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Bristol Military type

Страна: Великобритания

Год: 1911


Bristol - Bristol-Voisin - 1911 - Великобритания<– –>Bristol - monoplane - 1911 - Великобритания

В.Шавров История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.

"Фарман-Бристоль" (биплан "Бристоль" военного типа, "Фарман-5"). Это - увеличенная английская копия самолета "Фарман-IV" с небольшими усовершенствованиями, тщательно выполненная. Двигатель - "Гном" в 70 л. с. Самолет был приобретен у английской фирмы Бристоль в 8 экземплярах для Гатчинской и Севастопольской школ, где и применялся в 1911 - 1913 гг.

C.Barnes Bristol Aircraft since 1910 (Putnam)

The Bristol Boxkite

   The Bristol biplane of 1910, familiarly but inaccurately dubbed 'the Boxkite', was an unashamed copy of the Henri Farman, using the same dimensions and scantlings, but introducing the more refined metal fittings, such as steel clips and cast aluminium strut sockets, of Zodiac practice. The quality of French-built Farmans was somewhat variable, but the Bristol biplane, though similar in general appearance, was equivalent to or better than the best that France had produced at that time. Indeed when the solicitors for Farman Freres proposed to sue the 'Bristol' Directors for infringement of patents, the Directors immediately entered a defence claiming substantial improvements, and no court proceedings ensued. The first two Boxkites were constructed at Filton to drawings made by George Challenger in June 1910, immediately after the abandonment of the Zodiac. They differed from all later Boxkites in having rear elevators with straight trailing edges and in having two, instead of one, intermediate vertical struts between each pair of upper and lower front booms. No. 7 was at first fitted with a 50 h.p. Gregoire four-cylinder engine and No.8 with a 50 h.p. eight-cylinder E.N.V., both being watercooled. A further point of difference was that No.8 had double-surfaced wings whereas No. 7 had a single fabric covering with pockets enclosing the ribs; the latter was standard Farman practice and was adopted on all later Bristol Boxkites, mainly to save weight. The Gregoire was unreliable and deficient in power, so Emile Stern's success in obtaining one of the first 50 h.p. Gnome rotaries released for export was particularly valuable. Fitted with this engine, No.7 was taken to Larkhill on 29 July 1910, assembled overnight, and flown the next day to a height of 150 ft. at the first attempt by Edmond, to the astonishment of beholders who had taken up prone positions on the ground in order to detect the first glimmer of daylight between the grass and the wheels.
   With the efficiency of the design thus spectacularly confirmed, the two Boxkites were crated and dispatched to Lanark, where a six-day aviation meeting opened on 6 August at the race course. Only No.7 took part in any events, which Edmond completed without incident but with only one award, the second prize for the slowest lap, in which his speed was 45 m.p.h. Meanwhile, more Boxkites were laid down at Filton and Nos. 7 and 8 were allocated as initial equipment of the flying schools at Brooklands and Larkhill, respectively; No.8 retained the Lanark competition number 19 on its rudders for some months. As new aircraft were completed, the schools' complement was doubled, Larkhill receiving No. 9 in September and Brooklands No. 11 in November. Captain Dickson flew No.9 in the army autumn manceuvres in September and Lt. Loraine accompanied him on No.8, which had been equipped with a Thorne-Baker wireless transmitter. Nos. 10 and 12 were specially prepared for the Missions to Australia and India, respectively, the latter being the first to have upper wing extensions. The next two, Nos. 12A and 14 (No. 13 being unacceptable to any pilot of that date!) were flown from Durdham Down in the first public demonstration of the Company's activities; when these ended No. 12A was lent to Oscar Morison, who flew it in various demonstrations and competitions; No. 14 went on to Larkhill as a school aircraft, releasing No.9 for duty as the spare for the Indian Mission. Two further new Boxkites, Nos. 15 and 16, went to Brooklands, whence No. 11 was brought back for overhaul and packing as the spare for the Australian Mission. No. 16 was fitted with extended wings and a 60 h.p. E.N.V. water-cooled engine; the latter made it technically an 'All British' aeroplane for competition purposes, and thus it became the mount on which Howard Pixton, with Charles Briginshaw as mechanic, won the Manville Prize of ?500 for the highest aggregate time flown on nine specified days in 1911.
   Both the Australian and Indian Missions arrived at their destinations in December, and on 6 January 1911 Jullerot demonstrated No. 12 before a Vice-regal party and a large crowd of spectators at the Calcutta Maidan. Invited to participate in the Deccan cavalry manceuvres, Jul1erot made several flights from Aurangabad, from 16 January onwards, carrying Capt. Sefton Brancker as army observer, and later took part in the Northern Manceuvres at Karghpur. Here conditions were very severe and both No. 12 and No.9 came to grief on the rock-strewn terrain, with a ground temperature of 100°F, but many flights were made and repairs kept pace with damage. When all the spares were used up, No. 9 was cannibalised to keep No. 12 flying and the latter survived to return to Larkhill as a school machine, being flown by many notable pupils, including Robert Smith-Barry, who was charged ?15 in October 1911 for repairs after a heavy landing on it.
