them from those military schools that were still in operation. The higher-powered JN-4H and JN-6H models with 150 hp American-built Hispano-Suiza engines were retained and few of these reached civil owners. Some 216 were transferred to or purchased by the Navy in the years 1920-23.
The Hisso Jennies remained the Army's principal primary trainer until new designs began to enter the inventory in 1925. Because funds were limited for new equipment but were available for maintenance and reconditioning, many JN-4H and 6H models were put through rebuilding programmes, conducted mainly at Army Air Depots that gave them the status of new aircraft even to the extent of sometimes receiving new Army serial numbers.
Basic differences between JN-4H and JN-6H models were eliminated during these programmes, from which they emerged with the new designation of JNS. This modification and rebuilding continued to the end of 1925, when the JNSs still formed the backbone of the National Guard Aviation Programme. The last US Army Jennies were withdrawn from service and scrapped in September 1927.
Jennies in the US Army inventory dropped from 3,285 in 1919 to 37 in 1927, their last year of service. The Navy, which had 76 in November 1919, ended 1926 with 22 examples on hand.
The most memorable reputation of the Jenny was earned at the hands of civil pilots in the years 1920-26. This was the Barnstorming period of American aviation. Former military pilots, as well as some who had learned to fly after the war, bought surplus trainers by the hundreds and set out through the country to earn money by carrying passengers, putting on aerial circuses and doing other work. Since the Jenny was the most plentiful of several similar surplus models available, this period has since been referred to as The Jenny Era. Certainly the first aeroplane that a large segment of the American public ever saw, or got close to, was a Curtiss Jenny. The term Barnstorming resulted from the close parallel between these gypsy fliers, moving from pasture to pasture in search of customers, and the old travelling theatrical troupes that held their performances in suitable barns along their route.
The Jenny, along with the similar Standard J-1, was the world's best stage for the wing-walker's act. It had a handy maze of struts, a straight-across axle between the wheels, wingtip skid bows, low airspeed, and most important, king-posts on top of the upper wing. Without these posts, moving from one aeroplane to another and most above-the-wing performances would have been impossible.
While systems of aircraft registration and airworthiness requirements were adopted by most aviation user nations in 1919, the United States did not sign the agreement. Consequently, there was no required licensing or inspection of American aircraft or pilots until 1927. Pilots who had just soloed could and did carry passengers for hire on their next flight, and in machines so decrepit that they well deserved the appellation of Crate that was frequently applied to them.
The owners had an absolutely free hand in the matter of structural modification, too, and many weird adulterations of the Jenny were to be seen. A popular one was the fitting of upper wing panels in place of the short-span lowers. This had its practical aspects; the attrition rate of lower wings in cow-pasture operations was considerable and sometimes caused local spares shortages. It was easy to reverse the strut fittings on an upper wing, add a set of struts to replace the overhang wires, and have a long-wing Jenny.
Recognizing the fact that most of the drag of the Jenny was in the wings, several small firms developed replacement wings in the early 1920s. Some of these were biplane sets that attached to the original fittings while using deeper-section aerofoils and fewer struts while others were parasol monoplane wings that were of necessity attached a little aft of the original upper wing position. Some owners took a course opposite to the Long Wing and clipped the overhang from the upper wing.
The Jenny Era began to wane in 1925, when efficient new production designs were finally able to get a foothold in the market that had long been dominated by the cheap war surplus types. The final blow was administered by the adoption of Federal licensing requirements for both aeroplanes and pilots at the beginning of 1927. The Jennies could not meet the new airworthiness requirements. Some did qualify individually for C licences while others continued to operate as unlicensed but legally registered aircraft. As the various States fell in line with the Federal regulations, the horizons of the Jenny became more and more limited until by 1930 it was downright illegal in almost every part of the country.
A handful pursued legal careers after that date in Hollywood, when they performed in period aviation films. Some of these were extensively modified to look like other models that were not available for film work.
The birth of the antique or vintage aeroplane movement in the 1950s led to a renewed life for the few surviving Jennies that were not in museums or still in the Hollywood Squadron. Four were known to be airworthy in 1976, more than half a century after the peak of Jenny production. Even though they are in far better condition now than when they were new, they are not used in the old Jenny role of trainer or sporting aeroplane; they operate under experimental licences primarily for exhibition purposes.
Starting with the JN-2, the Jennies are presented here in ascending order of JN designation concluding with the Twin JN and the JNS. Since performance of models with the OX engines is so similar, the technical data table for the JN-4D is representative of all.
JN-4 - The JN-4, virtually identical to the JN-3, appeared in July 1916. While some were used by the US Army for observation, most became trainers. Britain acquired approximately 105 JN-4s; others were sold to private owners and some equipped the Curtiss flying schools. At unit prices of $7,750, the US Army bought a total of 21 JN-4s on six contracts prior to US entry into the war in April 1917.
