M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)
Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing
P.Lewis British Aircraft 1809-1914 (Putnam)
Grahame-White Type 8
The Type 8 Hydro-biplane was designed for cheap operation from water by the private-owner and sporting pilot. The floats were given air-scoops which led to outlets just aft of the steps to assist with unsticking. The machine carried two, the passenger sitting in the front cockpit separated from the pilot at the rear by the fuel tank between them. The view was exceptionally good from the comfortable seats, and the Type 8 was flown also as a landplane. Both the 60 h.p. Anzani and the 80 h.p. Gnome were fitted. Span, 42 ft. 6 ins. Length, 25 ft. Wing area, 335 sq. ft. Weight empty, 850 lb. Weight loaded, 1,300 lb. Maximum speed, 55 m.p.h. Endurance, 4 hrs.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913
GRAHAME-WHITE. The Grahame-White Aviation Co., Ltd., 166 Piccadilly, London, W. Works and Flying Ground: Hendon. Founded by C. Grahame-White, the well-known aviator, who in 1909 commenced operations with a school at Pau. Later this was removed to England, and a general agency for the sale of aeroplanes, etc., established. This developed, and early in 1911 the firm was handling a special British agency for the U.S. Burgess type known as "The Baby." The Hendon Aerodrome was acquired, and a factory established, which has grown continually ever since. In April, 1912, a monoplane to special design was completed. By the close of the same year biplanes of advanced design were constructed. Capacity of the works, March, 1913, was equal to 150 machines a year if necessary.
| 1913. |1913. |1913. |1913 |1913.
|Military |"Popular" |"Popular" |Tractor |Monoplane.
|biplane. | biplane |biplane |hydro- |Type IX.
|Type VI. |Type VII. |Type VII. |biplane | single-
|2-seater |2-seater. |2-seater. |2-seater.| seat.
Length...feet(m.)|33? (10.10)|20-5/6 (6.40)|26-5/6 (8.22)|25 (7.60)|21 (6.40)Span.....feet(m.}|42 (12.80)|29-1/6 (8.85)|38 (11.60)|42? (13) |32 (9.75)
Area..sq.ft.(m?.)|435 (40?) |230 (21) |475 (44) |380 (35) |208 (19)
Weight, total ...| | | | |
.......lbs.(kgs.)|2200 (997) | ... | ... |850 (385)| ... Weight, useful...| | | | |
.......lbs.(kgs.)| 750 (340) | ... | ... |450 (204)| ...
Motor | 120 Aust. | 50 Gnome | 50 Gnome |80 Gnome |50 Gnome
| Daimler | | | |
Speed, max... | | | | |
...m.p.h (k.p.h.)|70 (110) |60 (95) |50 (80) |65 (105) |65 (105)
Speed, min... | | | | |
...m.p.h (k.p.h.)|55 (90) |50 (80) |40 (65) |50 (80) | ... Endurance....hrs.| 6 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 4
Number built | | | | |
during 1912 | 1 | ... | ... | 1 | ...
|Also built | Also built | |Also built|Also built
|with a 90 | with a 35 | |with a 60 |with a 35
|Aust.Daimler.| Anzani. | |Anzani. |Anzani. Two
|Designed to| | | |main floats
|carry a gun| | | |with 12?
|on the bow.| | | |ft. track.
|Very good | | | |Floats are
|view. Very | | | |15 ft.long,
|strong | | | |2 ft. wide,
|landing | | | |1 ft. 3 in.
|carriage. | | | |deep.
Flight, February 8, 1913.
WHAT THERE WILL BE TO SEE AT OLYMPIA.
The Grahame-White Aviation Co., Ltd.
This progressive firm, the proprietors of the popular London Aerodrome at Hendon, will be showing two biplanes, one a land machine and the other designed for water flying. The first of these machines is equipped with a 90-h.p. Austro-Daimler motor which drives through a steel shaft and chains, a large diameter propeller arranged to the rear of the main planes so that the machine may be used for offensive tactics in war. The motor is mounted at the front of a streamline nacelle. The pilot, sitting behind it, is in a position that makes for maximum safety, should the machine for any reason suffer an unusually heavy landing. The main planes are of the extensioned type, the top plane being considerably longer in span than the lower. For the landing gear, it is exceptionally strong, and has the original feature that each of its two running wheels is flexibly mounted in a slot cut in each of the two unusually wide built-up skids. The tail is supported by an open triangular construction, the top member of which passes through the propeller boss. The second machine that the Grahame-White Co. will be showing will be a two-seater tractor hydro-biplane, driven by a 60-h.p. Anzani air-cooled motor. Its body will be somewhat reminiscent of Nieuport design, and it will be fitted with a pair of main floats of the long catamaran type. In addition, there will be exhibited on the stand various specimens of workmanship, such as a set of propellers, showing them in different stages of manufacture.