   In Australia, Hammond began flying on No. 10 at Perth late in December, going on to Melbourne, where 32 flights, many with passengers, were made. The Mission then moved to Sydney, whence Hammond went home to New Zealand leaving Macdonald as sole pilot. By 19 May 1911,72 flights totaling 765 miles had been completed without having had to replace a single bqlt or wire on No. 10. The spare machine, No. 11, still in its packing case, was sold to W. E. Hart, of Penrith, N.S.W., together with the unused spares, when the Mission left to return to England. Although this was the only direct sale made by both Missions, the Boxkite had by now begun to attract foreign buyers. The outcome of negotiations with the Russian Attache in Paris, William Rebikoff, was the first Government contract in the world for British aeroplanes, signed on 15 November 1910 for the supply of eight improved Boxkites having enlarged tanks and three rudders, which were called the Military model. The first three of these, Nos. 17, 18 and 19, were at first flown with 50 h.p. Gnomes, although 70 h.p. Gnomes had been specified for delivery in April 1911, when they were to become available. Meanwhile, No. 16, brought up to Military standard with three rudders but retaining its E.N.V. engine, was lent to Claude Grahame-White for an attempt to win the prize of ?4,000 offered by Baron de Forest for a flight from England to the most distant point along the Continental coast. No. 16 was damaged by a storm while waiting to take off from Swingate Downs, Dover, but was repaired in time for a second attempt on 18 December 1910, when Grahame-White was caught by a down-gust at the cliff-edge and crashed. No. 17, which was at Brooklands, was at once dispatched as a replacement, but caught fire soon after arrival at Dover, and Grahame-White then retired from the contest on his doctor's advice. Lt. Loraine had also entered the competition, flying No.8, but this too was badly damaged in the storm; No. 16 was eventually rebuilt and flown again at Brooklands. In April Nos. 18 and 19 were shipped to St. Petersburg together with Nos. 20 to 25 inclusive, after installation of 70 h.p. Gnome engines, but were later exchanged for two new machines, Nos. 26 and 30, in July 1911. No. 18 was damaged in transit back to Filton and written off, but No. 19 survived at Larkhill until May 1913, when it was dismantled and reconstructed as No. 134, which in turn was crashed at the Brooklands school in November 1913.
   Still no contract came from the British War Office, and the next two Boxkites, Nos. 27 and 28, were standard school machines bought by the Belgian pilot Joseph Christiaens, who chose them for his flying displays in Malaya and South Africa. He took delivery of them on 19 January 1911, and after successful flights at Singapore on No. 27 went on to Cape Town and Pretoria, where he sold No. 28 to John Weston, who became the Company's agent in South Africa. A further school machine, No. 29, was sent to Brooklands in February 1911 and then two special exhibition models were built, having 70 h.p. Gnome engines, enclosed nacelles and increased span. The first, No. 31, was exhibited at Olympia in March 1911, and the second, No. 32, at St. Petersburg in April. The latter was inspected by the Czar and so impressed his military advisers that a gold medal and certificate of merit were awarded to the Company; and No. 32 was purchased in addition to the eight already ordered.
   The War Office at last placed a contract, on 14 March 1911, for four Military Boxkites with 50 h.p. Gnomes as described in a specification submitted on 20 October 1910. Meanwhile Oscar Morison had damaged No. l2A while giving exhibition flights at Brighton, and No. 34 was taken from the production line to replace it. The first two War Office machines, Nos. 37 and 38, were delivered at Larkhill on 18 and 25 May, respectively, but then the War Office asked for the other two to be supplied with 60 h.p. Renault engines for comparison. This required a redesign of the engine mounting and carlingue, which resulted in a substantial nacelle structure in front of the pilot. No. 39, thus modified, was delivered at Larkhill on 9 July, by which time four more had been ordered, two with 50 h.p. Gnomes and two as spare airframes without engines. The latter (Nos. 40 and 41) were dispatched on 31 July, the second Renault machine (No. 42) on 2 August and the remaining Gnome machines (Nos. 48 and 49) during the subsequent fortnight. Nos. 43 and 47 were standard school Boxkites, the first being supplied to Larkhill while the second was taken to France by Versepuy when he returned in September 1911; he demonstrated it at Issy-les-Moulineaux and Vichy, where his mechanic was George Little; subsequently he sold it to the Bulgarian Government, to be flown by Lt. Loultchieff.
   By this time the Boxkite production line had become well established and continued, mainly to supply wastage at the various schools, until 1914. In the standard models the wing extensions were retained but the third rudder was deleted. Strict interchangeability of components was maintained, and many later school machines incorporated serviceable parts from earlier aircraft. The 50 h.p. Gnome remained as the standard power unit except for No. 60 and No. 139, which had 70 h.p. Gnomes. The latter machine was supplied to R.N.A.S. Eastchurch in April 1913, receiving Naval serial no. 35, and was standard except for the engine, but No. 60 was similar to Nos. 31 and 32 with an enclosed nacelle, also incorporating longitudinal tanks and a push-pull handwheel control instead of the simple control-stick; this was demonstrated at Cuatros Vientos by Busteed in November 1911 and purchased soon afterwards by the Spanish Government, who ordered a similar spare airframe (No. 79) in which they fitted one of their own 70 h.p. Gnomes. Including rebuilds which received new sequence numbers, the total number of Boxkites built was 76, all at Filton except for the final six (Nos. 394-399), which were the first aeroplanes constructed at the Tramways Company's Brislington works. Although underpowered and out-dated at the end of their career, they survived mishandling often to the point of demolition, but the pupils emerged more or less unscathed and the mechanics performed daily miracles of reconstruction, so that school machines were constantly reappearing Phoenix-like from their own wreckage. Apart from the nine exported to Russia, three were sold to South Africa, two each to Australia, Germany and Spain, and one each to Bulgaria, India, Rumania and Sweden.
   In addition to the Boxkite proper, there were two variants, both for competition work. The first of these was No. 44, which had wings of much reduced span and a small single-seat nacelle. This was for Maurice Tetard in the Circuit de l'Europe (racing no. 3) and was first flown on 30 May 1911; in the race it developed engine trouble and Tetard retired at Rheims, half-way through the first stage. The other was No. 69 and was a redesign in November 1911 by Gabriel Voisin using standard wings, but with the gap reduced and the front elevator and booms deleted; a single large tail plane and a single rudder replaced the normal biplane tail unit. It was sent to Larkhill for tests in February 1912. No photograph of this machine has survived and it was apparently soon rebuilt as a standard school Boxkite, in which form it was crashed at Larkhill by Major Forman on 3 November 1912.