US Army serial numbers: 76/81, 120/125, 130/135, 318/319, 468, 2265, 2266, plus one unknown
RNAS serial numbers: 3424/3444, 8802/8880, 8901, N5670/5673
British records show a total of 160 mixed JN-3, JN-4 and JN-4A, transferred from the Royal Naval Air Service to the Royal Flying Corps. These got new RFC serial numbers as follows:
JN-3/JN-4 5404/5408, 5624/5639, 5722/5728, 5910/5915, 6121/6124, 7310, A614/625, A898/903, A1254/1260, A5160/5168, A5215/5224, A5492/5524
JN-4/JN-4A A5492/5496, B1910/1950
JN-4A (Model 1) - The JN-4A of November 1916 was a major refinement of the JNA initiated at British request that crystallized the Jenny configuration. Prominent external changes were new and enlarged tail surfaces, revised fuselage lines, six degrees downthrust for the OX-5 engine, four degrees dihedral for the wings instead of one, ailerons on both wings, and the trailing edge of the upper wing centre-section cut away to the rear spar. Two JN-4As (1262 and 1527) were fitted with 100hp Hall-ScottA-7A engines as prototypes for a re-engined series.
An estimated 87 JN-4As were built by Canadian Aeroplanes as part of US Army and British JN-4 contracts. Six hundred and one of the 781-unit JN-4A total went to the US Army for $4,753,874. The Navy acquired five.
Known US Army serial numbers: 1057/1656 (600),3925
Known Canadian serial numbers: C501/560 (60), C1015/1051 (37)
Known RNAS serial numbers: 8802/8901 (100)
Known RFC serial numbers: A4056/4060 (5)
US Navy serial numbers: A388, A389, A995/997 (5)
JN-4B (Model 1A) - The JN-4B was actually an earlier design than the JN-4A and introduced the revised fuselage and tail of the JN-4A. It had a level OX-2 engine, ailerons on upper wings only, and an uncut centre section. Introduced late in 1916, the JN-4B enjoyed brisk sales to civilians, and 76 went to the US Army for $8,000 each, including engine, propeller, and military equipment. Subsequent purchases were for airframes only, the government buying the engines, etc, separately. The US Navy acquired three direct from the factory and an additional six late in 1917 from the Curtiss Exhibition Company.
US Army serials: 141/176(36),229/264 (36), plus four in the 541/556 range.
US Navy serials: A157/159 (3), A4112/4117 (6)
JN-4C - Only two JN-4Cs were built as such by Curtiss. These were JN-4B airframes fitted with experimental wings using the RAF 6 aerofoil of the N-series in place of the JN's Eiffel 36. Both of these, fitted with Curtiss OXX-3 dual-ignition engines, went to the US Army in June 1917.
US Army serials: 471, 472
JN-4Can (Canuck) - The Canadian JN-4 evolved from the Canadian-built JN-3 independently of the Curtiss-built JN-4. Britain wanted more Canadian Curtiss trainers but was dissatisfied with certain features of the JN-3. The requested changes were made by F. G. Ericson, Chief Engineer of the newly-designated Canadian Aeroplanes Ltd, and the improved model, which flew in January 1917, was designated JN-4. Noticeable differences were a revised metal-frame empennage, strut-connected ailerons on both wings, and the use of stick for control instead of the JN-3's Deperdussin system.
Canadian JN-4 production was divided between Canada and the US Army, which acquired 680. Approximately 50 were transferred to the US Army from the winter flying schools that Canada had established in Texas in 1917. Some of these subsequently flew with a mixture of US and Canadian markings.
Because of their Canadian origin and certain structural and control system differences from the American built models, these were given the designation JN-4 (Can) when purchased by the US Army. In paperwork this was often (and incorrectly) shortened to JN-4C. However, the pilots and mechanics promptly named them Canucks and the distinction was retained by civil pilots in the postwar years.
The exact number of Canadian-built JN-4s is unknown because some unfinished Curtiss-built JN-4As were completed in Toronto and some Canadian wings were fitted to JN-4A fuselages in Canada. The accepted figure is 1,260 JN-4 aeroplanes delivered as such, to which should be added 87 JN-4As for a total of 1,347. The spare parts produced would raise the total to the equivalent of 1,611 complete aeroplanes.
A few Canucks remained in Canadian Air Force service into 1924 and surplus models served Canadian civil aviation into the 1930s. John Ericson sold approximately 120 reconditioned or assembled from spares up to 1927 and adapted some to three-seat Ericson Special Threes. Bishop-Barker sold approximately 42 Canucks and Hoffa Brothers of Vancouver converted a number to single-float seaplanes.