Flight, February 15, 1913.
GRAHAME WHITE AVIATION CO., LTD.
Two notable biplanes figure on their stand, one a 90-h.p. military machine, and the other a hydro-biplane of a sporting type, driven by a 60-h. p. Anzani motor. Both bear evidence of much thought on the part of the designers, and of much painstaking care spent upon them in the constructing shops. The design of the first of these machines was due originally to Mr. H. Barber, but in its working out he was assisted by Mr. J. D. North, who also prepared the drawings for the hydro-biplane. Let us confine our attention for the moment to the military machine.
The 60-h.p. Grahame-White Hydro-biplane is a machine designed to satisfy the demands of the sportsman who is inclined to take up water flying and who does not necessarily want to be put to too great an expense in gratifying his hobby.
The body of the biplane, a conventional girder structure, is capped by a flanged steel plate which serves as a mounting for the motor. To strengthen the last bay of fuselage to withstand the situation of the engine, it is cross-braced with 5 in. steel tubing. The body construction is interesting in that it is so simple, so cheap to construct, and forms so sound a "job." Four ash longerons are used. The vertical members of the body are of ash or spruce, according to the strains to be allowed for, while the horizontal cross-members are of steel tubing, a material which permits of a very simple cross bracing fitting being employed. Immediately behind the motor sits the passenger, sheltered from the engine blast by a transparent wind shield. At his back is the main fuel tank, which holds sufficient petrol to keep the machine flying for four hours if need be. Behind that is the pilot's cockpit, very comfortably upholstered. Both pilot and passenger are so seated that they each have a perfect vertical view downwards. The controls are operated by a universally-jointed lever and foot rudder bar in a manner identical to that of the 90-h.p. G.-W. machine.
The planes span 42 ft. 6 in. and 22 ft. 6 in. respectively, and have a chord measurement of 5 ft. In cross section they are similar to the wing of the later 50-h.p. Gnome-Bleriot monoplane. For the internal construction of the planes, the front spar is of I section ash, while the rear spar, reinforced by a steel strip, is also of ash, but left solid as it is necessarily of lesser dimensions. Where vertical struts join the spars, the ribs are of the Farman box variety. In other parts of the plane, they are built up of spruce flanges and 3-ply webs. The extensions to the top plane are 10 ft. in length and they are hinged to the central cellule that they may lie folded down when the machine is stored. Lateral balance is governed by long compensating ailerons, hinged to the backs of these extensions. Twelve struts separate the planes, the four centre ones, which support the body, being of ash, while all the others are of hallow spruce.
Floats. - Two main floats which have a "track" of 12 ft. 6 ins., are employed to enable the machine to alight on and start off from water. They are each 15 ft. long and measure at their maximum cross-section 24 ins. wide by 15 ins. deep. A feature of their design is that the first half of the float is flat on the under-surface while the rear portion is concave, having a maximum camber of 4 ins. Air is projected below the after portion of the floats, so that the machine may glide the more easily over the water, by tubes, about 2 in. in diameter, into which air is forced by miniature scoops (see diagram). The skeletons of the floats are latticed girders of spruce and ash. They are covered in the following manner :- First, a number of strips of cedar, 4 in. wide and 3/32 in. thick are applied to each side at an angle of 45 to the longitudinal axis of the float. These strips in position, they are coated with copal varnish, and while that is still wet a layer of waterproof canvas is put on. This is again varnished and a further layer of cedar veneer applied, making the strips run this time in a direction 90 to the former layer. The floats are finished off by copper nails, which are driven in every two inches or so all over the floats and clinched over. Then, to protect the under-surface, longitudinal ash stringers are applied. Six steel struts, spruce filled, of special streamline section support the body of the machine. The struts are bedded in the float structure on to the spruce main skeleton, and they are reinforced at the point of attachment by flanged steel plates (refer sketch). Floats built on this principle do not come out unduly heavy. These Grahame-White floats weigh less than 100 lbs. each complete with struts and wiring. Without passengers or fuel the machine weighs 850 lbs., and is capable of carrying a useful load of 450 lbs. The machine's flying speed is expected to average 55 m.p.h.