L.Opdyke French Aeroplanes Before the Great War (Schiffer)
Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing
Flight, May 20, 1911.
THE HENRY FARMAN MONOPLANE.
ALTHOUGH the name of Farman is inseparably associated with biplanes, readers of FLIGHT are aware that Mr. Farman has been for some time successfully experimenting with a monoplane of his own design. We are now able to give the accompanying photograph of the machine in question. Perhaps the most striking feature of the external appearance of the machine is the neat casing that completely encloses the 50-h.p. Gnome rotary air-cooled engine that drives the propeller. Also, as may be observed, the entire rectangular girder frame constituting the body is covered with surfacing material. At its rearmost extremity is the cruciform tail comprising an elevator and rudder. In the trailing extremities of the main wings are hinged balancing planes. The span of the machine is 9 metres (nearly 30 ft.) and the overall length 8.5 metres (28 ft.). The supporting area is 17 sq. metres (about 183 sq. ft.).
Flight, December 16, 1911.
THE HENRY FARMAN TWO-SEATER MONOPLANE.
NOT content with his reputation as a constructor of biplanes, Henry Farman has, as our readers already know, self-imposed the task of proving himself an equally good constructor of monoplanes. In certain features his new monoplane maintains many of the same characteristics as his biplanes. In the matter of lateral balance, he still retains the use of ailerons, and the control lever is essentially the same as the later type of biplane lever, being situated between the knees of the pilot. The landing chassis has undergone slight modification, the characteristic two pairs of swivelling wheels being replaced by one pair of wheels, joined by a common axle, which latter is flexibly sprung from the skids by the conventional elastic straps.
The main body is square in section, and is constructed on the usual box-girder principle. It is 25 ft. in length. At the forward end is fitted the engine - a Gnome of 50 h.p. - enclosed by a ventilated steel stamping in such a manner that it is impossible for any oil thrown off by the revolving motor to reach either pilot or passenger. At first sight one might think that this shield, almost enclosing the motor as it does, would have an adverse effect on the cooling. Such, however, is not the case, for during the trials that the machine has undergone no tendency of the motor to overheat has been evident. The seats for both pilot and passenger are arranged so that no inconvenience is caused by the propeller draught, and are placed well forward in the fuselage so that they are afforded a good view of the country over which they happen to be passing. At the rear end of the main body are attached the organs which control the monoplane in the verticle and horizontal sense.
The wings, which subtend to each other a very slight dihedral angle, have a span of 33 ft. Their internal construction is very similar to that of the doubled-surfaced planes of the later type of Farman biplanes. As no provisions are made for warping, ailerons being employed, the wings are stayed rigidly from masts above and from chassis below by means of stranded steel cables.
Eight cables - four to each wing - support the wings when the machine is at rest, and twelve cables take the weight of the monoplane in flight. The trailing edge is allowed a certain degree of flexibility. Both ailerons are interconnected, so that a downward deflection of one is accompanied by an equal and upward deflection of the other. A certain advantage of using flaps for balancing in this manner is the fact that the wings are kept rigid, and are not subject to continual deformation, as is the case when warping is used as a means of securing lateral balance.
The tail of approximately semi-circular planiform is flat, and takes no weight in flight. To the rear edge of this surface is hinged the flap, which controls the ascent and descent of the machine.
Steering to right and to left is effected by a vertical rudder, which is mounted just in advance of the elevator. When the machine is at rest the weight of the tail is taken by a short skid, which is flexibly attached to the main-body skeleton, and which is allowed to swing to right or left, in order to accommodate any sideway's movement on landing.
The landing chassis, a wheel and skid combination, needs little or no description, as a good idea of its main features can readily be gathered from the photographs appearing herewith.
Ready equipped for flight, but without pilot or passengers, the machine weighs 627 lbs., and in addition to this it can raise a useful load of 400 lbs. Its speed is from 62 to 68 miles per hour.
Flight, December 30, 1911.
PARIS AERO SHOW.
ON the Farman stand were exhibited two machines, one a Maurice Farman biplane and the other the new Henry Farman monoplane. Description of these excellent midlines would be unnecessary in the case of the former model for, apart from the staggering of the main planes and the reduced dimensions throughout, it presents no point of difference from the one exhibited at the last Aero Show at Olympia. In the case of the latter a recapitulation of its main features would be but repetition of the article that appeared in these pages only a fortnight since.
Principal dimensions, &c.
Henry Farman monoplane-
Length 25 ft. Weight 630 lbs.
Span 33 " Speed 65 m.p.h.
Area 165 sq. ft. Motor 50-h.p. Gnome.