   Type: Bristol Biplane (Boxkite)
   Manufacturers: The British & Colonial Aeroplane Co. Ltd., Filton and Brislington, Bristol
   Power Plant:
   One 50 hp Gregoire
   One 50/60 hp E.N.V.
   One 50 hp Gnome
   One 60 hp Renault
   One 70 hp Gnome

Model Standard Extended Racer Voisin
   (Military) No. 44 No. 69
Span 34 ft 6 in 47 ft 8 in or 35 ft 32 ft 8 in
   46 ft 6 in
Length 38 ft 6 in 38 ft 6 in 38 ft 30 ft 9 in
Height 11 ft 10 in 11 ft 10 in 11 ft 10 in 9 ft 6 in
Wing Area 457 sq ft 517 sq ft 350 sq ft 420 sq ft
Empty Weight 800 lb 900 lb 800 lb 800 lb
All-up Weight 1,050 lb 1,150 lb 1,000 lb 1,000 lb
Speed 40 mph 40 mph 50 mph 50 mph
Accommodation 2 2 1 2
Production 15 61 1 1
Sequence Nos. 7-11 12A 12 15-32 44 69
   14 34 43 37-42 47
   49 55 62 48 60 67
   63 65 66 79 93 99
   119 124-129
   133-139 179
   180 203
   204 207
   222 226
   231 347

M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)

Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing

J.Bruce British Aeroplanes 1914-1918 (Putnam)

Bristol Box-kite

  THE greater part of the Bristol Box-kite’s history falls within the period before the outbreak of the 1914-18 war, yet the last contract for the type was placed by the Admiralty as late as September 26th, 1914, and one was still flying at the Australian Flying Corps School at Point Cook in October, 1915. The machine served during the war period, and therefore deserves a place in this history; but an equally strong claim for the inclusion of the Box-kite could be based on the fact that, of the four serviceable aeroplanes possessed by the R.F.C. on its formation in May, 1912, two were Bristol Box-kites.
  The first true Bristol Box-kite appeared in June, 1910, and bore the British & Colonial Aeroplane Company’s works number 7. It was designed by G. H. Challenger after the company’s licence-built Zodiac biplane proved to be a failure. This machine began life with a 50 h.p. Gregoire engine, but was later converted to take the 50 h.p. Gnome rotary for use at the Bristol company’s flying school at Brooklands. The type owed a good deal to contemporary Farman designs. It was a typical primitive biplane with forward elevator and exposed pilot. Some later machines had a rudimentary nacelle, but all were characterized by the inevitable maze of bracing wires.
  Two Bristol Box-kites participated in the Army manoeuvres of September, 1910, with great success. They were flown by Robert Loraine and Captain Bertram Dickson. Loraine’s machine had a 50 h.p. E.N.V. engine, and had a primitive wireless transmitting set on board, from which messages were transmitted while the Box-kite was airborne. These messages were received at a range of up to one mile. Captain Dickson’s Box-kite, which was Bristol No. 9, was specially modified for weight-carrying. Detachable extensions were fitted to the upper mainplanes, and the fuel tanks were larger than those of earlier models.
  Considerable numbers of Box-kites were made, normally with the 50 h.p. Gnome, but other types of engine were fitted. From the modified Box-kite built for Captain Dickson was developed the Military type, strengthened and with a third central rudder in the tail unit. The Military type was the subject of the first contract placed by any government for a quantity of aeroplanes: eight machines, powered by the 70 h.p. Gnome, were supplied to the Russian Government in February, 1911. Two months later the first Military Box-kite for the British Army Air Battalion was delivered, followed later by five further complete machines and two spare “fuselage” structures. Two of these Box-kites had 60 h.p. Renault engines.
  The first Box-kite to have the small nacelle for pilot and passenger was Bristol No. 31, which was exhibited at the 1911 Aero Show at Olympia. A similar machine Was shown at the Russian Aeronautical Exhibition held at St Petersburg at the end of April, 1911; it was bought by the Russians as an addition to the eight already on order. When delivered, all the Russian machines had small nacelles. They were tested in England by Captain Dimitri Alexandrov of the Russian Army. The Box-kite proved to be eminently suitable for elementary flying training, and was used at the Bristol company’s flying schools at Larkhill and Brooklands, where many men who were later to win distinction in the field of aviation “took their tickets” on the type. Various examples went to India, Spain, Singapore, Pretoria, Bulgaria, Australia and Germany. One of the machines sent to Germany was a sample for the Deutsche Bristol-Werke: this concern, after the inevitable severing from its parent firm upon the outbreak of war, produced the well-known Halberstadt designs which provided later Bristol products with targets.
  The six Box-kites ordered by the Admiralty in September, 1914, went to R.N.A.S. flying schools at Hendon and Eastchurch, and survived until about May of the following year. The longest-lived Box-kite was Bristol No. 133, which went to Australia in January, 1913, and was still flying there in October, 1915.