Canadian military serial numbers assigned to Canucks are: C-101/500 (400)***, C-501/1450* (950)***, C-1451-1500** (7)
* C-501/550 (50), C-1015/1051 (37) are reported as JN-4A
** C-1457 is highest number known to be built
*** 280 random numbers lo US Army
US Army serial numbers: 38533/38632 (100), 39062/39361 (300)
JN-4D (Model 1C) - The JN-4D was introduced in June 1917 and combined the stick control of the Canadian JN-4 with the lines and downthrust of the JN-4A. The prototype had ailerons on both wings but the production models had them on the upper wing only. A distinctive feature was the curved cut-outs of the inner trailing edges of all four wing panels.
Deliveries of 2,812 JN-4Ds to the US Army began in November 1917 and continued to January 1919. Surplus JN-4Ds were the principal JN-4 models that established The Jenny Era.
While some Army JN-4Ds were adapted to gunnery and bombing trainers, no designation changes were involved; the only designated JN-4D subtype was the JN-4D-2.
Since Curtiss could not fill the demand, Army contracts for JN-4Ds were given to six additional manufacturers, including the already-producing Canadian Aeroplanes, which delivered some JN-4Cans on JN-4D contracts. The following table shows orders, actual deliveries, and costs, and identifies the variously-built JN-4Ds by serial number.
Primary trainer. Two pilots. 90 hp Curtiss OX-5.
Span 43 ft 7 3/8 in (13,29 m); length 27 ft 4 in (8,33 m); height 9 ft 10 5/8 in (3,01 m); wing area 352 sq ft (32,7 sq m).
Empty weight 1,390 lb (630,49 kg); gross weight 1,920 lb (870,89 kg).
Maximum speed 75 mph (120,69 km/h); cruising speed 60 mph (96,55 km/h); climb to 2,000 ft (610 m) 7,5 min; service ceiling 6,500 ft (1,981 m).
Manufacturer Ordered Delivered Total cost Army serial numbers
Curtiss Aeroplane & 1,400 1,400 $4,417,337 2525/3924
Motor Corp 3 3 27,653 Navy A995/A997
1 1 - 12876
400* 1 4,015 47816
Fowler Airplane Corp, 50 50 $323,166 2405/2454
Liberty Iron Works, 100 100 $450,206 3976/4075
Sacramento 100 100 400,385 47415/47514
100 0 151,775
Springfield Aircraft Co. 400 400 $1,981,736 4976/5375
Springfield 275 185 1,086,402 44257/44531
St Louis Aircraft Co. 450 450 $2,137,500 33775/34224
St Louis 200 0
US Aircraft Corp, 50 50 $326,170 39868/39917
Howell & Lesser Co, 75 75 $300,000 47340/47414
San Franciseo 100 0 94,121
JN-4D-2 - At Army request, Curtiss made many minor structural and control system improvements on the JN-4D. The only noticeable outward change was elimination of the engine down-thrust. The first JN-4D-2, US Army serial number 47816, was delivered to Dayton for Army test in September 1918. Previously, orders totalling 1,100 production aircraft had been placed with the five firms then building JN-4Ds and were to follow them. All were cancelled at the Armistice before any but the first Curtiss example were built.
Curtiss marketed a few civil JN-4D-2s immediately after the war but ended production when the new Oriole became available early in 1919.
JN-4H (Model 1E) - As a wartime production expedient, the US Army decided to re-engine the JN-4D with a more powerful engine to make it an advanced trainer rather than develop entirely new models and then build new factories for their production.
The adaptation was easy for Curtiss, and the improved model was designated JN-4H, the suffix letter indicating the 150 hp Wright-built Hispano-Suiza engine instead of sequential sub-type development. Structural strengthening was undertaken, the fuel capacity was increased from 21 to 31 US gallons (79,5 to 117,3 litres), and a larger nose radiator resembling that of the N-9C was installed. Fuel capacity was increased further on some by converting the upper wing centre-section to an auxiliary tank. The delivery of 929 JN-4Hs to the Army, all built by Curtiss, began in January 1918 and continued until the Armistice. Special-purpose variants were as follows:
JN-4HT - Four hundred and two of the JN-4Hs were delivered as dual-control JN-4HT, but this proper designation was not normally used. The Navy acquired 203 from the War Department between 1918 and 1923.
US Army serial numbers: 37933/38332, plus two from 42122/42125
US Navy serial numbers: A3205/3234, A6193/6247, A627 1/6288
JN-4HB - Bomber trainer with flight controls in the front seat and fitted with racks for up to five 25-lb (11,3 kg) bombs under the fuselage. One hundred delivered from June 1918.
US Army serial numbers: 38433/38532
JN-4HG - Single-control gunnery trainer with either machine-guns or camera guns. The pilot's single Marlin machine-gun was synchronized to fire through the propeller are while his camera gun was often mounted on the top of the wing. The gunner-observer had the standard Scarff ring around the rear cockpit and one or two Lewis machine-guns or a camera gun. Delivery of 427 JN-4Hs to the Army began simultaneously with the JN-4HBs. The Navy got 90 of these in 1918 and assembled another from spares in 1923.
