А.Александров, Г.Петров Крылатые пленники России
К первому января 1911 г. в Германии 46 человек получили пилотские дипломы, тогда как в России подобными грамотами могли похвастаться лишь семь человек. Ровно через год соотношение почти выравнилось, приняв вид 133 против 103. То ли наши меньше летали, то ли были более опытными и везучими, но по числу катастроф германцы оказались впереди, со "счетом" 13 к 4 ( в 1910-1911 гг. в России погибли 7 авиаторов). Июль 1912 г. ознаменовался первым грандиозным международным перелетом российского пилота В. М. Абрамовича, преодолевшего с 1-го по 24-е (с пассажиром на борту) 1600 км по маршруту Берлин - Петербург за 17 часов. На аэроплане "Райт" (Wright) немецкого производства Абрамович спешил на 2-й конкурс отечественных военных самолетов, организованный Военным ведомством и открывшийся в столице 21 августа. Помимо "Райта" вне программы участвовали моноплан и биплан "Марс", пилотируемые Генрихом Биром (Heinrich Bier), и моноплан "Паук" (Spinne) под управлением Энтони Фоккера и его друга Илгерса (Anthony Fokker, Hilgers). Последний пытался покорить публику, паря в течение 6 минут с руками, поднятыми над головой, но ни его фокусы, ни усилия самого Фоккера не привели к получению заказов. Немудрено: оснащенный таким же мотором "Аргус" (Argus) 100 л.с, победитель соревнований биплан И. И. Сикорского С-6Б превосходил "Паука" по скорости, скороподъемности и величине полезной нагрузки, хотя "показатели удобства спуска (неприхотливость к условиям посадочной площадки) и стрельбы, а также некоторые необязательные качества были немного выше у немецкого аэроплана". Аппарат Фоккера все же завоевал сердце авиаторши Л. А. Галанчиковой, которая отправилась в Йоханисталь (близ Берлина), приобрела подобный самолет и научилась управлять им. Аппараты "Марс" и "Паук" (с Фоккером в задней кабине) изображены на снимках 1 и 2, а и б.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913
MARS. Deutsche Flogzeugwerke G.m.b.H., Lindenthal bei Leipzig. Established 1911. This is one of the most important and successful aviation works in Germany. Capacity: from 80 to 100 machines a year.
1911-12. 1912. 1912
Monoplane. Biplane. Hydro-
Length...........feet(m.) 31 (9.7) 31 (9.7)
Span.............feet(m.) 55? (16.8) 57 (17.8)
Are.........sq. feet(m?.) 376 (35) 495 (46)
Weight, total, lbs.(kgs.) 1234 (560) 1434 (650)
useful, lbs.(kgs.) 1808 (820) 2006 (910) Building
Motor................h.p. 95 N.A.G. 95 Mercedes
Speed, max....m.p.h.(km.) 120 (75) 115 (71)
min....m.p.h.(km.) ... ...
Endurance............hrs. 5--6 4--6
Number Built during 1912 6 16
Flight, July 13, 1912.
THE MILITARY COMPETITION - THE MACHINES.
THE MARS MONOPLANE.
FLYING under the official number 23 in the Military Aeroplane Trials will be a machine called the Mars, entered by Mr. C. E. Kny, and constructed in the Deutsche Flugzeug Werke at Leipzig.
As the photograph shows, this monoplane is of interesting and original design. It has a completely covered body, in which two cockpits are provided for the pilot and passenger; the latter, who in a military aeroplane would be the observer, has a position in front of the pilot, and a clear outlook over the wings. Both pilot and passenger have the appearance of being seated very high in the machine, and, similarly, the wings seem to be low-pitched; but in reality this is mainly due to the protective covering that arches over the top of the boat-shaped body.
The engine, a 100-h.p. Mercedes, is situated in the extreme front, and short exhaust pipes discharge the gases below the level of the wings. The wings themselves are built somewhat on the lines of the Etrich, at least, they have the characteristic Etrich upturned tips. The elevator and rudder are situated in the tail, which, by the way, is braced by long diagonal wires to the triangular mast above the cockpit. Corresponding wires pass downwards beneath the body to the main struts of the undercarriage, which is especially worthy of close examination as an interesting feature of construction. In all probability, Lieut. Bier, who is at the wheel in our photograph, will fly this machine; it has already attained a speed of 80 m.p.h. when fully loaded with passenger and fuel for four hours. The weight of the machine is about 1,170 lbs. The span is 53 ft. and overall length just under 45 ft.; the supporting surface is 350 sq. ft.