  Manufacturers: The British & Colonial Aeroplane Co., Ltd., Filton, Bristol.
  Power: Standard: 50 h.p. Gnome. The eight machines built for Russia had the 70 h.p. Gnome, as had the three improved Military Box-kites, which also had the small nacelle. Other engines fitted were the 50 h.p. Gregoire, 50 h.p. E.N.V. and the 60 h.p. Renault.
  Dimensions: Span: 33 ft (46 ft 6 in. with extensions). Length: 38 ft 6 in. Height: 11 ft. Chord: 6 ft 7 in. Gap: 6 ft 8 in. Stagger: nil. Dihedral: nil. Span of tail: 8 ft. Airscrew diameter: 8 ft 6 in.
  Areas: Wings: 457 sq ft (517 sq ft with extensions). Tailplanes: 89 sq ft. Rear elevator: 22-5 sq ft. Forward elevator: 30-5 sq ft. Rudders: 26-5 sq ft.
  Weights: Loaded: 900 lb.
  Performance: Maximum speed: 40 m.p.h.
  Tankage (Military Type): Petrol: 19 gallons. Oil: 9 gallons.
  Service Use: No. 2 (Aeroplane) Company, Air Battalion, Royal Engineers, later No. 3 Squadron, R.F.C. R.N.A.S. flying schools at Eastchurch, Hendon and Eastbourne. Also used at Bristol flying schools at Larkhill and Brooklands, and by Eastbourne Aviation Co.
  Production: Standard Box-kite: 16. Extended Box-kite: 5. Military Box-kite: 40. Military Box-kite trainer (60 h.p. Renault): 2. Military Box-kite, 70 h.p. Gnome (for Russia): 9. Improved Military Box-kite (with nacelle): 4. Total production: 76.
  Serial Numbers: 12, 24, 942-947 (built under Contract No. C.P.56037/14/x.)

P.Lewis British Aircraft 1809-1914 (Putnam)

Bristol Boxkite

   Numbers 12, 15, 16, 17 and 18 were fitted with extensions to the upper wing-tips, which increased the span from 33 ft. to 46 ft. 6 ins. The 50 h.p. Gnome engine was used except for No. 16, which was fitted with an E.N.V. engine and was prepared specially as an entrant for the Manville prize.
   With an eye to increased business, the company arranged demonstration tours abroad. In December, 1910, a mission arrived in India with three extended-type Boxkites under the leadership of Farnall Thurston. Mons. Henri Jullerot undertook the piloting and, during the next month, Major W. Sefton Brancker made his first flight when, with Jullerot, he carried out, at manoeuvres held during the mission's stay, the first aerial reconnaissance to be asked for by a British Army commander. The Standard Boxkite, also, was sent on tour to Australia in the hands of J. J. Hammond, Leslie F. MacDonald and Sydney E. Smith, and its general success as a trainer was such that it soon was flying in several different countries as well as being used in Britain by private owners, including the extended version by Claude Grahame-White.
   Eight Boxkites with the 70 h.p. Gnome, works numbers 20-26 inclusive and 30, were ordered during February 1911, by Russia; and to this batch was added number 32, the machine exhibited at St. Petersburg in the following April. In March, 1911, an order for four was received from the British War Office to form the equipment of the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers, which came into being the next month. The Boxkite was seen by a broad section of the British public when it was displayed at the 1911 Olympia Aero Show. In production, it was built as both a single- and a two-seater. From January, 1911, until October, 1914, the Military Boxkite was manufactured for the War Office, the Admiralty and for school training with increased tankage and the 50 h.p. Gnome engine. At first three rudders were incorporated, but after a short time the centre one was discarded. Works numbers for these machines were 19, 27, 28, 29, 37, 38, 40, 41, 47, 48, 67, 93, 99, 119, 124-129 inclusive, 133-139 inclusive, 203, 204, 207, 222, 226, 231, 347 and 394-399 inclusive.
   An alteration in power was made in the pair of War Office Boxkites Nos. 39 and 42, both of which received water-cooled 60 h.p. Renault engines. The Boxkite was in use with the Royal Flying Corps from May, 1912, and one machine was on the strength of No. 3 Squadron, R.F.C. Among the improvements made from time to time was the fitting of a nacelle to the three 70 h.p. Gnome-engined numbers 31, 60 and 79 for greater crew comfort. The first of this improved military type was shown at the Olympia Aero Show of 1911, and the other two were exported to Spain.
   In addition to the Boxkites produced for civilian, War Office, Admiralty and export orders, several developed versions were constructed as racers during 1911. Mons. Tetard assisted G. H. Challenger in the design of number 44 single-seater fitted with the 50 h.p. Gnome, which was Tetard's mount in the 1911 Circuit of Europe event. The single-seater number 45 was fitted also with the 50 h.p. Gnome, and was a new type somewhat resembling the Maurice Farman. It was flown in the same contest by Mons. Maurice Tabuteau, whose recommendations were incorporated in the design. Four generally similar single-seaters were entered for the 1911 Daily Mail Circuit of Britain, and Captain Bertram Dickson collaborated with Challenger in their design, the machines being designated Improved Type T. Numbers 51, 52 and 53 were powered by 70 h.p. Gnomes, while number 54 received the 60 h.p. Renault. The racing biplanes differed in several respects from the standard and military Boxkites. Light wood and fabric structures formed the nacelles, twin rudders and hooped rattan tailskids were fitted, the ailerons on the lower wings were deleted, and the ailerons on the upper wing extensions were each in one piece. A more powerful Improved Type T single-seater, to be fitted with the 100 h.p. Gnome, and numbered 78, was not completed. A further racing variant, using standard Boxkite wings but with the nose elevator and booms deleted and the landing-gear reduced in height, was designed by Gabriel Voisin and allotted number 69. It had a 50 h.p. Gnome and was completed in February, 1912, but appears not to have been flown.
   Seventy-five standard Boxkites and seven racing versions were constructed, and the British and Colonial Aeroplane Company's first design proved itself to be a great success from its inception. Besides putting its creators on a firm business footing, it was responsible for a good proportion of the trained British pilots available for service when war came in 1914.