US Army serial numbers: 38333/38432 (100), 41411/41735 (325), plus two
US Navy serial numbers: A4128/4217 (90), A6545
Postwar Rebuilds - After the war, at least sixty JN-4Hs were rebuilt in Army depots as JN-4Hs and were given the following new Army serial numbers: 22-529/572 (44), 23-492,557,605/650 (46 mixed JN-4H, 6H) (23-605/625 (21), 631/636 (6) rebuilt again as JNS-1 with later serials), 937 (4H or 6H), 24-152/161 (10)
Gunnery trainer. Pilot and gunner. 150 hp Wright-Hispano A.
Span 43 ft 7 3/8 in (13,29 m); length 27 ft 4 in (8,33 m); height 9 ft 10 5/8 in (3,01 m); wing area 352 sq ft (32,7 sq m).
Empty weight 1,625 lb (737 kg): gross weight 2,269 lb (1,029 kg).
Maximum speed 91 mph (146,44 km/h); cruising speed 75 mph (120,69 km/h); climb to 2,000 ft (610 m) 3,3 min: service ceiling 7,500 ft (2,286 m).
Armament one fixed Marlin and one or two flexible Lewis machine-guns.
JN-5H - There were two short-term uses of the JN-5 designation. The first was an unofficial Curtiss designation for the model that came to be known as the Twin JN. The second was for an improvement of the JN-4H that would have sufficient speed and manoeuvrability to serve as a truly advanced trainer.
One JN-4H, Army serial number 38124, was taken from the Curtiss production line for conversion. Since this model was the subject of a separate contract, it was given the new serial number 41358. The aeroplane was inadvertently delivered with the JN-4H number painted on it.
As delivered in March 1918, the JN-5H had equal-span wings shortened to 30 ft (9,14 m) and a revised vertical tail shape. Two sets of wings, one with the RAF 15 aerofoil and one with the Eiffel 36, were supplied. The JN-5H was beaten by the Vought VE-7 in the fly-off competition, after which it was reconverted to JN-4H configuration and given its correct serial number.
Redesignated JN-4H, the former JN-5H served at McCook Field as a test bed, at one time being fitted with an experimental set of steel-frame wings (still with the JN-5 rudder) and later fitted with a 180 hp Wright-Hispano engine and a JN-4H rudder.
JN-6 (Model 1F) - The JN-6 designation was applied to improved versions of the special purpose JN-4H trainers instigated by the Army through the JN-5. Principal outward difference was the use of strut-connected ailerons on both wings. Altogether, 1,035 JN-6s were delivered to the Army by Curtiss. Navy records show five plain JN-6Hs transferred from the Army (Navy serial numbers A5830/5833, A5859). All Army models had the following sub-designations:
JN-6HB - Single-control bomber trainer. The first of 154 delivered from July 1918 had the R-type balanced rudder of the JN-5, all others were as JN-4H.
US Army serial numbers: 41736/41885 (150), 44243/44246 (4)
JN-6HG-1 - Dual-control gunnery trainers with a single flexible gun in the rear cockpit. Deliveries of 560 simultaneous with JN-6HB. Thirty-four went to the Navy.
US Army serial numbers: 44728/45287
US Navy serial numbers: Including A5470, A5471, A5581/5586
JN-6HG-2 - Single-control gunnery trainer with one gun each for pilot and gunner/observer. Delivery of 90 began in October 1918.
US Army serial numbers: 44153/44242
JN-6HO - Single-control observation trainer. Delivery of 106 simultaneous with JN-6HG-2.
US Army serial numbers: 41886/41985 (100), 49117/49122 (6)
JN-6HP - Single-control pursuit trainer. Delivery of 125 was simultaneous with JN-6HG-2 and HO.
US Army serial numbers: 41986/42110
Postwar Rebuilds - A number of JN-4Hs and JN-6Hs were rebuilt as such after the war in Army depots and were assigned the following new Army serial numbers: 23-554/556 (3), 23-605/650 (46 mixed JN-4H, 6H) (23-6051625 (21). 631/636 (6) rebuilt again as JNS-1 with later serials), 23-937 (IN-4H or 6H), 24-41/48 (8),164/180 (17),186/195 (10).
Gunnery trainer. Pilot and gunner. 150 hp Wrighl-Hispano A.
Span 43 ft 7 3/8 in (13,29 m); length 27 ft 4 in (8,33 m): height 9 ft 10 5/8 in (3,01 m): wing area 352 sq ft (32,7 sq m).
Empty weight 1.886 lb (855,47 kg); gross weight 2,580 lb (1170,26 kg).