Flight, November 8, 1913.
THE D.F.W. MILITARY MONOPLANE.
BEFORE beginning a description of the machine itself, a few words about the German Aircraft Works (Deutsche Flugzeug Werke) in which these machines are built may not be amiss. One of the accompanying photographs gives a good idea of the spacious shops of this firm, whose works are situated at Lindenthal, near Leipzig, Germany. The shops are equipped with the most up-to-date machinery, and in the three erecting shops as many as 20 machines can be assembled at a time. The number of employees, we understand, has passed 300, and is constantly on the increase. At the present time four standard types of machines are turned out, i.e., a school monoplane, a military monoplane, a military biplane and a hydro-biplane. All of these types are designed with a view to obtaining a certain amount of inherent natural stability as will be explained later. Another point which has received careful attention is the standardization of all parts, most fittings on both monoplanes and biplanes being interchangeable.
Our scale drawings and photographs this week illustrate the military type monoplane, which the school monoplane resembles in every respect, with the exception of the steel bridge girder fitted underneath the wings of the latter. The fuselage is built up of a framework of steel tubes of ample dimensions, laterally stayed by three ply wood panels. The section of the fuselage is a very elongated ellipse, having its major axis vertical. Inside the fuselage are the pilot's and passenger's seats, arranged tandem fashion, the passenger occupying the front seat, from whence he has an excellent view of the ground beneath, and, if necessary, can make any little adjustments of the engine that may be required. The pilot's seat is placed sufficiently far behind the trailing edge of the main planes to give him an unrestricted view in a downward direction, and so enable him to judge his landings with a great amount of accuracy.
Only engines of the stationary type are fitted, as the constructors of the machine contend that, although somewhat heavier than rotary engines, the stationary engine is more reliable and economical in fuel consumption, two most important qualities in a machine for military use.
The dome-shaped honeycomb radiator is mounted directly in front of the engine which position, in addition to being the best possible for cooling purposes, gives a good streamline form to the fuselage. The bonnet over the engine consists of fine wire gauze, making all engine parts visible, preventing overheating and affording accessibility, as the bonnet opens in sections. The petrol and oil tanks are situated between the passenger's and pilot's seats, and a smaller service tank is mounted on top of the fuselage.
An inspection of the plan view will show that the main planes possess that feature which seems to characterise the majority of German machines, i.e., the back swept wing tips, set at a small negative angle of incidence. In this machine the outer extremities of the wings take the shape of ailerons, being hinged to the rear spar instead of being formed by extending the outer ribs backwards, which is the usual method of construction. The method of having the extensions hinged in this way has proved very satisfactory.
The tail planes consist of a stabilizing plane, which is not, however, rigidly connected to the fuselage, but is pivoted, and may be adjusted from the pilot's seat by means of a rotatable hand wheel situated outside the fuselage, and within easy reach of the pilot's seat. Hinged to the trailing edge of this plane is the undivided elevator. On top of the fuselage is the rudder, which is hinged to the trailing edge of a small vertical fin. A well-sprung tail skid protects the tail planes from contact with the ground.
In front of the pilot are the usual set of control levers, consisting of a rotatable hand wheel mounted on a central tubular column, which, in turn, is mounted on a transverse rocking shaft. A to-and-fro movement of the column operates the elevator, whilst rotation of the wheel actuates the ailerons. The rudder is operated by means of a footbar. Ignition and throttle levers are mounted on the right hand side of the pilot's seat, and on the hand wheel is a switch, while a self-starter is fitted on the instrument board in front of the pilot.
The chassis consists of two "U"-shaped steel tube frames, braced by tubes from a point underneath the fuselage, the whole forming a very strong structure which offers comparatively little head resistance. Two pairs of wheels sprung in the usual way by means of rubber shock absorbers are mounted on the U-shaped frames, and facilitate starting from and alighting on the ground. If desired brakes can be fitted.
Below we give a few particulars which, in connection with the scale drawings, should give a very good idea of the main characteristics of these machines which have met with a good deal of success in competitions, while a number of them have been purchased by the German military authorities :-
Weight, empty: 1,300 lbs.
Useful load: 440 lbs. and fuel for a 4 hours' flight.
Average speed loaded as above: 73 m.p.h.
Climbing speed: 3,300 ft. in 15 mins.
Gliding angle : 1 in 7.5.