   Description: Single- or two-seat pusher training and racing biplane. Steel tubing/wooden structure, fabric covered.
   Manufacturers: The British and Colonial Aeroplane Co. Ltd., Filton, Bristol.
   Power Plant: 70 h.p. Gnome, 60 h.p. Renault, 100 h.p. Gnome.
   Dimensions: Span, 46 ft. 6 ins. Length, 38 ft. 6 ins. Height, 11 ft. Wing area, 517 sq. ft.
   Weights: Loaded, 900 lb.
   Performance: Maximum speed, 40 m.p.h.

O.Thetford British Naval Aircraft since 1912 (Putnam)


   First appeared in June 1910 and used by the RFC from its formation in May 1912. Six (Nos.942 to 947 inclusive) ordered by the Admiralty remained in service at RNAS training schools at Eastbourne, Eastchurch and Hendon until about the middle of 1915. One 50 hp Gnome engine and a loaded weight of 900 lb. Maximum speed, 40 mph. Span, 46 ft 6 in. Length, 38 ft 6 in. At least one Boxkite was fitted with flotation bags.

J.Herris Halberstadt Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: A-types to C.III (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 44)

Halberstadt Boxkite

  The Halberstadt-built boxkite was licensed from the Bristol Company of Britain. It was a primitive biplane of pusher configuration with twin rudders and biplane tailplane. It was powered by a 50 hp Gnome rotary. A few examples were built in 1912 and 1913; Halberstadt work numbers 1 and 6 are known.