Maximum speed 81 mph (130,35 km/h); cruising speed 65 mph (104,6 km/h): service ceiling 6,000 ft (1,829 m).
Armament - one fixed Marlin and one or two flexible Lewis machine-guns.
JNS - The JNS designation appeared in 1923 and was applied to obsolescent JN-4H and 6H models modified and rebuilt by US Army Air Service Depots until 1926. The letters stood for JN Standardized and were sometimes followed by the letters A, I, or E to indicate use of the 150 hp Wright A or I engines or the 180 hp Wright E. These were all American-built versions of the French Hispano-Suiza given letter designations after Wright-Martin was reorganized as Wright Aeronautical Corporation in 1919. Outwardly, the JNS was indistinguishable from the JN-6H except that it had ailerons on the upper wing only.
The total of 247 JNS aeroplanes derived by adding up known serial numbers is only an approximation since some were rebuilt a second time and acquired new serials while others became JNS without a change of Army serial. The last JNS models in US Army service were scrapped in September 1927.
US Army serial numbers: 23-473/480 (8), 485, 486, 488/490 (3), 493, 494, 532/551 (20); 24-57/49 (3), 92,93,101/108 (8),134,135,226,227,231/245 (15), 255/274 (20); 25-1/44 (44),53,56/68 (13), 74/77 (4), 84, 90,129,134/160 (27),165/200 (36), 447; 26-1,2,4/14 (11),16/20 (5), 22/28 (7), 31/35 (5).
G.Swanborough, P.Bowers United States Military Aircraft Since 1909 (Putnam)
The Curtiss Jennies
The word “Jenny” (or “Jennie”) is one of those entirely unofficial names applied to a particular aeroplane design that was so suited to the subject that it virtually replaced the regular model designation. The name was a logical derivation of the factory model designation JN, itself the result of combining the best structural features of two earlier models, the J and the N. The slurring of the two separate letters into a single feminine name was inevitable. The remarkable double career of the JN series, one as a World War I trainer and the other as a post-war barnstorming/air-show/private owner type, has made the Jenny one of the most widely known “name” aeroplanes in America. Extensive use of the surplus military model in postwar years gave its name to the entire era to such an extent that there is a tendency today to refer to other contemporary designs as Jennies.
The Jenny originated in England, when Glenn Curtiss hired B. Douglas Thomas, then an engineer at Sopwith, to design a tractor biplane along lines then becoming standardized in England. Thomas completed most of the J design there. The J design was combined with the N early in its career to produce the JN line, but separate development of the N continued to N-9, the last procured by the Army (see page 471) and N-10 for the Navy. The Army evaluated a single JN in 1914 and the first quantity order was for 10 JN-2s with the old Curtiss shoulder-yoke aileron control, in 1915.
Large-scale Jenny procurement began with 94 wheel-control JN-4s in 1916, which were used both as trainers and as observation types on the Mexican Border during General Pershing’s punitive campaign against the bandit Pancho Villa. The JN-4, with ailerons only on the upper wing, was practically identical to the N-8 except for the airfoil section and control system. Curtiss also supplied JN-3s and 4s to England as trainers before the United States entered World War I.
American participation in the War standardized the Curtiss JN-4 series, and the equivalent Standard Aircraft Corporation SJ and J models, as the principal Army primary trainers. Improved Jenny versions with redesigned tails were tested and procured as JN-4A and B but major procurement concentrated on the JN-4D. Powered like its predecessors with the 90 h.p. Curtiss OX-5 engine but featuring stick control instead of the “Dep” wheel control, the JN-4D also had large distinguishing cut-outs in the wings at the fuselage.
Curtiss built 1,412 JN-4A through D and the single JN-4D-2 prototype, while 1,310 Ds were built by six other firms. The JN-4D-2 featured minor refinements and the prototype was outwardly indistinguishable from the Standard D. The 100 production D-2s built by Liberty Iron Works were conspicuous in not having the downward tilt to the engine that was a feature of the JN-4A and D. A Canadian version of the basic JN-4 was built by Canadian Aeroplane Corporation of Toronto, 680 of which were procured by the Army as JN-4Can (for “Canadian”). These were universally referred to as “Canucks” to designate their Canadian origin, and had rounded tail surfaces similar to the original JN-4, stick control, ailerons on both wings, and the engine was installed with the thrust line level.
Curtiss records list only two JN-4Cs built as experimental models with R.A.F. 6 airfoil, but Army records show 276, with different serial numbers from the “Canucks”, on the Air Service inventory in 1919. Several dozen additional “Canucks” with R.C.A.F. serial numbers were absorbed into the U.S. Air Service from Canadian winter flying schools established in Texas.
The next Jenny variant was the JN-4H, an advanced trainer. The “FI” indicated a 150 or 180 h.p. Wright-built Hispano Suiza engine substituted for the OX and did not continue the earlier alphabetical sequence of development. Increased fuel capacity resulted in thickening of the upper wing centre section to accommodate a supplementary fuel tank.
Supplementary designations were applied for specialized use; JN-4HB bomber trainer, JN-4HO observation trainer, and JN-4HG and JN-4HG-2 for one- and two-gun gunnery trainers.
The Army converted one JN-4H (41358) to a prototype bomber trainer under the unofficial designation of JN-5 after installing Curtiss Model R vertical tail surfaces to provide control at the higher gross weight. Curtiss then built 1,035 production versions as JN-6H, the first ones with the R tail but the rest with regular JN-4D/H tails. The special JN-4H designations also applied to JN-6s and were expanded to include the JN-6HP pursuit trainer. Principal JN-6 recognition feature over the JN-4H was the use of ailerons on both upper and lower wings and lower wingtip matching the shape of the upper.
The OX-powered Jennies were declared surplus after World War I and were snapped up by the hundreds by civil owners at prices that dropped as low as $50. The Hispano-powered -4s and -6s remaining in Army service went through various modification programmes and emerged as Model JNS for “JN Standardized”. A few even acquired steel tube fuselages, and the S in the designation was sometimes taken to mean steel. Suffix letters were added to designate the power plant, as JNS-E for those powered with the 180 h.p. Wright-Hispano E. Many were powered with the 150 h.p. Wright-Hispano I, which was misread as the figure One and resulted in the aeroplanes sometimes being called JNS-one’s on those occasions when they were not “Hisso Jennies”. Service modification of the JNs continued as late as 1925, with fiscal serials being assigned. The last Army Jennies, then in use by National Guard Units, were withdrawn from service and scrapped in September, 1927.
TECHNICAL DATA (JENNY)
MANUFACTURER: Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Co., Inc., Garden City, N.J. TYPE: Trainer.
ACCOMMODATION: Pupil and instructor in tandem open cockpits.
POWER PLANT: (JN-4D) 90 h.p. Curtiss OX-5; (JN-4H, JN-6) 150 h.p. Wright- Hispano A.
DIMENSIONS: Span, 43 ft. 7f in. Length 27 ft. 4 in. Height 9 ft. 10f in. Wing area 352 sq. ft.
WEIGHTS: Empty (4D) 1,580 lb.; (4H) 1,595 lb.; (6H) 1,797 lb. Gross (4D) 2,130 lb.; (4H) 2,150 lb.; (6H) 2,687 lb.
PERFORMANCE: Max. speed (4D) 75 m.p.h.; (6H) 79-2 m.p.h. Climb, 3,000 ft. in 10 min. Service ceiling (4H) 8,000 ft.; (6H) 5,700 ft. Range, 250 st. miles. ARMAMENT: None.
JN-4: 79-81; 116-125; 130-136; 230-264; 408-461; 682-699; 731-991.
JN-4A: 1059-1136; 1213-1282.
JN-4C: 1200-1212; 1301-1309.
JN-4CAN: 38536/38586; 39155/39193; 39227/39267; 39314/39352; 39868/39906. JN-4D: 1283-1647; 2405-4075; 4976-5293; 24056-25087; 29105-29210; 33775-34220; 37999-38188; 39868-39869; 39913; 44262-44594; 47340-47576.
JN-4H: 37933; 38013-38079; 38132-38530; 41358; 41412-41724; 41915-41976; 42047- 42122.
JN-6H: 41725-41914; 41977-42046; 42391; 44153-44246; 44729-44885; 45000-45287; 49117-49122.
G.Swanborough, P.Bowers United States Navy Aircraft Since 1911 (Putnam)
Curtiss JN Series
The Curtiss JNs, particularly the JN-4 model, are widely known throughout the world as the Jenny, a logical expression of the model designation JN, which covered the result of combining the best features of the Curtiss Models J and N. In addition to being the most widely used trainers of the US Army and the Royal Canadian Air Force in World War I, the Jenny and its Canadian equivalent, the Canuck, embarked upon an entirely new career in the post-war years when cheap war-surplus models came into the hands of private owners. While over 4,000 aircraft in the JN series were built, with most going to the US Army, the RCAF and the RAF, a respectable number, 261, was used by the US Navy from 1916 until the early 1920s.
The design originated in England. B. Douglas Thomas, who had been an engineer with Avro and later with Sopwith, was engaged by Glenn Curtiss while still in England to develop a new tractor-type trainer to replace the Curtiss pushers that were then finding great disfavour with both the US Army and Navy training schools. Since Europe had the lead in tractor design at the time, Curtiss sought to save valuable time by hiring an engineer already experienced in this layout, which was as yet unfamiliar to American practice. Thomas's design became the Model J, an equal-span biplane built in the Curtiss plant at Hammondsport, New York. Initial flights were made with the fuselage uncovered. This design was tried both as a landplane and a single-float seaplane. A very similar Model N, differing mainly in the aerofoil used, followed. The J design was discontinued upon development of the JN, but the N model remained in production and was developed to the N-9 by war's end. Some of the Navy JN-4s were obtained on direct purchase from Curtiss, but others were obtained by exchanges of aircraft with the US Army, which had occasion to use aircraft developed originally for the Navy.