Журнал Flight

Flight, March 18, 1911


   BRISTOL is a city that has been associated with most of the stirring events in English history, and yet many are apt to forget what manner of men this secluded town in the west has sent out into the world on the nation's behalf. From Bristol sailed the ships of old that brought to light America, and, pioneer in two elements, it is Bristol to-day that is doing so much towards the creation of the aerial fleet of the future. Sir George White is a Bristol man and well worthy to follow in the steps of Cabot. Humphry Davy and Stringfellow - to mention only three Bristol men whose deeds need no recalling to our readers - for having succeeded so well in his work of pioneering the tramways, he has turned his enterprise and ability into the work of pioneering these new vehicles of the air. And, above all else, it needs at the present time, as it will need in the future, a master mind, capable of appreciating as one clear picture the commercial aspects of the situation, to realise in full the possibilities of the new locomotion. Not every day is there to be found a man of this stamp keen enough to take up this side of aviation seriously, yet with all the enthusiasm of youth. Not every industry has at its inception the immeasurable advantage of numbering in its ranks such an important unit as the British and Colonial Aeroplane Company is to-day, and must in the natural order of things continue to remain. Stability is not only desirable in aeroplanes; it is needed, perhaps, even more in the industry that makes them, for it is out of the confidence born of such evidence of steady progress that there comes the financial support without which no new movement can hope to permanently establish itself in the interests of social economy. It is, therefore, as much towards the firm as towards the machines they are making that readers' thoughts will naturally turn on any reference to the Bristol biplane.
   Of the machine itself there is not much to be said that cannot be explained in a very few words, for the situation may be summed up in saying that the Company adopted the eminently commercial policy of following a proved type that was already not only successful but popular, so that they could devote their energies to the perfection of constructive detail and general excellence of workmanship. The particular model we have selected for the purpose of illustration is their military type machine, which we thought might be the more interesting to our readers as a slight variety on the standard pattern Farman, which is the type to which the Bristol biplane at present belongs. This military model is characterised by the extended span of the upper plane, which affords an appreciable increase in the supporting area, and enables either two passengers to be carried in addition to the pilot, or which is, perhaps, still more serviceable from a military point of view - it permits of an extra large reserve of fuel when only one passenger is carried. Another distinctive feature of this machine is to be found in the three rudders that are supported on the tail. These rudders are controlled as usual by a pivoted foot-rest, while the universally pivoted vertical lever, under the pilot's right hand, controls the balance by manipulating the balancing flaps on the extremities of the main planes and the elevators fore and aft on the machine. A sideways movement of the lever to the right draws down the balancer on the pilot's left, thus increasing the effective angle of the plane on that side of the centre, and thereby increasing the lift for the same velocity of flight. As a result that side of the machine heels up in order to restore balance by correcting a list, or in order to artificially bank the machine preparatory to a turn. When balancing, therefore, the pilot moves the lever sideways towards the side of the machine that tends to rise above its normal position, and simultaneously checks any tendency to swerve by the rudder. Elevator movements are accomplished by a to and fro motion of the same lever, the elevator in front being interconnected with the rear elevator, which forms an extension of the tail. One of the accompanying sketches shows an interesting constructional detail in connection with the front elevator, which is rocked on its trunnions by a light steel lever, coupled up at each extremity to the control lever by wires in duplicate.
   The other sketches also show several interesting constructional features of this machine, notably the method of supporting the extensions to the upper main plane, which form the characteristic feature of the military model. These extension planes are braced by diagonal tubular steel struts which are anchored to the lower main planes by attachment to the sockets of the vertical struts. The steel tube is capable of taking tension and compression stresses, but a safety tension wire has also been introduced, on the principle of duplicating such members, which is characteristic of the design of this machine. It will be noticed that all the control wires, for instance, are in duplicate. Another little detail about the wires on this machine which is worth observing is that those in the vicinity of the propeller are bound with whipcord, so that should they break they will be less likely to fly about and get caught in the propeller. Two other interesting constructional details are shown in the illustration that includes a sketch of the whipcord winding round the wire. One is the extra strong end rib employed in the construction of the framework of the main planes, the other is the very neat hinge by which the rudder is mounted on the tail strut. As may be seen from the photograph, four such hinges are employed for the support of each of the three rudder planes. Before leaving the consideration of this machine reference should be made to the fact that, as set out below, the British Government have ordered four to be delivered next month.

Flight, April 22, 1911.

The Vogue of Flying.

   DAILY the vogue of flying is becoming more pronounced, and such custom bodes still more rapid progress for the great movement. At Brooklands, Hendon, and elsewhere a roll of the passengers, if published, would be a little astonishing to the general public; and a little idea of the spread of the cult may be formed from the visit on Easter Monday of M. Tabuteau and Mr. Herbert J. Thomas to Badminton House, Wilts, whither they had flown on a Bristol biplane from Filton, Bristol, at the invitation of the Duke and Duchess of Beaufort. Alighting in a field close to Badminton House they were received by Lord Lonsdale and cordially welcomed by the Duke and Duchess and their house party. An exhibition flight having been made by M. Tabuteau, a series of trips was made with a number of the guests present, in addition to the host and hostess and their children, the Marquis of Worcester, and the Ladies Blanche and Diana Somerset. Amongst others who thus obtained their "air baptism" were Countess Nora Lutzow, the Hon. Cyril and Mrs. Ward, the Hon. Henry Lygon, General and Mrs. Brocklehurst, and Mr. M. H. Chaplin.
   Unalloyed pleasure was the verdict of one and all at their novel experience, and it was with regret that the time came in the evening for Mr. Tabuteau and his companion, Mr. Thomas, to return by the way they had come to Bristol, where they landed without incident to the delight of a big holiday crowd.

Flight, May 6, 1911.


British Work at the Russian Exhibition.

   THE first International Aeronautical Exhibition to be held in Russia had a very successful opening on the 26th ult., when among a large number of distinguished visitors were the Grand Dukes Alexander and Cyril and the Russian Minister of War, besides many officers of the Russian Navy and Army. The exhibit of British-built Bristol biplanes attracted a good deal of attention, especially in view of the fact that the Russian Army has purchased several of them, and the distinguished visitors complimented Mr. H. White Smith, Secretary of the Company, on the success which has been obtained with Bristol machines. On Saturday the Czar paid a visit to the Exhibition and spent over two hours examining the machines. The Czar also remained a considerable time m conversation with Mr. Kennedy, an English engineer resident in St. Petersburg, who has given prolonged study to the problems of aerial navigation. As we go to press we learn that a Silver Medal has been awarded to the Bristol exhibit.

Flight, May 13, 1911.

A Bristol Over a Bristol.

   THE bluejackets aboard H.M.S. "Bristol," lying at anchor at Avonmouth, were rather surprised on Friday afternoon of last week to observe a biplane flying directly over them. It proved to be a Bristol machine which had started from the Bristol works at Filton. It was piloted by M. Tetard, who, in the course of his twenty-three minute flight to Avonmouth and back, kept his machine mostly at a height of 2,000 ft.

Flight, July 15, 1911.

Flight in the Isle of Wight.