The first Navy JN was an oddity, compared with the rest of the line, in that it was a twin-engine design using major JN components. Rather than being given an entirely new model designation by the manufacturer, it was simply called Twin JN; the Navy serial number was A93. This was evaluated as a landplane and as a twin-float seaplane, but was not ordered into production for the Navy, although the Army used a total of ten.
The first genuine Navy Jennies were two JN-1Ws (A149, A150), single-float seaplane versions of the Army JN-1. In spite of the relatively modern lines of this model compared with the open-air Curtiss pushers that it replaced, the old shoulder-yoke type of aileron control was retained. This survived in the contemporary N series through the N-8. One additional JN-1 (A198), fitted out as a gunnery trainer, was obtained later.
Subsequent procurement of Navy Jennies was not in strict sequence of model development, due partly to the exchanges with the Army. Three JN-4Bs, late 1916 versions of the JN-1 but fitted with improved vertical tail surfaces and the wheel-type Deperdussin control, were obtained ahead of five JN-4As. These were followed by six additional JN-4Bs in 1918.
A major design change took place with the JN-4H, an advanced trainer fitted with the 150 hp Wright-Hispano engine, popularly called the Hisso. The letter H in the designation identified the engine and was not a reflection of model development. Thirty of the Hs were procured for advanced pilot training in 1918 and were followed by 90 gunnery trainers designated JN-4HG. Further minor changes resulted in the JN-6, which could be distinguished from the JN-4H mainly in being fitted with ailerons on both wings. A total of ten was procured, some of which were designated JN-6HG-I to identify them as gunnery trainers powered with the 150 hp Wright-Hispano Model I engine. Frequently this latter designation is misquoted as JN-6HG-1.
Procurement continued into the early post-war years, an additional 113 JN-4H landplane trainers being used by the Navy and Marines.
TECHNICAL DATA (JN-4H)
Manufacturer: Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Co, Inc, Garden City, LI, and Buffalo, NY.
Accommodation: Two in tandem.
Power plant: One 150 hp Wright-Hispano.
Dimensions: Span, 43 ft 7 3/8 in; length, 27 ft 4 in; height, 9 ft 10 1/2 in; wing area, 352.6 sq ft.
Weights: Empty, 1,467 lb; gross, 2,017 lb.
Pelformance: Max speed, 93 mph at sea level; climb, 10 min to 4,350 ft; service ceiling, 10,525 ft; range, 268 st miles.
JN-4A: A388; A389; A995-A997.
JN-4B: A157-A159; A4l12-A4117.
JN-4H: A3205-A3234; A6193-A6247; A6271-A6288.
JN-6H: A5470-A5471; A5581-A5586; A5859.
O.Thetford British Naval Aircraft since 1912 (Putnam)
The celebrated 'Jenny' trainer, used both by the RFC and RNAS. The Admiralty ordered 250, but only 80 entered service with the RNAS. One hundred were transferred to the RFC and 70 were not delivered. The RNAS trainers were allotted the serial numbers 3424-3444, 8802-8880, 8901 and N5670-5673. One 90 hp Curtiss OX-2 engine. Loaded weight. 2,130 lb. Maximum speed, 70 mph at 6,500 ft. Climb, 10 min to 3,000 ft. Span, 43 ft 9 in. Length, 27 ft 4 in. The JN-4A illustrated had increased dihedral (4 deg) over the original JN-4.
R.Mikesh, A.Shorzoe Japanese Aircraft, 1910-1941 (Putnam)
Oguri-Curtiss Jenny Trainer
Oguri contracted with the Akabane Aeroplane Manufacturing Works at Kishi Airfield, to build him an aeroplane from parts of the Curtiss JN-4 Jenny, presumably a Canadian-built Canuck, he had acquired in the United States. When completed, it was flown at the Susaki reclaimed ground in Tokyo on 26 December, 1919. It performed well, demonstrating its aerobatic qualities, including loops.
With this aeroplane, Oguri established the Oguri Flying School at Susaki in June 1920. To distinguish his aeroplane from other competing fliers, he painted on it a black-cat insignia, basing it on one he had seen on aeroplanes in the United States. In Japan, he was often referred to as 'the American-minded pilot.' He made his flying activities as visible as possible by practices such as special crosscountry flights including Tokyo to Shizuoka, 100 miles to the southwest, and generally catering to female passengers. He lost his aeroplane, however, in a crash in which he was injured, while giving a flight to a geisha. While seated in the pupil's cockpit she became frightened, clung to the control column and caused Oguri to lose control of the aeroplane.
Single-engine biplane trainer. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pupil and instructor in open cockpits.
90hp Curtiss OX-5 eight-cylinder water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span, upper 14.55m (47ft 9in), lower 11.32m (37ft 1 3/4in); length 8.11 m (26ft 7 1/4in); height 3.31m (10ft 10 1/4in).
Empty weight 711kg (1,567lb); loaded weight 975kg (2, 149Ib).
Maximum speed 65kt (75mph); landing speed 39kt (45mph); service ceiling 3,300m (10,826ft).
One built in December 1919.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919
CURTISS MODEL J.N.4D.2 TRACTOR.
Wing span, upper plane 43 ft 7 3/5 in.
Wing span, lower plane 33 ft. 11 1/4 in.
Depth of wing chord 59 1/2 in.
Gap between wings 61 1/4 in
Stagger 16 in.
Length of machine overall 27 ft. 4 in.
Height of machine overall 9 ft. 10 5/8 in.
Angle of incidence 2 degrees.
Dihedral angle 1 degree.
Sweepback 0 degree.
Wing curve Eiffel No. 6.
Horizontal stabilizer -
angle of incidence 0 degrees.
Wings, upper 167.94 sq. ft.
Wings, lower 149.42 sq. ft.
Ailerons, upper 35.2 sq. ft.
Horizontal stabilizer 28.7 sq. ft.
Vortical stabilizer 3.8 sq. ft
Elevators (each 11 sq. ft.) 22 sq. ft.
Rudder 12 sq. ft.
Total supporting surface 352.56 sq. ft.
Loading (weight earned per sq. ft.
of supporting surface) 6.04 lbs.
Loading (per r.h.p.) 23.65 lbs.
Net weight, machine empty 1,580 lbs.
Gross weight, machine and load 2,130 lbs.
Useful load 550 lbs.
Fuel 130 lbs.
Oil 38 lbs.
Pilot 165 lbs.
Passenger and other load 217 lbs.
Total 550 lbs.
Speed, max. (horizontal flight) 75 m.p.h.
Speed, min. (horizontal flight) 45 m.p.h.
Climbing speed 3.000 ft. in 10 mins.
Model O.X. 8-cylinder, Vee. Four-stroke cycle. Water cooled
Horse power (rated) at 1400 r.p.m. 90
Weight per rated h.p. 4.33 lbs.
Bore and stroke 4 in. x 5 in.
Fuel consumption per hour 9 galls
Fuel tank capacity 21 galls.
Oil capacity provided (crankcase) 4 galls.
Fuel consumption per b.h.p 0.60 lbs. per hour.
Oil consumption per b.h.p. 0.030 1bs. per hour.
Material. - Wood.
Pitch. - According to requirements of performance.
Diameter. - According to requirements of performance.
Direction of rotation, viewed from pilot's seat. - Clockwise.
One gasoline tank located in fuselage.
Tail skid independent of tail post.
Landing gear wheel, size 26 in. x 4 in.
Standard Equipment. - Tachometer, oil gauge, gasoline gauge, complete set of tools.
Other equipment on special order.
At economic speed, about 250 miles.
Dimensions: 34ft. 6in., x 5ft. 3in. x 3 ft. 1 in.;
gross weight, 2,380 lbs.
Dimensions: 20ft, 9in. X 5ft. 8in. x 3ft.;
gross weight. 1.450 lbs.
Flight, January 17, 1918.
AN AUSTRALIAN RECORD FLIGHT.
SOME very fine performances were put up in Australia in November last by Lieut. W. J. Stutt, who will be remembered by our readers as a Bristol pilot previous to the war, and is now at the State Aviation School. On his Curtiss biplane, he flew from the Richmond school near Sydney, N.S.W., to Point Cook near Melbourne, Victoria, covering the journey of 600 miles in 9 hours 32 minutes, his best non-stop being 263 miles in 3 hours 37 minutes. He improved on this considerably on the return journey, for which his total time was 7 hours 20 minutes. He had one stop of 1 hour 17 minutes at Cootamundra - and his best non-stop run was 342 miles in 4 hours 10 minutes, averaging 82 miles an hour. This is a record for Australia. Lieut. Stutt is the first aviator to fly between Melbourne and Sydney in one day. During the return journey he encountered very bad weather, and after passing Goulburn was driven out to sea by a rainstorm. A passenger was carried during the first part of the journey, but Lieut. Stutt flew alone for the concluding stage, as the engine was not running at its best. Point Cook was left at 5.53 a.m., Cootamundra reached at 10.3 a.m., and left at 11.20, the machine finally landing at Richmond at 2.30 p.m.