   No little excitement was caused in the Isle of Wight on Tuesday when it became known that Messrs. Pizey and Fleming intended to fly from Shoreham to Ventnor on the following day, and long before 6 p.m., when it was anticipated they would arrive, a large crowd made their way to the "Station," and about ten minutes past eight the first Bristol arrived with Mr. Fleming in charge, and Mr. Collyns Pizey in the passenger seat. The aeroplane was at once cleared off the ground in order to allow as much room as possible for Mr. Gordon-England, who arrived half an hour later with the luggage on the second Bristol. In flying across the Solent, Messrs. Fleming and Pizey were at a height of 2,700 ft. On Thursday a number of exhibition flights were made, some of them with passengers, and one of the machines was slightly damaged through coming down on rough ground. Messrs. Fleming and Pizey made an early start for home soon after five on Friday morning, and flying by way of Shanklin, Sandown, Ryde, and Southampton, reached Salisbury after an hour and a half s trip,

Flight, October 14, 1911.


   ON Wednesday of last week, the final day of the competition for the Manville prize for the best aggregate flight on an all British machine with a passenger, attempts were made by Mr. Cody at Aldershot and Mr. Pixton at Brooklands to improve their records. The result was a win for Mr. Pixton, who was already leading, on the Bristol biplane. During the eight specified days on which flying for this prize had been permissible, Pixton had placed an aggregate of 187 mins. to his credit, while Mr. Cody was second with 156 mins. The latter intended to start early on the morning of the 4th inst. to try and improve his position, but a northerly gale put flying out of the question. It was not until ten minutes to five in the afternoon that Mr. Cody was able to get under way, and then he was flying until 5-30 at which hour the competition finally closed. Mr. Cody's record was thus 196 mins. At Brooklands, however, Mr. Pixton was in-the air for 129 mins., and so he was an easy winner of the L500 Manville prize with a lead of 120 mins. It will be remembered that Mr. Pixton learnt to fly on the Avro biplane, and it was on this machine that the first portion of his aggregate flights for the Manville and Brooklands competition was carried out. The latter and major part, however, of his flying has been accomplished on a Bristol biplane, on which he has not hesitated to go up when the wind has made the conditions distinctly unpleasant.

Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Front view of the Bristol military type biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Side view of the Bristol military type biplane. The balancing planes and method of supporting the extensions of the top plane are very prominent in this illustration.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
View from behind of the Bristol military type biplane.
O.Thetford - British Naval Aircraft since 1912 /Putnam/
Bristol Military Boxkite with 50 h.p. Gnome.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
Bristol Boxkite with extended upper wing.
В.Шавров - История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
Claude Grahame-White on No. 16 at Dover, 18 December 1910.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Extensions to the upper wings were fitted to the Bristol Boxkite No. 16 with 60 h.p. E.N.V., flown by C. H. Pixton in conjunction with an Avro D to win the 1911 Manville Prize.
J.Bruce - British Aeroplanes 1914-1918 /Putnam/
Military Box-kite with extensions on the upper wings. This machine was one of two which were fitted with the 60 h.p. Renault engine.
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
Jullerot on No. 39 (60 hp Renault) at Larkhill, July 1911.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Bristol Boxkite No.44 with single-bay wings. One of several variants built for racing.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Mr. Graham-Gilmour preparing his Bristol biplane on Saturday for the proposed flight to Brighton, with a few of the 5,000 visitors to Brooklands looking on.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
EUROPEAN CIRCUIT. - Tetard in one of the British Bristols at the moment of starting from Vincennes on Sunday. Note the huge crowd in the distance.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
E.C.Gordon England flying a Bristol Boxkite at Ventnor, Isle of Wight, following his trip from Shoreham on 5th July, 1911.
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
Flying instruction, 1911: Solo on a Boxkite at Brooklands;
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
THE VOL PLANE. - Photograph of a superb example of the vol plane executed by Mr. A. R. Low on a Bristol military-type biplane when finishing a flight with a passenger over Salisbury Plain on the occasion of the recent Press visit. It will be observed that the propeller is stationary.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
FLYING IN INDIA. - Mr. Henry W. Jullerot giving an exhibition flight over the Calcutta Maidan Racecourse on one of the Bristol biplanes, which are doing such good ''missionary" work in the Indian Empire. The racecourse was specially lent to the British aod Colonial Aeroplane Co's Commission for flying demonstrations, and this is the only occasion upon which flying exhibitions have been given upon it. The Viceregal Party, the Commander-in-Chief, Sir Norman Baker, the Lieut.-Governor of Bengal, and a crowd of about half a million people were present to witness the display.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Mr. Maurice Tetard flying a "Bristol" military biplane at Filton upon the occasion of the recent visit to the British and Colonial Aeroplane Co.'s works of the officers and crew of H.M.S. "Bristol."
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Mr. Graham Gilmour on the Bristol biplane, flying over the Brooklands course during the race meeting last Saturday after his return from Windsor.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Pizey and Game on the Bristol biplane in a handicap race at Brooklands.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Graham Gllmour, on a Bristol biplane, gives a few exhibition flights at Eastchurch whilst waiting for the Gordon-Bennett Race to commence.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
WINNING THE MANVILLE PRIZE. - Mr. Pixton on the Bristol biplane at Brooklands on Wednesday of last week, when he was competing finally for the Manville Aviation Prize. Mr. Pixton is seen on the Bristol passing over the paddock at Brooklands.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Merriam, during the motor racing at Brooklands on Eister Monday, flying over the course on his Bristol biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
THE LONGEST DAY. - The annual pilgrimage to the sun temple at Stonehenge to witness the rising of the sun when it casts the shadow of the Heel Stone directly on to the altar stone - a moment of great significance to the sun-worshippers. Above is seen a Bristol biplane flying over the ruins upon the occasion.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
AT EVENTIDE. - A Bristol in Germany under the pilotage of Mr. Pixton.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
FLYING OVER SALISBURY PLAIN. - M. Maurice Tetard and Mr. A. R. Low flying their Bristol biplanes over Salisbury Plain. The photograph was taken while M. Tetard (on the right) was ascending for an altitude flight. On the left is the Bristol military type machine with the extended upper plane. The illustration affords an excellent comparison of the two types of machine in flight.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
CROSS-COUNTRY RACE AT BROOKLANDS ON SATURDAY LAST. - Mr. W. S. S. Mitchell on the Vickers biplane (No. 8); Mr. W. Bendall, Bristol biplane (No. 10); Mr. F. W. Merriam, Bristol biplane (No. 7), rounding the sheds on the first circuit.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Mr. F. Warren Merriam flying over the Army airship "Delta" on one of the Bristol biplanes on April 23rd at Brooklands.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
The new Edwards rhomboidal biplane at Brooklands out for an airing on Saturday last. - This machine, it will be remembered, was described in FLIGHT on February 5th, 1910. Flying in perfect form above is Capt. F. H. Wood on a Bristol machine.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Detail views of the Bristol military type biplane, showing the balancing planes and the tail. The three rudders in the tail constitute a characteristic feature of this machine.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
An example of enclosed pilot's seat on the Bristol military type biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
The Czar of Russia inspecting the Bristol military biplane of the British and Colonial Aeroplane Co. at the St. Petersburg Aero Exhibition. Mr. H. White Smith, the special representative of the Company, is seen explaining the machine to His Imperial Majesty. This biplane, it will be remembered, net only secured the gold medal for excellence of workmanship, but was purchased by the Russian War Office for the Engineer Corps of the Russian Army.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Shipping a "Bristol" biplane to Straits Settlements in the Far East per steamship "Glenstree," Glen Line (McGregor, Gow and Co.). Ltd. - We announced recently that amongst other shipments this machine had been despatched.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Sir George White, (on the left), the founder of the British and Colonial Aeroplane Co., Ltd., and M. Jullerot, one of the many eminent pilots now associated with the Company.
J.Herris - Halberstadt Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: A-types to C.III /Centennial Perspective/ (44)
This Halberstadt Bristol Boxkite was Halberstadt work number 1. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
A German-built Bristol biplane at Halberstadt piloted by Mr. E. Harrison of the Bristol Co.
J.Herris - Halberstadt Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: A-types to C.III /Centennial Perspective/ (44)
This crashed Halberstadt Bristol Boxkite was Halberstadt work number 6.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
The Countess Nora Lutzow as passenger with M. Maurice Tabuteau on the Bristol military biplane at Badminton House, April 17th, referred to in last week's Issue.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Mr. H. Busteed, of the Tarrant Motor Co., Melbourne, on a Bristol biplane at Salisbury Plain, where he has been making many fine flights.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Lieut. Pepper, R.G.A., one of the Bristol pupils at Salisbury Plain, who passed for his Royal Aero Club certificate last week.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Mr. H. R. Fleming, pilot, and Mr. C. P. Pizey, passenger, on the Bristol biplane with which they flew from Ventnor to Amesbury, Salisbury Plain, after having visited by way of the air the scene of the Gordon-Bennett Race; then after flying to Dover and Shoreham to greet their brother flyers in the European Circuit, they continued on to the Isle of Wight, and thence back to Salisbury Plain.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Mr. Walter Lawrence, another Bristol pupil who last week obtained his pilot's certificate at Salisbury Plain.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
A group of Bristol pilots, pupils, and assistants at the Bristol schools on Salisbury Plain. Reading from left to right (front row): Mr. O. L. Mellersh, Mr. E. Harrison, Mechanic, Mr. S. P. Cockerell, Mr. Fitzmaurice (British Embassy, Constantinople, visitor), Mechanic; top row (left to right): Naval Cadet N. F. Wheeler, Mr. W. E Gibson, Mr. H. M. Jullerot (Chief Instructor), behind him Lieut. Wyness Stuart, Mrs. Stuart, Mr. R. Smith Barry, Lieut R. J. Watts, Lieut. C. L. N. Newall
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Lieut. Eric Mackay Murray, who secured his brevet at Salisbury on January 24th on a Bristol military extension biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Col. Seely, the British Minister for War, just before his flight at the military aviation ground at Madrid with Capt. Barron in a Bristol biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Sketches illustrating some minor constructional details on the Bristol military type biplane. That on the left shows the attachment of one of the diagonal struts used for supporting the extensions to the upper plane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Sketch illustrating the lever attached to the elevator on the Bristol military type biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.